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  • 51.
    Al-Mudhaffar, Azhar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Svante, Berg
    Ramböll, Sweden, Traffic and Transport.
    Signal Control of Roundabouts2011In: 6TH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON HIGHWAY CAPACITY AND QUALITY OF SERVICE, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade many traffic signal controlled intersections have been replaced by roundabouts. There has been a trend towards the establishment of roundabouts where pedestrians and cyclists need to be considered specifically, sometimes by including one or more signal controlled crosswalks. Knowledge on adequate design, control and effects of different solutions, particularly with accessibility and traffic safety in mind, has been limited in Sweden. This lack of knowledge was the basis for a project in 2007 financed by the Swedish National Road Administration and which was divided into two parts. In the first part an inventory of available knowledge on signal controlled roundabouts both in Sweden and abroad was carried out. The following alternative forms of signal control were determined for the projects aspects: A1: Signal controlled crosswalks at the approach and in the direct vicinity of the gyratory (off signal). A2: Signal control of crosswalks at the approach up-and downstream. B1: Complete signal control of an approach. The crosswalks on both directions are passed in a single step. B2: Complete signal control of an approach. The crosswalks are passed in two steps (with intermediate stops). C: Coordinated, fully signal control of the roundabout. In the second part of the project accessibility analysis for the different alternatives was carried out with the help of field studies and calculations using the traffic modeling tool TRANSYT for signal optimization and VISSIM for evaluation of the effects. The traffic safety aspects were analyzed with the aid of specific interviews with the regulatory organizations, accident statistics from STRADA (Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition) and field studies of traffic behavior at two roundabout locations. The project concluded following recommendations regarding accessibility and safety: Alternative (A1) should be avoided from both a capacity and a traffic safety aspect. Use B. Alternative (A2) should be placed a minimum of 22 m from the roundabout due to both capacity and a traffic safety aspects. Alternative (B2), which has higher capacity than (B1) can be applied if there is a need for signalized crosswalks. Alternative (C) can be considered due to capacity constraints at high pedestrians' flow of several approaches.

  • 52.
    Alsharifi, Hussein
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Metodik för att effektivisera arbetsprocessen av ombyggnad av tåg med ETCS utrustning.: Anpassning av svenska fordon.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 1996, the European Union decided that all countries in Europe will implement a new

    standardized traffic control system for the railway. The systems that are available today will be

    replaced with ERTMS (European Rail Traffic Management System), which is a safer and more

    efficient traffic control system. ERTMS consists of four different systems: GSM-R is a radio

    communication system, ETCS (European Train Control System) is a signaling and safety

    systems for ground and onboard equipment, INESS (Integrated European Signalling System) is a

    project that will improve the performance of signaling and Europtirails, which is

    a standardized IT systems.

    Railways in Europe have been divided into six different corridors, corridor A to F. Corridor B is

    the corridor that extends through Sweden. The Swedish part of Corridor B extends from

    Stockholm to Malmö. This route is much trafficked, therefore it is out of importance that the

    system should be flawless and work efficiently, when the work of implementing the ETCS

    begins. Today, the rebuilding work of the trains with ETCS equipment takes long time and is

    quite costly due to long downtime in the workshop. Many of the small train operators do not

    have the economy to rebuild the trains and in turn, the system is not flawless, it becomes more

    difficult to persuade the operators to perform this reconstruction. The work to equip the Swedish

    railway with ETCS has started and more and more lines are being equipped with ETCS. Train

    operators that will operate on ETCS lines will be required to equip their trains with this system to

    be able to operate on tracks with ETCS. In order to handle this volume of trains, it requires that

    the engineers have more efficient working methods in order to minimize the downtime of the

    train in the workshop.

    The aim of this study was to study the onboard departments working process and to find

    improvement proposals for how the onboard department should increase their efficiency in their

    work process with help of the Toyota Production System (TPS), The Toyota Way and

    Standardized way of working.

    In order to identify the problems that exist in the work process, interviews, questionnaires,

    observations and case study on onboard department has been implemented. The work process

    includes work in workshop, approval authorities and other departments within the company. To

    get an overall picture of the work, interviews with staff from each department and observation

    and case study of the workshop has been performed. Literature study of Lean Production and

    standardized work process has been carried out to find an approach that enhances and

    streamlines the engineering’s working

    With the help of the Lean philosophy, the study has developed several aspects that need to be

    implemented in the working method to get a sufficiently efficient working structure from the

    beginning of the project. If these improvements get implemented in the department, it should

    minimize the downtime for trains in the workshop. The work of each department works great,

    but the rebuilding work requires several departments to work together and that is where the

    weakness lies. There are three main reasons that cause the long downtime; Bad communication

    between those involved in the process, delay of materials, and high workload. These three

    problem areas affect each other, therefore the thesis studied all these three problems with extra

    attention.

    The engineers have a high workload because each engineer has over 20 different roles. High

    workload poses a significant risk of work delay and rework due to errors. In order to reduce the

    workload the thesis has developed a structure to show how the work should be divided and that

    the work should be done in groups instead of individually. Each engineer will be assigned to a

    maximum of five roles, the roles should be assigned after skills. To make this possible, it is

    required that all roles are identified, a role description for each role must be created and the

    engineering expertise must be identified.

    Bad communication between the different departments creates misunderstanding and delay of

    materials to the workshop. Delay of materials is one of the biggest reasons to increased standstill

    time. To reduce misunderstanding it is required that in the early stages hold a project meeting

    where all the involved departments are participated. A structure map is needed where all

    employees can see what authority, roles and project them and their fellow employees have. In this

    way, communication will improve, as each person knows whom to contact for questions and

    concerns.

    Delay of materials to the workshop is a problem that causes delays and longer downtime. The

    reason for this is that the components that are ordered are incorrect or that misunderstanding

    regarding delivered time emerges. Another reason is that the company does not have spare parts.

