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  • 51.
    Alghalibi, Dhiya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. College of Engineering, University of Kufa, Al Najaf, Iraq.
    Fornari, Walter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Physicochemical Fluid Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Rosti, Marco E.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Sedimentation of finite-size particles in quiescent wall-bounded shear-thinning and Newtonian fluidsIn: Journal of International Journal of Multiphase Flow, ISSN 0301-9322Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Alghalibi, Dhiya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. Kufa Univ, Coll Engn, Al Najaf, Iraq..
    Lashgari, Iman
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Brandt, L.uca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Hormozi, Sarah
    Ohio Univ, Dept Mech Engn, Athens, OH 45701 USA..
    Interface-resolved simulations of particle suspensions in Newtonian, shear thinning and shear thickening carrier fluids2018In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 852, p. 329-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a numerical study of non-colloidal spherical and rigid particles suspended in Newtonian, shear thinning and shear thickening fluids employing an immersed boundary method. We consider a linear Couette configuration to explore a wide range of solid volume fractions (0.1 <= Phi <= 0.4) and particle Reynolds numbers (0.1 <= Re<INF>p</INF><INF></INF> <= 10). We report the distribution of solid and fluid phase velocity and solid volume fraction and show that close to the boundaries inertial effects result in a significant slip velocity between the solid and fluid phase. The local solid volume fraction profiles indicate particle layering close to the walls, which increases with the nominal Phi. This feature is associated with the confinement effects. We calculate the probability density function of local strain rates and compare the latter's mean value with the values estimated from the homogenisation theory of Chateau et al. (J. Rheol., vol. 52, 2008, pp. 489-506), indicating a reasonable agreement in the Stokesian regime. Both the mean value and standard deviation of the local strain rates increase primarily with the solid volume fraction and secondarily with the Re<INF>p</INF>. The wide spectrum of the local shear rate and its dependency on Phi and Re<INF>p</INF> point to the deficiencies of the mean value of the local shear rates in estimating the rheology of these non-colloidal complex suspensions. Finally, we show that in the presence of inertia, the effective viscosity of these non-colloidal suspensions deviates from that of Stokesian suspensions. We discuss how inertia affects the microstructure and provide a scaling argument to give a closure for the suspension shear stress for both Newtonian and power-law suspending fluids. The stress closure is valid for moderate particle Reynolds numbers, O(Re<INF>p</INF>) similar to 10.

  • 53.
    Alghalibi, Dhiya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. College of Engineering, University of Kufa, Al Najaf, Iraq.
    Rosti, Marco E.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Inertial migration of a deformable particle in pipe flow2019In: PHYSICAL REVIEW FLUIDS, ISSN 2469-990X, Vol. 4, p. 104201-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We perform fully Eulerian numerical simulations of an initially spherical hyperelasticparticle suspended in a Newtonian pressure-driven flow in a cylindrical straight pipe. Westudy the full particle migration and deformation for different Reynolds numbers and forvarious levels of particle elasticity, to disentangle the interplay of inertia and elasticityon the particle focusing. We observe that the particle deforms and undergoes a lateraldisplacement while traveling downstream through the pipe, finally focusing at the pipecenterline. We note that the migration dynamics and the final equilibrium position arealmost independent of the Reynolds number, while they strongly depend on the particleelasticity; in particular, the migration is faster as the elasticity increases (i.e., the particle ismore deformable), with the particle reaching the final equilibrium position at the centerlinein shorter times. Our simulations show that the results are not affected by the particle initialconditions, position, and velocity. Finally, we explain the particle migration by computingthe total force acting on the particle and its different components, viscous and elastic.

  • 54.
    Alghalibi, Dhiya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. College of Engineering, Kufa University, Al Najaf, Iraq.
    Rosti, Marco E.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Mechanics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Interface-resolved simulations of particle suspensions in visco-elastic carrier fluidsIn: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, EISSN 1469-7645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the rheology of a suspension of neutrally buoyant rigid particles subject touniform shear in different kinds of non-Newtonian fluids, chosen in order to disentanglethe effect of elasticity and shear thinning on the macroscopic system behavior. In par-ticular, we adopt the inelastic Carreau, viscoelastic Oldroyd-B and Giesekus models forthe carrier fluid. The rheology of the suspension is analyzed for a wide range of particlevolume fractions, Weissenberg and Reynolds numbers, comparing the results with thoseobtained for a Newtonian carrier fluid. We report here that the effective viscosity per-taining all the non-Newtonian cases is always lower than that of the suspension in theNewtonian carrier fluid and grows monotonically with the solid volume fraction. Theshear-thinning viscoelastic Giesekus fluid behaves similarly to the Oldroyd-B fluid at lowWeissenberg numbers and to the Carreau fluid at high Weissenberg numbers, indicatingthat elastic effects dominate at low Weissenberg and shear thinning is predominant athigh Weissenberg number. These variations in the effective viscosity are mainly due tochanges in the particle induced shear stress component. These data show that, at highshear rates, a viscoelastic carrier fluid can be modelled as a simple shear-thinning fluidfor which theoretical closures exists, while new models are needed at low Weissenbergnumbers to account for elastic effects such as decreased particle stress. Finally, when theinertia is increased, the suspension effective viscosity grows with the particle Reynoldsnumber at the same rate as in a Newtonian fluid for the Oldroyd-B case, while in ashear-thinning fluid the growth is less than in the Newtonian fluid. Also in the presenceof inertia, therefore, the shear-thinning behaviour dominates the suspension dynamics atrelatively high values of the imposed shear rate and elasticity effects saturate.

  • 55. Alizad Banaei, Arash
    et al.
    Shahmardi, Armin
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Nucleated capsules at finite inertiaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 56. Altimira, M.
    et al.
    Fuchs, Laszlo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Corrigendum to Numerical investigation of throttle flow under cavitating conditions (International Journal of Multiphase Flow 75 (2015) 124–136) (S0301932215001238) (10.1016/j.ijmultiphaseflow.2015.05.006))2017In: International Journal of Multiphase Flow, ISSN 0301-9322, E-ISSN 1879-3533, Vol. 93, p. 216-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors regret that the figures that were included in the final version of their paper were incorrect. Corrected Figures 3, 4, 5, and 6 are included here. The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused. 

  • 57. Altimira, M.
    et al.
    Fuchs, Laszlo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Numerical investigation of throttle flow under cavitating conditions2015In: International Journal of Multiphase Flow, ISSN 0301-9322, E-ISSN 1879-3533, Vol. 75, p. 124-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper shows the importance of the resolution of large unsteady flow structures in numerical simulations of cavitating flows. Three-dimensional simulations of the flow through a throttle geometry representative for fuel injectors have been performed to characterise the inception and development of cavitation, adopting the implicit Large Eddy Simulation approach. The two-phase flow has been handled by the Volume of Fluid method; whilst the simplified Rayleigh equation has been adopted to handle bubble dynamics. The mathematical model has been solved in the open source C++ toolbox OpenFOAM 2.0.1. Results obtained with the mathematical model are compared with those from RANS-based simulations and validated against experimental measurements. The performed Large Eddy Simulations not only are able to reproduce vortex cavitation, but also give further insight into the complex interaction between cavitation and turbulence through the assessment of the different terms of the vorticity equation.

