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  • 51.
    Boon, Edward
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Ofek, Nir
    Deal of the day: analyzing purchase frequency based subscriber segmentationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 52.
    Boon, Edward
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Ofek, Nir
    Pitt, Leyland
    "Deal of the Day": an analysis of subscriber purchase behaviorManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 53.
    Boon, Edward
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Pitt, L.
    Ofek, N.
    "deal of the day": An analysis of subscriber purchase behavior2015In: Tourism and Hospitality Research, ISSN 1467-3584, E-ISSN 1742-9692, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 105-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deal of the day is a form of sales promotion that offers merchants the possibility to promote their product at a discount to a mailing list of subscribers that is managed by an intermediary. The objective of the study presented in this paper is to learn more about the development of deal of the day and to assess its attractiveness for merchants. For this purpose, the study examines the purchase history database of a small Swiss deal website. The key findings are: the deal of the day industry is still growing steadily, and late subscribers are as attractive as early adopters; most subscribers buy only one deal or none at all; and only a minority of subscribers buys deals frequently enough to be labeled as high-frequency purchasers. The findings offer insight into the past and future development of deal of the day and show that there are segments within the subscriber base that intermediaries need to treat differently.

  • 54.
    Boon, Edward
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Wiid, Ria
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    DesAutels, Philips
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Teeth whitening, boot camp, and a brewery tour: A practical analysis of 'deal of the day'2012In: Journal of Public Affairs, ISSN 1472-3891, E-ISSN 1479-1854, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 137-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deal of the day has become a familiar feature on the online marketing landscape. Most prominent in the crowded space of the discount of the day is the company Groupon. It uses the lens of social media to amplify the reach of its online sales promotions. This paper examines the deal of the day phenomenon by comparing it with more familiar promotional and online marketing approaches such as group buying, e-couponing, and email marketing. It analyzes the content of 847 Groupon deals across 44 US cities in terms of characteristics, scope, and limitations and provides specific insight into the public policy issues that the phenomenon is giving rise to.

  • 55.
    Botha, Elise M.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    A means to an end: Using political satire to go viral2014In: Public Relations Review, ISSN 0363-8111, E-ISSN 1873-4537, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 363-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the rise of video sharing giants like Youtube and Google Video, coupled with increased broadband connectivity and improved sharing functionality across social networking sites, the role of the viral video has been cemented in many IMC strategies. While most agree about the importance of better understanding viral marketing, there is less agreement about what makes content become viral. While some content gets viewed by millions of people, others struggle to gain viral traction. Content specific, intrapersonal and interpersonal reasons have been proposed for viral marketing success. This paper' focuses on the intrapersonal reasons for content going viral in the context of political satire. More specifically, the role of emotion in the spread of content online, is investigated. Political satire focuses on gaining entertainment from politics. Satire, and specifically political satire, forms part of using humour in advertising and has been influential in shifting public opinion since ancient Greece. This study compares success and unsuccessful viral campaigns that used political satire, by first analysing the online comments that viewers made about the video. Following these findings, an experiment is conducted and the influence of intensity, creativity, humour and utility on virality is modelled, controlling for valence and previous exposure. The findings suggest that, when using political satire in viral campaigns, creativity and the intensity of the emotions felt are key influencing factors in whether videos get "shared" or "liked". Therefore, while many authors contend that particular emotions or positive content has a greater likelihood to become viral, this paper shows that it is not the particular emotion, but the intensity with which that emotion was felt that drives viral success.

  • 56.
    Botha, Elsie Margaretha
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Contagious Communications: The role of emotion in viral marketing2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The “connection generation” craves interaction with and connection to vast social networks through the sharing of information, photos, opinions, entertainment and news. This sharing comes in the form of electronic word-of-mouth or eWOM, and provides marketing and communication managers with an unparalleled opportunity to reach a large number of consumers quickly. With the ever increasing growth of the internet and the rise of social media and social network sites, viral marketing has cemented itself in the marketing and corporate agenda. However, while there has been a shift in marketing budgets towards online and social media, little is known about how to successfully leverage viral marketing. Consequently, understanding why some videos go viral and others do not is becoming an increasingly popular focus of academic research. This study aimed to answer the following research question: What are the factors that drive the virality of online content?

     

    In an attempt to answer this exploratory research question, four papers were used to look at its constituent parts. In the first paper, the role of emotion in the sharing of online content was investigated. Rime’s social sharing of emotion theory was used to explain why emotion could drive the spread of content online. We suggested that people’s propensity to share viral content was a function of the intensity, sociality and complexity of the emotion elicited by the viral content.

     

    The following two papers further investigated the role of emotion in viral marketing by looking at the relationship between content and emotion. Paper 2 used interviews in a qualitative research design to propose a decision-tree of the interplay between content and emotion in viral marketing. This paper showed that the relevance of the content has an influence on viewers’ emotional response. Paper 3 took a closer look at the relationship between content and emotion by using a two-stage design: First, content analysis was done on the comments of selected YouTube videos. Second, an experiment was used to test the emotions that these videos elicited in respondents, the valence of those emotions, the intensity with which they were felt, as well as various content-related factors (e.g. the creativity and humor used in the videos). This paper looked specifically at the use of political communication in viral marketing and showed that creativity, valence and the intensity of the emotions elicited by the content are key drivers of viral success.

     

    The final and fourth paper culminates in a model for the sharing of content online. This paper built on the findings from the previous papers, but also made use of interviews, and the analysis of a longitudinal dataset to propose a comprehensive model for the spread of content online. The longitudinal dataset was compiled using the top 10 posts from Reddit.com, a viral aggregator website, over the period of 25 days. The comprehensive model shows that there are external, intrapersonal and interpersonal drivers of viral content. The external drivers of viral content are the viral videos themselves (content) and its popularity. The content construct refers to various aspects related to the content itself, for example how informative, creative, humorous etc. the content is. Its popularity, on the other hand, was driven by both WOM and mainstream media reports. The intrapersonal drivers of viral content refer to the emotions that the content elicited in viewers. Viewers’ emotional response to the content was influenced by its relevance, but also by the valence and intensity of the emotion that they felt. Even though some content elicited intense emotions in viewers, some viewers did not share the content and interpersonal drivers of viral content was introduced to the model. These drivers recognise the social aspect of social media, and that content gets shared with large social networks. The model contends that people share viral content with their social networks as a form of online gift giving, out of altruism, or simply to build their own reputation. Finally, we contend that, in this content à emotion à social sharing chain, people share viral content both online and offline, as many respondents simply told their friends about the content (thus prompting them to go and watch the content themselves) or showed them the content themselves. This online and offline sharing of content increased the popularity of the content and a self-reinforcing chain was created, increasing the exponential growth typically associated with viral content.