    When a component is damaged, it can sometimes take several weeks until the new part can be

    delivered. Workshop staff must, in this case, interrupt the rebuilding until the component has

    arrived. To reduce the risk of ordering wrong parts and to be able to order the parts in the early

    stages, it requires an accurate vehicle surveys from the beginning of the project.

    Much of the work is spent on writing documentation, thus it is important to have a good process

    regarding document writing. A problem that exists today is that the engineers do not have time to

    write all the documentation on time and it is postponed to the end of the project. In the final

    phase of a project, the engineers have large volumes of documentation that needs to be written.

    Writing a large part of the documentation at the end of the project is not the most efficient way.

    Therefore, it is good to have a process where the work does not proceed until all the

    documentation for the specific phase are completed and reviewed. The approval of the

    documentation takes quite a long time, therefore it requires a working method in which the

    documentation is sent continuously for approval.

    To minimize the downtime for the prototype vehicle it requires an efficient work process that

    minimizes the waste. In order to get such work process it is required that the onboard

    department of Bombardier RCS implements The Toyota Ways 14 principles and the Lean

    philosophy of “always striving for improvement” and that the workload most decreases

  • 53. Ames, Alicia
    et al.
    Mateo-Babiano, Iderlina B.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Transport Workers' Perspective on Indigenous Transport and Climate Change Adaptation2014In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, no 2451, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the potential role of indigenous transport for increasing the adaptive capacity of selected cities in developing Asia. Indigenous transport drivers were surveyed face-to-face in Bandung, Indonesia, and in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, to gain an understanding of how transport workers, specifically drivers-operators, characterize transport modes considered as indigenous and perceive their potential role in increasing the adaptive capacity of these cities. The main finding was that indigenous transport modes in the two cities in the case study had evolved to fit a niche market influenced by differing urban scales and divergent demographic and geographic characteristics. Thus, the experiences and the perceptions of transport workers on indigenous transport were highly contextualized in relation to service and route characteristics. Operating conditions for drivers were indicative of the regulatory status of indigenous transport modes in the informal landscape. This analysis contributes to an increased understanding of the role and the operation of indigenous transport modes within the transport system. The analysis also contributes policy-relevant insights to improve an understanding of the potential role of indigenous transport in climate change adaptation, as well as to increase awareness and to anticipate a shift to a more environmentally sustainable transport mode.

  • 54.
    Anchalee, Jenpanitsub
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Cost overruns in transport projects - Experiences from Sweden2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cost overrun of transport projects is one of the most important problems in transport planning. Apart from causing budget overruns, it also results in uncertain cost-benefit for decision making. This thesis studies cost overruns in Sweden and internationally, factors affecting cost overruns and possible improvements of cost calculations.

    The literature study confirms that cost overrun problem is a global phenomenon. The average cost overruns in rail projects are always higher than in road projects. We have compared cost estimations and outcomes of 167 road and rail projects in Sweden during the period 1997-2009. This reveals that average cost overruns are 11% (SD = 24.6%) and 21% (SD = 50.5%) for road and rail projects, respectively. In Sweden, the average cost overrun in road projects is similar to other countries, while the average cost overrun in rail projects is lower than in other countries. However, the standard deviation of cost overruns in Swedish rail projects is very high. The cost overruns in road and rail projects in Sweden have been constant for the 13-year period and cost estimates have not improved over time. Furthermore, small Swedish transport projects (< 100 million SEK) have much higher percentage of cost overruns than large projects. To improve cost estimates in Sweden, the Successive Calculation method has recently been applied. We have collected data for 295 planned projects and find that the variance is significantly lower in these than in actual outcomes, and that the difference is surprisingly small between projects in different planning stages. Another method, Reference Class Forecasting, is demonstrated in two case studies - Stockholm bypass and Västlänken. The two methods are also compared in the thesis. For both case studies, the project costs by using the Reference Class Forecasting method are higher than the project costs by using the Successive Calculation based on the equal costs at 50% confident level of cost overrun.

  • 55.
    Andersson, Evert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Berg, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Nelldal, Bo-Lennart
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Fröidh, Oskar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    TOSCA. Rail freight transport: Techno-economic analysis of energy and greenhouse gas reductions2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Stage 1 of the EU/FP7-funded project TOSCA (Technology Opportunities and Strategies toward Climate-friendly trAnsport) the techno-economical feasibility of different technolo-gies and means to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is being analysed for different modes of transport. This is made over the long-term perspective until 2050, with 2009 as the reference year. This is the report on the rail freight transport market, applicable to the European Union (EU-27).The analysis presented in this report estimates that a number of efficient technologies and means are available, individually and in combination, to significantly reduce energy use and the resulting GHG emissions on the rail freight market until 2050. The analysis has considered the following technologies and means:

    – heavy freight trains (high payload capacity per metre of train as well as longer trains)

    – eco-driving, including traffic flow management

    – energy recovery

    – high-efficiency machinery in locomotives and electric supply

    – low air drag

    – incremental improvements, in particular reduced tare mass of wagons.

    Despite anticipated higher train speeds in most future train operations the above-mentioned technologies and means have, according to the analysis, the potential to reduce the average energy use per net-tonne-km (tkm) of payload by 40–50 % until 2050. As a consequence also the direct and indirect GHG emissions will be reduced. Energy use and GHG emissions are measured per net-tonne-km, assuming representative load factors in different operations.

