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  • 51.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Svensson, Roger
    Host Country Characteristics and Agglomeration in Freign Direct Investment1996In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Svensson, Roger
    The Inventor’s Role: Was Schumpeter Right?2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    According to Schumpeter, the creative process of economic development can be divided into three distinguishable stages of invention, innovation (commercialization) and imitation. We show why there is a rationale for the Schumpeterian entrepreneur to also include the inventor in the innovation process. In addition, we provide a framework where the theories of Knight’s risk defining entrepreneur and Schumpeter’s innovative entrepreneur can be bridged. Merging the two enhances the possibilities of successful commercialization since the inventor may further adapt the innovation to customer needs, transmit information and reduce uncertainty. This serves to expand the market opportunities for the entrepreneur. The empirical analysis is based on a survey covering Swedish patents granted to individuals and small firms, with a response rate of 80 %. The results show improved commercialization performance when the patent is licensed or sold to an entrepreneur, or if the inventor is employed in an entrepreneurial firm, as compared to commercialization in the inventor’s own firm. Another important result is that, irrespective of commercialization mode, an active involvement of the inventor is shown to have a positive impact on performance.

  • 53.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Thulin, Per
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Can Countries Create Comparative Advantages?: R&D-expenditures, high-tech exports and country size in19 OECD-countries, 1981–19992006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses how increased R&D expenditures and market size influencethe distribution of comparative advantage. Previous studies report ambiguousresults and also refer to periods when markets where much more segmented andproduction factors less mobile. The empirical analysis comprise 19 OECDcountriesand spans the period 1981 to 1999. It is shown how an increase inR&D-expenditures by one percentage point implies a three-percentage pointincrease in high-technology exports, whereas market size fails to attainsignificance. Also institutional factors influence the dynamics of comparativeadvantage.

  • 54.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Thulin, Per
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Kunskapskapital, ’viktlösa varor’ och den nya ekonomin2000In: Ekonomisk DebattArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 55.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Thulin, Per
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    The trade-off between agglomeration force: Evidence from firm-level location data 1974-19982005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The theoretical prediction of a trade-off between production costs and agglomeration economiesadvanced in recent “new economic” geography models has – despite its important policyimplications – not been exposed to empirical testing. Based on a standard model where labormobility is assumed to differ between two regions - the “European Union” (EU) and the “world”- the empirical analysis shows that a ten percent increase in relative wages decreases entry byMNCs by approximately nine percent in EU, but only by three percent in the “world.” Or, putdifferently, a ten percent increase in relative wages in EU requires an increase by 26 percent inagglomeration to keep production levels unaltered. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt toempirically estimate this trade-off.

  • 56.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Thulin, Per
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Oxelheim, Lars
    The Relationship Between Domestic and Outward ForeignInvestment Revisited: The Impact of Industry-Specific Effects2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The ambiguity reported in previous research as regards the effect of foreign direct investment(FDI) on domestic investments is shown to be related to how industries are organized. Basedon a simple model including monitoring and trade costs, we argue that a complementaryrelationship should prevail in vertically integrated industries, whereas a substitutionaryrelationship can be expected in horizontally organized production. Applying iterative SURtechnique,the empirical analysis confirms a significant difference between the two categoriesof industries. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to reconcile the inconclusivenessreported in previous empirical analyses.

  • 57.
    Broström, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Dimensionering av svensk forskarutbildning2012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 58.
    Broström, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Firms' rationales for interaction with research universities and the principles for public co-funding2012In: Journal of Technology Transfer, ISSN 0892-9912, E-ISSN 1573-7047, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 313-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    R&D managers at 50 firms who have formal relations with two research universities in Stockholm are interviewed about their rationales for collaboration. Drawing on this material, a distinctive typology of rationales for establishing cooperative relations is presented. While the typology demonstrates a considerable breadth of interaction rationales, rationales related to innovation, in terms of invented or improved products or processes, are found to be the main drivers for interaction. Based on this framework, we analyse which rationales for interaction are consistent with public rationales for supporting university-industry relationships. Public co-funding that allow firms to influence (part of) the academic agenda is identified as a particularly interesting case that requires further theoretical attention.

  • 59.
    Broström, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    FIRMS’ RATIONALES FOR INTERACTION WITH RESEARCHUNIVERSITIES: the principles for public co-funding2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    R&D managers at 50 firms randomly selected from all firms who have formal relations withtwo research universities in Stockholm are being interviewed about their rationales forcollaboration. Drawing on this material, a distinctive typology of rationales and the therewithassociated effects from cooperative relations is presented. As expected, rationales related toinnovation, in terms of invented or improved products or processes, are found to be themain drivers for interaction. As regards the nature of the innovation process leading toinnovation, most respondents indicate that “indirect” relationships between collaborationoutcomes and successful innovation dominate over “direct” appropriation of results.Contrasting open ended search rationales with pursuit of defined objectives, we find thatboth types are strongly represented among the studied collaborative linkages. We also findthat interaction rationales often go beyond the pursuit of innovation per se; firms also workwith university researchers to access academic networks, to develop its human capital and torealise direct business opportunities. The consequences of these findings for policy measuressteered towards the strengthening of collaborative university-industry linkages are discussed.