  • 58.
    Altimira, Mireia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Casanueva, Carlos
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    RAISING AWARENESS ON DIVERSITY AND EQUALITY IN STEM DEGREES IN HIGHER EDUCATION2017In: INTED2017: 11TH INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGY, EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT CONFERENCE / [ed] Chova, LG Martinez, AL Torres, IC, IATED-INT ASSOC TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION A& DEVELOPMENT , 2017, p. 1037-1041Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Higher education environments are becoming more and more diverse, regarding both gender and cultural background, which could pose significant challenges for both students and teachers. In order to raise the topic amongst STEM students, a lecture on Diversity has been implemented in the course Research Methodologies for Engineering Mechanics, where different concepts regarding equality have been introduced and unconscious bias have been explained to the students. The lecture was placed in the middle of the course so that students could reflect back on their previous evaluations and enable them to correct their biases in the second half of the course. Feedback of the whole course has also been compared between the 2016 and 2015 editions, where this lecture was not present. The results show that a lecture in Diversity and Equality is especially useful for female students, strongly supporting its inclusion in the course.

  • 59.
    Altimira, Mireia
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Fuchs, Laszlo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics of Industrial Processes.
    Effect of fuel flexibility on cavitation in injector-like flows2014In: Proceedings of the 26th ILASS-Europe 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 60.
    Altimira, Mireia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Prahl Wittberg, Lisa
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Teaching Research Methodologies2016In: INTED2016 Proceedings, IATED , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the methodology employed in the Research Methodology course, part of the Master Program in Engineering Mechanics of the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). As a higher education institution, KTH aims at excellence in both generation and dissemination of knowledge. Even though these two activities are traditionally seen as independent –or even mutually exclusive-, there is a positive correlation between performance in research andin pedagogical activities, reinforced by the fact that inquiry-based or researchbased learning activities enhance deep learning among the students. The course Research Methodology in Engineering Mechanics poses a unique opportunity to engage the students to research in different areas through diversity-oriented learning activities.The course’s main learning outcome is that the students become acquainted with the most common concepts and research methodologies used in the fields of Fundamental Mechanics, Solid Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics, Acoustics and Biomechanics. After the completion of the course, the student should also be able to identify and analyze the methodologies in a given published work.The course consists of 9 lectures and a group project, with an estimation of the total dedication time of 80h (3hp). One lecture is focused on research ethics;while in the other 8 researchers from KTH present their areas of expertise, introducing the most relevant methodologies applied. The attendance is about40 students.In the last two years, and based on the course assessment survey, the structure of the course has been continuously shifting from traditional lectures to cover a broader range of teaching activities. In this way, different learning styles are covered and the learning outcomes can be achieved by as many students as possible. In this regard, traditional lectures are combined with problem-based or case-based lectures, and role-play. Additionally, in the content of the lectures we also try to keep a balance between experimental and numerical research methods of the different disciplines, in such a way that the students get a holistic view of the research in that particular field.This project involves reading a research journal article in the subject of engineering mechanics and presenting, in written and oral form, a critical analysis of the methodologies employed. In the beginning of their project, the students give an oral presentation of their article to another group. At the end of this activity, each group is asked to mention a positive aspect of the presentation they just heard and something that they believe should be improved. As an additional task, each group is asked to peer-review another group’s report. To do so, the students are given a document with some guidelines and evaluation criteria. Special instructions are given to make sure positive feedback is also included in the review. With this, the students get to read the work of others, learn to apply quality criteria and give feedback, and self-reflect on their own work after the review process.

  • 61.
    Altimira, Mireia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Rivas, A.
    Ramos, J. C.
    Anton, R.
    On The Disintegration Of Fan-Shaped Liquid Sheets2012In: Atomization and sprays, ISSN 1044-5110, E-ISSN 1936-2684, Vol. 22, no 9, p. 733-755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the disintegration of fan-shaped liquid sheets produced by industrial fan-spray atomizers. The disintegration regimes observed for different geometries and operating conditions are described, proving the paramount role of nozzle flow on the final characteristics of the spray produced. The concept of breakup length is redefined to account for the stochastic nature of liquid stream disintegration. An analogy is established between the breakup of a liquid sheet dominated by the wave mode and a radial sheet, obtaining good agreement with the experiments. However, in those cases where several disintegration regimes coexist, the breakup length cannot be given by an analytical expression. Finally, the influence of the disintegration regime on both the droplet size and the spatial distribution of the droplets is investigated, confirming the strong influence of rim breakup.

  • 62.
    Altimira, Mireia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Rivas, Alejandro
    Mech. Eng. Dept., Tecnun (Univ. of Navarra).
    Ramos, Juan Carlos
    Mech. Eng. Dept., Tecnun (Univ. of Navarra).
    Anton, Raul
    Mech. Eng. Dept., Tecnun (Univ. of Navarra).
    Disintegration regime of industrial fan-spray atomizers through CFD simulations2011In: ILASS – Europe 2011, 24th European Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems, Estoril, Portugal, September 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among all the literature devoted to the investigation of sprays, very few works deal with the influence of the nozzle’s geometry on the characteristics of the spray produced, even though it has been proved to play a crucial role in certain operating regimes. The present paper presents criteria for the determination of the dominant disintegration regime in industrial fan-spray atomizers through CFD simulations accounting for the atomizer’s geometry.

  • 63.
    Alvelius, Krister
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Johansson, Arne, V.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    LES computations and comparison with Kolmogorov theory for two-point pressure{velocity correlations and structure functions for globally anisotropic turbulence2000In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 403, p. 23-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new extension of the Kolmogorov theory, for the two-point pressure–velocity correlation, is studied by LES of homogeneous turbulence with a large inertial subrange in order to capture the high Reynolds number nonlinear dynamics of the flow. Simulations of both decaying and forced anisotropic homogeneous turbulence were performed. The forcing allows the study of higher Reynolds numbers for the same number of modes compared with simulations of decaying turbulence. The forced simulations give statistically stationary turbulence, with a substantial inertial subrange, well suited to test the Kolmogorov theory for turbulence that is locally isotropic but has significant anisotropy of the total energy distribution. This has been investigated in the recent theoretical studies of Lindborg (1996) and Hill (1997) where the role of the pressure terms was given particular attention. On the surface the two somewhat different approaches taken in these two studies may seem to lead to contradictory conclusions, but are here reconciled and (numerically) shown to yield an interesting extension of the traditional Kolmogorov theory. The results from the simulations indeed show that the two-point pressure–velocity correlation closely adheres to the predicted linear relation in the inertial subrange where also the pressure-related term in the general Kolmogorov equation is shown to vanish. Also, second- and third-order structure functions are shown to exhibit the expected dependences on separation.