  • 56.
    Andersson, Evert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Berg, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Nelldal, Bo-Lennart
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Fröidh, Oskar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    TOSCA. Rail passenger transport: Techno-economic analysis of energy and greenhouse gas reductions2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Stage 1 of the EU/FP7-funded project TOSCA (Technology Opportunities and Strategies toward Climate-friendly trAnsport) the techno-economical feasibility of different technologies and means to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is being analysed for the different modes of transport. This is made in the long-term perspective until 2050, with 2009 as the reference year. This is the report on rail passenger transport, applicable to the European Union (EU-27).The present report has been subject to review among railway experts, representing train suppliers, railway operators as well as academia. They have also responded to a questionnaire. Further, a workshop was held, where the report with assumptions and results was discussed.In the analysis presented in this report it is estimated that a number of efficient improvements that, individually and in combination, are available in order to significantly reduce energy use and the resulting GHG emissions on the rail passenger market until 2050. The analysis has considered different technologies and means:

    – low air drag

    – low train mass

    – energy recovery

    – eco-driving, including traffic flow management

    – space efficiency in trains (increasing payload per metre of train)

    – incremental improvements of energy efficiency, in particular reduced losses.

    Despite anticipated higher average train speeds in the future these combined approaches will, according to the analysis, have the potential to reduce the average specific energy use per passenger-km (pkm) in the order of 45–50 % in the very long term until 2050. As a consequ-ence also the direct and indirect GHG emissions will be reduced. The highest reductions are possible in city and regional rail operations. Reductions are more limited in high-speed opera-tions, because of the advanced technologies already applied. However, high-speed rail has today a comparatively low energy use per passenger-km, partly due to its high average load factor. To be consistent with other work packages of TOSCA, energy use and GHG emissions are measured per passenger-km, assuming representative load factors in different operations.

  • 57.
    Andersson, Evert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles.
    Fröidh, Oskar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Stichel, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Rail Vehicles.
    Bustad, Tohmmy
    Trafikverket.
    Henrik, Tengstrand
    Bombardier Transportation.
    Green Train: concept and technology overview2014In: International Journal of Rail Transportation, ISSN 2324-8386, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 2-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Green Train (in Swedish, Gröna Tåget) is a research, development and demonstrationprogramme with the overall objective to define an economical, flexible and environmentallyfriendly train concept. The objective is also to develop technology for futurehigh-speed trains for the northern European market, particularly for Scandinavia. Mostof the technology developed is also applicable to other world markets, as well as toslower trains. The programme has covered many important areas, including economy,capacity and market aspects, conceptual design, traveller attractiveness and interiors,travel time, energy efficiency and noise, winter performance, track friendliness and carbody tilt, aerodynamics, electric propulsion and current collection. The programme hasconducted fundamental analysis and research on the different issues as well as designand testing of new technologies. A number of crucial technologies have undergoneperformance and type testing both in lab and on a test train. Experience feedback wasachieved in commercial train service during the period 2006−2013 including harshwinters. This paper summarises a great deal of research and development that has beenperformed in the Green Train programme.

  • 58.
    Andersson, Evert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Kottenhoff, Karl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Nelldal, Bo-Lennart
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Extra wide-body passenger trains in Sweden2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 59.
    Andersson, Evert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Nelldal, Bo-Lennart
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Effektiva Tågsystem för framtida persontrafik – analys av förutsättningar och möjligheter för attraktiv tågtrafik1997Report (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Andersson, Evert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Nelldal, Bo-Lennart
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Sammanfattning av Effektiva Tågsystem för framtida persontrafik – analys av förutsättningar och möjligheter för attraktiv tågtrafik1997Report (Other academic)
  • 61.
    Andersson, Matts
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Parking Policy under Strategic InteractionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    I  examine   the   effect   on   parking   policy   of   strategic   interaction   between jurisdictions. To do this I use an inventory scheme and an analytical model basedon Hotelling’s linear city model. I conclude that the procedure for setting supplyhas a downward effect on prices, that resource flow competition implies that thecompetitive prices are higher than the efficient prices (but that the effect of thesupply procedures makes this effect incongruous), that road investments lowersparking prices and that municipality’ park-and-ride policies often leads to the fullbenefits of public transport investments not being attained.

  • 62.
    Andersson, Matts
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Policy Analysis for Different Types of Decision-Making Situations2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis seeks to contribute to decision support for policy makers in the transport sector. In order to frame the papers and to relate them to the broad field of “policy analysis”, I have structured the papers around a simple framework with three decision levels: responsibility, policy gap, and policy measure. The thesis contains five papers.

    “Transaction and transition costs during the deregulation of the Swedish Railway market” is a paper in the transaction cost school. We studied the costs associated with the shift from monopoly to competition in the Swedish railway market, and we found that the change resulted in comparatively small transaction costs, but that transition and misalignment costs seem to be larger. 

    In “Parking policy under strategic interaction”, I examined the effect of strategic interaction between jurisdictions using an analytical model based on Hotelling’s linear city model. I conclude that the procedure for setting supply in most municipalities has a strong downward effect on municipal parking fees and that resource flow competition implies that the fees are higher than the efficient prices (but that the effect of the supply procedures makes this effect incongruous).

    In “Validation of aggregate reference forecasts for passenger transport”, we followed up the Swedish national forecasts for passenger transport produced from 1975 to 2009 and tried to explain the deviations. We found that the forecasts during the last decades have overestimated car traffic, and that this is due to input errors. The potential problem of using cross-sectional models for forecasting intertemporal changes seems to have been limited.

    In “The kilometer tax and Swedish industry - effects on sectors and regions”, we estimated factor demand elasticities in the Swedish manufacturing industry and used these to analyze the effects of a kilometer tax for heavy goods vehicles. We found that the kilometer tax leads to factor substitution in that it decreases transport demand and increases labor demand. The effects on output are less pronounced.  

    In “The effect of minimum parking requirements on the housing stock”, we used a model of the rental, asset, and construction markets. We quality-assured our assumptions and our results through interviews with market actors. In our example suburb, we found that parking norms reduced the housing stock by 1.2% and increased rents by 2.4%. 