  • 60.
    Broström, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Forskning för det 21:a århundradet: Slutrapport från Agenda för forskning2012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 61.
    Broström, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    How can we study innovation systems?: Introducing an actor-centralised perspective2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The systems of innovation approach has helped advocating a view on innovation as dependent onthe interaction over time between different actors and brought the role of institutions to the centerof interest. However, the approach has remained a general framework rather than evolved into ananalytical tool for the study of the dynamics of innovation activities. In this discussion paper, weintroduce the concept of innovation system services, defined as the set of factors that have asignificant potential influence on the opportunities of a certain groups of actors to perform a certaintype of activities efficiently. We suggest that the relevant innovation system for the actors-activitiesnexus at hand can be defined as this set of system services. We examine this analytical framework ina case study on R&D investments of multinational enterprises in Sweden. In this context, innovationsystem services are defined as the set of external factors that the case study suggests to havesignificant impact on the decisions of MNEs to invest in R&D in Sweden. The focus on servicesallows us to analyse the influence of an innovation system on the long-term development of R&D inSweden in a structured and coherent manner and to identify critical dynamics.

  • 62.
    Broström, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Learning by doing in science linkages2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the contribution of Cohen et al. (2002), it is well established that linkages between firms and public research organisations (PROs) serve purposes of both suggesting new R&D projects and completing existing projects. However, the extant literature has little to say about whether these two types of outcomes are linked or independent effects. This paper examines how a firm‟s ability to absorb useful impulses to new R&D projects from interaction with public research organisations depends on how and how well the firm is able to utilise such linkages in project completion. An analysis of Swedish firms suggests that interaction provides impulses to further R&D primarily when it is successfully linked to achieving objectives in ongoing R&D projects of the firm. However, linkages which are focused on contributions to short-term projects are less likely to generate useful impulses. Moreover, not only are linkages which support both long-term and short-term objectives better than linkages which solely serve short-term objectives; firm-PRO linkages in which short-term objectives play a less accented role are most likely to facilitate valuable impulses to further R&D and innovation.

  • 63.
    Broström, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Svenska forskarutbildade fem år efter disputation2012Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 64.
    Broström, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Baltzopoulos, Apostolos
    Attractors of talent: Universities, regions, and alumni entrepreneurs2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how universities may affect regional entrepreneurship through the localisation decisions of entrepreneurial alumni. Empirically a comprehensive, individual-level dataset from Sweden for the period 2003-2005 is employed. The results suggest that even when controlling for their spatial history, individuals have an increased propensity to set up in the region where they studied. This effect is found to substitute for both urbanisation economies and localisation economies as drivers of regional-level entrepreneurship. Thus, the present analysis provides evidence on how universities affect regional economic development that complements the strong focus on spin-off activities by university researchers in previous studies.

  • 65.
    Broström, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    How Does University Collaboration Contribute to Successful R&D Management?: An examination of the Swedish setting2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of through what processes R&D collaboration with universities affects a firms’innovation performance remains under-researched. In particular, university relationships have notbeen fully integrated in the open innovation framework. This study explores the relationshipbetween firms’ collaboration with universities and their capabilities for innovation, as perceivedby R&D managers. Drawing on a series of interviews with R&D managers at 45 randomlyselected firms collaborating with two research universities in Sweden, we explicitly recognisemechanisms through which university relationships contribute to successful R&D management.

  • 66.
    Broström, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    What do we know about Firms’ Research Collaborationwith Universities?: New Quantitative and Qualitative Evidence2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides an integrated view of knowledge transfer between university and industryby combining two different approaches. First, we report results from an econometric analysis,where recent matching techniques are used on a dataset of 2,071 Swedish firms. Our findingsfrom this analysis strongly suggest that university collaboration has a positive influence on theinnovative activity of large manufacturing firms. In contrast, there appears to be an insignificantassociation between university collaboration and the average service firm’s innovation output.Second, in the pursuit of credible explanations for these findings, we apply a semi-structuredinterview methodology on 39 randomly selected firms collaborating with two researchuniversities in Stockholm, Sweden. We identify three ideas for how collaboration may help firmsbecome more innovative in the literature of innovation studies. In analysis of the interviews, wefind very weak support for the first idea; that firms are able to exploit and market innovationsoriginating in the university. The second idea – that firms improve their internal innovativecapability by collaboration – is found to apply to about half of the investigated firms. Innovationefficiency gains in the form of reduced cost and risk for innovation projects, which is a third ideasuggested by the literature, are also suggested to be a major factor behind firms’ benefits. Finally,we offer tentative explanations for the lack of measurable effects of collaboration for servicefirms.