     

    As consumers are exposed to an increasing amount of marketing messages, and marketing budgets shrink, marketing managers could greatly benefit from better understanding how to more effectively make social media part of their marketing strategy. Viral marketing allows for a low-cost way of communicating marketing messages with great potential for impacting the market. This study ultimately shows what marketing managers can do to increase their chances of viral success, and ends off with a list of managerial recommendations to leverage the external, intrapersonal and interpersonal factors present in viral campaigns.

  • 57.
    Botha, Elsie Margaretha
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Reyneke, M.
    To share or not to share: The role of content and emotion in viral marketing2013In: Journal of Public Affairs, ISSN 1472-3891, E-ISSN 1479-1854, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 160-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most recent influential trends in the global environment has been the rise of social media. Stakeholders have found a strong voice in social media, and messages are spread among social media users at an astounding speed across a global landscape. As a result of this phenomenon and in an effort to use this viral spread of messages across social media, companies are increasingly making use of viral marketing. Viral messages are playing an increasingly important role in influencing and shifting public opinion on corporate reputations, brands, and products as well as political parties and public personalities to name but a few. Very little is known about the motivations, attitudes, and behavior of the people who forward viral messages to their online networks. Through in-depth interviews with college-going Generation Y consumers, we explore this relationship between viral media and emotions. We look at two very specific components of online videos that have gone viral: first, the relevance of the video's content and, second, participants' emotional reaction to these videos to try and better explain the viral spread of online video messages. The paper concludes by proposing a decision tree that interusers might subconsciously experience when deciding whether to share a video with their friends or not. The article concludes with a discussion about future research avenues in the area of emotions and viral marketing.

  • 58.
    Bredican, John
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    App Service: How do consumers perceive the quality of financial Service Apps on smart devices?In: Journal of Financial Services Marketing, ISSN 1363-0539, E-ISSN 1479-1846Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Apps on smart devices such as phones and tablets have enabled financial services firms to not only provide greater convenience and flexibility to customers, but also to get them to do a lot of the work entailed in these services. This has changed the character of service in many ways, including the nature of service quality where service is no longer delivered by people, but by means of technology. The study reported here used an amended version of the SERVQUAL instrument to assess consumers’ perception of the quality of the service delivered by the apps of their financial services providers. Three dimensions of app service quality emerge: reliability, personal and visibles. Generally, consumers are reasonably satisfied with the quality of service provided by their financial apps, and prefer them to visits to service providers physical locations, and rate them as highly as online service provision on PCs or laptops. Limitations are acknowledged, managerial implications drawn and avenues for future research are identified.

  • 59.
    Bredican, John
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Apps in the U-space: From mobile to ubiquitous marketing2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart mobile devices are becoming increasingly essential daily companions. Applications (apps) are the interface through which the consumer can leverage unique capabilities of smart mobile devices to interact with people, other devices and firms via the supporting mobile ecosystem.

    Smart mobile devices and apps are influencing how competition is defined and changing how firms do business by improving internal processes and increasing flexibility and convenience for customers. Mobile apps and devices enable users to move from a portable and mobile communication and computing environment to that of a ubiquitous communication and computing environment [u-space]. Discussion in terms of ‘mobile marketing’ is therefore too limiting, our understanding should be ‘ubiquitous marketing’. Six papers explore ubiquitous marketing further.

    The retail sector provides a contextual setting for paper one and finds that mobile marketing increases value for retailers and consumers. Integration of all retailer / consumer interfaces with mobile marketing to maximise exposure and connectivity between both parties is recommended.

    Paper two investigates the sources for mobile app ideas in companies and finds that apps developed externally or within the firm with some outside help, were perceived to be more effective. Apps that leverage the mobile devices unique features is central to the methodology proposed for developing an app in paper three.

    The next three papers examine the impact that mobile apps and devices have on business activities and customer relationships. Paper four finds increased operational efficiency in a Dental 

    Practice, while paper five identified the opportunity for increased firm-customer interaction in a medical context. Paper six determines that rather than five dimensions of SERVQUAL, financial service quality of apps consists of three dimensions: Reliability, personal and visibles; and that service success can be derived from providing less service.

    This thesis contributes to a fuller understanding of U-commerce theory. It advances understanding in how apps are making significant changes in how information technology is managed and controlled from an organisational perspective, and how these technology advances can influence consumer interaction. 

  • 60.
    Bredican, John
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Mills, A. J.
    Plangger, K.
    IMedical: Integrating Smartphones into medical practice design2013In: Journal of Medical Marketing, ISSN 1745-7904, E-ISSN 1745-7912, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 5-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smartphones particularly the iPhone and the multitude of applications that have been developed for users of the device is briefly described. The study investigates what makes Smartphones different from other more common Internet applications (via personal computer), and how these enhance the interactions the practice has with its patients while also increasing efficiency. U-Commerce is suggested as a theoretical framework that best explains the uniqueness of the iPhone. This article considers Smartphones (most notably the iPhone) as a device that can have a valuable impact on the medical practice, particularly from the perspective of the interaction that the practice has with its patients. Practice implications: A process is outlined for identifying apps within the medical practice, ensuring the applications take advantage of the iPhone's unique features, and contribute to the efficiency of the practice.

  • 61.
    Bredican, John
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Vigar-Ellis, Debbie
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Smartphone applications - Idea sourcing and app development: Implications for firms2014In: South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences, ISSN 1015-8812, E-ISSN 2222-3436, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 232-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The smartphone has become the uniquely personal computing device choice for consumers. Applications (apps) for smartphones are set to reach revenues of 25 pound billion according to Gartner. This presents great opportunities for marketing as apps can provide great benefits for consumers and firms. However it is Information Systems (IS) departments that have traditionally been tasked with the acquisition and/or development of such information technologies within organisations. With such strong implications for marketing, this exploratory research has focused on the sources of app ideas within firms, locations for app development and perceptions of app development success. Results indicate that while most ideas for apps currently come from IS and marketing departments within the organisation, and development of apps is also done mainly within the organisation, these development strategies are not necessarily the most effective. Managerial implications' regarding the role of IS, Marketing and the customer in app development, are discussed.