  • 63.
    Andersson, Matts
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science. WSP Analysis & Strategy Sweden.
    Berglund, Moa
    Floden, Jonas
    Persson, Christer
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Waidringer, Jonas
    A method for measuring and valuing transport time variability in logistics and cost benefit analysis2017In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 66, p. 59-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The freight transport system is subject to delays and disturbances, which influence investment and planning decisions made by governments and infrastructure authorities. Traditionally relying on Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) they are dependent on correct and up-to-date input data. So far, little success has been reached in estimating the effects of disturbances for freight. This paper aims to contribute to the understanding of disturbances in freight transport by reviewing and classifying the effects occurring due to transport time variability (TTV) and to suggest a calculation model to estimate the value of transport time variability (VTTV). In order to validate the model and its usability it was successfully tested in a case study for a large Swedish retail company. The effects of delays can be divided into four main types: System Killers, Catastrophic Events, Expected Risks, and Contingencies, of which the last two are relevant for VTTV. The model applies these in a two-step cost function with a fixed and variable part, building on previous studies of VTW for passenger transport based on the scheduling utility approach. A main theoretical result is that the estimation of VTTV is derived mathematically independently of which measure that is chosen for the quantification of TTV.

  • 64.
    Andersson, Matts
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science. WSP Analysis & Strategy, Sweden.
    Brundell-Freij, K.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Validation of aggregate reference forecasts for passenger transport2017In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 96, p. 101-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have compared Swedish national forecasts for passenger transport produced from 1975 to 2009 with the actual outcomes, and we found substantial differences between forecasts of passenger kilometers by mode and actual outcomes. In forecasts produced since the early 1990 s, road and air traffic growth rates have generally been overpredicted. Aggregate railway growth has been fairly accurate, but commercial long-distance railway growth has been overpredicted, and the growth of subsidized intra-regional railway travel has been underpredicted (following vast unanticipated supply increases). Focusing on car traffic forecasts, we show that a very large share of forecast errors can be explained by input variables turning out to be different than what was assumed in the forecasts. Even the original forecasts are much closer to actual outcomes than simple trendlines would have been, and once the input assumptions are corrected, the forecasts vastly outperform simple trendlines. The potential problems of using cross-sectional models for forecasting intertemporal changes thus seem to be limited. This tentative conclusion is also supported by the finding that elasticities from the cross-sectional models are consistent with those from a time-series model.

  • 65. Andersson, O
    et al.
    Björklund, A
    Isacsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Practical Mechanical Tests for the Design and Control of Asphalt Mixes1983Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 66. Anderstig, C.
    et al.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    An integrated model of residential and employment location in a metropolitan region1991In: Papers in regional science (Print), ISSN 1056-8190, E-ISSN 1435-5957, Vol. 70, p. 167-184Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 67. Anderstig, C.
    et al.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Appraising large-scale investments in a metropolitan transportation system1992In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 19, p. 267-283Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 68. Anderstig, C.
    et al.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Interregional allocation models of infrastructure investments1989In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 23, p. 287-298Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 69. Anderstig, C.
    et al.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Modelling land-use and transport interaction: Policy analyses using the IMREL model1998In: Network Infrastructure and the Urban Environment: Advances in Spatial Systems Modelling / [ed] Lundqvist, L., Mattsson, L.-G. and Kim, T.J., Berlin: Springer-Verlag , 1998Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 70.
    Anderstig, Christer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Berglund, Svante
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Andersson, Matts
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Congestion Charges and Labour Market Imperfections2016In: Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, ISSN 0022-5258, E-ISSN 1754-5951, Vol. 50, p. 113-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Standard cost-benefit analyses of transport policy measures will not capture all benefits and losses if there are labour market imperfections. In the case of congestion charges, theoretical analyses have raised concerns that these effects may constitute considerable losses, possibly to the extent that aggregate welfare is reduced, contrary to conventional wisdom. We investigate this by estimating the effects on labour income of the Stockholm congestion charges, using an estimated relationship between accessibility and income. Results show that effects on labour income are, in fact, positive. It turns out to be crucial that the model accounts for value-of-time heterogeneity.

  • 71. Anderstig, Christer
    et al.
    Berglund, Svante
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Andersson, Matts
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Congestion charges and labour market imperfections: “Wider economic benefits” or “losses”?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 72.
    Anderstig, Christer
    et al.
    WSP.
    Berglund, Svante
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Andersson, Matts
    WSP.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    VTI.
    Congestion charges and labour market imperfections: “Wider economic benefits” or “losses”?2011In: Journal of Urban Economics, ISSN 0094-1190, E-ISSN 1095-9068Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 73. Anderstig, Christer
    et al.
    Sundberg, Marcus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Integrating SCGE and I-O in Multiregional Modelling2013In: Employment Location in Cities and Regions: Models and Applications / [ed] Francesca Pagliara, Michiel de Bok, David Simmonds, Alan Wilson, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, p. 159-180Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Economic activities can be modeled at different levels of aggregation. Different levels of detail regarding spatial or temporal resolution, or levels of sectoral aggregation are appropriate depending on the question at hand. In cases where changes on the micro scale affects what happens at the macro level, and vice versa, an integrated approach is required. In this paper a modeling framework is presented, where focus is placed on the interactions between production and employment. The aggregate spatial computable general equilibrium model STRAGO is interacted with the highly detailed input-output model system rAps. Interregional and intersectoral relations of production, including agglomeration, are represented in the aggregate model, providing a coarse description of production by which the rAps model system is constrained. Such constraints will affect where individuals may find a suitable job. At the same time the aggregate model is dependent on the labour supply, provided by rAps, in determining production. An application of the proposed modeling framework is presented where future projections are compared to historical data.

