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  • 51.
    Alexakis, Alexandros Efraim
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Wilson, Olivia R.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Bimodal nanolatexes prepared via polymerization-induced self-assembly: losing control in a controlled mannerManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 52.
    Alexakis, Alexandros Efraim
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Wilson, Olivia R.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Bimodal nanolatexes prepared via polymerization-induced self-assembly: losing control in a controlled manner2023In: Polymer Chemistry, ISSN 1759-9954, E-ISSN 1759-9962, Vol. 14, no 19, p. 2308-2316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization with polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) is known to yield monodisperse nanolatexes. Interestingly, based on the results of the current study, reproducible bimodal nanolatexes were shown to be the result of chain extension of protonated poly(2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) with methyl methacrylate (MMA) in water when aiming for a longer hydrophobic block, for which we provide the first imaging data to our knowledge. The bimodality was found to be induced by the hydrophilic Z-group of the RAFT agent, which has been reported in the literature to be the cause of bimodal molecular weight distributions in RAFT-mediated PISA in emulsion polymerization. Moreover, the advantages of such reproducible bimodal size distribution nanolatexes in coating applications were investigated briefly, underlining the possibilities of their one-pot synthesis. It was found that when bimodal nanolatexes are adsorbed onto cellulose filter paper, the contact angle against water is higher compared to chemically similar monomodal nanolatexes. Also, the morphological arrangement was found to be dependent on the drying protocol. This study aims to expand our understanding on bimodality and the identification of parameters that could promote it on demand to target high-end applications.

  • 53.
    Alimohammadzadeh, Rana
    et al.
    Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Nat Sci, SE-85170 Sundsvall, Sweden..
    Medina, Lilian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
    Deiana, Luca
    Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Nat Sci, SE-85170 Sundsvall, Sweden..
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Cordova, Armando
    Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Nat Sci, SE-85170 Sundsvall, Sweden..
    Mild and Versatile Functionalization of Nacre-Mimetic Cellulose Nanofibrils/Clay Nanocomposites by Organocatalytic Surface Engineering2020In: ACS Omega, E-ISSN 2470-1343, Vol. 5, no 31, p. 19363-19370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of surface-engineering strategies, which are facile, versatile, and mild, are highly desirable in tailor-made functionalization of high-performance bioinspired nanocomposites. We herein disclose for the first time a general organocatalytic strategy for the functionalization and hydrophobization of nacre-mimetic nanocomposites, which includes vide supra key aspects of surface engineering. The merging of metal-free catalysis and the design of nacre-mimetic nanocomposite materials were demonstrated by the organocatalytic surface engineering of cellulose nanofibrils/clay nanocomposites providing the corresponding bioinspired nanocomposites with good mechanical properties, hydrophobicity, and useful thia-, amino, and olefinic functionalities.

  • 54.
    Alipoormazandarani, Niloofar
    et al.
    Lakehead Univ, Dept Chem Engn, Thunder Bay, ON, Canada.;Abo Akad Univ, Lab Nat Mat Technol, Turku, Finland..
    Benselfelt, Tobias
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Wang, Luyao
    Abo Akad Univ, Lab Nat Mat Technol, Turku, Finland..
    Wang, Xiaoju
    Abo Akad Univ, Lab Nat Mat Technol, Turku, Finland..
    Xu, Chunlin
    Abo Akad Univ, Lab Nat Mat Technol, Turku, Finland..
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Willfor, Stefan
    Abo Akad Univ, Lab Nat Mat Technol, Turku, Finland..
    Fatehi, Pedram
    Lakehead Univ, Dept Chem Engn, Thunder Bay, ON, Canada.;Qilu Univ Technol, State Key Lab Biobased Mat & Green Papermaking, Jinan, Shandong, Peoples R China..
    Functional Lignin Nanoparticles with Tunable Size and Surface Properties: Fabrication, Characterization, and Use in Layer-by-Layer Assembly2021In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 13, no 22, p. 26308-26317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignin is the richest source of renewable aromatics and has immense potential for replacing synthetic chemicals. The limited functionality of lignin is, however, challenging for its potential use, which motivates research for creating advanced functional lignin-derived materials. Here, we present an aqueous-based acid precipitation method for preparing functional lignin nanoparticles (LNPs) from carboxy-methylated or carboxy-pentylated lignin. We observe that the longer grafted side chains of carboxy-pentylated lignin allow for the formation of larger LNPs. The functional nanoparticles have high tolerance against salt and aging time and well-controlled size distribution with R-h <= 60 nm over a pH range of 5-11. We further investigate the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of the LNPs and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) using a stagnation point adsorption reflectometry (SPAR) and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). Results demonstrate that LNPs made of carboxypentylated lignin (i.e., PLNPs with the adsorbed mass of 3.02 mg/m(2)) form a more packed and thicker adlayer onto the PAH surface compared to those made of carboxymethylated lignin (i.e., CLNPs with the adsorbed mass of 2.51 mg/m(2)). The theoretical flux, J, and initial rate of adsorption, (d Gamma/dt)(0), analyses confirm that 22% of PLNPs and 20% of CLNPs arriving at the PAH surface are adsorbed. The present study provides a feasible platform for engineering LNPs with a tunable size and adsorption behavior, which can be adapted in hionanomaterial production.

  • 55.
    Alipour, Nazanin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Interactions between polymers and the environment2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation addresses the structure and properties of a number of polymer-based materials when they come into contact with specific environments. The first part describes the migration and depletion of active substances from insecticide-impregnated polyethylene sheets in water and air at different humidity levels and higher temperatures. 

      In the second part, the structure, crystallization kinetics, and mechanical and transport properties of multilayer polymer films, consisting of metallocene (mPE) and low-density (LDPE) polyethylene layers, and in some cases also with layers of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) and a polyethylene compatibilizer were investigated. Furthermore, inhomogeneous swelling was observed in the 2-layer films containing mPE and LDPE due to differences in the uptake of n-hexane (and limonene) in the respective film layers. These differences caused a bending/curvature of the film upon exposure to the vapour. This effect was further evaluated to determine whether solvent-induced bending could be used as a passive sensor to detect the presence and content of volatile organic compounds in air (VOC). 

      The third part of this thesis describes the possibility of producing biopolymer materials based on larvae from the black soldier fly. After adding a plasticizer to the degreased larval material, protein-based biopolymer films were prepared via compression-moulding. The lipid extracted from the degreasing operation could potentially be used in various applications, such as those involving lubricants. 

      In the last part of this work the release of micro- and nano-particles were determined from a polypropylene nanoclay-composite in a commonly occurring environment for plastics (air at elevated temperature). A prototype exposure chamber was built, and a method was developed to allow aging (degradation) of the sample in this chamber and analyze the effects of aging on the sample.

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  • 56.
    Alipour, Nazanin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Strömberg, Emma
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Enebro, Jonas
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Release of micro- and nanoparticles from a polypropylene/claynanocomposite, a methodology for controlled degradation and evaluation2021In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 319, p. 128761-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A methodology was developed for qualitative assessment and characterisation of particle lossesfrom nanocomposites during service life. The methodology can be generalised to other systemswhere the material fragments during ageing and can be extended to quantitative analysis. Achamber was constructed for ageing of selected materials, which enabled effective collectionand subsequent analysis of released particles. A combination of scanning and transmissionelectron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy was found to be suitable forcharacterising particles in terms of size, shape and content. The methodology was tested on acommon nanoclay composite with polypropylene as the matrix. There was no need forphysical/mechanical wear to generate particles, slow flow of air and elevated temperature ledto cracking and fragmentation of the material, and subsequent release of nanocompositeparticles containing embedded or protruding clay. The release of pure clay particles andpolypropylene particles was also detected. Using the methodology, it was observed that evenin ‘mild’ degradation conditions (pure thermo-oxidation with no wear), fillers andnanocomposite particles can be released to the environment, which is an environmental andhealth concern.

  • 57.
    Alipour, Nazanin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Vinneras, Bjorn
    SLU Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Energy & Technol, POB 7032, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Gouanve, Fabrice
    Univ Lyon 1, Univ Lyon, Ingn Mat Polymeres, CNRS,UMR 5223, 15 Bd Andre Latarjet, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France..
    Espuche, Eliane
    Univ Lyon 1, Univ Lyon, Ingn Mat Polymeres, CNRS,UMR 5223, 15 Bd Andre Latarjet, F-69622 Villeurbanne, France..
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    A Protein-Based Material from a New Approach Using Whole Defatted Larvae, and Its Interaction with Moisture2019In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 11, no 2, article id 287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A protein-based material created from a new approach using whole defatted larvae of the Black Soldier fly is presented. The larvae turn organic waste into their own biomass with high content of protein and lipids, which can be used as animal feed or for material production. After removing the larva lipid and adding a plasticizer, the ground material was compression molded into plates/films. The lipid, rich in saturated fatty acids, can be used in applications such as lubricants. The amino acids present in the greatest amounts were the essential amino acids aspartic acid/asparagine and glutamic acid/glutamine. Infrared spectroscopy revealed that the protein material had a high amount of strongly hydrogen-bonded beta-sheets, indicative of a highly aggregated protein. To assess the moisture-protein material interactions, the moisture uptake was investigated. The moisture uptake followed a BET type III moisture sorption isotherm, which could be fitted to the Guggenheim, Anderson and de Boer (GAB) equation. GAB, in combination with cluster size analysis, revealed that the water clustered in the material already at a low moisture content and the cluster increased in size with increasing relative humidity. The clustering also led to a peak in moisture diffusivity at an intermediate moisture uptake.