  • 64. Alveroglu, B.
    et al.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Garrett, S. J.
    An energy analysis of convective instabilities of the Bödewadt and Ekman boundary layers over rough surfaces2017In: European journal of mechanics. B, Fluids, ISSN 0997-7546, E-ISSN 1873-7390, Vol. 61, p. 310-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ⋯ An energy balance equation for the three-dimensional Bödewadt and Ekman layers of the so called "BEK family" of rotating boundary-layer flows is derived. A Chebyshev discretization method is used to solve the equations and investigate the effect of surface roughness on the physical mechanisms of transition. All roughness types lead to a stabilization of the Type I (cross-flow) instability mode for both flows, with the exception of azimuthally-anisotropic roughness (radial grooves) within the Bödewadt layer which is destabilizing. In the case of the viscous Type II instability mode, the results predict a destabilization effect of radially-anisotropic roughness (concentric grooves) on both flows, whereas both azimuthally-anisotropic roughness and isotropic roughness have a stabilization effect. The results presented here confirm the results of our prior linear stability analyses.

  • 65.
    Alveroglu, B.
    et al.
    Department of Mathematics, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH, United Kingdom.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Garrett, S. J.
    Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH, United Kingdom.
    An energy analysis of convective instabilities of the Bödewadt and Ekman boundary layers over rough surfaces2019In: Open Archives of the 16th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery, ISROMAC 2016, International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery, ISROMAC 2016 , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An energy balance equation for the three-dimensional Bödewadt and Ekman layers of the so called “BEK family" of rotating boundary-layer flows is derived. A Chebyshev discretisation method is used to solve the equations and investigate the effect of surface roughness on the physical mechanisms of transition. All roughness types lead to a stabilization of the Type I (cross-flow) instability mode for both flows, with the exception of azimuthally-anisotropic roughness (radial grooves) within the Bödewadt layer which is destabilising. In the case of the viscous Type II instability mode, the results predict a destabilisation effect of radially-anisotropic roughness (concentric grooves) on both flows, whereas both azimuthally-anisotropic roughness and isotropic roughness have a stabilisation effect. The results presented here confirm the results of our prior linear stability analyses.

  • 66. Alveroglu, B.
    et al.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Garrett, S. J.
    The effect of surface roughness on the convective instability of the BEK family of boundary-layer flows2016In: European journal of mechanics. B, Fluids, ISSN 0997-7546, E-ISSN 1873-7390, Vol. 56, p. 178-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Chebyshev polynomial discretisation method is used to investigate the effect of both anisotropic (radially and azimuthally) and isotropic surface roughnesses on the convective instability of the BEK family of rotating boundary-layer flows. The mean-flow profiles for the velocity components are obtained by modelling surface roughness with a partial-slip approach. A linear stability analysis is then performed to investigate the effect of roughness on the convective instability characteristics of the inviscid Type I (cross-flow) instability and the viscous Type II instability. It is revealed that all roughness types lead to a stabilisation of the Type I mode in all flows within the BEK family, with the exception of azimuthally-anisotropic roughness (radial grooves) within the Bödewadt layer which causes a mildly destabilising effect. In the case of the Type II mode, the results reveal the destabilising effect of radially-anisotropic roughness (concentric grooves) on all the boundary layers, whereas both azimuthally-anisotropic and isotropic roughnesses have a stabilising effect on the mode for Ekman and von Kármán layers. Complementary results are also presented by considering the effects of roughness on the growth rates of each instability mode within the Ekman layer.

  • 67.
    Amberg, Gustav
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Physicochemical Fluid Mechanics.
    Do-Quang, Minh
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Physicochemical Fluid Mechanics.
    Thermocapillary convection and phase change in welding2008In: International journal of numerical methods for heat & fluid flow, ISSN 0961-5539, E-ISSN 1758-6585, Vol. 18, no 3-4, p. 378-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - In welding there is an intricate coupling between the composition of the material and the shape and depth of the weld pool. In certain materials, the weld pool may not penetrate the material easily, so that it is difficult or impossible to weld, while other seemingly quite similar materials may be well suited for welding. This is due to the convective heat transfer in the melt where the flow is driven primarily by surface tension gradients. This paper aims to study how surface active agents affect the flow and thus the welding properties by surveying some recent 3D simulations of weld pools. Design/methodology/approach - Some basic concepts in the modelling of flow in a weld pool are reviewed. The mathematical models for a convecting melt, with a detailed model for the surface tension and the Marangoni stress in the presence of surfactants, are presented. The effect of the sign of the Marangoni coefficient on the flow pattern, and thus, via melting and freezing, on the shape of the weld pool, is discussed. Findings - It is seen that it is beneficial to have surfactants present at the pool surface, in order to have good penetration. Results from a refined surface tension model that accounts for non-equilibrium redistribution of surfactants are presented. It is seen that the surfactant concentration is significantly modified by the fluid flow. Thereby, the effective surface tension and the Marangoni stresses are altered, and the redistribution of surfactants will affect the penetration depth of the weld pool. Originality/value - The importance of surfactants for weld pool shapes, and in particular the convective redistribution of surfactants, is clarified.

  • 68. Ambrosi, D.
    et al.
    Ateshian, G. A.
    Arruda, E. M.
    Cowin, S. C.
    Dumais, J.
    Goriely, A.
    Holzapfel, Gerhard A.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Biomechanics.
    Humphrey, J. D.
    Kemkemer, R.
    Kuhl, E.
    Olberding, J. E.
    Taber, L. A.
    Garikipati, K.
    Perspectives on biological growth and remodeling2011In: Journal of the mechanics and physics of solids, ISSN 0022-5096, E-ISSN 1873-4782, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 863-883Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The continuum mechanical treatment of biological growth and remodeling has attracted considerable attention over the past fifteen years. Many aspects of these problems are now well-understood, yet there remain areas in need of significant development from the standpoint of experiments, theory, and computation. In this perspective paper we review the state of the field and highlight open questions, challenges, and avenues for further development.