  • 74. Andreasson, J
    et al.
    Uttervall, K
    Liwing, J
    Alici, E
    Näsman, P
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Aschan, J
    Nahi, H
    Bortezomib, response and retreatment in 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th line of treatment in patients with multiple myeloma2012In: Haematologica, ISSN 0390-6078, E-ISSN 1592-8721, Vol. 97, no supplement 1, p. 610-610Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 75. Andrews, Geoffrey
    et al.
    Parkhurst, Graham
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Shaw, Jon
    The Grey Escape: investigating older people's use of the free bus pass2012In: Transportation planning and technology (Print), ISSN 0308-1060, E-ISSN 1029-0354, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 3-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2008 most older people in England have benefited from unlimited area-wide free travel by bus after the morning peak period. The official policy rhetoric supporting implementation of the measure drew significantly on the need to reduce social exclusion amongst older people. However, despite a substantial increase in the number of concessionary journeys in England and the associated cost liabilities for local authorities and possibly also operators, there is currently only limited understanding of the wide ranging effects on bus use of providing a free pass, and in particular to whom benefits from the policy accrue. In part, this circumstance results from a methodological focus by evaluation studies hitherto that has emphasised aggregate-level data, often at the expense of the very rich contextual information about how the individual benefits from using a pass. This article presents insights into the perceptions, motivations and decisions relating to use of free bus passes, highlighting the existence of both tangible and intangible benefits which arise. It offers a fresh insight into previously undefined uses and benefits derived from possessing and using a concessionary bus pass. This article concludes by noting possible policy implications of the research in the context of the UK's ageing population and for other international contexts where the transport intervention of free bus travel is being considered.

  • 76. Andrews, Geoffrey
    et al.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Parkhurst, Graham
    Shaw, Jon
    Exploring Impact of Zero-Fare Transportation Policies on Demand for Bus Travel by the Elderly2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2008, older people in England have been provided with nationwide zero-fare travel by bus as part of the Government’s wider social inclusion agenda. In common with other international zero-fare transportation measures, the scheme has stimulated a substantial increase in demand for bus travel, yet relatively little is known about how pass holders are using their passes. This is characterised by a lack of in-depth statistical analyses of pass holders’ usage trends. Through analysis of an on-board bus survey of 487 pass holders conducted in Southwest England, this paper explores the relationship between pass holders’ characteristics and their propensity to increase their travel by bus, and ultimately report an improvement in their quality of life as a result of the policy. The results confirm that the pass is mainly being used for shopping and social reasons, with evidence that the zero-fare pass has led to some modal substitution from the car, but also has facilitated trips that would not have taken place in the absence of the scheme. Multivariate analysis reveals that those pass holders who are older (75+), would have travelled as a car passenger, or used the bus anyway in the absence of a pass, are the ones least likely to report increased bus use since obtaining a pass. Interestingly, two of these variables (being older, and being a car passenger in the absence of a pass) simultaneously increase pass holders’ propensity to report an improvement in their quality of life, leading to the conclusion that zero-fare policy has the potential to improve quality of later life above and beyond changes in pass holder bus trip frequency. In other words, the traditionally assumed link between increase in bus trips and derived benefit is not supported in all cases by this research.

  • 77.
    Andriopoulou, Symeoni
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    A review on energy harvesting from roads.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

    Harvesting Energy stands alone as one of the most promising techniques for approaching the global energy problem without depleting natural resources. Energy harvesting technologies from road infrastructure is a new research territory that encompasses technologies that capture the wasted energy occurred at pavements, accumulate and store it for later use. Their most enticing characteristic is that they already offer extended paved surfaces. Paved surfaces with conductive pipes, PV sound barriers, nanomaterials or Phase Change Materials, piezosensors and thermoelectrical generators and induction heating technique are just the most updated representatives. Their outputs can be listed as production of electric energy and district heating and cooling, deicing surfaces or powering wireless networks and monitoring pavements conditions along with the enhancement of their self-healing process. The objective of this thesis is to review them and identify their strong and weak points. The three Green Roadway Concepts that shaped, proposed and implemented, theoretically are identical for the long- and short-term challenges that they meet. Their forthcoming future is here and only their in-situ implementation can prove their viability and prominence.

  • 78. Antoniou, C
    et al.
    Balakrishna, R
    Koutsopoulos, Haris
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    A synthesis of emerging data collection technologies and their impact on traffic management applications2011In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 139-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    act

    Purpose: The objective of this research is to provide an overview of emerging datacollection technologies and their impact on traffic management applications. Methods: Several existing and emerging surveillance technologies are being used for traffic datacollection. Each of these technologies has different technical characteristics and operating principles, which determine the types of data collected, accuracy of the measurements, levels of maturity, feasibility and cost, and network coverage. This paper reviews the different sources of traffic surveillance data currently employed, and the types of traffic management applications they may support. Results: Automated Vehicle Identification data have several applications in traffic management and many more are certain to emerge as these data become more widely available, reliable, and accessible. Representative examples in this field are presented. Furthermore, the fusion of condition information with traffic data can result in better and more responsive dynamic trafficmanagement applications with a richer data background. Conclusions: The current state-of-the-art of traffic modeling is discussed, in the context of using emerging data sources for better planning, operations and dynamic management of road networks. 

  • 79. Antoniou, C
    et al.
    Balakrishna, R
    Koutsopoulos, Haris
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Ben-Akiva, Moshe
    Calibration Methods for Simulation-Based Dynamic Traffic Assignment Systems2011In: International Journal of Modelling and Simulation, ISSN 0228-6203, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 227-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic Traffic Assignment (DTA) integrates complex transportation demand and network supply simulation models to estimate prevailing traffic conditions, predict future network performance and generate consistent, anticipatory route guidance. Prior to deployment, the DTA's parameters and inputs must be calibrated to accurately reflect travel behaviour and traffic dynamics. This paper presents a unified framework for off-line and on-line DTA calibration. Off-line calibration simultaneously estimates demand and supply model parameters. On-line calibration jointly updates - in real-time - the off-line estimates in order to more accurately capture current conditions. The developed methodsare flexible and can be applied to any simulation model and may utilize any availabletraffic surveillance information (including Automated Vehicle Identification systems, probe vehicles and other emerging data sources). The off-line and on-line components complement each other to efficiently combine historical and real-time information. Thecalibration approaches are demonstrated with DynaMIT (Dynamic network assignmentfor the Management of Information to Travelers), using time-varying count, speed and density data from conventional traffic sensors.