  • 58.
    Aljadi, Zenib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Abbasi Aval, Negar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Kumar, Tharagan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology.
    Qin, Taoyu
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science.
    Ramachandraiah, Harisha
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Pettersson, Torbjörn
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Russom, Aman
    KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Protein Science, Nano Biotechnology.
    Layer-by-Layer Cellulose Nanofibrils: A New Coating Strategy for Development and Characterization of Tumor Spheroids as a Model for In Vitro Anticancer Drug Screening2022In: Macromolecular Bioscience, ISSN 1616-5187, E-ISSN 1616-5195, Vol. 22, no 10, article id 2200137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three-dimensional multicellular spheroids (MCSs) are complex structure of cellular aggregates and cell-to-matrix interaction that emulates the in-vivo microenvironment. This research field has grown to develop and improve spheroid generation techniques. Here, we present a new platform for spheroid generation using Layer-by-Layer (LbL) technology. Layer-by-Layer (LbL) containing cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) assemble on a standard 96 well plate. Various bi-layer numbers, multiple cell seeding concentration, and two tumor cell lines (HEK 293 T, HCT 116) are utilized to generate and characterize spheroids. The number and proliferation of generated spheroids, the viability, and the response to the anti-cancer drug are examined. The spheroids are formed and proliferated on the LbL-CNF coated wells with no significant difference in connection to the number of LbL-CNF bi-layers; however, the number of formed spheroids correlates positively with the cell seeding concentration (122 ± 17) and (42 ± 8) for HCT 116 and HEK 293T respectively at 700 cells ml−1. The spheroids proliferate progressively up to (309, 663) µm of HCT 116 and HEK 293T respectively on 5 bi-layers coated wells with maintaining viability. The (HCT 116) spheroids react to the anti-cancer drug. We demonstrate a new (LbL-CNF) coating strategy for spheroids generation, with high performance and efficiency to test anti-cancer drugs.

  • 59.
    Aljure, Mauricio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Becerra Garcia, Marley
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Karlsson, Mattias
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Erratum to: Aljure, M.; Becerra, M.; Karlsson, E.M. Streamer inception from ultra-sharp needles in mineral oil based nanofluids2018In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 11, no 11, article id 2900Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors wish to make the following corrections to their paper [1]: i. On pages 13 and 14, the numbering of references from 17 to 30 is incorrect. References 17 to 30 should be renumbered from the original order below: 17. Liu, Z.; Liu, Q.; Wang, Z.D.; Jarman, P.; Krause, C.; Smith, P.W.R.; Gyore, A. Partial discharge behaviour of transformer liquids and the influence of moisture content. In Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE 18th International Conference on Dielectric Liquids (ICDL), Bled, Slovenia, 29 June–3 July 2014. 18. Yamashita, H.; Yamazawa, K.; Wang, Y.S. The effect of tip curvature on the prebreakdown streamer structure in cyclohexane. IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 1998, 5, 396–401. 19. Dumitrescu, L.; Lesaint, O.; Bonifaci, N.; Denat, A.; Notingher, P. Study of streamer inception in cyclohexane with a sensitive charge measurement technique under impulse voltage. J. Electrostat. 2001, 53, 135–146. 20. Pourrahimi, A.M.; Hoang, T.A.; Liu, D.; Pallon, L.K.H.; Gubanski, S.; Olsson, R.T.; Gedde, U.W.; Hedenqvist, M.S. Highly efficient interfaces in nanocomposites based on polyethylene and ZnO nano/hierarchical particles: A novel approach toward ultralow electrical conductivity insulations. Adv. Mater. 2016, 28, 8651–8657. 21. Li, J.; Du, B.; Wang, F.; Yao, W.; Yao, S. The effect of nanoparticle surfactant polarization on trapping depth of vegetable insulating oil-based nanofluids. Phys. Lett. A 2016, 380, 604–608. 22. Aljure, M.; Becerra, M.; Pallon, L.K.H. Electrical conduction currents of a mineral oil-based nanofluid in needle-plane configuration. In Proceedings of the 2016 IEEE Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena (CEIDP), Toronto, ON, Canada, 16–19 October 2016; pp. 687–690. 23. Primo, V.A.; Garcia, B.; Albarracin, R. Improvement of transformer liquid insulation using nanodielectric fluids: A review. IEEE Electr. Insul. Mag. 2018, 34, 13–26. 24. Jin, H.; Andritsch, T.; Morshuis, P.H.F.; Smit, J.J. AC breakdown voltage and viscosity of mineral oil based SiO2 nanofluids. In Proceedings of the 2012 Annual Report Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena, Montreal, QC, Canada, 14–17 October 2012; pp. 902–905. 25. Jin, H.; Morshuis, P.; Mor, A.R.; Smit, J.J.; Andritsch, T. Partial discharge behavior of mineral oil based nanofluids. IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 2015, 22, 2747–2753. 26. Du, Y.; Lv, Y.; Li, C.; Chen, M.; Zhong, Y.; Zhou, J.; Li, X.; Zhou, Y. Effect of semiconductive nanoparticles on insulating performances of transformer oil. IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 2012, 19, 770–776. 27. Dung, N.V.; Høidalen, H.K.; Linhjell, D.; Lundgaard, L.E.; Unge, M. Effects of reduced pressure and additives on streamers in white oil in long point-plane gap. J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 2013, 46, 255501. 28. McCool, J.I. Using the Weibull Distribution; John Wiley &amp; Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2012. 29. Lesaint, O.L.; Top, T.V. Streamer initiation in mineral oil. part I: Electrode surface effect under impulse voltage. IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 2002, 9, 84–91. 30. Becerra, M.; Frid, H.; Vázquez, P.A. Self-consistent modeling of laminar electrohydrodynamic plumes from ultra-sharp needles in cyclohexane. Phys. Fluids 2017, 29, 123605. to the following, corrected numbering: 17. Dumitrescu, L.; Lesaint, O.; Bonifaci, N.; Denat, A.; Notingher, P. Study of streamer inception in cyclohexane with a sensitive charge measurement technique under impulse voltage. J. Electrostat. 2001, 53, 135–146. 18. Liu, Z.; Liu, Q.; Wang, Z.D.; Jarman, P.; Krause, C.; Smith, P.W.R.; Gyore, A. Partial discharge behaviour of transformer liquids and the influence of moisture content. In Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE 18th International Conference on Dielectric Liquids (ICDL), Bled, Slovenia, 29 June–3 July 2014. 19. Yamashita, H.; Yamazawa, K.; Wang, Y.S. The effect of tip curvature on the prebreakdown streamer structure in cyclohexane. IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 1998, 5, 396–401. 20. Becerra, M.; Frid, H.; Vázquez, P.A. Self-consistent modeling of laminar electrohydrodynamic plumes from ultra-sharp needles in cyclohexane. Phys. Fluids 2017, 29, 123605. 21. Pourrahimi, A.M.; Hoang, T.A.; Liu, D.; Pallon, L.K.H.; Gubanski, S.; Olsson, R.T.; Gedde, U.W.; Hedenqvist, M.S. Highly efficient interfaces in nanocomposites based on polyethylene and ZnO nano/hierarchical particles: A novel approach toward ultralow electrical conductivity insulations. Adv. Mater. 2016, 28, 8651–8657. 22. Li, J.; Du, B.; Wang, F.; Yao, W.; Yao, S. The effect of nanoparticle surfactant polarization on trapping depth of vegetable insulating oil-based nanofluids. Phys. Lett. A 2016, 380, 604–608. 23. Aljure, M.; Becerra, M.; Pallon, L.K.H. Electrical conduction currents of a mineral oil-based nanofluid in needle-plane configuration. In Proceedings of the 2016 IEEE Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena (CEIDP), Toronto, ON, Canada, 16–19 October 2016; pp. 687–690. 24. Primo, V.A.; Garcia, B.; Albarracin, R. Improvement of transformer liquid insulation using nanodielectric fluids: A review. IEEE Electr. Insul. Mag. 2018, 34, 13–26. 25. Jin, H.; Andritsch, T.; Morshuis, P.H.F.; Smit, J.J. AC breakdown voltage and viscosity of mineral oil based SiO2 nanofluids. In Proceedings of the 2012 Annual Report Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena, Montreal, QC, Canada, 14–17 October 2012; pp. 902–905. 26. Jin, H.; Morshuis, P.; Mor, A.R.; Smit, J.J.; Andritsch, T. Partial discharge behavior of mineral oil based nanofluids. IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 2015, 22, 2747–2753. 27. Du, Y.; Lv, Y.; Li, C.; Chen, M.; Zhong, Y.; Zhou, J.; Li, X.; Zhou, Y. Effect of semiconductive nanoparticles on insulating performances of transformer oil. IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 2012, 19, 770–776. 28. Dung, N.V.; Høidalen, H.K.; Linhjell, D.; Lundgaard, L.E.; Unge, M. Effects of reduced pressure and additives on streamers in white oil in long point-plane gap. J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 2013, 46, 255501. 29. McCool, J.I. Using the Weibull Distribution; John Wiley &amp; Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2012. 30. Lesaint, O.L.; Top, T.V. Streamer initiation in mineral oil. part I: Electrode surface effect under impulse voltage. IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 2002, 9, 84–91. ii. On the last paragraph of page 9, the last sentence should be changed from: However, the results in [11] also show the consistent increase in the initiation voltage of prebreakdown phenomena in both polarities, as reported in Figure 11. to the following, corrected version: However, the results in [26] also show the consistent increase in the initiation voltage of prebreakdown phenomena in both polarities, as reported in Figure 11. iii. On the last paragraph of page 10, the third sentence should be changed from: Even though the existing hypotheses of the dielectric effect of NPs [8–10] were proposed for blunter electrodes (where charge generation before streamer initiation is less important [30]), they should still apply under the experimental conditions here reported. to the following, corrected version: Even though the existing hypotheses of the dielectric effect of NPs [5,6,16] were proposed for blunter electrodes (where charge generation before streamer initiation is less important [30]), they should still apply under the experimental conditions here reported. The authors would like to apologize for any inconvenience caused to the readers by these changes. The changes do not affect the scientific results. The manuscript will be updated and the original will remain online on the article webpage, with a reference to this Correction.

  • 60.
    Aljure, Mauricio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Becerra Garcia, Marley
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Karlsson, Mattias E.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Streamer Inception from Ultra-Sharp Needles in Mineral Oil Based Nanofluids2018In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 11, no 8, article id 2064Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Positive and negative streamer inception voltages from ultra-sharp needle tips (with tip radii below 0.5 m) are measured in TiO2, SiO2, Al2O3, ZnO and C-60 nanofluids. The experiments are performed at several concentrations of nanoparticles dispersed in mineral oil. It is found that nanoparticles influence positive and negative streamers in different ways. TiO2, SiO2 and Al2O3 nanoparticles increase the positive streamer inception voltage only, whilst ZnO and C-60 nanoparticles augment the streamer inception voltages in both polarities. Using these results, the main hypotheses explaining the improvement in the dielectric strength of the host oil due to the presence of nanoparticles are analyzed. It is found that the water adsorption hypothesis of nanoparticles is consistent with the increments in the reported positive streamer inception voltages. It is also shown that the hypothesis of nanoparticles reducing the electron velocity by hopping transport mechanisms fails to explain the results obtained for negative streamers. Finally, the hypothesis of nanoparticles attaching electrons according to their charging characteristics is found to be consistent with the results hereby presented on negative streamers.