  • 67.
    Buchenko, Olga
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Off-shoring’s Impact on Economic Growth of Developing Countries in Central and Eastern Europe.2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the impact of the increased off-shoring in business and manufacturing to Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). Since the off-shoring process is a relatively new activity, there is no precise definition of how to measure its direct impact on a country’s economy. Thus the study is dedicated to identify the main economic factors associated with off-shoring and to examine their impact on the economic growth. The study has used a dataset on economic characteristics for 9 CEE countries (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Slovenia, Croatia) during the time period of 2000 - 2008. After applying fixed and random effects econometric model to the panel data for 9 countries, empirical results showed that FDI inflows that enter the country with offshoring processes have a positive influence on the GDP of those countries. Additionally, exports of manufactured products and ICT services are also shown to have a positive influence on GDP. At the same time, indigenous investments and private consumption do have a stronger impact on economic growth compared to foreign direct investments and exports, respectively.

  • 68. Chen, Taotao
    et al.
    Kokko, Ari
    Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    FDI and spillovers in China: non-linearity and absorptive capacity2011In: Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies, ISSN 1476-5284, E-ISSN 1476-5292, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a fixed effect variance decomposition model we estimate SURmodels to analyse FDI spillovers from contagion and spillovers fromcompetition on local firms in China. While the former type of spillovermainly depends on the degree of foreign presence, the latter kind is relatedto how foreign and local firms interact. The main conclusion is that FDIhas been beneficial for the Chinese economy but that spillovers are notevenly distributed across firms and industries. Spillovers from contagiontend to exhibit an inverse U-shaped pattern with respect to the degree offoreign presence at the industry level, whereas spillovers from competitionare more linear. Industries with high absorptive capacity and/or highefficiency are the ones best equipped to take advantage of spillovers fromforeign-owned firms.

  • 69. Cook, G. A. S.
    et al.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101).
    Pandit, N. R.
    Johansson, Börje
    The influence of clustering on mne location and innovation in great Britain2012In: Entrepreneurship, Social Capital and Governance: Directions for the Sustainable Development and Competitiveness of Regions, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012, p. 53-82Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 70. Cook, Gary
    et al.
    Pandit, Naresh R.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Johansson, Börje
    Jonkoping International Business School.
    Geographic Clustering and Outward Foreign Direct Investment2012In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 1112-1121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses an important neglected question: To what extent do geographic clusters promote outward foreign direct investment (ODI)? We find evidence that clusters do promote ODI and so support Porter’s argument that advantages gained in clusters can be the foundations of successful internationalisation. Digging deeper, we find that certain cluster incumbents promote more ODI than others, with more experienced firms and firms with stronger resource bases accounting for more ODI. We also find that firms located in clusters within major global nodes/cities engage in more ODI. Finally, we find that both localisation and urbanisation economies promote ODI. However, the former, within-industry effects, are more important. Overall, this study echoes Dunning’s call for more focus on the ‘L’ component of the OLI paradigm and particularly on the advantages that reside in clusters that make them not only attractive destinations for FDI but also fertile environments from which FDI can spring.

  • 71.
    Daghbashyan, Zara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101).
    Do University Units Differ in the Efficiency of Resource Utilization?: a case study of the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), StockholmIn: Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, ISSN 2050-7003, E-ISSN 1758-1184, , p. 29Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The efficiency of universities is attracting increased interest, with most studies comparing the performance between different universities. However, the within-university variation is largely overlooked in the literature. Using data envelopment analysis this paper identifies heterogeneity in the performance of 47 units of a leading Swedish university (the Royal Institute of Technology) in terms of resource utilization. The findings suggest the following:

    First, three quarters of the units exhibit similar high performance. Second, the units are more efficient in using resources for research than for teaching. Third, efficiency in research is highly correlated with efficiency in teaching, implying a complementary relationship.

  • 72.
    Daghbashyan, Zara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Essays on University Efficiency Analysis and Entrepreneurship among University Graduates2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis consists of five papers: three deal with the efficiency of higher education institutions (HEI) and two with entrepreneurship among university graduates. The efficiency of HEIs is analyzed at three different levels: units of one university, universities of one country and universities of a group of European countries.