  • 80. Antoniou, C
    et al.
    Balakrishna, R
    Koutsopoulos, Haris
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Ben-Akiva, Moshe
    Off-Line and On-Line Calibration of Dynamic Traffic Assignment Systems2009In: IFAC Proceedings Volumes, 2009, p. 104-111Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic traffic assignment (DTA) systems integrate complex transportation demand and network supply simulation models to estimate current traffic conditions, predictfuture network performance and generate consistent, anticipatory route guidance. Before they are applied, DTA system parameters and inputs must be calibrated to accurately reect travel behavior and traffic dynamics. This paper presents a systematic approach that unifies the offline and on-line calibration of DTA systems through a common framework.Off-line calibration simultaneously estimates demand and supply model parameters. The on-line calibration jointly updates in real-time the demand and supply parameter values estimated during the of-line step to better reect prevailing conditions. The methods are general and can utilize any available traffic surveillance information (including emerging data sources, such as Automated Vehicle Identification systems or probe vehicles). The two components complement each other so that the calibration of the DTAsystem parameters efficiently utilizes both historical as well as real-time information. Thecalibration approaches are demonstrated with DynaMIT (Dynamic network assignmentfor the Management of Information to Travelers), using time-varying count, speed and density data obtained from standard loop detectors.

  • 81.
    Antoniou, C
    et al.
    MIT.
    Ben-Akiva, Moshe
    Koutsopoulos, Haris
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    On-line Calibration of Traffic Prediction Models2004In: Intelligent Transportation Systems, 2004. Proceedings. The 7th International IEEE Conference on, Washington, D.C., 2004, p. 82-87Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A methodology for the on-line calibration of the speed-density relationship is formulated as a flexible state-space model. Applicable solution approaches are discussed and three of them (extended Kalman filter (EKF), iterated EKF, and unscented Kalman filter (UKF) are selected and presented in detail. An application of the methodology with freeway sensor data from two networks in Europe and the U.S. is presented. The improvement in the estimation and prediction of speeds due to on-line calibration (compared with the speeds obtained from the off-line calibrated relationship) is demonstrated. The EKF provides the most straightforward solution to this problem, and indeed achieves considerable improvements in estimation and prediction accuracy. The benefits obtained from the -more computationally expensive-iterated EKF algorithm are shown. An innovative solution technique (the UKF) is also presented. The UKF has a number of unique qualities and advantages over the EKF, including no assumption of analytical representation of the model and no need for explicit computation of derivatives. Empirical results suggest that the UKF outperforms the other two solution techniques in prediction accuracy.

  • 82. Antoniou, C
    et al.
    Ben-Akiva, Moshe
    Koutsopoulos, Haris
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Practical considerations for on-line calibration of traffic simulation models2011In: Proceedings of ITS2011: Intelligent Transportation Systems, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 83. Antoniou, C.
    et al.
    Koutsopoulos, Harilaos N.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Yannis, G.
    Dynamic data-driven local traffic state estimation and prediction2013In: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, E-ISSN 1879-2359, Vol. 34, p. 89-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic state prediction is a key problem with considerable implications in modern traffic management. Traffic flow theory has provided significant resources, including models based on traffic flow fundamentals that reflect the underlying phenomena, as well as promote their understanding. They also provide the basis for many traffic simulation models. Speed-density relationships, for example, are routinely used in mesoscopic models. In this paper, an approach for local traffic state estimation and prediction is presented, which exploits available (traffic and other) information and uses data-driven computational approaches. An advantage of the method is its flexibility in incorporating additional explanatory variables. It is also believed that the method is more appropriate for use in the context of mesoscopic traffic simulation models, in place of the traditional speed-density relationships. While these general methods and tools are pre-existing, their application into the specific problem and their integration into the proposed framework for the prediction of traffic state is new. The methodology is illustrated using two freeway data sets from Irvine, CA, and Tel Aviv, Israel. As the proposed models are shown to outperform current state-of-the-art models, they could be valuable when integrated into existing traffic estimation and prediction models.

  • 84. Antoniou, Constantinos
    et al.
    Koutsopoulos, Haris N.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Ben-Akiva, Moshe
    Chauhan, Akhilendra S.
    Evaluation of diversion strategies using dynamic traffic assignment2011In: Transportation planning and technology (Print), ISSN 0308-1060, E-ISSN 1029-0354, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 199-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A framework for the evaluation of the effectiveness of traffic diversion strategies for non-recurrent congestion, based on predictive guidance and using dynamic traffic assignment, is presented. Predictive guidance is based on a short-term prediction of traffic conditions, incorporating user reaction to information and guidance. A case study of the Lower Westchester County network in New York State, using DynaMIT-P, is presented to illustrate the application of the framework. DynaMIT-P is capable of evaluating diversion strategies based on predicted conditions, which take into account drivers' response to traffic information. The case study simulates the operations of predictive variable message signs positioned in strategic locations. DynaMIT-P is calibrated for the study network and used to establish base conditions for two incident scenarios in the absence of advanced traveller information systems. The effectiveness of predictive diversion strategies is evaluated (using rigorous statistical tests) by comparing traffic conditions with and without diversion strategies. The empirical findings suggest that incident diversion strategies based on predictive guidance result in travel time savings and increased travel time reliability.