  • 61.
    Almas, Ria Afifah
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Study of Grain Formation in Linseed Oil-Based Paints2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A study of grain formation in linseed oil-based paint have been conducted. The grains were formed in linseed oil paints with either Yellow1, Yellow 2, Black, or Red as the pigments. There are two types of grain formation which has been observed from the paint samples. (a) The grains which immediately appear in the newly made paint with Yellow 1, Yellow 2, and Red paints (b) while the other type is the grain that developed as the function of storage time in Black linseed oil paint. The results clearly show the cause of the defects.

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  • 62.
    Alongi, Jenny
    et al.
    Univ Milan, Dipartimento Chim, Via C Golgi 19, I-20133 Milan, Italy..
    Ferruti, Paolo
    Univ Milan, Dipartimento Chim, Via C Golgi 19, I-20133 Milan, Italy..
    Manfredi, Amedea
    Univ Milan, Dipartimento Chim, Via C Golgi 19, I-20133 Milan, Italy..
    Carosio, Federico
    Politecn Torino, Dipartimento Sci Applicata & Tecnol, Viale Teresa Michel 5, I-15121 Alessandria, Italy..
    Feng, Zhaoxuan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Hakkarainen, Minna
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Ranucci, Elisabetta
    Univ Milan, Dipartimento Chim, Via C Golgi 19, I-20133 Milan, Italy..
    Superior flame retardancy of cotton by synergetic effect of cellulose-derived nano-graphene oxide carbon dots and disulphide-containing polyamidoamines2019In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 169, article id 108993Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Linear polyamidoamines containing disulphide groups (SS-PAAs) were prepared by polyaddition of L-cystine with 2,2-bisacrylamidoacetic acid (B-CYSS), N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (M-CYSS) and 1,4-bisacryloylpiperazine (BP-CYSS). They were evaluated as flame retardants for cotton, alone or with cellulose-derived nano-graphene oxide (nGO) carbon dots, to assess whether, due to their potential as radical scavengers, the latter would improve the already good performance of SS-PAAs. In vertical flame spread tests (VEST), cotton treated with 1% nGO burned as quickly as cotton, whereas B-CYSS, M-CYSS and BP-CYSS extinguished the flame at add-ons >= 12, 16 and 20%, respectively. Probably, the gaseous products of SS-PAA thermal degradation quenched the radicals involved in oxidation. Cotton treated with 8,12 and 15%, respectively, of B-CYSS, M-CYSS and BP-CYSS burned completely, but further addition of 1% nGO either inhibited ignition or shortly extinguished the flame, demonstrating synergism between the two components. Synergism was confirmed by assessing the synergism effectiveness parameter for the residual mass fraction (RMF) and by comparing the calculated and experimental TG curves in air for the cotton/SS-PAA-nGO systems. In cone calorimetry tests, the presence of nGO did not improve the already good performances of SS-PAAs, supporting the hypothesis that the action of both takes place in the gas phase.

  • 63. Altuna, Facundo I.
    et al.
    Riccardi, Carmen C.
    Marin Quintero, Diana C.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
    Ruseckaite, Roxana A.
    Stefani, Pablo M.
    Effect of an Anhydride Excess on the Curing Kinetics and Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Synthetic and Biogenic Epoxy Resins2019In: International Journal of Polymer Science, ISSN 1687-9422, E-ISSN 1687-9430, article id 5029153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work analyzes the effect of the anhydride excess on the nonisothermal curing kinetics and on the final properties of synthetic and biobased epoxy resins. Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) were crosslinked using methyltetrahydrophthalic anhydride (MTHPA) as a curing agent and 1-methylimidazole (1MI) as an initiator. It was shown that the ESO/MTHPA/1MI system reacts slower than the DGEBA/MTHPA/1MI system, giving place to a more significant evaporation of the curing agent during the reaction. As a result, an excess of anhydride improves the final thermal properties of the ESO/MTHPA/1MI network, contrary to the behavior observed for DGEBA/MTHPA/1MI. The knowledge of the kinetics of the curing process and the optimal amount of the curing agent for each system is of critical importance for a more efficient processing of these materials.

  • 64.
    Alvarado Ávila, María Isabel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    De Luca, Stefano
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Edlund, Ulrica
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Fei, Ye
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Dutta, Joydeep
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Cellulose as sacrificial agents for enhanced photoactivated hydrogen production2023In: Sustainable Energy & Fuels, E-ISSN 2398-4902, Vol. 7, no 8, p. 1981-1991Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The search for new energy sources together with the need to control greenhouse gas emissions has led to continued interest in low-emitting renewable energy technologies. In this context, water splitting for hydrogen production is a reasonable alternative to replace fossil fuels due to its high energy density producing only water during combustion. Cellulose is abundant in nature and as residuals from human activity, and therefore a natural, ecological, and carbon-neutral source for hydrogen production. In the present work, we propose a sustainable method for hydrogen production using sunlight and cellulose as sacrificial agents during the photocatalytic water splitting process. Platinum (Pt) catalyst activates hydrogen production, and parameters such as pH of the system, cellulose concentration, and Pt loading were studied. Using different biomasses, we found that the presence of hemicellulose and xyloglucan as part of the molecular composition considerably increased the H-2 production rate from 36 mu mol L-1 in one hour for rapeseed cellulose to 167.44 mu mol L-1 for acid-treated cellulose isolated from Ulva fenestrata algae. Carboxymethylation and TEMPO-oxidation of cellulosic biomass both led to more stable suspensions with higher rates of H-2 production close to 225 mu mol L-1, which was associated with their water solubility properties. The results suggest that cellulosic biomass can be an attractive alternative as a sacrificial agent for the photocatalytic splitting of water for H-2 production.

  • 65.
    Aminzadeh, Selda
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Valorization of Kraft Lignin by Fractionation and Chemical Modifications for Different Applications2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Lignin is one of the most abundant biopolymers. Approximately 70 million tons of technical lignin is generated annually, but only little is used for products other than energy. The complexity of lignin hinders full utilization in high-value products and materials. In spite of the large recent progress of knowledge of lignin structure and biosynthesis, much is still not fully understood, including structural inhomogeneity. We made synthetic lignin at different pH’s and obtained structural differences that might explain the structural inhomogeneity of lignin.

    Technical lignins from the chemical pulping are available in large scale, but the processes result in alterations, such as oxidation and condensation. Therefore, to utilize technical lignin, modifications, such as fractionation and/or chemical modifications are necessary. Fractionation with ceramic membranes is one way to lower the polydispersity of lignin. The main advantage is their tolerance towards high temperature and harsh conditions. We demonstrated that low Mw lignin was extracted from industrially produced LignoBoost lignin aiming: i) to investigate the performance of the membrane over time; ii) to analyze the antioxidant properties of the low Mw lignin.

    Chemical modification can also improve the properties of lignin. By adding moieties, different properties can be obtained. Amination and methacrylation of kraft lignin were performed, as well as lignin-silica hybrid materials with potential for the adsorption were produced and investigated.

    Non-modified and methacrylated lignin were used to synthesize lignin-St-DVB porous microspheres to be utilized as a sorbent for organic pollutants. The possibility to substitute styrene with methacrylated lignin was evaluated, demonstrating that interaction between lignin and DVB, and porosity increased.

    Lignin has certain antibacterial properties. Un-modified and modified (aminated) lignin samples and sphere nanoparticles of lignin were tested for their effect against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria’s and an injectable hydrogel was developed with encapsulated lignin for being used as an injectable gel for the open wounds. Results demonstrated promising antibacterial efficiency of lignins against gram-positive, more especially better inhibition with aminated lignins against gram-positive and negative bacterium.

     

     

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  • 66.
    Aminzadeh, Selda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Haghniaz, R.
    Ottenhall, A.
    Sevastyanova, Olena
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Lindström, E.
    Khademhosseini, A.
    Lignin based hydrogel for the antibacterial applicationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 67.
    Amirjani, Ali
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Impact of pre-treatments on the brightness stability of a conventional and near neutral pH ECF-light bleaching sequence2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study on Northern Bleached Softwood Kraft (NBSK) and the (OO) (OP) D/Dn (PO) bleaching sequence. The effects of a xylanase (X), mild acidic (A), DTPA (Q), and a combined DTPA & xylanase (Q+X) pre-treatments have been studied.

    The results indicate that the Q+X pre-treatment most effectively reduced the presence of harmful metal ions in the pulp. The Q+X pre-treated pulp furthermore yielded the lowest kappa number and highest brightness values among the pre-treatments tested. Chemical analysis of this pulp also shows the highest reduction in xylans and lignin. The mild A stage was ineffective in removing all harmful metal ions and showed no effect on the reduction of xylans or lignin. The X stage cannot meanwhile remove metals and is thus disadvantageous.

    Subsequently, the Q+X pre-treated pulp as well as a Q-treated pulp stream were further bleached to study the effects of these pre-treatments on the final pulp quality as well as to compare these streams of pulp bleached using a conventional chlorine dioxide stage (D) and a near neutral pH chlorine dioxide (Dn) stage. The results confirmed that the Dn stage causes a reduced degree of AOX in the effluent. Furthermore, the brightness directly after the chlorine dioxide stage is higher for the Dn-treated pulps but the process is limited in brightness stability which is a significant drawback.

    The Q+X (OP) D (PO) bleaching sequence showed the highest brightness stability while the Q+X (OP) Dn (PO) bleaching sequence displayed no improvement over the Q (OP) Dn (OP) bleaching sequence. The conclusion can be made that the enzymatic boost in bleaching is not enough to compensate for the shortcomings of a Dn stage.