    Using data envelopment analysis (DEA) the first paper compares technical efficiency among university units at the Royal Institute of Technology (Stockholm). An interesting result is that there seems to be a complementary relationship between efficiency of resource utilization in teaching and in research.

    The second paper applies stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) to estimate the cost efficiency of Swedish higher education institutions. According to the estimates, half of the Swedish HEIs have an above average efficiency of 85 percent. The efficiency differences are mainly influenced by the source of funding, HEI size, the number of students per faculty as well as faculty and student compositions.

    The third paper analyses the cost efficiency of universities among a set of public higher education institutions from six European countries by means of stochastic frontier techniques. The results suggest small variation in the mean economic efficiency of higher education institutions from UK, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Switzerland, implying that the efficiency differences are not explained by country effects. Instead the variations in efficiency are related to organizational differences.

    The two essays on entrepreneurship among university graduates are based on a unique dataset encompassing individual level data on all employees registered in the Swedish labor market. The first paper explores the differences in entrepreneurial choice of graduates from different universities. The main finding from this paper is that the entrepreneurial choice of graduates from internationally ranked Swedish universities systematically differs from others with the difference varying by the area of education.

    The second paper on entrepreneurship aims at explaining the high interest in entrepreneurship among arts graduates and finds that the need for self-expression is among the main motivations for their high interest in entrepreneurship. 

  • 73.
    Daghbashyan, Zara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    The Economic Efficiency of Swedish Higher Education InstitutionsIn: Journal of Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, , p. 23Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using parametric frontier techniques, this paper investigates the economic efficiency of Swedish higher education institutions (HEIs) with an attempt to determine the factors causing efficiency differences. The analysis is conducted for 30 HEIs over the time period 2001-2005. A set of HEI organizational factors as well as faculty and student compositions are examined as potential determinants of economic efficiency.

    According to the estimates, half of the Swedish HEIs have above average efficiency of 85 percent. The economic efficiency is positively affected by HEI size, the number of students per faculty and a high proportion of young professors in the faculty. Another interesting finding is that the source of financing matters for efficient use of resources; in particular, HEIs with a higher level of government support are found to be less efficient.

  • 74.
    Daghbashyan, Zara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    The Economic Efficiency of Swedish Higher Education Institutions2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper investigates the economic efficiency of higher education institutions (HEI) in Sweden to determine the factors that cause efficiency differences. Stochastic frontier analysis is utilized to estimate the economic efficiency of 30 HEI using both pooled and panel data approaches. HEI specific factors such as size, load, staff and student characteristics as well as government allocations are suggested to be the potential determinants of economic efficiency.The results suggest that HEI are not identical in their economic efficiency; though the average efficiency is high, they do perform differently. This variation is explained by the joint influence of HEI specific factors; the quality of labor is found to be highly significant for the cost efficiency of Swedish HEI.

  • 75.
    Daghbashyan, Zara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Björn, Hårsman
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Entrepreneurship and Arts Related EducationIn: Journal of Labor Economics, ISSN 0734-306X, , p. 32Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to improve understanding of the observed high level of entrepreneurship among arts graduates. Specifically, the entrepreneurship rates of university graduates in the arts, architecture and engineering are compared. The occupational choice model applied has three options: wage employment, owning and a combination of the two.

    The utility function governing the choice includes income as well as an indicator of the disutility resulting from differences between the skills required and the skills supplied. The model implies that an alternative providing a better match might be preferred to one providing a higher income. Using Swedish data, this paper shows that the possibility of using artistic skills has stronger impact on the choice of occupation than income considerations.

  • 76.
    Daghbashyan, Zara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Deiaco, Enrico
    Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis.
    McKelvey, Maureen
    Institute for Innovation and Entrepreneurship, University of Gothenburg.
    How and why does cost efficiency of universities differ across European countries?: An explorative attempt using new micro data2012In: The European Higher Education Landscape: Diversity and Performance / [ed] Banaccorsi, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the cost efficiency of universities in a set of public higher education institutions (HEI) from six European countries by means of stochastic frontier techniques. Using a new cross-national set of university input and output variables as well as series of university-related exogenous variables, it explores cross-country variation in cost efficiency and the impact of institutional factors on efficiency variation.

    The results suggest small variations in the mean economic efficiency of higher education institutions from the UK, Norway, Sweden, Finland and Switzerland, implying that efficiency differences in HEIs of these countries are not explained by country effects. Austrian HEIs are an exception in this respect. Furthermore, according to our results big universities and those with a high proportion of teaching and research personnel are more efficient, everything else equal.