  • 62.
    Buffington, Jack
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    The Beverage Can in the United States: Achieving a 100% Recycled Aluminum Can through Supply Chain Innovation2012In: JOM: The Member Journal of TMS, ISSN 1047-4838, E-ISSN 1543-1851, Vol. 64, no 8, p. 923-932Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research is to analyze why recycled content is low (33-50%) in the aluminum can in the United States when it is technically possible to have a product that is made from 100% recycled material. A comprehensive literature review is conducted, followed by identification of five propositions determined with respect to the research problem. With respect to aluminum can recycling (and its research), there is a greater focus on the role of the consumer than the producer in the aluminum can supply chain system, which may impact on the role of innovation in addressing the problem. The upstream primary aluminum supply chain is vertically integrated and efficient within itself, but not integrated with the downstream secondary aluminum can market. Given the importance of the secondary aluminum market in the United States, there are significant recycling/efficiency/sustainability opportunities to address. As opposed to a dominant focus on consumers and their recycling habits, this study focuses on the aggregate aluminum can supply chain to apply innovation to the solution.

  • 63.
    Buffington, Jack
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Peterson, Ray
    Defining a Closed-Loop US Aluminum Can Supply Chain Through Technical Design and Supply Chain Innovation2013In: JOM: The Member Journal of TMS, ISSN 1047-4838, E-ISSN 1543-1851, Vol. 65, no 8, p. 941-950Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to conduct a supply chain material flow analysis (MFA) for the U.S. aluminum can market, consistent with studies conducted for the overall worldwide aluminum industry. A technical definition of the use of alloys 5182 and 3104 is conducted by metallurgists for use in the "aluminum can" MFA. Four propositions are created: technical, economic, and supply chain factors are as important to secondary aluminum recycling in an aluminum can as higher recycling rates (P-1); the development of a unialloy aluminum can will increase reuse rates, but recycling rates must increase for this to happen (P-2); a closed-loop aluminum can supply chain is not able to be fully realized in today's environment but is very useful for understanding improvement through both supply and demand (P-3); and UBC supply can improve through a "voluntary deposit-refund system" approach (P-4).

  • 64.
    Buffington, John
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Frictionless Markets: The 21st Century Supply Chain2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume models a 21st century supply chain: one that uses technology that leads to the power of the individual, not larger organizations. Author Jack Buffington explains how in the near future, each of us will be a prosumer in a peer-based economy of micro-level manufacturing with little waste and infinite customization. There are two primary schools of thought in regard to the world economy of the future; from one side is a belief that economic growth can continue in perpetuity, driven upon a cheap and plentiful energy supply. From the other point of view is a perspective that economic growth will soon end has due to a lack of cheap and plentiful oil, too much financial debt, and a damaged environment that cannot withstand more growth. Frictionless Markets proposes a third way: a 21st century model based upon an economic calculus that does assume that fossil fuels are rapidly depleting and the environment is being damaged, but does not assume that this means an end to growth, but rather, a beginning of opportunities. Frictionless Markets tells the story of why and how frictionless markets will exist by the year 2030.

  • 65.
    Buffington, John
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    The Viability of a "Voluntary Refund-Deposit System" for Aluminum Can Recycling in the U.S.2014In: Light Metals 2014, Wiley-Blackwell, 2014, p. 913-918Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of a voluntary deposit system is developed and modeled in this paper in comparison to the current state of a voluntary non-deposit (R<inf>1</inf>) and mandatory refund-deposit (R<inf>2</inf>) hybrid system in the U.S. The R<inf>3</inf> model is found to be optimal in comparison through an increase in the recycling rate, a reduction in operating costs, and the creation of a larger surplus to be used to pay for an IT-based tracking system and research grants to enable future innovations in the collection and processing of recyclables. In the R<inf>3</inf> model, consumers are only burdened if they choose to not recycle, or they wish to have the convenience of curbside pick-up.

  • 66.
    CEDERCRANTZ, JAKOB
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Försäljning av flygbiljetter över internet: En studie om hur Scandinavian Airlines skulle kunna öka försäljningen av flygbiljetter via internet2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the last few years, the airplane ticket sales have increased substantially. A lot of new companies have joined the market and established themselves as online travel agencies. The agencies have taken a significant market share from the airline company which has resulted in the airline companies loosing a lot of the consumer contact they used to have.

    The purpose of this report is to identify what parameters it is that lead the customers to choose where to buy airline tickets and by doing so be able to find ways to make SAS website more competitive.

    To fulfill the purpose of the report a face‐to‐face market survey has been done among passengers at Arlanda Airport. The survey has been performed all days of the week at several different times of the day.

    The result of the survey shows that many Internet customers are very disloyal and that the choice of channel mainly depends on the price. Out of the respondents who booked their ticket at an online travel agency 44% did it on a page they never booked at before. The respondents often feel that it is cheaper to book a flight on an online travel agency and do not feel any extra value in booking on the

    SAS website. This information can be seen as a threat to SAS but also as an opportunity to develop and customize the website to suit customer needs. A correlation analysis shows that the payment security, speed and simplicity of booking an airline ticket are the top parameters that increase the overall impression of the page.

    SAS has a loyalty program called EuroBonus where travelers get points every time they travel with the airline. This last year the American Internet travel agency Expedia has launched a loyalty program. Customers who book their SAS ticket at Expedia receive both SAS EuroBonus points and loyalty points to use at the Expedia website.

    These kinds of services can be seen as a threat and might lead to SAS falling behind in sales and even lose customers unless they join the trend and develop their loyalty programs on their own website.

    SAS would like the travelers flying with them to book the flight at their website. They also want the website to make a good impression being satisfying and easy to use when buying airplane tickets. To make this happen they need more information about the booking habits of their customers.

    The findings of this report is that SAS should add value for the customer who book their ticket on the SAS website. They could for example develop the Eurobonus loyalty program so that customers who book tickets on the website get extra bonus points. SAS can also try having short campaigns with only a few destinations during a limited period. Because of the time limitation it would be difficult for those who are searching for the cheapest tickets at an online travel agency to find these campaigns. This would mean that costumers will have to visit the SAS website. If the prices are attractive enough the SAS website might be perceived as the least expensive channel in the future.

  • 67.
    CHEN, KEVIN
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Tideman, Johan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Sales and Operations Planning processframework in the context of centralization: A qualitative case study of a manufacturing company2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An increasingly competitive and fast-changing environment forces companies to be more agile, change their plans more frequently, and move away from having independent planning processes. Sales and Operations Planning (S&OP) is a process that provides management with the means to strategically control a business by aligning all functions with the overall business strategy. The process integrates all plans and functions of the business to create alignment.

    S&OP has been practiced in the industry for over 20 years, but it is only recently that the interest for this subject has grown in academia. The research literature covers different aspects of S&OP, but there is a lack of well-developed process frameworks that also covers the aspect of centralization. To develop a detailed S&OP process framework, that is also applicable on a company with varying degrees of centralization in its organization, a case study on a manufacturing company was conducted. Data was collected through interviews and observations by participating in meetings and working sessions. The company currently has varying degrees of centralization in different regions, as well as different S&OP processes. The findings in the case company were synthesized with literature to produce the resulting S&OP process framework. The result is a five-step S&OP process framework that describes, in more detail than existing literature, how a manufacturing company with varying degrees of centralization in it organization should run its S&OP processes. The resulting S&OP process framework shows that there are seven key factors affecting an S&OP process in a manufacturing company, and that the level of centralization in an organization mostly affects at which hierarchical level different activities are performed.