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  • 68.
    Amorim, Lúcia F.A.
    et al.
    FibEnTech Research Unit, Faculty of Engineering, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal.
    Li, Lengwan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
    Gomes, Ana P.
    FibEnTech Research Unit, Faculty of Engineering, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal.
    Fangueiro, Raul
    Centre for Textile Science and Technology (2C2T), University of Minho, Guimarães, Portugal.
    Gouveia, Isabel C.
    FibEnTech Research Unit, Faculty of Engineering, University of Beira Interior, Covilhã, Portugal.
    Sustainable bacterial cellulose production by low cost feedstock: evaluation of apple and tea by-products as alternative sources of nutrients2023In: Cellulose, ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 30, no 9, p. 5589-5606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The high applicability of Bacterial Cellulose (BC) is often challenging due to its high production costs, which ultimately prevents its widespread use. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate BC production using alternative feedstock to replace high-cost synthetic carbon and nitrogen sources and to evaluate the physical and structural properties of the produced BC membranes. BC was produced through a microbial consortium from kombucha, and the formulated alternative media sustained promising BC production, especially the association of apple wastes (at 10% (W/V)) with tea mixture, with a yield similar to BC produced on Hestrin–Schramm (HS) control media. Moreover, the BC samples produced in this alternative media also exhibited comparable properties to BC from HS media, with similar water-holding capacity and retention ability, thermal stability, mechanical behavior, and a crystallinity index of 87.61% and 88.08%, respectively. Thus, our findings substantiated that expensive substrates, such as glucose, peptone, and yeast extract, could be successfully replaced by apple wastes, black and green tea, for BC production while maintaining its remarkable physical and structural properties. Furthermore, besides the low-cost advantage, the bioconversion of apple waste also reduces the environmental burden caused by its disposal in landfills.

  • 69.
    Anandhakumari, Govindharaj
    et al.
    Department of Physics, Gobi Arts & Science College, Gobichettipalayam, Erode, Tamilnadu-638 453, India.
    Jayabal, Palanisamy
    Department of Physics, Gobi Arts & Science College, Gobichettipalayam, Erode, Tamilnadu-638 453, India.
    Balasankar, Athinarayanan
    Department of Physics, Gobi Arts & Science College, Gobichettipalayam, Erode, Tamilnadu-638 453, India.
    Ramasundaram, Subramaniyan
    School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541, Korea.
    Oh, Tae Hwan
    School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541, Korea.
    Aruchamy, Kanakaraj
    School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541, Korea.
    Kallem, Parashuram
    Department of Environmental and Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Abu Dhabi University, Abu Dhabi, P.O. Box 59911, United Arab Emirates.
    Polisetti, Veerababu
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Synthesis of strontium oxide-zinc oxide nanocomposites by Co-precipitation method and its application for degradation of malachite green dye under direct sunlight2023In: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 9, no 10, article id e20824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photocatalysts workable under direct sunlight are the safe and cost-effective option for water purification. The nanocomposites of strontium oxide and zinc oxide (SZ NCs) were synthesized using coprecipitation method. The respective precursors of SZ NCs were subjected to alkaline hydrolysis and subsequently thermally treated to yield SZ NCs. The SZ NCs with different ZnO composition was synthesized by varying the concentration of ZnO precursor from 0.2 to 1 M. The structural properties of SZ NCs evaluated using X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Differential thermal analysis DTA). The optical properties of SZ NCs studied using ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) spectroscopic study. The trend observed in the intensity of XRD peaks indicated the occurrence of Zn doping in the crystalline lattice of SrO and the formation of SrO–ZnO composite. Upon incorporation of 1 M of ZnO precursor, the grain size of the SrO was decreased from 49.3 to 27.6 nm. The weight loss in the thermal analysis indicates the removal of carbonates from the sample upon heating and shows the formation of an oxide structure. UV–Vis spectra confirmed that the presence of SrO enhanced the sunlight absorption of SZ NCs. The increase in the composition of ZnO precursors increased the bandgap of SrO (2.09 eV) to the level of ZnO (3.14 eV). SZ NCs exhibited heterostructure morphology, where the nanosized domains with varying shapes (layered and rod-like) were observed. Under direct sunlight conditions, SZ NCs prepared using 1 M/0.6 M of SrO/ZnO precursors exhibited 15–20 % higher photocatalytic efficiency than neat SrO and ZnO. In precise, 1 mg of this SZ NC was degraded 98 % of malachite green dye dissolved in water (10 ppm) under direct sunlight. Additionally, the thermal stability results showed that 18 % decomposition was obtained due to the degradation impurities in SrO/ZnO catalysts and the XRD results revealed that no structural change is obtained in SrO/ZnO photocatalysts after stability test. The SZ NCs can be effectively used as safe and economic sunlight photocatalysts for water purification in remote areas without the electricity.

  • 70. Andersson, Alexander
    et al.
    Vegunta, Vijaya
    Lindström, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Sevastyanova, Olena
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Jansson, Ulla
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Presence of Calcium Cations Stimulate Alkaline Hydrolysis of Cellulose During Kraft Pulping ConditionsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulated kraft pulping has been performed on cotton linters fibers consisting of almost pure cellulose with varying content of calcium ions. These concentrations were obtained by soaking and drying cotton linters in calcium sulfate solutions. The viscosities of the pulped fibers were generally lower with higher calcium ion concentration and, therefore, in line with earlier suggested ideas that calcium ions could catalyze alkaline hydrolysis. The technical importance of these results is discussed.

  • 71.
    Andriani, Fika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Functional Bio-based Copolyesters: Properties and Abilities2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The ring-opening copolymerization of selected epoxides and anhydrides enabled a simple strategy to synthesize functional copolymers with the ability to form crosslinked materials and prone to hydrolytic and enzymatic degradation pathways. The synthesis utilized PPNCl as an organocatalyst and allowed the formation of copolymer chains by alternating ring-opening of epoxides and anhydrides in high yield and molar mass in the range of 0.7-7.6 kg mol-1.

    The pendant unsaturated bonds in the copolymer chains endowed the copolymers with the ability to form crosslinking networks. The degree of crosslinking was dictated by the molecular structure and molar mass of the copolymers. The thermal properties of the copolymers were regulated by varying the anhydrides, the difference in the structure of each anhydride influence the Tg and T5%. Crosslinking reaction indeed increased the Tg and T5% from the native copolymers.

    The presence of ester as cleavable groups in the copolymer chains allowed the copolymers to undergo hydrolytic and enzymatic degradation. The degraded copolymers showed a change in molar mass and dispersity and increased mass loss. The degraded crosslinked materials showed higher swelling ratio and lower gel content than the initial values before degradation. These results deliver a better understanding of the structure-property relationships, the ability to form crosslinked materials, and the degradation behavior of epoxides/anhydrides-based copolyesters. They should favor the design of new materials belonging to this class of polyesters and to envisage their potential applications.

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  • 72.
    Andriani, Fika
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Fuoco, Tiziana
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymer Technology.
    Statistical enchainment of ester/ether and carbonate cleavable bonds to control copolymers?: erosion rate and trigger environment-specific degradation2022In: European Polymer Journal, ISSN 0014-3057, E-ISSN 1873-1945, Vol. 178, p. 111457-, article id 111457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polymers containing ester bonds undergo abiotic degradation independently from the surrounding environment as long as the hydrolytic conditions are provided. The hydrolysis of the ester bonds leads a bulk degradation of the polymeric matrix which, contrary to surface erosion, is unpredictable. The enchainment of diverse degradability functions was sought to expand the scope of the degradation mechanism and achieve a more predictable profile of the mass loss.The copolymerization of trimethylene carbonate and p-dioxanone enabled the synthesis of one class of copolymers with controllable erosion rate and susceptible to three degradation pathways depending on the surrounding environment. The synthetic strategy used organocatalysts and allowed the synthesis at room temperature of both random and block copolymers in high yield and with molar mass, Mn, in the range 12-22 kg mol- 1. The composition and microstructure of the random copolymers were regulated by varying the monomers' ratio. Diverse cleavable groups, i.e., ester/ether and carbonate bonds, were statistically incorporated along the same polymer chain to yield materials able to degrade under hydrolytic, oxidative and enzymatic conditions. Bulk degradation was the mechanism that took place under hydrolytic conditions, while the oxidative and enzymatic environments lead to surface erosion. The rate of mass loss of the random copolymers was regulated by varying the composition. These results showed how the statistical incorporation of different degradable bonds could pave the way to diverse and more predictable degradation pathways than simple hydrolysis by taking advantages of the surrounding environment to trigger surface erosion.

  • 73.
    Andrieux, Sebastien
    et al.
    Univ Stuttgart, Inst Phys Chem, Pfaffenwaldring 55, D-70569 Stuttgart, Germany.;Inst Charles Sadron UPR22 CNRS, 23 Rue Loess, F-67034 Strasbourg 2, France..
    Medina, Lilian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Herbst, Michael
    Univ Stuttgart, Inst Phys Chem, Pfaffenwaldring 55, D-70569 Stuttgart, Germany..
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Stubenrauch, Cosima
    Univ Stuttgart, Inst Phys Chem, Pfaffenwaldring 55, D-70569 Stuttgart, Germany..
    Monodisperse highly ordered chitosan/cellulose nanocomposite foams2019In: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 125, article id UNSP 105516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In solid foams, most physical properties are determined by the pore size and shape distributions and the organisation of the pores. For this reason, it is important to control the structure of porous materials. We recently tackled this issue with the help of microfluidic-aided foam templating, which allowed us to generate mono-disperse and highly ordered chitosan foams. However, the properties of foams also depend on the properties of the pore wall constituents. In case of chitosan-based foams, the foams have poor absolute mechanical properties, simply due to the fact that the solubility of chitosan in water is very low, so that the relative density of the freeze-dried foams becomes very small. Drawing inspiration from the field of nanocomposites, we incorporated cellulose nanofibres into the foamed chitosan solutions, with a view to strengthening the pore walls in the foam and thus the mechanical properties of the final foam. We report here how the cellulose nanofibres affect the structure of both the liquid foam template and the solid foam. The resulting nanocomposite foams have improved mechanical properties, which, however, are not proportional to the amount of cellulose nanofibres in the composites. One reason for this observation is the disturbance of the porous structure of the solid foams by the cellulose nanofibres.