  • 77.
    Daghbashyan, Zara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Hårsman, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Entrepreneurship among university graduates2010In: 50th Anniversary of European Congress of the Regional Science Association Jönköping, Sweden, 19-23 August, 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the paper is to shed light upon entrepreneurship among university graduates. We are interested in differences across educational areas and among universities regarding entrepreneurial selection and performance. The paper differs from similar studies in two respects. In order to broaden the common definitions used to measure entrepreneurship we suggest a typology making it possible to differentiate between various types of entrepreneurs. Secondly, we differentiate between both level of education, area of education and university of graduation. In order to capture some of the uncertainties related to the choice among our entrepreneurial categories we use individual time series income data.Using cross-section data on Swedish graduates we examine the impact of university on entrepreneurial choice and performance of graduates from 44 Swedish universities. A separate analysis is done for graduates of 5 education fields to control for heterogeneity of education. The results suggest that entrepreneurial preferences differ by education fields, that graduates of some universities are more entrepreneurial than others. We also find that the preferences for different entrepreneurial occupations differ across universities. As to the university effect on graduates’ earnings we find significant university effect for only a small group of universities, which differ by field of education and entrepreneurial category.

  • 78. Daunfeldt, Sven-Olof
    et al.
    Halvarsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101). The Ratio Institute, Sweden.
    Are High-Growth Firms One-Hit Wonders?: Evidence from Sweden2015In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 361-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most firms do not grow, and a small number of high-growth firms seem to create most new jobs. These firms have therefore received increasing attention among policymakers. The question is whether high-growth tends to persist? We investigate this question using data on 432,689 observa-ions in Sweden during 1998-2008. We find that high-growth firms had declining growth rates in the previous 3-year period, and their probability of repeating high growth rates was very low. HGFs are essentially one-hit wonders, and it is thus doubtful whether policymakers can improve economic outcomes by targeting them.

  • 79.
    Diakova, Ekaterina
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Changing of VC funds' investment pattern in times of financial turmoil. The case of Swedish VC funds in the 2005-2012 period.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Venture Capital (VC) industry is of major importance for economic growth,since in some cases VC is the best option for start-ups and \young companies" tosecure funding to grow. Studying and understanding VCs behavior is importantnot only from an academic viewpoint, but also for rms seeking investment, thefunds investing in VC as an asset class, and VC funds themselves. Despitethe fact that VC industry remains in a state of continuous change, and VC'sare reluctant to share internal information on internal operations and decisionmaking, this study has explored a way to analyze VC's investments and trackchanges in their behavior over time.This master thesis tries to answer the main research question: \Have SwedishVC funds changed their behavior in the period before, during, and after the2008 nancial crisis?" We selected the following criteria as indicators of VCbehavior - the number of investments, sector preferences, amount invested, stagepreferences, and syndication with other funds. The auxiliary research questionlinks the change in the VC funds behavior to the main economic trend bycomparing investment patterns to general economic indicators. This masterthesis is unique, since nothing completely similar was done before.The analysis section consists of: information collation, statistics, trend analysis,and qualitative research. This research is limited to the venture funds,whose target market includes Sweden.The analysis showed that the number of investments stayed the same, whilethe invested amount decreased in 2009, nevertheless, both these indicators increasedin 2011. During the period 2007-2012, the preferred stage of investmentshifted to include growth equity and seed companies along with early stagesrms and start-ups. VC funds have preferred to diversify their portfolio amongdierent sectors, and to syndicate more during the 2008 crisis.Addressing the main question above, yes - the venture funds' behavior didchange during the period 2005-2012. The examination of this pattern has indicatedthat the funds' change corresponds to the main economic trend with aone-year delay.Keywords: the 2008 nancial crisis, crisis, VC funds' behavior, 2006-2012,preferable sector, preferable stage, investments number, amount invested, VCfunds, behavior change, Swedish economic trend, Economic Tendency Indicator,Sweden, Nordic, investments trend, invested amount trend.

  • 80. Eliasson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Braunerhjelm, Pontus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101).
    Entrepreneurial catch-up and new industrial competence blocs formation in the Baltic sea region2015In: The evolution of economic and innovation system, Springer Publishing Company, 2015, p. 341-372Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 81.
    Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Karpaty, Patrik
    Offshoring of Services and Corruption: Do Firms Escape Corrupt Countries?2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyze how the offshoring of services by Swedish firms is affected by corruption in target economies. Taking stance from the gravity model of trade, we analyze how the choice of country, volume and composition of offshored services is affected by the presence of corruption in target economies. The results suggest that corruption is a deterrent for service offshoring. Firms avoid corrupt countries, and corruption reduces the amount of offshored services. In addition, the sensitivity to corruption is highest for poor countries, and large and internationalized firms are the ones that tend to be the most sensitive to corruption. Given the importance of large firms as international investors and subcontractors, this adds yet another argument for fighting corruption.