  • 69. Amoignon, Olivier
    et al.
    Pralits, Jan O.
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Berggren, M.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Shape optimization for delay of laminar-turbulent transition2006In: AIAA Journal, ISSN 0001-1452, E-ISSN 1533-385X, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 1009-1024Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method using gradient-based optimization is introduced for the design of wing profiles with the aim of natural laminar How, as well as minimum wave drag. The Euler equations of gasdynamics, the laminar boundary-layer equations for compressible flows on infinite swept wings, and the linear parabolized stability equations (PSE) are solved to analyze the evolution of convectively unstable disturbances. Laminar-turbulent transition is assumed to be delayed by minimizing a measure of the disturbance kinetic energy of a chosen disturbance, which is computed using the PSE. The shape gradients of the disturbance kinetic energy are computed based on the solutions of the adjoints of the state equations just named. Numerical tests are carried out to optimize the RAE 2822 airfoil with the aim to delay simultaneously the transition, reduce the pressure drag coefficient, and maintain the coefficients of lift and pitch moments. Constraints are also applied on the geometry. Results show a reduction of the total amplification of a large number of disturbances, which is assumed to represent a delay of the transition in the boundary layer. Because delay of the transition implies reduction of the viscous drag, the present method enables shape optimization to perform viscous drag reduction.

  • 70.
    Amor, Christian
    et al.
    Univ Politecn Madrid, Sch Aerosp Engn, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Perez, Jose M.
    Univ Politecn Madrid, Sch Aerosp Engn, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Le Clainche, Soledad
    Univ Politecn Madrid, Sch Aerosp Engn, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Soft Computing Techniques to Analyze the Turbulent Wake of a Wall-Mounted Square Cylinder2020In: 14th International Conference on Soft Computing Models in Industrial and Environmental Applications, SOCO 2019 / [ed] Alvarez, FM Lora, AT Munoz, JAS Quintian, H Corchado, E, Springer, 2020, Vol. 950, p. 577-586Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces several methods, generally used in fluid dynamics, to provide low-rank approximations. The algorithm describing these methods are mainly based on singular value decomposition (SVD) and dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) techniques, and are suitable to analyze turbulent flows. The application of these methods will be illustrated in the analysis of the turbulent wake of a wall-mounted cylinder, a geometry modeling a skyscraper. A brief discussion about the large and small size structures of the flow will provide the key ideas to represent the general dynamics of the flow using low-rank approximations. If the flow physics is understood, then it is possible to adapt these techniques, or some other strategies, to solve general complex problems with reduced computational cost. The main goal is to introduce these methods as machine learning strategies that could be potentially used in the field of fluid dynamics, and that can be extended to any other research field.

  • 71.
    Angele, Kristian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Grewe, F.
    Instantaneous behavior of streamwise vortices for turbulent boundary layer separation control2007In: Journal of Fluids Engineering - Trancactions of The ASME, ISSN 0098-2202, E-ISSN 1528-901X, Vol. 129, no 2, p. 226-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates turbulent boundary layer separation control by means of streamwise vortices with focus on the instantaneous vortex behavior. A turbulent boundary layer is exposed to a pressure gradient that generates a separation bubble with substantial backflow. The separation bubble is controlled by conventional passive vortex generators creating pairs of counterrotating vortices. Quantitative information is achieved by applying Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to the cross-stream plane of the vortices. The characteristics of a pair of counter-rotating vortices shed from a vortex generator is investigated in the near-field downstream of the vortex generator. The vortices were found to grow with the boundary layer in the downstream direction, and the maximum vorticity decreases as the circulation is conserved. The vortices are nonstationary, and the movements in the spanwise direction are larger than those in the wall-normal direction, due to the presence of the wall. The vortices fluctuate substantially and move over a spanwise distance, which is approximately equal to their size. The most probable instantaneous separation between the two vortices shed from one vortex generator equals the difference between their mean positions. The unsteadiness of the vortices contributes to the observed maxima in the Reynolds stresses around the mean vortex centers. The instantaneous vortex size and the instantaneous maximum vorticity are also fluctuating properties, and the instantaneous vortex is generally smaller and stronger than the mean vortex. A correlation was found between a large instantaneous vortex size and a low instantaneous maximum vorticity (and vice versa), suggesting that the vortices are subjected to vortex stretching.

  • 72.
    Angele, Kristian P.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Muhammad-Klingmann, Barbro
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    A simple model for the effect of peak-locking on the accuracy of boundary layer turbulence statistics in digital PIV2005In: Experiments in Fluids, ISSN 0723-4864, E-ISSN 1432-1114, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 341-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A simple model was constructed to study the effect of peak-locking on the accuracy of particle image velocimetry (PIV) turbulence statistics. A crucial parameter is the ratio between the root-mean-square (rms) velocity and the discretization velocity, which reflects the number of peaks distributed over the velocity probability density functions. When the ratio of the discretization velocity, which is set by the PIV setup parameters, to the rms, given by the flow, is larger than two, the maximum errors introduced in the mean and rms values become significant ( larger than 1%). The errors introduced also depend on the amplitude, or severity, of the peak-locking, and whether the mean displacement corresponds to an integer or a fractional number of pixels. The peak-locking affects the statistical moments of different order in such a way that the errors are phase shifted. The proposed model can be used to predict errors in the turbulence statistics in a laboratory PIV experiment. According to our model predictions, the most significant influence of peak-locking in a boundary layer type of flow is an overall underestimation of the wall-normal rms. Our predictions are in good agreement with our experimental results from turbulent boundary layers and the recent experimental results from a turbulent channel flow by Christensen (Exp Fluids 36: 484 - 497, 2004) for a case of moderate peak-locking.

  • 73.
    Angele, Kristian P.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Muhammad-Klingmann, Barbro
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    PIV measurements in a weakly separating and reattaching turbulent boundary layer2006In: European journal of mechanics. B, Fluids, ISSN 0997-7546, E-ISSN 1873-7390, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 204-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A high Reynolds number flat plate turbulent boundary layer was studied in a wind-tunnel experiment using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The flow is subjected to an adverse pressure gradient (APG) which is designed such that the boundary layer separates and reattaches, forming a weak separation bubble. With PIV we are able to get a more complete picture of this complex flow phenomenon. The view of a separation bubble being composed of large scale coherent regions of instantaneous backflow occurring randomly in a three-dimensional manner in space and time is verified by the present PIV measurements. The PIV database was used to test the applicability of various velocity scalings around the separation bubble. We found that the mean velocity profiles in the outer part of the boundary layer, and to some extent also the Reynolds shear-stress, are self-similar when using a velocity scale based on the local pressure gradient. The same can be said for the so called Perry-Schotield scaling, which suggests that the two velocity scales are connected. This can also be interpreted as an experimental evidence of the claimed relation between the latter velocity scale and the maximum Reynolds shear-stress.