  • 74.
    Andrén, Oliver C. J.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Ingverud, Tobias
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Hult, Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Håkansson, Joakim
    Bogestål, Yalda
    Caous, Josefin S.
    Blom, Kristina
    Zhang, Yuning
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Andersson, Therese
    Pedersen, Emma
    Björn, Camilla
    Löwenhielm, Peter
    Malkoch, Michael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Antibiotic-Free Cationic Dendritic Hydrogels as Surgical-Site-Infection-Inhibiting Coatings2019In: Advanced Healthcare Materials, ISSN 2192-2640, E-ISSN 2192-2659, Vol. 8, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract A non-toxic hydrolytically fast-degradable antibacterial hydrogel is herein presented to preemptively treat surgical site infections during the first crucial 24 h period without relying on conventional antibiotics. The approach capitalizes on a two-component system that form antibacterial hydrogels within 1 min and consist of i) an amine functional linear-dendritic hybrid based on linear poly(ethylene glycol) and dendritic 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid, and ii) a di-N-hydroxysuccinimide functional poly(ethylene glycol) cross-linker. Broad spectrum antibacterial effect is achieved by multivalent representation of catatonically charged ?-alanine on the dendritic periphery of the linear dendritic component. The hydrogels can be applied readily in an in vivo setting using a two-component syringe delivery system and the mechanical properties can accurately be tuned in the range equivalent to fat tissue and cartilage (G? = 0.5?8 kPa). The antibacterial effect is demonstrated both in vitro toward a range of relevant bacterial strains and in an in vivo mouse model of surgical site infection.

  • 75.
    Ansari, Farhan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Medina, Lilian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
    Epoxies can solve moisture problems in nanocellulose materials2017In: International Conference on Nanotechnology for Renewable Materials 2017, TAPPI Press , 2017, p. 1220-1227Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 76.
    Ansari, Farhan
    et al.
    Stanford Univ, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Ding, Yichuan
    Stanford Univ, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Dauskardt, Reinhold H.
    Stanford Univ, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Toward Sustainable Multifunctional Coatings Containing Nanocellulose in a Hybrid Glass Matrix2018In: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, E-ISSN 1936-086X, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 5495-5503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on a sustainable route to protective nanocomposite coatings, where one of the components, nanocellulose fibrils, is derived from trees and the glass matrix is an inexpensive sol-gel organic-inorganic hybrid of zirconium alkoxide and an epoxy-functionalized silane. The hydrophilic nature of the colloidal nanocellulose fibrils is exploited to obtain a homogeneous one-pot suspension of the nanocellulose in the aqueous sol-gel matrix precursors solution. The mixture is then sprayed to form nano composite coatings of a well-dispersed, random in-plane nano cellulose fibril network in a continuous organic inorganic glass matrix phase. The nanocellulose incorporation in the sol-gel matrix resulted in nanostructured composites with marked effects on salient coating properties including optical transmittance, hardness, fracture energy, and water contact angle. The particular role of the nanocellulose fibrils on coating fracture properties, important for coating reliability, was analyzed and discussed in terms of fibril morphology, molecular matrix, and nanocellulose/matrix interactions.

  • 77.
    Ansari, Farhan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center BiMaC Innovation.
    Galland, Sylvain
    Fernberg, P.
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
    Stiff and ductile nanocomposites of epoxy reinforced with cellulose nanofibrils2013In: ICCM International Conferences on Composite Materials, International Committee on Composite Materials , 2013, p. 5575-5582Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 78.
    Antonio, Capezza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Andersson, Richard L.
    Ström, Valter
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Wu, Qiong
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites.
    Sacchi, Benedetta
    Univ Milan, Dept Chem, Via Golgi 19, I-20133 Milan, Italy.
    Farris, Stefano
    Univ Milan, DeFENS, Dept Food Environm & Nutr Sci, Packaging Div, Via Celoria 2, I-20133 Milan, Italy.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Olsson, Richard T.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Preparation and Comparison of Reduced Graphene Oxide and Carbon Nanotubes as Fillers in Conductive Natural Rubber for Flexible Electronics2019In: Omega, ISSN 0030-2228, E-ISSN 1541-3764, Vol. 4, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conductive natural rubber (NR) nanocomposites were prepared by solvent-casting suspensions of reduced graphene oxide(rGO) or carbon nanotubes (CNTs), followed by vulcanization of the rubber composites. Both rGO and CNT were compatible as fillers in the NR as well as having sufficient intrinsic electrical conductivity for functional applications. Physical (thermal) and chemical reduction of GO were investigated, and the results of the reductions were monitored by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for establishing a reduction protocol that was useful for the rGO nanocomposite preparation. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy showed that both nanofillers were adequately dispersed in the main NR phase. The CNT composite displays a marked mechanical hysteresis and higher elongation at break, in comparison to the rGO composites for an equal fraction of the carbon phase. Moreover, the composite conductivity was always ca. 3-4 orders of magnitude higher for the CNT composite than for the rGO composites, the former reaching a maximum conductivity of ca. 10.5 S/m, which was explained by the more favorable geometry of the CNT versus the rGO sheets. For low current density applications though, both composites achieved the necessary percolation and showed the electrical conductivity needed for being applied as flexible conductors for a light-emitting diode. 

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  • 79.
    Antonio, Capezza
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Newson, W.R.
    Olsson, R.T.
    Hedenquist, M.S:
    Johansson, E
    Advances in the use of protein-based materials: towards sustainable naturally sourced absorbent materials2019In: American Chemical Society Symposium Series (ACS), ISSN 0097-6156, E-ISSN 1947-5918, Vol. 7, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) are important in the health-care and personal care industries. Products like bed pads and diapers improve the comfort and sanitary conditions for people all over the world, with SAPs reaching yearly production volumes of ca. 2 million tons. However, recent sustainability issues have questioned the high negative footprint of polymers from nonrenewable resources. Biomacromolecules, especially when functionalized, have properties that make them an attractive alternative for the production of biobased SAPs. Proteins are a particularly interesting alternative due to their high variability and because of their relatively low price, being available as side streams from the agricultural industries. Due to the harsh extraction conditions, these side stream proteins are not competing with the food industry and alternative source-effective uses are advantageous in a circular bioeconomy. As the properties of a SAP material come from a combination of neutralized functional groups to promote polar liquid uptake and intermolecular cross-links to prevent dissolution, proteins offer unique opportunities due to their variability in polymerization. An increased understanding of the protein characteristics and how these can be tuned through functionalization is therefore a prerequisite for the successful development of a commercial biobased SAP that utilizes industrial and nontoxic wastes toward more sustainable products. This review focuses on proteins as biomacromolecules with relevant characteristics for superabsorbent functions, and discusses the opportunities that they may offer toward sustainable SAPs utilizing nontoxic chemicals and following the green chemistry principles.

  • 80.
    Antypas, Haris
    et al.
    AIMES - Center for the Advancement of Integrated Medical and Engineering Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zhang, Tianqi
    AIMES - Center for the Advancement of Integrated Medical and Engineering Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Choong, Ferdinand X.
    AIMES - Center for the Advancement of Integrated Medical and Engineering Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Melican, Keira
    AIMES - Center for the Advancement of Integrated Medical and Engineering Sciences, Karolinska Institutet Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology. KTH, Centres, Center for the Advancement of Integrated Medical and Engineering Sciences, AIMES. Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, SE-171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dynamic single cell analysis in a proximal-tubule-on-chip reveals heterogeneous epithelial colonization strategies of uropathogenic Escherichia coli under shear stress2023In: FEMS Microbes, E-ISSN 2633-6685, Vol. 4, article id xtad007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The urinary tract is a hydrodynamically challenging microenvironment and uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) must overcome several physiological challenges in order to adhere and establish a urinary tract infection. Our previous work in vivo revealed a synergy between different UPEC adhesion organelles, which facilitated effective colonization of the renal proximal tubule. To allow highresolution real-time analysis of this colonization behavior, we established a biomimetic proximal-tubule-on-chip (PToC). The PToC allowed for single-cell resolution analysis of the first stages of bacterial interaction with host epithelial cells, under physiological flow. Time-lapse microscopy and single-cell trajectory analysis in the PToC revealed that while the majority of UPEC moved directly through the system, a minority population initiated heterogeneous adhesion, identified as either rolling or bound. Adhesion was predominantly transient andmediated by P pili at the earliest time-points. These bound bacteria initiated a founder populationwhich rapidly divided, leading to 3D microcolonies. Within the first hours, the microcolonies did not express extracellular curli matrix, but rather were dependent on Type 1 fimbriae as the key element in the microcolony structure. Collectively, our results show the application of Organ-on-chip technology to address bacterial adhesion behaviors, demonstrating a well-orchestrated interplay and redundancy between adhesion organelles that enables UPEC to form microcolonies and persist under physiological shear stress.

  • 81.
    Anukam, Anthony
    et al.
    Karlstad Univ, Environm & Energy Syst, Dept Engn & Chem Sci, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden..
    Berghel, Jonas
    Karlstad Univ, Environm & Energy Syst, Dept Engn & Chem Sci, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden..
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Frodeson, Stefan
    Karlstad Univ, Environm & Energy Syst, Dept Engn & Chem Sci, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden..
    Stahl, Magnus
    Karlstad Univ, Environm & Energy Syst, Dept Engn & Chem Sci, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden..
    A review of the mechanism of bonding in densified biomass pellets2021In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 148, article id 111249Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The production of durable biomass pellets have always been challenged by several factors including the lack of understanding of the mechanism involved in how particles combine to form pellets under standard conditions of the pellet press. This is because contributing factors span several molecular, microscopic, and even nanoscopic levels as biomass undergoes pelleting. The characteristics of the bonds formed between the combining particles and their relevance to the quality of pellets remains vague, no matter how quality is defined. However, even though few researchers have attempted to explain the mechanism of bonding in densified biomass pellets using different theories, none of their hypotheses supports particle bonding from a structural chemistry perspective. There are still no clear explanations which consider the role of molecular structure and the interactions of substances as milled biomass undergo pelleting. In view of these arguments therefore, this review presents an indepth analysis of a structural chemistry perspective of the mechanism of bonding and the use of additives in densified biomass pellets and helps identify research areas needed to facilitate better understanding of bonding in densified biomass pellets. The status of current research in biomass pelleting, types of materials suitable as additives and their structural characteristics, as well as the current technical specifications of using additives are also discussed.