  • 85.
    Antonsson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Gullberg, Anders
    Beser Hugosson, Muriel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Isaksson, Karolina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Kaijser, Arne
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Laestadius, Staffan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Nelldal, Bo-Lennart
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Summerton, Jane
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Åkerman, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Nu finns chansen att riva upp beslutet om förbifarten2014In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, no 2014-09-16Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 86.
    Antonsson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Gullberg, Anders
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Isaksson, Karolina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Kaijser, Arne
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Laestadius, Staffan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Nelldal, Bo-Lennart
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Summerton, Jane
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Åkerman, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Elbilar och förnybara bränslen räcker inte.2014In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 87.
    Arbouet, Marie
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transportvetenskap.
    In search of mobility services2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mobility services are widening mobility portfolio. It deals with emerging means of transportation such as carpooling, car-sharing, bike-sharing and demand responsive transport. The state-of-usage is badly known. The master thesis aims to study the French statistical apparatus and improve it to capture usage data on these services. Statistical computation enables highlighting travel behaviour in France. The international comparison shows that some countries are more developed than other in such services but mobility services remain niche markets. Carpooling would represent nearly 15% of trips whereas bike-sharing, car-sharing and demand responsive transport hardly reach 1% of trips in France. Potential estimation shows that using these transportation modes would affect very positively the three fields of sustainability. Car-sharing could go to 7% of the French population. Bike-sharing could represent 2.5% of total trips. It is now needed to develop surveys in order to catch users of mobility services and to compare supply and demand side. Data is a base of knowledge and the first step before acting for a more sustainable world.

  • 88.
    Arvidsson Söderström, Simone
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Utformningsprinciper för gående: En empirisk studie i Stockholm2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is difficult to design pedestrian-friendly environments due to the ambiguities of the

    recommendations. It is both modern and important to design a sustainable society. To find

    representative policys, both national and international literature were used in this essay. The

    main purpose of the observation study was to examine if the recommendations is accurate.

    Strömbron and Västerbron, both in Stockholm, Sweden were analyzed. There is a lot of

    recommendations for efficient width on pedestrian lanes. These recommendations are not

    always taken in consideration, and sometimes completely ignored, when designing pedestrian

    areas. A recommendation is not a demand and it is not always clear to what is. In swedish

    litterature there is suggestions for individual space and they are not up to date. Levels of space

    is used for sidewalks to determine its purpose. The most favorable level of space means that

    the pedestrian can choose its walking speed without interacting with other pedestrians.

    According to the observation study the space given today is not enough and should therefore

    be updated. In countries around the world, who already got outspoken demands on the width of sidewalks, the planning process is eased, du to the given framwork. 

  • 89.
    Aslam, Amer
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport planning, economics and engineering.
    Vuxna nybörjarcyklisters cykelanvändning efter genomförd cykelkurs: En explorativ studie om effekten av utbildning på cykelanvändning2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

       

       

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

       

        !

  • 90. Asplund, Disa
    et al.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Does uncertainty make cost-benefit analyses pointless?2016In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 92, p. 195-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is widely used in public decision making on infrastructure investments. However, the demand forecasts, cost estimates, benefit valuations and effect assessments that are conducted as part of CBAs are all subject to various degrees of uncertainty. The question is to what extent CBAs, given such uncertainties, are still useful as a way to prioritize between infrastructure investments, or put differently, how robust the policy conclusions of CBA are with respect to uncertainties. Using simulations based on real data on national infrastructure plans in Sweden and Norway, we study how investment selection and total realized benefits change when decisions are based on CBA assessments subject to several different types of uncertainty. Our results indicate that realized benefits and investment selection are surprisingly insensitive to all studied types of uncertainty, even for high levels of uncertainty. The two types of uncertainty that affect results the most are uncertainties about investment cost and transport demand. Provided that decisions are based on CBA outcomes, reducing uncertainty is still worthwhile, however, because of the huge sums at stake. Even moderate reductions of uncertainties about unit values, investment costs, future demand and project effects may increase the realized benefits infrastructure investment plans by tens or hundreds of million euros. We conclude that, despite the many types of uncertainties, CBA is able to fairly consistently separate the wheat from the chaff and hence contribute to substantially improved infrastructure decisions.

  • 91.
    Axner, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Nyttan av att använda planeringsprogram vid masstransporter för vägprojekt.: En fallstudie av Riksväg 73 (Nynäsvägen)2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen har undersökt om det går att genomföra effektivitetsförbättrande

    åtgärder i samband med traditionellt vägbyggande genom att utnyttja

    moderna datorprogram för att planera masstransporter. Detta skulle

    kunna resultera i minskad energiförbrukning och därmed också mindre koldioxidutsläpp.

    Uppsatsen består av två delar, där den första delen är en litteraturstudie

    som ger en bakgrund till hur traditionellt vägbyggande går till. De

    områden som beskrivs är planering, produktion, materialegenskaper och statlig

    reglering. Uppsatsens andra del består av en fallstudie av Riksväg 73, mellan

    Stockholm och Nynäshamn, där ett datorplaneringsprogram (DynaRoad)

    har använts. Programmet har utnyttjats för att göra en optimering av masstransporterna

    vid byggandet av delsträcken Överfors - Lässmyran. Entreprenaden

    genomfördes av Veidekke Entreprenad AB mellan oktober 2007-

    september 2009.

    Med hjälp av programmet har antalet dumpertimmar som hade krävts för

    vägbyggnationen vid en optimal planering av masstransporterna beräknats.

    Resultatet har sedan jämförts dels med antalet dumpertimmar som fanns med i

    Veidekkes ursprungliga kalkyl, samt dels med antalet dumpertimmar som gick

    åt i verkligheten. Resultatet visar på betydande skillnader mellan DynaRoads

    optimeringsberäkning, Veidekkes kalkyl och det faktiska utfallet. Uppsatsens

    slutsats är att ett planeringsprogram, vid rätt förutsättningar, kan ge en mer

    sanningsenlig bild av resursutgången samt ger goda möjligheter för effektivitetsåtgärder,

    så som kortare transportlängder och därmed också minskad energiförbrukning

    och mindre koldioxidutsläpp.