  • 68.
    Chipp, Kerry Fiona
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Chakravorty, Devarpan
    Producer push to consumer pull: Who curates new media content? Developing strategies for new media environments2016In: Journal of Product & Brand Management, ISSN 1061-0421, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 373-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This study aims to explore if, with increasing consumer empowerment, consumers are actively pulling content through a multitude of platforms rather than relying on media owners to dictate their product choices. How do media owners and content producers move toward a more reciprocal and interactive business strategy to deal with the change? Design/methodology/approach - The study was qualitative and exploratory in nature and utilized in-depth and semi-structured interviews of media consumers and experts. Findings - Consumer behavior has changed due to increased product control, in terms of type and occasion, across all income levels. The value of curatorship has increased and social media has fundamentally changed consumption patterns. Using the Berthon et al. model of response functions, we found that, content producers often suffer from inertia and operate with an Isolate strategy. The second most common approach is that of Follow or customer orientation. There is limited engagement with the innovation orientations of Shape and Interact. It is best for the industry to move toward an Interact model, accepting that consumers sometimes wish to create and at other times wish content to be effortlessly provided to them. Research limitations/implications - This study adopted a qualitative approach of industry experts and consumers within a single context. The further implications would be to develop the Interact strategy in more detail, especially toward the end of how to get media providers to change their current orientations. Practical implications - Business models of product producers in the new business environment seek to be more consumer-centric. This must not be done at the expense of an innovation orientation. Originality/value - There has been a lot of discussion on the need to change business models in the wake of changed consumer behavior. The current paper provides guidance on how to respond to the new media world.

  • 69.
    DesAutels, Philip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Berthon, Pierre
    Caruana, Albert
    Pitt, Leyland F.
    The impact of country connectedness and cultural values on the equity of a country's workforce A cross-country investigation2015In: Cross Cultural Management, ISSN 1352-7606, E-ISSN 1758-6089, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 2-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to focus on the impact that country connectedness and cultural values have on the equity afforded to a country's workforce in today's global economy. Design/methodology/approach - Drawing upon a number of large international surveys of national-level metrics, e-readiness is identified as a proxy measure for country connectedness. Cultural variables are proxied by the World Values Survey's national-level scores on "survival/self-expression" and "traditional/secular-rational" values. Workforce equity is captured via three measures: per capita Gross National Income (GNI) based on purchasing power parity (PPP), a Gini-coefficient, and the prevalence of child labor. Stepwise regression analysis is employed to investigate expected relationships. Findings - Results suggest an interesting link between the constructs investigated. A negative and significant effect of e-readiness and a negative and significant effect of traditional/secular-rational values on workforce equity are reported. In addition, the impact of e-readiness appears to be absolutely larger while thee impact of survival/self-expression values on the workforce equity is not found to be significant. Research limitations/implications - The research is primarily exploratory in nature thereby providing a foundation but not an end product. Next, the data used in the research is aggregate-level data providing broad generalizations about each country. Does a country have a single culture? Is the connectivity of a country a valid measure of the regions within? The authors chose to use an analysis at a single point in time. A longitudinal study could provide more insight and thus help to highlight causality. The data utilized was repurposed from third-party sources. Finally, only 37 observations are used and a broader data set could help strengthen findings further. Social implications - The rapid march of country connectedness across the globe is eroding firms' ability to shade their actions through the distance afforded by global supply chains. A country's culture values has a significant impact on workforce equity but country connectedness has a stronger impact, thus companies operating in more traditional and less developed countries will face significant impacts as these countries get connected. Rather than a threat, companies may see country connectedness and workforce equity as an opportunity. Firms that treat their workers well will see vast new markets open for them as evermore of the world's population becomes economically active. Originality/value - Uses an innovative data capture methodology that allows the investigation of an interesting and unexplored research question.

  • 70.
    DesAutels, Philip
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology .
    Berthon, Pierre
    Bentley University.
    Salehi-Sangari, Esmail
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Rising to the challenge: A model of contest performance2011In: Journal of Financial Services Marketing, ISSN 1363-0539, E-ISSN 1479-1846, Vol. 16, p. 263-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contests are a ubiquitous form of promotion widely adopted by financial services advertisers, yet, paradoxically, academic research on them is conspicuous in its absence. This work addresses this gap by developing a model of contest engagement and performance. Using motivation theory, factors that drive participant engagement are modeled, and engagement's effect on experience and marketing success of the contest specified. Measures of contest performance, in-contest engagement and post-contest enduring interest are included. From the model, propositions are developed. Overall, the model provides financial service marketers with a theory-based foundation for designing and operating successful contests.

  • 71.
    Dominic, Chris A. S.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Östlund, Sören
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Buffington, John
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Masoud, Mian Muhammad
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Towards a conceptual sustainable packaging development model: A corrugated box case study2015In: Packaging technology & science, ISSN 0894-3214, E-ISSN 1099-1522, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 397-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corrugated package designers are focused on balancing the need for product protection, material use efficiency and the packaging material's impact on the environment in the supply chain. The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual sustainable packaging model that integrates the variables of technical design, supply chain systems and environmental factors and then use the model to identify to improve upon corrugated container design. A model was developed, from the extant literature, and a case study was performed on a corrugated container. This is believed to be a unique integrated model of most relevant agents related to the design and implementation of a corrugated box through a supply chain from design to potential post-consumer reuse. From this study, we found opportunities to improve the environmental design of the corrugated container through four ex ante design stages, and two ex post facto supply chain stages. Further, research can evaluate and refine this model via a 'live supply chain' for use in guiding corrugated box material selection design and reuse/recycling. Integration of the design criterion for a unit load in the supply chain creates opportunity to observe the packaging system holistically. Waste in the manufacturing process and CO<inf>2</inf> emissions are traced along the material flow until the end of its useful life to provide an overall picture of the packaging system.