  • 82.
    Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Poldahl, Andreas
    Determinants of Firm R&D: The Role of Relationship-specific Interactions for R&D Spillovers2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research and Development (R&D) is a key component behind technological development and economic growth; therefore, understanding the drivers of R&D is crucial. An interesting question is the role of technology spillovers, transferred by trade, and their impact on firm R&D. Here we analyze not only how international and domestic inter- and intra-industry technology spillovers affect firm R&D but also the relatively unexplored issue of how relationship-specific interactions between buyer and seller affect such spillovers. We find international technology spillovers to be larger and more significant than domestic inter- and intra-industry spillovers. Moreover, relationship-specific interactions between seller and buyer enhance technology spillovers in general and international spillovers in particular.

  • 83.
    Halldin, Torbjörn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Born global firms: do they perform differently?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates whether born global firms perform differently compared to other newly founded manufacturing firms. A rigorous quantitative treatment of born global firms has been absent in the international entrepreneurship literature. The quantitative focus of the paper adds to this literature. To a simple OLS estimation is added a matching approach in order to circumvent the absence of counterfactual for born global firms had they not chosen to pursue a born global strategy. Measuring performance five years after firm foundation, born global firms are found to have higher growth in employment and sales per employee but no such effect is found when performance is measured by profitability or labor productivity. For robustness purposes, similar results are found when the analysis is augmented to include a wider spread of born global firm definitions and having performance measured three to seven years subsequent to firm foundation.

  • 84.
    Halldin, Torbjörn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Born global firms in knowledge intensive business services (KIBS): what do we know of their performance?Manuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the performance of KIBS firms that are aimed for global markets from inception. Despite the increasing importance of KIBS, no previous study has investigated born global firms in this sector of the economy. Three definitions are used to categorize firms as born global. Both OLS and a nearest neighbor matching approach are implemented to find evidence of higher growth in employment and sales per employee five years after firm foundation. Finally, the findings are robust to a finer array of born global definitions and time horizons of firm performance.

  • 85.
    Halldin, Torbjörn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    External finance, collateralizable assets and export market entryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the relationship between collateralizable assets and export market entry. The ability to finance the sunk entry costs associated with an international expansion is one of the factors determining whether or not a firm starts engaging in export activities. Using a large panel of Swedish manufacturing firms over the 1997-2006 period, a firm’s access to external finance is proxied by its degree of collateralizable assets. The main finding of the paper is that tangible assets, which can be pledged as collateral in loan applications, constitute an important determinant of export market entry. However, accounts receivable and inventories as an alternative means of facilitating the access to external finance, is not found to influence the entry decision. Previous literature has made little attempt in explaining why future exporters might encounter difficulties in obtaining external finance. Therefore, the novelty of the paper and its contribution to the existing literature on financially constrained exporters is that it investigates an underlying reason to why firms might experience difficulties in financing an export market entry through external finance.

  • 86.
    Halldin, Torbjörn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Firm internationalization and born global firms: On the causes and consequences of export market entry2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis consists of four self-contained essays on the topic of small firm internationalization. In the first essay I study the relationship between collateralizable assets and export market entry. There are often large sunk costs associated with export market entry, which firms have to finance somehow. A firm‘s access to external finance is therefore proxied by its collateralizable assets. These collateralizable assets are used as securitization in the firm‘s loan applications. The main finding of the paper is that tangible assets, i.e. assets with high collateralizable value, are an important determinant of export market entry.

    The remaining three essays study born global firms. The thesis‘s second essay is on the performance of manufacturing born global firms. Born global firms have previously been studied predominantly using qualitative methods instead of a quantitative approach as is done in this essay. Four different performance measures are used and evidence is found that born global firms perform superior five years subsequent to firm foundation when performance is measured by employment and sales per employee. However, for profitability and labor productivity no such effect can be identified. The OLS results are confirmed by a nearest neighbor matching approach, which shows similar results.

    The focus of the third essay is on a subset of KIBS firms that can be categorized as born global firms. In many economies, the role of KIBS has increased over the past couple of decades. Despite this fact, there has been little attempt to describe the sector‘s export activities. This paper studies the performance of born global KIBS firms. The paper is very similar to the second essay, but due to the heavy focus on manufacturing firms in studies of born global firms, KIBS firms deserve a separate treatment. The findings indicate that born global KIBS firms perform better in terms of employment growth and sales per employee. These findings are robust to different born global definitions and time horizons of firm performance.

    The fourth essay investigates whether employee characteristics matter for firm survival. The focus of the paper is on born global firms both within the manufacturing and KIBS industries. The methodology of choice in studying firm survival is the Cox proportional hazard models. The results show little significance of individual employee characteristics as determinant for survival rates when born global firms are investigated. Furthermore, neither spinouts nor firms categorized as future exporters show much significance on individual characteristics. However, when the sample is extended to include the total amount of new firms, we see that individual employee characteristics do matter for survival.