  • 82.
    Anusuyadevi, Prasaanth Ravi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Riazanova, Anastasiia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Svagan, Anna Justina
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Floating Photocatalysts for Effluent Refinement Based on Stable Pickering Cellulose Foams and Graphitic Carbon Nitride (g-C3N4)2020In: ACS Omega, E-ISSN 2470-1343, Vol. 5, no 35, p. 22411-22419Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transfer of heterogeneous photocatalysis applications from the laboratory to real-life aqueous systems is challenging due to the higher density of photocatalysts compared to water, light attenuation effects in water, complicated recovery protocols, and metal pollution from metal-based photocatalysts. In this work, we overcome these obstacles by developing a buoyant Pickering photocatalyst carrier based on green cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) derived from wood. The air bubbles in the carrier were stable because the particle surfactants provided thermodynamic stability and the derived photocatalytic foams floated on water throughout the test period (4 weeks). A metal-free semiconductor photocatalyst, g-C3N4, was facilely embedded inside the foam by mixing the photocatalyst with the air-bubble suspension followed by casting and drying to produce solid foams. When tested under mild irradiation conditions (visible light, low energy LEDs) and no agitation, almost three times more dye was removed after 6 h for the floating g-C3N4-CNF nanocomposite foam, compared to the pure g-C3N4 powder residing on the bottom of a ca. 2 cm-high water pillar. The buoyancy and physicochemical properties of the carrier material were imperative to render escalated oxygenation, high photon utilization, and faster dye degradation. The reported assembly protocol is facile, general, and provides a new strategy for assembling green floating foams that can potentially carry a number of different photocatalysts.

  • 83.
    Anusuyadevi, Prasaanth Ravi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Shanker, R.
    Cui, Yuxiao
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Riazanova, Anastasiia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Järn, M.
    Jonsson, Magnus P.
    Svagan, Anna Justina
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Photoresponsive and Polarization-Sensitive Structural Colors from Cellulose/Liquid Crystal Nanophotonic Structures2021In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 33, no 36, p. 2101519-, article id 2101519Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) possess the ability to form helical periodic structures that generate structural colors. Due to the helicity, such self-assembled cellulose structures preferentially reflect left-handed circularly polarized light of certain colors, while they remain transparent to right-handed circularly polarized light. This study shows that combination with a liquid crystal enables modulation of the optical response to obtain light reflection of both handedness but with reversed spectral profiles. As a result, the nanophotonic systems provide vibrant structural colors that are tunable via the incident light polarization. The results are attributed to the liquid crystal aligning on the CNC/glucose film, to form a birefringent layer that twists the incident light polarization before interaction with the chiral cellulose nanocomposite. Using a photoresponsive liquid crystal, this effect can further be turned off by exposure to UV light, which switches the nematic liquid crystal into a nonbirefringent isotropic phase. The study highlights the potential of hybrid cellulose systems to create self-assembled yet advanced photoresponsive and polarization-tunable nanophotonics.

  • 84.
    Anusuyadevi, Prasaanth Ravi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology. M S Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Bangalore, Karnataka, 560054, India, Karnataka.
    Singha, Shuvra
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Banerjee, Debashree
    Linköping University, Laboratory of Organic Electronics and Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Dept. of Science and Technology, Norrköping, SE-601 74, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Magnus P.
    Linköping University, Laboratory of Organic Electronics and Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Dept. of Science and Technology, Norrköping, SE-601 74, Sweden.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Svagan, Anna Justina
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Synthetic Plant Cuticle Coating as a Biomimetic Moisture Barrier Membrane for Structurally Colored Cellulose Films2023In: Advanced Materials Interfaces, ISSN 2196-7350, Vol. 10, no 7, article id 2202112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photonic films based on cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are sustainable candidates for sensors, structurally colored radiative cooling, and iridescent coatings. Such CNC-based films possess a helicoidal nanoarchitecture, which gives selective reflection with the polarization of the incident light. However, due to the hygroscopic nature of CNCs, the structural colored material changes and may be irreversibly damaged at high relative humidity. Thus, moisture protection is essential in such settings. In this work, hygroscopic CNC-based films are protected with a bioinspired synthetic plant cuticle; a strategy already adopted by real plants. The protective cuticle layers altered the reflected colors to some extent, but more importantly, they significantly reduced the water vapor permeance by more than two orders of magnitude, from 2.1 × 107 (pristine CNC/GLU film) to 12.3 × 104 g µm m−2 day−1 atm−1 (protected CNC/GLU film). This expands significantly the time window of operation for CNC/GLU films at high relative humidity.

  • 85.
    Anusuyadevi, Prasaanth Ravi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Svagan, Anna Justina
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Role of cellular solids in heterogeneous photocatalytic applications2021In: Nanostructured Photocatalysts: From Fundamental to Practical Applications, Elsevier BV , 2021, p. 305-330Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Heterogeneous photocatalysis exhibits the potential for the complete degradation of pollutants present in water or gas phase. The effective realization of heterogeneous photocatalysis, at both large-scale industrial setups for water treatment and in situ application for solar remediation of ecological units, can be achieved by the concurrent development of photocatalytic supports along with solid semiconductor materials targeted for implementation as photocatalysts. This chapter provides an update of such developments in the field of photocatalytic supports, very specifically, on cellular solid-based carriers (foams). In the first part, a brief introduction to the fundamentals of cellular solids is presented. Subsequently, the role of cellular solids, as structured photocatalytic supports, for implementation in large-scale, continuously processed photoreactors for high-throughput water treatment, are discussed. The second part of this chapter reports all the materials used, up-to-date, in the fabrication of cellular solid-based photocatalyst carriers for the real-time solar remediation of the natural system. Finally, this chapter ends up in the discussion of novel cellulose nanofiber-based nanofoams as buoyant photocatalytic supports for the realization of bio-based, nonmetallic, nontoxic floating photocatalysts.

  • 86.
    Appadurai, Tamilselvan
    et al.
    Univ Madras, Natl Ctr Nanosci & Nanotechnol, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Subramaniyam, Chandrasekar M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Kuppusamy, Rajesh
    Univ Madras, Dept Phys Chem, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Karazhanov, Smagul
    Inst Energy Technol IFE, Dept Solar Energy, N-2027 Kjeller, Norway..
    Subramanian, Balakumar
    Univ Madras, Natl Ctr Nanosci & Nanotechnol, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600025, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Electrochemical Performance of Nitrogen-Doped TiO2 Nanotubes as Electrode Material for Supercapacitor and Li-Ion Battery2019In: Molecules, ISSN 1431-5157, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 24, no 16, article id 2952Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochemical anodized titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes are of immense significance as electrochemical energy storage devices owing to their fast electron transfer by reducing the diffusion path and paving way to fabricating binder-free and carbon-free electrodes. Besides these advantages, when nitrogen is doped into its lattice, doubles its electrochemical activity due to enhanced charge transfer induced by oxygen vacancy. Herein, we synthesized nitrogen-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2) and studied its electrochemical performances in supercapacitor and as anode for a lithium-ion battery (LIB). Nitrogen doping into TiO2 was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. The electrochemical performance of N-TiO2 nanotubes was outstanding with a specific capacitance of 835 mu F cm(-2) at 100 mV s(-1) scan rate as a supercapacitor electrode, and it delivered an areal discharge capacity of 975 mu A h cm(-2) as an anode material for LIB which is far superior to bare TiO2 nanotubes (505 mu F cm(-2) and 86 mu A h cm(-2), respectively). This tailor-made nitrogen-doped nanostructured electrode offers great promise as next-generation energy storage electrode material.

  • 87.
    Arcieri, Nicolò
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Characterization methodology to assess the mechanical properties of delignified birch/PMMA transparent wood biocomposites2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Transparent wood (TW) biocomposites are a new attractive class of materials. They are based on a delignified wood template impregnated by a refractive index-matching polymer.  TWs can be tailored in order to show a wide range of functional, optical, and mechanical properties. Moreover, being biobased, they are seen as a possible key material to replace more environmentally impactful materials in various sectors including the construction industry. However, unlike the functional properties, the mechanical behaviour of this class of materials has been poorly investigated. Therefore, in this thesis, the aim was to extend the current knowledge about the mechanical response of these materials by using a two-step mechanical characterization on TW and native wood as reference material.

    The analysed TW biocomposite was prepared by impregnation of delignified birch veneers by PMMA. The mechanical characterization was carried out using different techniques. The Young’s modulus and the flexural strength along the transverse direction were studied by four-point bending tests. The results showed an improvement for both properties compared to native birch wood. The fracture perpendicular to the grain (TR system) was investigated by performing in situ single-edge-notched four-point bending tests onto a scanning electron microscope to observe how the cracks propagate in this complex microstructure. A remarkable improvement (about 175 percent) in fracture toughness was found compared to the native wood. Furthermore, the in situ single-edge-notched four-point bending test was also applied, together with the digital image correlation (DIC) technique, to study the strain field during the crack growth, specifically the formation of the fracture process zone (FPZ) around the crack tip. Then, an equation describing the cohesive law was proposed for both materials based on experimental observations that can be ultimately used for fracture mechanics simulations. Finally, it was briefly shown how to make use of the measured mechanical properties of the novel TW for material selection for engineering applications. 

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  • 88.
    Arcieri, Nicolò
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. Politecnico di Torino, Department of Applied Science and Technology, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin, Italy.
    Chen, Bin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Berglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Tavares da Costa, Marcus Vinicius
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. Karlstad University, Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences, SE-651 88 Karlstad, Sweden.
    Crack growth study of wood and transparent wood-polymer composite laminates by in-situ testing in weak TR-direction2023In: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 173, article id 107693Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    TW transparent wood/polymer biocomposite laminates are of interest as multifunctional materials with good longitudinal modulus, tensile strength and optical transmittance. The effect of filling the pore space in wood with a polymer matrix on fracture toughness and crack growth is not well understood. Here, we carried out in-situ fracture tests on neat birch wood and laminates made of four layers of delignified birch veneers impregnated with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and investigated crack growth in the tangential-radial (TR) fracture system. Fracture toughness KIc and JIc at crack initiation were estimated, including FEM analysis. SEM microscopy revealed that cracks primarily propagate along the ray cells, but cell wall peeling and separation between the PMMA and wood phases also take place. A combination of in-situ tests and strain field measured by digital image correlation (DIC) showed twice as long fracture process zone of TW laminates compared with neat birch.