  • 72.
    Dwaikat, Nidal
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Flexibility through Information Sharing: Evidences from the Automotive Industry in Sweden2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has validated the contribution of information sharing to performance improvement. It has also suggested that flexibility is a highly important competitive priority for those companies where demand is volatile. Several studies argue that flexibility has been recognized as a key enabler for supply chain responsiveness. However, the impact of information sharing on supplier flexibility is still unexplored, especially for the companies that operate in agile business environments such as in the automotive industry where flexibility is a strategic requirement to manage demand uncertainty. In agile supply chains, such as in the automotive industry, information sharing can play an important role in responding to demand variability. In such settings, the demand volumes generally fluctuate, and hence create production-scheduling problems for the upstream suppliers such as first-tier suppliers. Interestingly, the impact of demand fluctuations on suppliers is higher than that of Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs).

    The aim of this doctoral thesis is to investigate the role of information sharing between OEMs and first-tier suppliers, in enhancing supplier flexibility. Particularly, the research focuses on exploring the relationship between sharing demand schedules and inventory data, and volume and delivery flexibility. The questions on whether information sharing between OEMs and first-tier suppliers affect supplier flexibility remain unanswered. The following research questions have emerged: 

    • RQ1: How does information sharing between OEMs and first-tier suppliers affect the latter's responsiveness to fluctuating demand?
    • RQ2: What is the relationship between information sharing of OEMsʼ demand forecasts and inventory data, and suppliers’ volume and delivery flexibility?
    • RQ3: What factors should OEMs consider to improve the sharing of demand forecasts with suppliers?

    The empirical part of this thesis comprises three individual studies that constitute the empirical foundations of the research problem. Each study analyzes one research question using its own methodological approach. Hence, different research methods for collecting and analyzing data were used to address the research questions. Applying different research methods is deemed advantageous because it allows for methodological rigorousness in this doctoral thesis.

    This thesis contributes to the body of knowledge in three dimensions—theory, method, and context. First, it contributes to the academic field of operations and supply chain management by developing a model to explain how information sharing could affect suppliers’ delivery performance. The model provides a measurement scale to measure the level of information sharing between OEMs and suppliers, and its impact on suppliers’ delivery flexibility. Second, this thesis contributes to the methods by using state-of-the-art techniques, which is partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) including consistent PLS, and applying advanced concepts to empirically test the proposed model. Third, this thesis has a managerial contribution to examine the concept of information sharing and flexibility at the supplier level. Investigating the problem at the supplier level may enable managers to improve short-term decisions, such as production scheduling decisions, internal production, and inventory processes, and evaluate collaboration practices with OEMs.

    This doctoral thesis is organized in a monograph format comprising five chapters: Introduction, Literature review, Methodology, Empirics, and Conclusion. As an outcome, several scientific articles have emerged from this thesis and have been submitted for consideration for publication in peer-reviewed journals and international conferences in the field of operations and supply chain management. These articles are listed and appended at the end of this dissertation.

  • 73.
    EPSTEIN, ISAC
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    SALOKANTO, TOM
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Paketerbjudanden för e-handeln: En utredning av hur naturliga länkar mellan produkter kan utnyttjas vid kampanjer för att driva specifik merförsäljning2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The growth in the e-commerce industry contributes to increasing data streams for companies present in the e-commerce industry. These data streams are becoming increasingly more valuable due to the fact that forecasts indicate that the rapid growth-rate tends to decrease in the near future. This means that increasing sales to existing customers is becoming more and more important for e-commerce companies. One strategy in order to accomplish this is called product bundling, which by analysis of data streams have been shown to drive cross-selling. However, there are no easily applicable models available for e-commerce companies in order to accomplish this. Therefore, this study intends to investigate whether it is possible to develop easily applicable bundling models focused on increasing specific cross-selling for e-commerce companies operating in the Nordic apparel industry. Hence, the research questions are: (1)

    How can an easily applicable bundling model be designed in order to generate product bundles for promotion campaigns in the apparel industry, that increases specific cross-selling of additional products? and (2) What overall factors influence how successful a product bundle drives specific cross-selling in the apparel industry? Two new bundling models are derived from existing research, both with the assumption that they can generate specific cross-selling. One of these bundling-models is tested experimentally in a field study in collaboration with an e-commerce company operating in the Nordic apparel industry. Product bundles are created by applying one of the developed models to 2 557 orders extracted from the company’s order data. Thereafter a campaign including the product bundles, is launched on the e-commerce company’s website and promoted through a promotional message sent out to 13 380 potential customers. The results from the campaign is analysed quantitatively by a homogeneity test. The results show indications of that specific cross-selling can be achieved by extracting identify natural links between products from order data and use these relationships in order to create strategic bundles that drive specific cross-selling. Results also show indications of factors such as confidence and the general relationship between the products with respect to functionality influence how successful a product bundle drives cross-selling. The study enables future research within the area of product bundling and specific cross-selling. Managers in e-commerce can benefit from this research since it provides what seems to be an easily applicable bundling model that drives specific cross-selling.

  • 74.
    ERIKSSON, ANDERS
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Creating value through marketing secrets: A case study of Swedish Business to Consumer firms2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Successful American multi National Corporation such as Apple Inc, The Coca Cola Company and KCF are all leveraging on the persuasive powers of secrecy by exploiting marketing secrecy and secrecy of marketing with the purpose to create a greater marketing value. This marketing niche is growing in practical use by companies but the academical efforts have still received little attention. This thesis is a case study of four Swedish companies conducting business to consumer activities in four different industries. The purpose is to investigate how organizations utilize secrecy of marketing and marketing of secrecy and how firms actually manage it. The thesis draws upon psychological, marketing and organizational findings to build a solid framework for the investigation and to help catergorize the findings from the interviews. The participating companies are Estrella AB, Comviq, Instabridge AB and Case company D.Emperical data is gathered by semi-structured interviews with the marketing executives at each company. Results are then analysed internally (within case analyses) for each company and then later between each company (cross case analyses) to extract any similarities and differences between the cases and industries. Findings show that the companies do believe that marketing secrecy could offer an added marketing value. However, it is evident that one can not find a solution that fits into all the participating companies regarding how to utilize marketing secrecy or secrecy of marketing.

  • 75. Ghazisaeedi, Mehdi
    et al.
    Salehi-Sangari, Esmail
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Wallström, Åsa
    Compensation Disclosure on Product Review Blogs and Persuasion with Uncertainty2015In: Ideas In Marketing: Finding The New And Polishing The Old, Springer, 2015, p. 175-178Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 76.
    GOBENA, ELINA
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Payments of the future: Exploring the uptake of different payment solutions in the Nordic region.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research was to explore the acceptance of different high technology payment solutions in the Nordic region, and discuss which solutions were best prepared tosurvive in the future. The research had a consumer and merchant perspective. One main research question was addressed; which industrial actors on the payment market are ositioned best for the future? Furthermore, important variables from a consumer perspective were investigated as well as successful and unsuccessful payment solutions. The purpose was addressed through a study of previous work, qualitative interviews and a consumer survey with qualitative and quantitative elements. The main results indicate that consumers value simplicity, safety and compatibility. Merchants require, at a minimum, flawless technology, safety, speed and lower costs. The study suggests that consumers might not have great decision-making power, but getting consumers on board by addressing their needs can create a better transition for payment solution providers. Also, consumers and merchants require payment solutions to be accessible in many places, why collaboration with rivals could be an important factor for a good future position.