  • 87.
    Halvarsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101).
    Firm Dynamics: The Size and Growth Distribution of Firms2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about firm dynamics, and relates to the size and growth-rate distribution of firms. As such, it consists of an introductory and four separate chapters. The first chapter concerns the size distribution of firms, the two subsequent chapters deal more specically with high-growth firms (HGFs), and the last chapter covers a related topic in distributional estimation theory. The first three chapters are empirically oriented, whereas the fourth chapter develops a statistical concept.

  • 88.
    Halvarsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Identifying High-Growth Firms2013Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the role(s) of high-growth firms (HGFs) in the robust growth-rate distribution. HGFs are identied as firms for which the growth-rate distribution exhibits power-law decay. In contrast to the traditional means of identifying HGFs, a distributional approach eliminates the need to specify an arbitrary growth rate or percentage share. The latter approach is illustrated by the growth-rate distribution for Swedish data on incorporated firms at the aggregate level and at the 2-digit in-dustry level. The empirical results indicate that a power law is sometimes present in the growth-rate distribution and suggest that HGFs are rarer than previously thought.

  • 89.
    Halvarsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Industry Differences in the Firm Size Distribution2013Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper empirically examines industry determinants of the shape of Swedish firm size distributions at the 3-digit (NACE) industry level between 1999-2004 for surviving firms. Recent theoretical studies have begun to develop a better understanding of the causal mechanisms behind the shape of firm size distributions. At the same time there is a growing need for more systematic empirical research. This paper therefore presents a two-stage empirical model, in which the shape parameters of the size distribution are estimated in a rst stage, with rm size measured as number of employees. In a second stage regression analysis, anumber of hypotheses regarding economic variables that may determine the distributional shape are tested. The result from the first step are largely consistent with previous statistical ndings conrming a power law. The main nding, however, is that increases in industry capital and nancial constraint exert a considerable inuence on the size distribution, shaping it over time towards thinner tails, and hence fewer large firms.

  • 90.
    Halvarsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    On the Estimation of Skewed Geometric Stable Distributions2013Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing interest in the application of geometric stable distribu-tions has lead to a need for appropriate estimators. Building on recent procedures for estimating the Linnik distribution, this paper develops two estimators for the geometric stable distribution. Closed form expressions are provided for the signed and unsigned fractional momentsof the distribution. The estimators are then derived using the methods of fractional lower order moments and that of logarithmic moments. Their performance is tested on simulated data, where the lower order estimators, in particular, are found to give ecient results over most of the parameter space.

  • 91.
    Hu, Zimu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Chinese Happiness Index and Its Influencing Factors Analysis2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, economists are gradually showing their interests in the study of happiness. They even put forward some challenges to the traditional theories. In contrast, studies on Chinese happiness problem are not enough in terms of breadth and depth. 

    This paper used the data provided by China General Social Survey to conduct an empirical analysis. The model author adopted is Ordered Discrete Choice model. In the empirical section, author analyzed the impact of income, macroeconomic variables, etc. 

    Ultimately, based on the empirical results, author proposed some policy recommendations and further study suggestions.

  • 92.
    Huang, Wenting
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    IPR Barriers in Collaboration between University and Engineering Industry in Sweden2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the barriers, especially intellectual property rights concerned that inhibit industry academia collaboration. By analyzing Swedish firms in the engineering industry, I explore the influence of IPR barrier on firms’ benefits, short- and long-term respectively from university-industry interaction. Three hypotheses are suggested to investigate the relationship between IPR barriers, firm categories, short-term benefits and long-term benefits. The results illustrate different firms’ reactions to IPR barriers. According to the analysis, advanced firms are more likely to report IPR barriers. Moreover, they tend to benefit more in the long run. However, the short-term benefits from UI collaboration seem to have no significant relationship with IPR barriers. There is hence no proof in the data that IPR barriers are a significant hinder for firms to benefit from university-industry interaction.

  • 93.
    Hårsman, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Daghbashyan, Zara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Avkastning på högre utbildning bland examinerade vid Stockholms lärosäten2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna rapport är att uppskatta avkastningen på högre utbildning för olika utbildnings- grupper examinerade från lärosäten i Stockholms län och att härvid beakta både grundutbildning och forskarutbildning.