  • 92.
    Bagampadde, Umaru
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Isacsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Kiggundu, B
    Fundamentals of Stripping in Bituminous Pavements - State of the Art2003Report (Other academic)
  • 93.
    Bagampadde, Umaru
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Isacsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Kiggundu, B
    Fundamentals of Stripping in Bituminous Pavements -State of the Art2003Report (Other academic)
  • 94.
    Bagampadde, Umaru
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Kiggundu, B
    Exploratory Stripping Investigations on Bituminous Mixtures in Uganda2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 95.
    Bahramian, Anohe
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Evaluating surface energy components of asphalt binders using Wilhelmy Plate and Sessile Drop Techniques2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this Study, the surface energy was investigated for six penetration grade

    70/100 bitumen binders. Wilhelmy Plate and the Sessile Drop were used to

    determine the contact angles.

    The purpose of this study was to compare the Wilhelmy Plate method with the

    Sessile Drop method, and to compare the significance of Owens-Wendt model

    with the significance of Acid Base model by correlating surface energy

    components. Better R2 –values were found for surface energy components by

    using the Owens-Wendt model than by using the Acid Base model. It was

    concluded here that Owens-Wendt model is a better model for determining

    surface energy components of bituminous binders than the Acid Base model

    since bituminous binders have low energy surfaces.

    For both instruments: When using Diiodomethane as a probe liquid the biggest

    variations among the binders were observed. When using water as a probe

    liquid the least variations among the binders were observed.

    The advancing contact angles for water determined for these six bitumen

    binders using the Wilhelmy plate method do not exceed the 90 degree by

    much, suggesting that bitumen is not extremely hydrophobic.

    The Sessile Drop method offers a faster and more convenient way to measure

    the surface energy components of bitumen binders than the Wilhelmy Plate

    method.

     

  • 96.
    Bai, Tongzhou
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Consistently estimating route choice models using indirect inference based on emprical observation data.2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the thesis, a proposed route choice model is tested on the empirical observation data.

    The model gives link specific errors to the links in the network, which allows natural

    correlation structure among paths. Indirect inference method is used to consistently

    estimate the route choice model, and a logit model is chosen to be the auxiliary model.

    The observation data with multiple OD pairs was collected in the Borlänge, a city located

    in the middle part of Sweden. Two main experiments are carried out, one with only one

    attribute, length to be specific in the route choice model and the other with two attributes,

    namely length and speed bump dummy. The final estimates of parameters have positive

    signs as anticipated and the magnitudes are reasonable. In addition, judging from the

    estimated binding functions, parameters in the cost function have negative effect on

    utility in the logti model and the parameter in the logit model are more apparently

    affected by its indirectly inferred parameter in the route choice model than the others do.

    Some other trials of the model are also carried out, but the estimates are not satisfying.

    This may be due to lack of attributes in the route choice model and further suggestion on

    better defined model is given out. A Monte Carlo experiment is also carried out to test

    the efficiency of model with unfixed scale parameter to the random term in the route

    choice model.

  • 97. Balakrishna, R
    et al.
    Ben-Akiva, Moshe
    Koutsopoulos, Haris
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Simulation-Based Evaluation of DynaMIT's Route Guidance and its Impact on Network Travel Times2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 98.
    Balieu, Romain
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Lauro, F.
    Bennani, B.
    Haugou, G.
    Chaari, F.
    Matsumoto, T.
    Mottola, E.
    Damage at high strain rates in semi-crystalline polymers2015In: International Journal of Impact Engineering, ISSN 0734-743X, E-ISSN 1879-3509, Vol. 76, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A specific damage characterization method using Digital Image Correlation for semi-crystalline polymers is proposed for a wide range of strain rates. This damage measurement is an extension of the SEE method [16] which was developed to characterize the behaviour laws at constant strain rates of polymeric materials. This procedure is compared to the well-known damage characterization by loss of stiffness technique under quasi-static loading. In addition, an in-situ tensile test, carried out in a microtomograph, is used to observe the cavitation phenomenon in real time. The different ways used to evaluate the damage evolution are compared and the proposed technique is also suitable for measuring the ductile damage observed in semi-crystalline polymers under dynamic loading.

  • 99.
    Balieu, Romain
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Lauro, F.
    Bennani, B.
    Matsumoto, T.
    Mottola, E.
    Non-associated viscoplasticity coupled with an integral-type nonlocal damage model for mineral filled semi-crystalline polymers2014In: Computers & structures, ISSN 0045-7949, E-ISSN 1879-2243, Vol. 134, p. 18-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A non-associated viscoplastic model coupled with nonlocal damage under finite strain framework is developed to simulate the non-isochoric deformation and the damage process exhibiting strain-softening of a 20% mineral filled semi-crystalline polymer. The logarithmic spin tensor properties linking the Eulerian Hencky strain with the Cauchy stress is used thanks to hypoelasticity assuming the additive decomposition of the stretching into elastic and viscoplastic parts. The constitutive model with its nonlocal formulation is implemented in an efficient manner in a commercial implicit finite element code. The proposed model exhibits mesh-independent responses and is in agreement with strain evolution observed experimentally.

  • 100.
    Bastian, Anne
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Explaining Trends in Car Use2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many western countries have seen a plateau and subsequent decline in car travel during the early 21st century. What has generated particular interest and debate is the claim that the development cannot only be explained by changes in traditional explanatory factors such as GDP, fuel prices and land-use. Instead, it has been argued, the observed trends are indications of substantial changes in lifestyles, preferences and attitudes to car travel and thus, not just a temporary plateau but a true peak in car use.

    This thesis is a compilation of five papers, studying the issue on a national, international, regional and city scale through quantitative analysis of aggregate administrative data and individual travel survey data. It concludes that the aggregate development of car travel per capita can be explained fairly well with the traditional model variables GDP and fuel price. Furthermore, this thesis shows that spatial context and policy become increasingly important in car use trends: car use diverges over time between city, suburban and rural residents of Sweden and other European countries, while gender and to some extent income become less differentiating for car use.

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