  • 77.
    Gramenius, Jakob
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Aniander, Magnus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Blomgren, Henrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Business Development and Entrepreneurship (Closed 20130101).
    Engwall, Mats
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Economics and Management (Div.) (closed (20130101).
    Karlson, Bo
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Wikander, Sten
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Praktikfallet Rydab1999Book (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Grant, Philip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Exploring Branded Flash Mobs: A study of the impact of branded flash mobs on consumer behavior and consumer experience2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The desire of every marketer is to develop and maintain strong customer relationships. One way this can be accomplished is through effective advertising. Marketers have recently begun to brand flash mobs as a way to effectuate strong brand relationships. Even so, it is unclear whether or not the branding of flash mobs supports or frustrates this pursuit. Therefore, the goal of this thesis is to help marketers understand the potential impact that branded flash mobs may have on consumer behaviour and brand relationships. Since these interactions are complex we need to observe the convoluted whole from untangled vantage points. Marketing scholars and researchers must then attempt to understand the latent opportunities and unsuspecting dangers when branding a flash mob. Toward answering this end, four distinct research studies were used to examine the phenomenon from four different perspectives.

    The aim of the first paper is twofold. First, it deductively seeks to understand how to categorize branded flash mobs within the marketing literature through an historical and cultural analysis of the phenomenon. Exploratory in nature, this study then employs a mixed methods approach to understand how marketers are currently using flash mobs, and more importantly, if branded flash mobs are an effective tool of communication and persuasion.

    In the second paper, a field experiment was conducted to assess the impact of a branded flash mob on consumers’ emotions, consumer experience and connectedness in a public market. Qualitative interviews were used to capture the data. Shifting perspectives, the third paper seeks to understand why some branded flash mobs fail to ‘go viral’. Using of a number of focus groups, participants were asked to watch several branded flash mob videos and discuss their willingness to share them online (e.g., email, Facebook, or Twitter).

    Toward a better understanding of the impact of branded flash mobs on brand equity, the final paper evaluates viewers’ attitude toward the ad. Using netnographic techniques (Kozinets, 2002) 2,882 YouTube comments from three virally successful branded flash mobs ads were examined to understand how branded flash mobs affect brand equity. Responses grouped into one of four archetypical attitudes, each of which has a distinct impact on brand equity.

    Motivated by the potential for widespread exposure at a relatively low cost, marketers continue to produce branded flash mobs. Sometimes they are fresh and creative, while at others they are out of tune with the spirit of the phenomenon. This thesis uncovers the impact of these efforts on consumer behaviour and brand equity, and concludes with a guide for managers to consider when planning their next branded flash mob. An acknowledgement of the limitations and an outline for directions of future research are also presented.

  • 79.
    Grant, Philip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Boon, Edward
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    When the persuasion attempt fails: an examination of consumers’ perception of branded flash mobs2013In: Journal of Public Affairs, ISSN 1472-3891, E-ISSN 1479-1854, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 190-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flash mobs are a relatively new form of group expression that has received much online viral success. Hundreds of flash mob videos, each with millions of YouTube hits, can easily and quickly be found. Recently, savvy marketers have begun to use flash mobs to engage their consumers and to replicate the viral success of unbranded flash mobs. Yet as consumers become more familiar with ‘branded’ flash mobs, they become less easily engaged, and thus marketers see their persuasion attempts more frequently fail. In a time when some marketers are having true marketing viral success with branded flash mobs, this paper examines why many attempts to make flash mobs go viral fail. By conducting a number of focus groups where participants were asked to discuss their reaction to flash mob videos and their willingness to show them to friends, the researchers found that (i) consumers are unwilling to watch and share flash mob videos if they are not creative, if they do not arouse a positive emotion (e.g., excitement or amusement), and if the video does not show an audience that is affected by the performance; and (ii) consumers have an aversion toward corporations and are less likely to share a video when they realize that it is made for commercial reasons. As marketers increasingly invade public spaces with flash mobs, public policy issues are also considered.

  • 80.
    Grant, Philip S.
    et al.
    KTH. 201-510 Chesterfield Ave, North-Vancouver, BC V7M 2L9, Sweden .
    Stiehler, Beate
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Boon, Edward
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing. University of Brescia, Italy .
    Through bubbles and crises: An analysis of the Journal of Financial Services Marketing from 2000 to 20122013In: Journal of Financial Services Marketing, ISSN 1363-0539, E-ISSN 1479-1846, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 260-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an analysis of all publications of the Journal of Financial Services Marketing (JFSM), from 2000 until the end of 2012. The objectives of this study were: (i) to compare the subjects covered by the journal with industry trends, and identify opportunities for future research, and (ii) to assess the journal's development over time and its influence in the field of financial services marketing. Data for this content analysis was collected manually from the publisher's Website and from each paper, and a grounded theory approach was used to group the papers into clusters based on emerging themes. The study indicates that JFSM has been successful in covering the industry's most important trends, including mobile banking, relationship management, Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and service quality. A number of gaps were identified, in particular regarding mobile banking services and the impact of new online business models (for example, PayPal, crowdfunding, Bitcoin). These findings should assist JFSM's editorial board to determine its future direction, and offer readers insight into industry trends and the journal's role in covering them.

  • 81.
    Hall, Daniel Edward
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Understanding the provision and processing of information for information-intensive products as a basis for market segmentation2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis helps to address the gap in literature relating to the study of the provision of information to consumers, consumer information search behaviour and consumer information processing and choice behaviour relating to information-intensive products. Throughout the thesis, wine is taken as an example of an information-intensive product. Through a series of four published papers in peer reviewed journals, the thesis examines how firms can control and manipulate the provision of information to consumers and that by restricting the availability of information, the firm can make its target consumers want the product even more. Although secrecy has existed for centuries, as a marketing tool it is relatively new and little is understood about its power or purpose in marketing strategy. The thesis also analyses how consumers process information relating to information-intensive products using mental shortcuts, or heuristics, to substitute price for product quality at increasing rates of product consumption. Finally, the thesis provides a new way in which to segment the luxury wine market based on consumer knowledge together with the timing of consumption.