  • 89.
    Ariza, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering.
    Hollertz, Rebecca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    Methling, Ralf
    Leibniz Inst Plasma Sci & Technol INP, D-17489 Greifswald, Germany..
    Gortschakow, Sergey
    Leibniz Inst Plasma Sci & Technol INP, D-17489 Greifswald, Germany..
    Positive streamers: inception and propagation along mineral-oil/solid interfaces2020In: Journal of Physics Communications, ISSN 2399-6528, Vol. 4, no 2, article id 025008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an experimental characterization of the prebreakdown phenomena in liquid/solid interfaces. The characterization is devoted to the 2nd mode positive streamers initiated and propagated along interfaces of mineral-oil and solids with different chemical composition and physical properties. Polymers of low density polyethylene (LDPE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and papers made of kraft paper and a kraft fibril paper (made from cellulosic micro and nano fibrils), lignin-free paper and paper with high lignin content (referred to as k107 kraft paper) are used as the solid to study their influence on the streamer inception and propagation. The streamers are initiated at the interface by applying steps of voltage to a point-plane electrode arrangement with a solid (dielectric barrier) into the gap. The solid is placed diagonal to the oil gap and near to the point electrode. Shadowgraphs, charge and light intensity recordings are obtained during the inception and propagation of the streamers. Thus, estimations of the streamer length, velocity, current and average charge, are also presented. A time delay has been observed before the initiation of the streamer. This delay is probably correlated to the initiation process and formation of the gaseous phase of the streamer near to the interface. The threshold propagation voltage of the 2nd mode streamers at mineral-oil/solid interfaces is shown to be independent of the interface. However, the inception voltage is highly influenced by the interface. Additionally, the observed characteristics of streamers propagation (e.g. current, length, velocity, etc) along the tested interfaces cannot be fully explained by a capacitive coupling effect (permittivity mismatch). This open a discussion for the possibility that properties of the solid such as chemical composition, wettability and surface roughness can influence the streamer propagation.

  • 90.
    Arseneault, Mathieu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Granskog, Viktor
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Khosravi, Sara
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Heckler, Ilona
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Antunez, Pablo Mesa
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Hult, Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Zhang, Yuning
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Malkoch, Michael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    The Dawn of Thiol-Yne Triazine Triones Thermosets as a New Material Platform Suited for Hard Tissue Repair2018In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 30, no 52, article id 1804966Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The identification of a unique set of advanced materials that can bear extraordinary loads for use in bone and tooth repair will inevitably unlock unlimited opportunities for clinical use. Herein, the design of high-performance thermosets is reported based on triazine-trione (TATO) monomers using light-initiated thiol-yne coupling (TYC) chemistry as a polymerization strategy. In comparison to traditional thiol-ene coupling (TEC) systems, TYC chemistry has yielded highly dense networks with unprecedented mechanical properties. The most promising system notes 4.6 GPa in flexural modulus and 160 MPa in flexural strength, an increase of 84% in modulus and 191% in strength when compared to the corresponding TATO system based on TEC chemistry. Remarkably, the mechanical properties exceed those of polylactide (PLA) and challenge poly(ether ether ketone) PEEK and today's methacrylate-based dental resin composites. All the materials display excellent biocompatibility, in vitro, and are successfully: i) molded into medical devices for fracture repair, and ii) used as bone adhesive for fracture fixation and as tooth fillers with the outstanding bond strength that outperform methacrylate systems used today in dental restoration application. Collectively, a new era of advanced TYC materials is unfolded that can fulfill the preconditions as bone fixating implants and for tooth restorations.

  • 91.
    Arseneault, Mathieu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Granskog, Viktor
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Khosravi, Sara
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Heckler, Ilona
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Mesa-Antunez, Pablo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Hult, Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Zhang, Yuning
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Malkoch, Michael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Highly crosslinked triazine-trione materials for fracture fixation based on TEC and TYC chemistryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 92.
    Arumughan, Vishnu
    et al.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Chem & Chem Engn, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Chalmers Univ Technol, AvanCell, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Nypelo, Tiina
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Chem & Chem Engn, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Chalmers Univ Technol, Wallenberg Wood Sci Ctr, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Hasani, Merima
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Chem & Chem Engn, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Chalmers Univ Technol, AvanCell, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Brelid, Harald
    Södra Innovat, Väröbacka, Sweden..
    Albertsson, Sverker
    Södra Innovat, Väröbacka, Sweden..
    Wågberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Larsson, Anette
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Chem & Chem Engn, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Chalmers Univ Technol, AvanCell, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.;Chalmers Univ Technol, Wallenberg Wood Sci Ctr, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Chem & Chem Engn, FibRe Ctr Lignocellulose Based Thermoplast, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Specific ion effects in the adsorption of carboxymethyl cellulose on cellulose: The influence of industrially relevant divalent cations2021In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 626, article id 127006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adsorption of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) on cellulose surfaces is of relevance from both academic and industrial perspectives as it facilitates resource-efficient modification of cellulose fibres that allows them to carry negative charges. It is known that, compared to monovalent ions, Ca2+ ions are superior ions in facilitating CMC adsorption and the subsequent introduction of charge on cellulose fibres. However, the formation and deposition of calcium oxide involved in this process necessitates the search for alternative cations. Magnesium ions form one of the more promising candidates since they are already used in the pulping process to prevent cellulose degradation during peroxide bleaching. This work aims at elucidating the effects of the industrially relevant alkaline earth metal divalent cations Mg2+ and Ca2+ on the CMC adsorption process onto cellulose surfaces. Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM-D) technology was used to follow the adsorption in model systems in real time, whereas the adsorption of CMC on commercial fibres was studied using polyelectrolyte titrations, total organic carbon (TOC) analysis and conductometric titrations. This study shows that the presence of Ca2+ ions was more favourable for the adsorption of CMC to both types of cellulosic surfaces than Mg2+ ions. The distinction in the adsorption behaviour in the presence of Mg2+ and Ca2+ is suggested to be due to the differences in the polarizability of the ions. The findings are decisive in designing efficient industrial processes for the adsorption of polyelectrolytes to cellulose surfaces of similar charge.

  • 93.
    Arumughan, Vishnu
    et al.
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden; AvanCell, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Özeren, Hüsamettin Deniz
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. FibRe Vinnova Competence Center, KTH .
    Skepö, Marie
    Division of Theoretical Chemistry, Lund University, P. O. Box 124, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden.
    Nypelö, Tiina
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden; Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hasani, Merima
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden; AvanCell, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden; Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, Anette
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden; AvanCell, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden; Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden; FibRe Vinnova Competence Center, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Anion-Specific Adsorption of Carboxymethyl Cellulose on Cellulose2023In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 39, no 42, p. 15014-15021Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Integration of fiber modification step with a modern pulp mill is a resource efficient way to produce functional fibers. Motivated by the need to integrate polymer adsorption with the current pulping system, anion-specific effects in carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) adsorption have been studied. The QCM-D adsorption experiments revealed that CMC adsorption to the cellulose model surface is prone to anion-specific effects. A correlation was observed between the adsorbed CMC and the degree of hydration of the co-ions present in the magnesium salts. The presence of a chaotropic co-ion such as nitrate increased the adsorption of CMC on cellulose compared to the presence of the kosmotropic sulfate co-ion. However, anion-specificity was not significant in the case of salts containing zinc cations. The hydration of anions determines the distribution of the ions at the interface. Chaotropic ions, such as nitrates, are likely to be distributed near the chaotropic cellulose surface, causing changes in the ordering of water molecules and resulting in greater entropy gain once released from the surface, thus increasing CMC adsorption.

  • 94. Asem, H.
    et al.
    Zheng, W.
    Nilsson, Fritjof
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Zhang, Y.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Hassan, M.
    Malmström, E.
    Functional Nanocarriers for Drug Delivery by Surface Engineering of Polymeric Nanoparticle Post-Polymerization-Induced Self-Assembly2021In: ACS Applied Bio Materials, E-ISSN 2576-6422, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 1045-1056Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineered polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) have been comprehensively explored as potential platforms for diagnosis and targeted therapy for several diseases including cancer. Herein, we designed functional poly(acrylic acid)-b-poly(butyl acrylate) (PAA-b-PBA) NPs using reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT)-mediated emulsion polymerization via polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA). The hydrophilic PAA-macroRAFT, forming a stabilizing shell (i.e., corona), was chain-extended using the hydrophobic monomer n-butyl acrylate (n-BA), resulting in stable, monodisperse, and reproducible PAA-b-PBA NPs, typically having a diameter of 130 nm. The surface engineering of the PAA-b-PBA NP post-PISA were explored using a two-step approach. The hydrophilic NP-shell corona was modified with allyl groups under mild conditions, using allylamine in water, which resulted in stable allyl-functional NPs (allyl-NPs) suitable for further bioconjugation. The allyl-NPs were subsequently conjugated with a thiol-functional fluorescent dye (BODIPY-SH) to the allyl groups using "thiol-ene"-click chemistry, to mimic the attachment of a thiol-functional target ligand. The successful attachment of BODIPY-SH to the allyl-NPs was corroborated by UV-vis spectroscopy, showing the characteristic absorbance of the BODIPY-fluorophore at 500 nm. Despite modification of NPs with allyl groups and attachment of BODIPY-SH, the NPs retained their colloidal stability and monodispersity as indicated by DLS. This demonstrates that post-PISA functionalization is a robust method for synthesizing functional NPs. Neither the NPs nor allyl-NPs showed significant cytotoxicity toward RAW264.7 or MCF-7 cell lines, which indicates their desirable safety profile. The cellular uptake of the NPs using J774A cells in vitro was found to be time and concentration dependent. The anti-cancer drug doxorubicin was efficiently (90%) encapsulated into the PAA-b-PBA NPs during NP formation. After a small initial burst release during the first 2 h, a controlled release pattern over 7 days was observed. The present investigation demonstrates a potential method for functionalizing polymeric NP post-PISA to produce carriers designed for targeted drug delivery.