  • 74.
    Angele, Kristian P.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Muhammad-Klingmann, Barbro
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    The effect of streamwise vortices on the turbulence structure of a separating boundary layer2005In: European journal of mechanics. B, Fluids, ISSN 0997-7546, E-ISSN 1873-7390, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 539-554Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A high Reynolds number flat plate turbulent boundary layer is investigated in a wind-tunnel experiment. The flow is subjected to an adverse pressure gradient which is strong enough to generate a weak separation bubble. This experimental study attempts to shed some new light on separation control by means of streamwise vortices with emphasize on the change in the boundary layer turbulence structure. In the present case, counter-rotating and initially non-equidistant streamwise vortices become and remain equidistant and confined within the boundary layer, contradictory to the prediction by inviscid theory. The viscous diffusion cause the vortices to grow, the swirling velocity component to decrease and the boundary layer to develop towards a two-dimensional state. At the position of the eliminated separation bubble the following changes in the turbulence structure were observed. The anisotropy state in the near-wall region is unchanged, which indicates that it is determined by the presence of the wall rather than the large scale vortices. However, the turbulence in the outer part of the boundary layer becomes overall more isotropic due to an increased wall-normal mixing and a significantly decreased production of streamwise fluctuations. The turbulent kinetic energy is decreased as a consequence of the latter. Despite the complete change in mean flow, the spatial turbulence structure and the anisotropy state, the process of transfer of turbulent kinetic energy to the spanwise fluctuating component seems to be unchanged. Local regions of anisotropy are strongly connected to maxima in the turbulent production. For example, at spanwise positions in between those of symmetry, the spanwise gradient of the streamwise velocity cause significant production of turbulent fluctuations. Transport of turbulence in the spanwise direction occurs in the same direction as the rotation of the vortices.

  • 75. Ankerfors, M.
    et al.
    Lindström, T.
    Söderberg, Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    The use of microfibrillated cellulose in high filler fine papers2013In: Pap. Conf. Trade Show, PaperCon, 2013, p. 1129-1132Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of communication, printing and writing papers has become an increasingly competitive field during the latest years as the market demand of printing and writing papers and newsprint has finally started to decline in the developed economies. One obvious approach to stay competitive is to increase the filler content of such papers. High filler paper is not a new idea and numerous approaches have been tested over the years to produce such papers. In order to reach industrial implementation, pilot-scale research and development under industrial conditions is necessary as a step after laboratory studies. Therefore an environment has been developed in order to perform projects targeting existing technologies for high filler applications as well as the new possibilities incurred by e.g. microfibrillated cellulose.

  • 76.
    Apazidis, Nicholas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Numerical investigation of shock induced bubble collapse in water2016In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 28, no 4, article id 046101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A semi-conservative, stable, interphase-capturing numerical scheme for shock propagation in heterogeneous systems is applied to the problem of shock propagation in liquid-gas systems. The scheme is based on the volume-fraction formulation of the equations of motion for liquid and gas phases with separate equations of state. The semi-conservative formulation of the governing equations ensures the absence of spurious pressure oscillations at the material interphases between liquid and gas. Interaction of a planar shock in water with a single spherical bubble as well as twin adjacent bubbles is investigated. Several stages of the interaction process are considered, including focusing of the transmitted shock within the deformed bubble, creation of a water-hammer shock as well as generation of high-speed liquid jet in the later stages of the process.

  • 77.
    Apazidis, Nicholas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Report on the 20th international shock interaction symposium2012In: Shock Waves, ISSN 0938-1287, E-ISSN 1432-2153, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 653-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Apazidis, Nicholas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Kjellander, Malte
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Tillmark, Nils
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    High energy concentration by symmetric shock focusing2013In: Shock Waves, ISSN 0938-1287, E-ISSN 1432-2153, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 361-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-energy concentrations in gas are achieved experimentally in a specially constructed shock tube facility at KTH Mechanics. The high-energy concentration is manifested by a formation of a hot, light-emitting gas core. Experimental, numerical and theoretical investigations show that the shape of the imploding shock is of pivotal importance for the final energy concentration. Cylindrical shocks are unstable. Symmetric polygonal shocks are shown to be dynamically stable and are produced by various methods, e.g. thin wing profiles placed radially in the test section. Such symmetric polygonal shocks are able to produce extremely high energy levels at the focal point. Spectral data from 60 nanosecond short intervals of 8 microsecond light pulse give temperatures in the range of 6,000 K.

  • 79.
    Appelquist, Elinor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. Swedish e-Science Research Centre (SeRC).
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. Swedish e-Science Research Centre (SeRC).
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Lingwood, Rebecca J.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. University of Cambridge, Cambridge .
    Investigation of the Global Instability of the Rotating-disk Boundary Layer2015In: Procedia IUTAM, Elsevier, 2015, p. 321-328Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of the flow over a rotating disk is investigated by direct numerical simulations using both the linearized and fully nonlinear incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. These simulations allow investigation of the transition to turbulence of the realistic spatially-developing boundary layer. The current research aims to elucidate further the global linear stability properties of the flow, and relate these to local analysis and discussions in literature. An investigation of the nonlinear upstream (inward) influence is conducted by simulating a small azimuthal section of the disk (1/68). The simulations are initially perturbed by an impulse disturbance where, after the initial transient behaviour, both the linear and nonlinear simulations show a temporally growing upstream mode. This upstream global mode originates in the linear case close to the end of the domain, excited by an absolute instability at this downstream position. In the nonlinear case, it instead originates where the linear region ends and nonlinear harmonics enter the flow field, also where an absolute instability can be found. This upstream global mode can be shown to match a theoretical mode from local linear theory involved in the absolute instability at either the end of the domain (linear case) or where nonlinear harmonics enter the field (nonlinear case). The linear simulation grows continuously in time whereas the nonlinear simulation saturates and the transition to turbulence moves slowly upstream towards smaller radial positions asymptotically approaching a global upstream mode with zero temporal growth rate, which is estimated at a nondimensional radius of 582.

  • 80.
    Appelquist, Ellinor
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Direct numerical simulations of the rotating-disk boundary-layer flow2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with the instabilities of the incompressible boundary-layer flow that is induced by a disk rotating in otherwise still fluid. The results presented are mostly limited to linear instabilities derived from direct numerical simulations (DNS) but with the objective that further work will focus on the nonlinear regime, providing greater insights into the transition route to turbulence.

    The numerical code Nek5000 has been chosen for the DNS using a spectral-element method in an effort to reduce spurious effects from low-order discretizations. Large-scale parallel simulations have been used to obtain the present results.

    The known similarity solution of the Navier–Stokes equation for the rotating-disk flow, also called the von Karman flow, is investigated and can be reproduced with good accuracy by the DNS. With the addition of small roughnesses on the disk surface, convective instabilities appear and data from the DNS are analysed and compared with experimental and theoretical data. A theoretical analysis is also presented using a local linear-stability approach, where two stability solvers have been developedbased on earlier work. A good correspondence between DNS and theory is found and the DNS results are found to explain well the behaviour of the experimental boundary layer within the range of Reynolds numbers for small amplitude (linear) disturbances. The comparison between the DNS and experimental results, presented for the first time here, shows that the DNS allows (for large azimuthal domains) a range of unstable azimuthal wavenumbers β to exist simultaneously with the dominantβ varying, which is not accounted for in local theory, where β is usually fixed for each Reynolds number at which the stability analysis is applied.