    The thesis provides a number of interesting advancements in marketing and consumer behaviour research. The first advancement examines whether secret wine societies are actually that secret at all and finds that they are not; however this finding does not absolve the need for marketers to use secrecy as a marketing tool. The second advancement provides insight into advertising, blogs and consumer innovativeness and finds a positive relationship between attitude toward advertising and consumer innovativeness. The third advancement finds evidence that consumers’ process information by using the price-quality heuristic, for both sighted and blind tasting experiments. Furthermore, the study finds that blind tasting (deliberate thinking) reinforces sighted tasting (automatic thinking) which contributes to judgement errors about product quality. The fourth advancement is to provide a new way to segment the luxury wine market based on consumer objective knowledge, frequency of consumption and timing of consumption.

  • 82.
    Hall, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Pitt, L.
    Wallström, A.
    The secrets of secret societies: The case of wine2015In: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Secret societies have intrigued humanity since earliest times. In this article we explore secret societies in the context of wine and how these institutions might be insightful in formulating marketing strategies. We contrast the characteristics of secret societies with those of existing secret wine societies such as The Wine Society and La Confrérie. Yet while some of these functions and characteristics transfer well, many ’secret’ wine societies aren’t actually that secret. Some of the characteristics of secret societies are also found in consumer brand communities. Armed with this knowledge, wine marketers can exploit the characteristics of secret societies to target market segments with precision and to gain the benefits of focused distribution opportunities.

  • 83. Hannah, David
    et al.
    Parent, Michael
    Pitt, Leyland
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Berthon, Pierre
    It’s a secret: Marketing value and the denial of availability2014In: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 49-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Marketing thrives on secrets, yet surprisingly little formal attention has been paid to how the marketing of secrecy and the secrecy of marketing can play a significant role in contemporary organizations. We draw upon the fields of organizational studies, psychology, and marketing to develop a typology of secrets that reflects their marketing value and their knowledge value. Marketing secrets can have value to the firm (strategic value), to the customer (marketing value), or to both parties. Based on these two dimensions, we identify four different types of marketing secrets: (1) appealing secrets have high strategic value, as well as high marketing value; (2) mythical secrets mean little to the firm but a tot to the customer; (3) plain secrets are critical to the firm but are irrelevant to customers; and (4) weak secrets have neither strategic value nor marketing value. Our typology enables academics to formulate research questions regarding secrecy in marketing, and serves as a guide for practitioners in the construction of strategies that can exploit the strategic value of secrets by 'romancing' them, and increase their knowledge value by 'educating' the secrets.

  • 84.
    HENRIKSSON, CECILIA
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    LUNDBLAD, ANNA
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Assessment of parameters in the outsourcing or insourcing decision process: A case study of a network provider2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Outsourcing in the telecom industry in general has been widely used as one of the actions towards declining profits and increasing competition, but no documented outsourcing decision process specifically for the network provider role has yet been recognized. Open Universe is a network provider owned by Telenor, who are now facing an insourcing or outsourcing decision with regards to their customer service. The purpose of this research was therefore to provide Open Universe with recommendations of whether to insource or outsource their customer service. A case study at Open universe was therefore performed, using qualitative methods to identify the advantages and disadvantages of the different sourcing alternatives. From this case study could conclusion be drawn and a recommendation generated. The findings indicated that Open Universe should with a long term perspective outsource their customer service to one of Telenor’s major outsourcing partners, but since Open Universe currently is in a migration phase with non-streamlined business processes the customer service must first be insourced. The parameters that were dominating the recommendation were thereafter compared to the pre-established theoretical parameters which should be considered in general when making outsourcing decisions. The dominating parameters were

    standardization, capacity, flexibility, costs, competence, and technique. In addition a complete new parameter, neutrality was discovered. This parameter has been categorized as a contextual parameter, and illustrates the need of looking at parameters which are outside of the theory’s traditional scope that only includes parameters which are affected by the outsourcing company and outsourcing partner. In addition, the result of the study also generates guidance of what parameters that should be considered by other network providers when making insourcing or outsourcing decisions.

  • 85.
    HEUMANN BAUER WERIN, AXEL
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    SJÖBERG, SVERKER
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Common issues with Customer Satisfaction Measurement: Why do some companies succeed and fail2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Customer satisfaction measurement (CSM) is a common practice. Some companies, that are new to CSM, experience difficulties as their CSM programs (CSMPs) fail to deliver expected results. This thesis stresses that preparation and the usage of the results from measurements could be at least as important as measuring. Further it argues that the most severe CSMP issues are not related to measurement, but to what comes before and after measuring. Issues related to measurement tend to be symptoms of more severe issues. The proposed CSMP model involves three phases: Preparation, measurement and action. Each phase has their inherent issues. This thesis identifies (1) lack of commitment, (2) ineffective action, and (3) vague starting point as common CSMP issues. Lack of commitment may cause failure at any phase of the CSMP and, if the results from measurement are not utilized, the entire effort has been wasted. To plan for and follow through with action is essential. Enabling effective action and creating commitment are both far-reaching challenges with many implications. These implications are similar to those of change management. CSM and change management can be seen as neighboring fields and many issues of CSMPs could be solved from a change management perspective. Vague starting point infers poor strategic alignment between selected method, intended purpose and present conditions. A good enough strategic alignment is crucial to a CSMP. There are many reasons why achieving this alignment is challenging. Those new to CSM are faced with many unknown unknowns, and even for those who know the questions, finding the answers may be difficult.

  • 86.
    Hult, Gustaf
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Pettersson, Olof
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Productification of Services: A case study of FMV’s vehicle maintenance workshops2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores how service productification enables higher productivity levels and increased customer satisfaction for suppliers of vehicle maintenance services. This is investigated through a case study of the automotive workshop business of the Swedish Defense Materiel Administration, FMV. Drawing from previous research within service marketing, the study first investigates which values that the customers of FMV hold as the most important through ten interviews. Additionally, empirical materiel is gathered through internal interviews, field trips to two of FMV’s workshops, and benchmarking studies of similar service suppliers. This empirical materiel then serves as input for the analysis of how productified service offerings should be designed within FMV and which effects it would bring.

    In terms of customer satisfaction, six of the seven identified customer values are shown to  e improved from a productification of services. Also, the productivity levels of the workshops are shown to increase as a result of the increased pressure to standardize working methods, reduce costs and develop relevant productivity measurements. Therefore, this study concludes that service productification has a great potential in enabling higher levels of both customer satisfaction and productivity levels.