  • 95.
    Asem, Heba
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Design of Functional Polymeric Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the devastating diseases such as cancer are relatively incurable and have high risks of relapse. Therefore, persistent endeavors have been devoted to improve patient survival rate and quality of life. Drug delivery systems (DDS) based on polymeric nanoparticles (PNPs) have been demonstrated to increase the therapeutic index (efficacy/toxicity ratio) of chemotherapeutic agents. This thesis focuses on designing non-toxic and multifunctional biodegradable PNPs from preformed polymers for bioimaging and drug delivery applications. Multifunctional poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) NPs were simultaneously loaded with imaging probes, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) and manganese-doped zinc sulfide (Mn:ZnS) quantum dots (QDs), as well as an anti-cancer drug, busulfan (Bu), during the particle formation. The NPs were utilized to enhance magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in vivo and controlled drug release in vitro (Paper I). Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) was copolymerized with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to achieve stealth property for in vivo purposes. Aluminum phthalocyanine, a photosensitizer and an anti-cancer drug, was encapsulated in the PEG-b-PCL NPs for photodynamic therapy during particle formation. The biodistribution of the prepared nanophotosensitizer showed targeted drug delivery toward lungs, liver and spleen as monitored by the intrinsic fluorescence of the photosensitizer (Paper II). The PEG-b-PCL NPs were loaded with SPION or surface functionalized with VivoTag 680XL fluorochrome and utilized for in vivo multimodal imaging, MRI and fluorescence imaging (Paper III). This thesis also presents stable and engineered PNPs obtained using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) mediated polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA). Hydrophobic agents, nile red (NR) dye or doxorubicin (DOX) drug, were encapsulated in poly(N-[3- (dimethylamino) propyl] methacrylamide)-b-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PDMAPMA-b-PMMA) NPs via one-pot RAFT-mediated PISA in water (Paper IV). The PDMAPMA-b-PMMA NPs showed very monodisperse spheres and core-shell nanostructures. Stable and non-toxic poly(acrylic acid)-b-poly(butyl acrylate) (PAA-b-PBA) NPs, synthesized via RAFTmediated PISA in water, were surface engineered by allyl-functional groups prior to bio-conjugation for targeted drug delivery (Paper V). The engineered NPs retained their colloidal stability and size post-allyl functionalization. DOX was efficiently (90 %) encapsulated in the PAA-bPBA NPs during NPs formation. A controlled release pattern of DOX from PAA-b-PBA NPs was observed over 7 days.

  • 96.
    Asem, Heba
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Zheng, Wenyi
    Division of Experimental Cancer Medicine (ECM), Department of Laboratory Medicine (LABMED), Karolinska Institutet, SE-141 86 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Fritjof
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Zhang, Yuning
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Hassan, Moustapha
    Clinical Research Centrum, Department of Stem Cell Transplantation (CAST), Karolinska University Hospital-Huddinge, SE-141 86 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Malmström, Eva
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Functional nano-carriers for drug delivery by surface engineering of polymeric nanoparticles post-PISAManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineered polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) have been comprehensively explored as potential platforms for diagnosis and targeted therapy for several diseases including cancer. Herein, we designed functional poly(acrylic acid)-b-poly(butyl acrylate) (PAA-b-PBA) NPs using reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT)-mediated emulsion polymerization via polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA). The hydrophilic PAA-macroRAFT, forming a stabilizing shell (i.e. corona), was chain-extended using the hydrophobic monomer n-butyl acrylate (n-BA), resulting in stable, monodisperse and reproducible PAA-b-PBA NPs, typically having a diameter of 130 nm. Two approaches of surface engineering of the PAA-b-PBA NPs post-PISA were explored; a two-step and a one-step approach. In the two-step approach, the hydrophilic NP-shell corona was modified with allyl-groups under mild conditions using allylamine in water which resulted in stable allyl-functional NPs (allyl-NPs) suitable for further bio-conjugation. Their versatility was investigated by the subsequent conjugation of a thiol-functional fluorescent dye (BODIPY-SH) to the allyl-groups using click chemistry, in order to mimic the attachment of a thiol-functional target ligand. The average size and size distribution of the corresponding NPs did not change after BODIPY-conjugation. Neither the NPs nor allyl-NPs showed significant cytotoxicity towards RAW264.7 or MCF-7 cell lines, which indicates their desirable safety profile. A one-step approach to concurrently conjugate allyl-groups and a fluorescent dye (FITC) to the preformed PAA-b-PBA NPs was investigated. The cellular uptake of the FITC-NPs using J774A cells in vitro was found to be time- and concentration-dependent. The anti-cancer drug, doxorubicin, was efficiently (90%) encapsulated into the PAA-b-PBA NPs during NP formation. After a small burst release during the first two hours, a controlled release pattern over 7 days was observed. The present investigation demonstrates a potential method to functionalize polymeric NPs post-PISA to produce targeted drug delivery carriers.

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  • 97.
    Ashour, Radwa M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering. Nuclear Materials Authority, P.O. Box 530, ElMaadi, Cairo 11381, Egypt.
    Abdel-Magied, Ahmed Fawzy
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Resource recovery. Nuclear Materials Authority, P.O. Box 530, ElMaadi, Cairo 11381, Egypt.
    Wu, Qiong
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Olsson, Richard
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Forsberg, Kerstin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Resource recovery.
    Green Synthesis of Metal-Organic Framework Bacterial Cellulose Nanocomposites for Separation Applications2020In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 12, no 5, article id 1104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) are porous crystalline materials that can be designed to act as selective adsorbents. Due to their high porosity they can possess very high adsorption capacities. However, overcoming the brittleness of these crystalline materials is a challenge for many industrial applications. In order to make use of MOFs for large-scale liquid phase separation processes they can be immobilized on solid supports. For this purpose, nanocellulose can be considered as a promising supporting material due to its high flexibility and biocompatibility. In this study a novel flexible nanocellulose MOF composite material was synthesised in aqueous media by a novel and straightforward in situ one-pot green method. The material consisted of MOF particles of the type MIL-100(Fe) (from Material Institute de Lavoisier, containing Fe(III) 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate) immobilized onto bacterial cellulose (BC) nanofibers. The novel nanocomposite material was applied to efficiently separate arsenic and Rhodamine B from aqueous solution, achieving adsorption capacities of 4.81, and 2.77 mg g‒1, respectively. The adsorption process could be well modelled by the nonlinear pseudo-second-order fitting.

  • 98.
    Ashraf, Shakeel
    et al.
    Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Elect, S-85170 Sundsvall, Sweden..
    Forsberg, Viviane
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Mattsson, Claes G.
    Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Elect, S-85170 Sundsvall, Sweden..
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Elect, S-85170 Sundsvall, Sweden..
    Thermoelectric Properties of n-Type Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) Thin Film by Using a Simple Measurement Method2019In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, no 21, article id 3521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a micrometre thin film of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is characterized for thermoelectric properties. The sample was prepared through mechanical exfoliation of a molybdenite crystal. The Seebeck coefficient measurement was performed by generating a temperature gradient across the sample and recording the induced electrical voltage, and for this purpose a simple measurement setup was developed. In the measurement, platinum was utilized as reference material in the electrodes. The Seebeck value of MoS2 was estimated to be approximately -600 mu V/K at a temperature difference of 40 degrees C. The negative sign indicates that the polarity of the material is n-type. For measurement of the thermal conductivity, the sample was sandwiched between the heat source and the heat sink, and a steady-state power of 1.42 W was provided while monitoring the temperature difference across the sample. Based on Fourier's law of conduction, the thermal conductivity of the sample was estimated to be approximately 0.26 Wm(-1) K-. The electrical resistivity was estimated to be 29 Omega cm. The figure of merit of MoS2 was estimated to be 1.99 x 10(-4).

  • 99.
    Asp, Leif E.
    et al.
    Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, SE-412 96, Sweden.
    Bouton, Karl
    Carlstedt, David
    Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, SE-412 96, Sweden.
    Duan, Shanghong
    Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, SE-412 96, Sweden.
    Harnden, Ross
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics.
    Johannisson, Wilhelm
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics.
    Johansen, Marcus
    Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, SE-412 96, Sweden.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology, Coating Technology.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Liu, Fang
    Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, SE-412 96, Sweden.
    Peuvot, Kevin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Schneider, Lynn Maria
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics.
    Xu, Johanna
    Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, SE-412 96, Sweden.
    Zenkert, Dan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics.
    A Structural Battery and its Multifunctional Performance2021In: Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research, E-ISSN 2699-9412, Vol. 2, no 3, article id 2000093Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering materials that can store electrical energy in structural load paths can revolutionize lightweight design across transport modes. Stiff and strong batteries that use solid-state electrolytes and resilient electrodes and separators are generally lacking. Herein, a structural battery composite with unprecedented multifunctional performance is demonstrated, featuring an energy density of 24 Wh kg−1 and an elastic modulus of 25 GPa and tensile strength exceeding 300 MPa. The structural battery is made from multifunctional constituents, where reinforcing carbon fibers (CFs) act as electrode and current collector. A structural electrolyte is used for load transfer and ion transport and a glass fiber fabric separates the CF electrode from an aluminum foil-supported lithium–iron–phosphate positive electrode. Equipped with these materials, lighter electrical cars, aircraft, and consumer goods can be pursued.

  • 100. Asp, Leif E
    et al.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Xu, Johanna
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Zenkert, Dan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Engineering Mechanics, Vehicle Engineering and Solid Mechanics.
    Carbon Fibre Composite Structural Batteries: A Review2019In: Functional Composites and Structures, ISSN 2631-6331, article id 042001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art in structural battery composites research. Structural battery composites are a class of structural power composites aimed to provide mass-less energy storage for electrically powered structural systems. Structural battery composites are made from carbon fibres in a structural electrolyte matrix material. Neat carbon fibres are used as a structural negative electrode, exploiting their high mechanical properties, excellent lithium insertion capacity and high electrical conductivity. Lithium iron phosphate coated carbon fibres are used as the structural positive electrode. Here, the lithium iron phosphate is the electrochemically active substance and the fibres carry mechanical loads and conduct electrons. The surrounding structural electrolyte is lithium ion conductive and transfers mechanical loads between fibres. With these constituents, structural battery half-cells and full-cells are realised with a variety in device architecture. The paper also presents an overview of material modelling and characterisation performed to date. Particular reference is given to work performed in national and European research projects under the leadership of the authors, who are able to provide a unique insight into this emerging and exciting field of research.

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