    Furthermore, the linear impulse response of the rotating-disk boundary layer is investigated using DNS. The local response is known to be absolutely unstable. The global response is found to be stable if the edge of the disk is assumed to be at infinity, and unstable if the domain is finite and the edge of the domain is placed such that there is a large enough pocket region for the absolute instability to develop. The global frequency of the flow is found to be determined by the edge Reynolds number.

  • 81.
    Appelquist, Ellinor
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    The rotating-disk boundary-layer flow studied through numerical simulations2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with the instabilities of the incompressible boundary-layer flow thatis induced by a disk rotating in otherwise still fluid. The results presented include bothwork in the linear and nonlinear regime and are derived from direct numerical sim-ulations (DNS). Comparisons are made both to theoretical and experimental resultsproviding new insights into the transition route to turbulence. The simulation codeNek5000 has been chosen for the DNS using a spectral-element method (SEM) witha high-order discretization, and the results were obtained through large-scale paral-lel simulations. The known similarity solution of the Navier–Stokes equations for therotating-disk flow, also called the von K ́arm ́an rotating-disk flow, is reproduced by theDNS. With the addition of modelled small simulated roughnesses on the disk surface,convective instabilities appear and data from the linear region in the DNS are anal-ysed and compared with experimental and theoretical data, all corresponding verywell. A theoretical analysis is also presented using a local linear-stability approach,where two stability solvers have been developed based on earlier work. Furthermore,the impulse response of the rotating-disk boundary layer is investigated using DNS.The local response is known to be absolutely unstable and the global response, onthe contrary, is stable if the edge of the disk is assumed to be at radius infinity. Herecomparisons with a finite domain using various boundary conditions give a globalbehaviour that can be both linearly stable and unstable, however always nonlinearlyunstable. The global frequency of the flow is found to be determined by the Rey-nolds number at the confinement of the domain, either by the edge (linear case) or bythe turbulence appearance (nonlinear case). Moreover, secondary instabilities on topof the convective instabilities induced by roughness elements were investigated andfound to be globally unstable. This behaviour agrees well with the experimental flowand acts at a smaller radial distance than the primary global instability. The sharpline corresponding to transition to turbulence seen in experiments of the rotating diskcan thus be explained by the secondary global instability. Finally, turbulence datawere compared with experiments and investigated thoroughly.

  • 82.
    Appelquist, Ellinor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Imayama, Shintaro
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Revisiting the stability analysis of the flow over a rotating diskManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Local linear stability analysis applied to the rotating-disk flow is discussed.This flow case is an exact similarity solution to the cylindrical incompressible Navier–Stokes equations also called the von K ́arm ́an flow. The laminar mean velocity profiles are obtained by solving the resulting ordinary differential equations assuming the flow is axisymmetric and time independent. Two stability-analyses methods are used to investigate the local linear stability of this flow: i)the ‘shooting method’; and ii) the ‘Chebyshev polynomial method’. This theoretical investigation focuses on convectively unstable disturbances. Results obtained from the two methods are compared and the methods are shown togive similar results. These theoretical results are also compared with direct numerical simulations and experimental results showing good agreement.

  • 83.
    Appelquist, Ellinor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Imayama, Shintaro
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Revisiting the stability analysis of the flow over a rotating disk2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Local linear stability analysis applied to the rotating-disk flow is discussed.This flow case is an exact similarity solution to the cylindrical incompressibleNavier–Stokes equations also called the von Karman flow. The laminar mean velocity profiles are obtained by solving the resulting ordinary differential equa-tions assuming the flow is axisymmetric and time independent. Two stability-analyses methods are used to investigate the local linear stability of this flow: i)the ‘shooting method’; and ii) the ‘Chebyshev polynomial method’. This the-oretical investigation focuses on convectively unstable disturbances. Resultsobtained from the two methods are compared and the methods are shown togive similar results. These theoretical results are also compared with directnumerical simulations and experimental results showing good agreement.

  • 84.
    Appelquist, Ellinor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics.
    Imayama, Shintaro
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics.
    Alfredsson, Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Lingwood, Rebecca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London, United Kingdom.
    Linear disturbances in the rotating-disk flow: A comparison between results from simulations, experiments and theory2016In: European journal of mechanics. B, Fluids, ISSN 0997-7546, E-ISSN 1873-7390, Vol. 55, p. 170-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations have an exact similarity solution for the flow over an infinite rotating disk giving a laminar boundary layer of constant thickness, also known as the von Kármán flow. It is well known now that there is an absolute instability of the boundary layer which is linked to transition to turbulence, but convective routes are also observed. It is these convective modes that we focus on here. A comparison of three different approaches to investigate the convective, so called Type-I, stationary crossflow instability is presented here. The three approaches consist of local linear stability analysis, direct numerical simulations (DNS) and experiments. The ’shooting method’ was used to compute the local linear stability whereas linear DNS was performed using a spectral-element method for a full annulus of the disk, a quarter and 1/32 of an annulus, each with one roughness element in the computational domain. These correspond to simulating one, four and 32 roughness elements on the full disk surface and in addition a case with randomly-distributed roughnesses was simulated on the full disk. Two different experimental configurations were used for the comparison: i) a clean-disk condition, i.e. unexcited boundary-layer flow; and ii) a rough-disk condition, where 32 roughness elements were placed on the disk surface to excite the Type-I stationary vortices. Comparisons between theory, DNS and experiments with respect to the structure of the stationary vortices are made. The results show excellent agreement between local linear stability analysis and both DNS and experiments for a fixed azimuthal wavenumber (32 roughnesses). This agreement clearly shows that the three approaches capture the same underlying physics of the setup, and lead to an accurate description of the flow. It also verifies the numerical simulations and shows the robustness of experimental measurements of the flow case. The effects of the azimuthal domain size in the DNS and superposition of multiple azimuthal wavenumbers in the DNS and experiments are discussed.