  • 94.
    Hårsman, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Daghbashyan, Zara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Entrepreneurship and Arts Related Education2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to shed light upon entrepreneurship among university graduates having different kinds of arts related education. After demonstrating the large differences between the nine groups concerning entrepreneurship rates, a dynamic model for occupational choice is outlined. The choice is assumed to be governed by the related demand and income and by the match between the skills required and the skills supplied implying that an alternative providing a better match might be preferred to one providing a higher income. Using data for Swedish graduates we show that the probability of becoming entrepreneur is strongly influenced by the area of education. We further show that compared to engineers artists are more interested in using their special skills and ready to “sacrifice” higher income against the possibility to express their talent.

  • 95.
    Hårsman, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Daghbashyan, Zara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Karriärvägar bland examinerade vid Stockholms lärosäten2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten beskriver och analyserar karriärutveckling och entreprenörskap bland sysselsattaakademiker med fokus på dem som har examinerats från universitet och högskolor i Stockholms län.Tre av fyra akademiker med examen från ett lärosäte i Stockholms län arbetar i den störrependlingsregion – Stockholmsregionen – där även delar av Uppsala och Södermanlands län igår.Regionen är starkt kunskapsorienterad. Den svarar för en dryg fjärdedel av Sveriges sysselsättning mendär arbetar 48 procent av alla forskarutbildade och nästan 40 procent av alla akademiker.Stockholmsregionens andel av landets lågutbildade sysselsatta är betydligt lägre, nämligen 22 procent.Den övergripande slutsatsen av vår karriäranalys är att akademiker med examen från lärosäten iStockholms län lyckas väl på arbetsmarknaden. Jämfört med dem med examen från annat håll har deoftare en anställning med krav som motsvarar utbildningen, de har högre löner och de är i störreutsträckning verksamma som entreprenörer.Det är svårt att säga vad dessa tre skillnader till fördel för dem med en examen från Stockholms länberor på. Våra analyser av hur bilden förändras om andra förklarande faktorer tillförs tyder dock påföljande. Lönerna förblir någon eller några procent högre för dem med examen från länet. Likasåförblir sannolikheten att vara entreprenör signifikant om än marginellt högre. Dock gäller attövertaget avseende andelen som har ett akademiskt yrke ”försvinner” när hänsyn tas till andraförklaringsfaktorer.

  • 96.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Parsing the Menagerie of Agglomeration and Network Externalities2005In: Industrial Clusters and Inter-Firm Networks / [ed] B. Johansson, C. Karlsson and R. Stough, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar , 2005, p. 107-147Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 97.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Parsing the Menagerie of Agglomeration and Network Externalities2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Externalities have for a long time been perceived as awkward cases that are alien to wellstructured economic analyses. During recent decades ideas inherited from Marshall and others have regained interest in the analysis of specialisation and trade, urban formation and growth as well as innovation processes. A variety of contributions has brought about an equally varied set of externalities with labels such as localisation and urbanisation economies, industrial districts, innovative regions. This presentation attempts to bring order to the many ideas about externalities by classifying them with regard to the sources and consequences of the externalities, and to the externality mechanisms. A basic separation is made between those externalities that affect efficiency and those that generate development.

  • 98.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Spatial Clusters of ICT Industries2006In: The Emerging Digital Economy / [ed] B. Johansson, C. Karlsson and R. Stough, Berlin: Springer-Verlag , 2006, p. 137-168Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 99.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Transport Infrastructure Inside and Across Urban Regions: Models and assessment methods2008In: The Wider Economic Benefits of Transport: Micro-, meso- and macro-economic transport planning and investment tools / [ed] Round Table 140 , Transport Research Centre, Paris: OECD Publishing, 2008Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 100.
    Johansson, Börje
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics.
    Andersson, Martin
    HETEROGENEOUS DISTRIBUTIONS OF FIRMS SUSTAINED BY INNOVATION DYNAMICS - a model with empirical illustration2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper develops a framework to appreciate the observed heterogeneity of firm size distributions and the entry and exit of products and firms associated with it. It is based on a model where new products are introduced by innovating firms in a quasi-temporal setting of monopolistic competition. The rate at which a firm innovates, according to a firm-specific Poisson process, is assumed to be influenced by the firm’s past experience and cumulated knowledge assets. The model assigns a fundamental role to entrepreneurship of existing and potential firms. The empirical analysis is based on detailed firm-level export data, which describes firm size in terms of products and markets, and firm dynamics in terms of changes in the supply pattern (varieties and markets) of existing firms in combination with entry/exit of firms. The empirical results are consistent with the model. First, the modeled innovation process imply a persistent distribution of heterogeneous firms. Second, the invariant size distribution of firms is associated with significant micro-dynamics, where firms continuously add and subtract varieties from their product mix, and new firms may enter while some exit. Third, an econometric analysis where firms’ introduction of new varieties is explained by firm attributes provides support for the assumption of a firm-specific and state-dependent stochastic innovation process.

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