  • 85.
    Appelquist, Ellinor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics.
    Imayama, Shintaro
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics.
    Alfredsson, Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Lingwood, Rebecca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. University of Cambridge, UK.
    Linear disturbances in the rotating-disk flow: a comparison between results from simulations, experiments and theory2014Report (Other academic)
  • 86.
    Appelquist, Ellinor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Imayama, Shintaro
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Alfredsson, Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Lingwood, Rebecca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Simulating the linear behaviour of the flow over a rotating disk due to roughness elements2014Report (Other academic)
  • 87.
    Appelquist, Ellinor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philip
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Lingwood, Rebecca J.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. University of London, United Kingdom.
    On the global nonlinear instability of the rotating-disk flow over a finite domain2016In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 803, p. 332-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct numerical simulations based on the incompressible nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations of the flow over the surface of a rotating disk have been conducted. An impulsive disturbance was introduced and its development as it travelled radially outwards and ultimately transitioned to turbulence has been analysed. Of particular interest was whether the nonlinear stability is related to the linear stability properties. Specifically three disk-edge conditions were considered; (i) a sponge region forcing the flow back to laminar flow, (ii) a disk edge, where the disk was assumed to be infinitely thin and (iii) a physically realistic disk edge of finite thickness. This work expands on the linear simulations presented by Appelquist el al. (J. Fluid. Mech., vol. 765, 2015, pp. 612-631), where, for case (i), this configuration was shown to be globally linearly unstable when the sponge region effectively models the influence of the turbulence on the flow field. In contrast, case (ii) was mentioned there to he linearly globally stable, and here, where nonlinearity is included, it is shown that both cases (ii) and (iii) are nonlinearly globally unstable. The simulations show that the flow can he globally linearly stable if the linear wavepacket has a positive front velocity. However, in the same flow field, a nonlinear global instability can emerge, which is shown to depend on the outer turbulent region generating a linear inward-travelling mode that sustains a transition front within the domain. The results show that the front position does not approach the critical Reynolds number for the local absolute instability, R = 507. Instead, the front approaches R = 583 and both the temporal frequency and spatial growth rate correspond to a global mode originating at this position.

  • 88.
    Appelquist, Ellinor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Simulating the laminar von Karman flow in Nek50002014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The laminar incompressible boundary layer over a rotating disk, also called the von Karman flow, is investigated. The goal is to set up a direct numericalsimulation (DNS) environment for further use to investigate the transition from laminar to turbulent flow for this boundary layer. For this the spectral-element code Nek5000 is used. A set of ODE-equations are first derived from the incompressible cylindrical Navier–Stokes equations, which are solved for the exact von Karman solution. Further, Nek5000 is prepared to solve for the same laminar solution. Comparing the two solutions give a quantification of the accuracy of the DNS solver Nek5000. Different scalings of the equations are investigated, together with quantifications of how good the different available boundary conditions are, also investigating different reference frames and grid dependency of the solution. The general conclusion is that the von K ́rm ́na aflow is possible to simulate in Nek5000. The method was robust when it cameto using different scalings, reference frames and resolutions.

  • 89.
    Appelquist, Ellinor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Alfredsson, Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Lingwood, Rebecca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Global linear instability and the radial boundary of the rotating-disk flowManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 90.
    Appelquist, Ellinor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Alfredsson, Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Lingwood, Rebecca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. nstitute of Continuing Education, University of Cambridge, Madingley Hall, Madingley Cambridge, United Kingdom .
    Global linear instability of the rotating-disk flow investigated through simulations2015In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 765, p. 612-631Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerical simulations of the flow developing on the surface of a rotating disk are presented based on the linearized incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The boundary-layer flow is perturbed by an impulsive disturbance within a linear global framework, and the effect of downstream turbulence is modelled by a damping region further downstream. In addition to the outward-travelling modes, inward-travelling disturbances excited at the radial end of the simulated linear region, r(end), by the modelled turbulence are included within the simulations, potentially allowing absolute instability to develop. During early times the flow shows traditional convective behaviour, with the total energy slowly decaying in time. However, after the disturbances have reached r(end), the energy evolution reaches a turning point and, if the location of r(end) is at a Reynolds number larger than approximately R = 594 (radius non-dimensionalized by root v/Omega*, where v is the kinematic viscosity and Omega* is the rotation rate of the disk), there will be global temporal growth. The global frequency and mode shape are clearly imposed by the conditions at r(end). Our results suggest that the linearized Ginzburg-Landau model by Healey (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 663, 2010, pp. 148-159) captures the (linear) physics of the developing rotating-disk flow, showing that there is linear global instability provided the Reynolds number of r(end) is sufficiently larger than the critical Reynolds number for the onset of absolute instability.

  • 91.
    Appelquist, Ellinor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Lingwood, R. J.
    Transition to turbulence in the rotating-disk boundary-layer flow with stationary vortices2017In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 836, p. 43-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a resolution to the conundrum of the roles of convective and absolute instability in transition of the rotating-disk boundary layer. It also draws some comparison with swept-wing flows. Direct numerical simulations based on the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations of the flow over the surface of a rotating disk with modelled roughness elements are presented. The rotating-disk flow has been of particular interest for stability and transition research since the work by Lingwood (J.FluidMech., vol.299, 1995, pp.17-33) where an absolute instability was found. Here stationary disturbances develop from roughness elements on the disk and are followed from the linear stage, growing to saturation and finally transitioning to turbulence. Several simulations are presented with varying disturbance amplitudes. The lowest amplitude corresponds approximately to the experiment by Imayama etal. (J.FluidMech., vol.745, 2014a, pp.132-163). For all cases, the primary instability was found to be convectively unstable, and secondary modes were found to be triggered spontaneously while the flow was developing. The secondary modes further stayed within the domain, and an explanation for this is a proposed globally unstable secondary instability. For the low-amplitude roughness cases, the disturbances propagate beyond the threshold for secondary global instability before becoming turbulent, and for the high-amplitude roughness cases the transition scenario gives a turbulent flow directly at the critical Reynolds number for the secondary global instability. These results correspond to the theory of Pier (J.EngngMaths, vol.57, 2007, pp.237-251) predicting a secondary absolute instability. In our simulations, high temporal frequencies were found to grow with a large amplification rate where the secondary global instability occurred. For smaller radial positions, low-frequency secondary instabilities were observed, tripped by the global instability.

  • 92.
    Appelquist, Ellinor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Lingwood, Rebecca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Transition to turbulence in the rotating-disk boundary-layer flow with stationary vorticesArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 93.
    Appelquist, Ellinor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Lingwood, Rebecca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Turbulence in the rotating-disk boundary layer investigated through direct numerical simulationsArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 94.
    Appelquist, Ellinor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Alfredsson, P. Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Lingwood, Rebecca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London, United Kingdom.
    Turbulence in the rotating-disk boundary layer investigated through direct numerical simulations2018In: European journal of mechanics. B, Fluids, ISSN 0997-7546, E-ISSN 1873-7390, Vol. 70, p. 6-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) are reported for the turbulent rotating-disk boundary layer for the first time. Two turbulent simulations are presented with overlapping small and large Reynolds numbers, where the largest corresponds to a momentum-loss Reynolds number of almost 2000. Simulation data are compared with experimental data from the same flow case reported by Imayama et al. (2014), and also a comparison is made with a numerical simulation of a two-dimensional turbulent boundary layer (2DTBL) over a flat plate reported by Schlatter and Örlü (2010). The agreement of the turbulent statistics between experiments and simulations is in general very good, as well as the findings of a missing wake region and a lower shape factor compared to the 2DTBL. The simulations also show rms-levels in the inner region similar to the 2DTBL. The simulations validate Imayama et al.’s results showing that the rotating-disk turbulent boundary layer in the near-wall region contains shorter streamwise (azimuthal) wavelengths than the 2DTBL, probably due to the outward inclination of the low-speed streaks. Moreover, all velocity components are available from the simulations, and hence the local flow angle, Reynolds stresses and all terms in the turbulent kinetic energy equation are also discussed. However there are in general no large differences compared to the 2DTBL, hence the three-dimensional effects seem to have only a small influence on the turbulence.

  • 95. Arlov, D.
    et al.
    Revstedt, J.
    Fuchs, Laszlo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics of Industrial Processes.
    Numerical simulation of a gas-liquid Rushton stirred reactor - LES and LPT2008In: Computers & Fluids, ISSN 0045-7930, E-ISSN 1879-0747, Vol. 37, no 7, p. 793-801Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulations of aerated stirred reactor is performed using a combination of large eddy simulation (LES) and Lagrangian particle tracking (LPT). A single impeller Rushton turbine is positioned at the center of the reactor and air is introduced at the bottom through a circular sparger. Effects of the gas volume flow, stirrer speed and sparger dimension are investigated. The results show that the time averaged liquid velocities in radial and tangential directions decrease with increasing gas volume fraction. In the axial direction, the gas redirects the radial jet upwards, breaking the symmetry of the ring vortices. Especially, for a narrower sparger, a more concentrated tilt upwards is observed with a larger region of negative axial velocity. Although, low aeration number is used, the periodicity from the impeller is decreasing and interfering with the creation of the trailing vortex pair. The gas dispersion increases with decreasing the sparger diameter.

  • 96.
    Arnal, Daniel
    et al.
    ONERA.
    Tran, Dac
    Dassault Aviation.
    Hein, Stefan
    DLR.
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Engelbrecht, T.
    SUPERsonic TRAnsition Control Contract N° AST4-CT-2005-516100: Final Technical Report2008Report (Other academic)
  • 97. Arnqvist, J.
    et al.
    Segalini, Antonio
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Dellwik, E.
    Bergström, H.
    Wind Statistics from a Forested Landscape2015In: Boundary-layer Meteorology, ISSN 0006-8314, E-ISSN 1573-1472, Vol. 156, no 1, p. 53-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An analysis and interpretation of measurements from a 138-m tall tower located in a forested landscape is presented. Measurement errors and statistical uncertainties are carefully evaluated to ensure high data quality. A 40 wide wind-direction sector is selected as the most representative for large-scale forest conditions, and from that sector first-, second- and third-order statistics, as well as analyses regarding the characteristic length scale, the flux-profile relationship and surface roughness are presented for a wide range of stability conditions. The results are discussed with focus on the validity of different scaling regimes. Significant wind veer, decay of momentum fluxes and reduction in shear length scales with height are observed for all stability classes, indicating the influence of the limited depth of the boundary layer on the measured profiles. Roughness sublayer characteristics are however not detected in the presented analysis. Dimensionless gradients are shown to follow theoretical curves up to 100 m in stable conditions despite surface-layer approximations being invalid. This is attributed to a balance of momentum decay and reduced shear length scale growth with height. The wind profile shows a strong stability dependence of the aerodynamic roughness length, with a 50 % decrease from neutral to stable conditions.

  • 98. Aronsson, D.
    et al.
    Johansson, Arne, V.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Löfdahl, Lennart
    Shear-free turbulence near a wall1996In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 338, p. 363-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mean shear has a major influence on near-wall turbulence but there are also other important physical processes at work in the turbulence/wall interaction. In order to isolate these, a shear-free boundary layer was studied experimentally. The desired flow conditions were realized by generating decaying grid turbulence with a uniform mean velocity and passing it over a wall moving with the stream speed. It is shown that the initial response of the turbulence field can be well described by the theory of Hunt & Graham (1978). Later, where this theory ceases to give an accurate description, terms of the Reynolds stress transport (RST) equations were measured or estimated by balancing the equations. An important finding is that two different length scales are associated with the near-wall damping of the Reynolds stresses. The wall-normal velocity component is damped over a region extending roughly one macroscale out from the wall. The pressure–strain redistribution that normally would result from the Reynolds stress anisotropy in this region was found to be completely inhibited by the near-wall influence. In a thin region close to the wall the pressure–reflection effects were found to give a pressure–strain that has an effect opposite to the normally expected isotropization. This behaviour is not captured by current models.

  • 99.
    Arosemena, Arturo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Numerical Model of MeltingProblems2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, a finite volume method is employed to modelthe advection-diffusion phenomenon during a pure substance meltingprocess. The exercise is limited to a benchmark problem consisting ofthe 2D melting from a vertical wall of a PCM driven by natural convectionin the melt. Numerical results, mainly the temporal evolutionof average Nusselt number at the hot wall and the average liquid fraction,are validated by available literature data and the effect of thermalinertia in the heat transfer is considered as well. Finally, motivatedby recent publications and the model presented here, possible new researchtopics are proposed.

  • 100.
    Ashwear, Nasseradeen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Structural Mechanics.
    Vibration Frequencies as Status Indicators for Tensegrity Structures2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     Applications of vibration structural health monitoring (VHM) techniques are increasing rapidly. This is because of the advances in sensors and instrumentation during the last decades. VHM uses the vibration properties to evaluate many civil structures during the design steps, building steps and service life.

    The stiffness and frequencies of tensegrity structures are primarily related to the level of pre-stress. The present work investigates the possibilities to use this relation in designing, constructing and evaluating the tensegrity structures.

    The first part of the  present work studies the improvement of current models for resonance frequency simulation of tensegrities by introducing the bending behaviour of all components, and by a one-way coupling between the axial force and the stiffness. From this, both local and global vibration modes are obtained. The resonance frequencies are seen as non-linearly dependent on the pre-stress level in the structure, thereby giving a basis for diagnosis of structural conditions from measured frequencies. The new aspects of tensegrity simulations are shown for simple, plane structures but the basic methods are easily used also for more complex structures.

    In the second part, the environmental temperature effects on vibration properties of tensegrity structures have been investigated, considering primarily seasonal temperature differences (uniform temperature differences). Changes in dynamic characteristics due to temperature variations were compared with the changes due to decreasing pre-tension in one of the cables. In general, it is shown that the change in structural frequencies made by temperature changes could be equivalent to the change made by damage (slacking). Different combinations of materials used and boundary conditions are also investigated. These are shown to have a significant impact on the pre-stress level and the natural frequencies of the tensegrity structures when the environment temperature is changed.

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