    As the concept of service productification has not been paid much attention in previous research, this study also makes an important conceptual contribution in the area. This  onsists of a proposed 4-step model that visualizes the different actions that service suppliers  eed to initiate in order to conduct a productification of its service offering. These respective steps are:

    1. Investigate customer values

    2. Define offering

    3. Design offering by components

    4. Establish measurements

  • 87. Illianchenko, Elena
    et al.
    Kuttainen, Christre
    Salehi-Sangari, Esmail
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Pre-Adoption Satisfaction with Tourism Websites: Conjoint Analysis of Electronic Customer Relationship Management2005In: Proceedings of Academy of Marketing, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 88.
     JOHANSSON  , KENNETH
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    NGUYEN  , ELIN
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Exploring  Lean  Service  ±    A  Case  Study  of  an  Organization  within  the  FMCG  Industry2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lean has long been transforming manufacturing companies into being more effective. The concept became famous for delivering performance improvement and economic gains. Over time, the concept also became popular and spread to service environments. However, lean literature revealed a limited understanding of the lean concept in a service environment. Thus, the purpose of this thesis is to untangle the lean service concept and investigate potential benefits and challenges of implementing lean service in a specific organizational context. In addition, this thesis also discusses the relationship of lean service and organizational characteristics.

    This thesis set out to link theory with practice by matching theoretically established leancharacteristics with a case study of an organization acting in the fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) market, who were unfamiliar with the lean service concept as it had not yet been implemented. Qualitative empirical data show that the lean service concept require an understanding on a higher abstraction level compared to lean manufacturing, due to the lack of a physical product. The empirical study shows that the success of lean implementation might rely on the understanding of the lean concept and the way in which the customer is defined. However, different organizational characteristics might affect the understanding for the lean service concept; hence indirectly affect the implementation of lean service. From a research limitations point of view, qualitative data is collected only from one organization and therefore, further research should investigate lean service from additional sources. However, the outcome of this study is expected to be an application of existing knowledge designed to solve an existing problem ought to improve lean management practices in a service environment.

  • 89.
    Karlsson, Alexander
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Hedengren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Hur tillverkande företag med distributörer kan förbättra sin marknadsföring av standardiserade produkter: En fallstudie inom ABB Low Voltage Products2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial distributor market has experienced great changes during the recent decades. Manufacturers today have better possibilities reaching their customers directly by selling through the Internet, but the distributors have in general strengthened their positions, due to several reasons. Most research concerning the manufacturer-distributor relationship has, however, indicated that collaboration is the key to creating value in the marketing channel. The majority of these studies have been quantitative, and researchers have requested more qualitative studies.

    Partly with the aim to fill this gap, a case study was conducted to investigate the distributor sales of ABB Low Voltage Products product category Pilot Devices, consisting of for example push buttons. Pilot Devices was chosen as it is a typical distributor product for many reasons. What also is evident is that it is a commoditized product, where it is hard to find differences between brands. With this background, the study was conducted through a certain lens: how can the marketing through distributors be improved for commoditized products? Eleven semi-structured interviews were conducted with distributors in Sweden and the United Kingdom together with 25 observational studies in distributor stores. In order to obtain a deep understanding of the end customer’s need, five interviews with panel builders, a typical customer type, was conducted.

    The empirical data showed that the distributors’ needs differ significantly, which has been neglect by previous studies. Manufacturers must develop an understanding for these needs in order to manage the channel effectively. For large distributors, monetary incentives, an end-market commitment and product data were priorities. For smaller, technical oriented, distributors, product training and marketing material were distinct needs. The study confirmed previous studies stating that clear allocation of responsibilities and effective communication are important. The study of the panel builders showed that they have a highly repetitive buying behavior, often affected by previous blueprints or by their customer’s requirements. The distributor segments’ value adding activities, their needs and the impact of the end customer were incorporated into a framework that fulfilled the study’s purpose: a guideline how manufacturing companies can improve their marketing through distributors for commoditized products.

  • 90.
    Kazemi, Madeleine
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    The Assessment of the Customers’ Expectations and Perceptions Towards the Quality of Educational Services: the Case of Industrial Engineering and Management programme at KTH (Royal Institute of Technology)2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The services sector is the largest economic sector in the world. In addition, the services sector is growing relative to the rest of the economy even in the countries that are still industrialising. The services sector consists of many subsectors, e.g. education, which currently is the largest global market after health care. Higher education has had a rapid increase in the number of students worldwide. In the Swedish educational scene Industrial Engineering and Management, a Master of Science programme, has long been one of the most applied to engineering-programmes in the country. Every year the average grade needed to be able to get accepted to the education has gotten higher. With these facts presented it can be argued that some of Sweden’s most prominent students apply to the specific education and university.

    When applying to Industrial Engineering and Management at KTH, these students have an expectation of what they will be attaining if attending. After experiencing the education and the university, the students will have a perception of the educational service. The university can be viewed as a service provider, where the service provided is the education, and the students at the university are the customers. Meeting or exceeding the expectations of customers is what the success of a service organisation depends on. It is therefore necessary to understand what determinates the satisfaction of the service after it is provided. If an organisation or a company does not have this understanding the service will not satisfy the customers.  

    The purpose of this study is to investigate and assess the existing gap, if any, between the perception and expectation of students at Industrial Engineering and Management programme at KTH.

    The main research questions addressed for the study thus are:

    • What is the customer’s perception towards the quality of service provided?

    • What is the customer’s expectation towards the quality of service provided?

    • Does the quality of provided services meet the student’s expectation?

    • Is there a gap between the existing perception and expectation? 

    The information is collected through an online survey tool sent out to five clusters of students of the education. The overall finding of the research study is that the customer’s perception towards the quality of the service provided is less than than the expectation’s of the quality of the serviced provided, which has created a negative gap between the customer’s perception and expectation. The quality of the provided services of the Industrial Engineering and Management programme at KTH does therefore not meet the student’s expectation.

  • 91.
    Kohlberg, Marcus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Westman, Lars-Peter
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Advertising product improvement opportunities using segmentation in Video-on-Demand services: A case study of MTG’s opportunities in the shift from television to streaming video2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    More and more people choose to watch television online through online video-on- demand services. For media corporations, such as the Modern Times Group (MTG), this means that video-on-demand will become an increasingly important source of revenue. Because video-on-demand is an online service, advertising products offered therein are in competition with other online advertising products. Currently, MTG’s video-on-demand advertising products are the same as on regular television, meaning they haven’t yet taken advantage of any advertising product development opportunities made possible by Internet technology. The purpose of this thesis is therefore to determine what MTG’s strategy should be to improve the competitiveness and revenue of their video-on-demand advertising products, and what key concerns need to be addressed in order to realize the determined strategy. By request of the commissioner, MTG, possible uses of segmentation to achieve the strategy are studied.

    The methods used to collect data include multiple interviews both at MTG and at their current advertising customers, as well as web analytics and a questionnaire. Both qualitative and quantitative analysis was used to answer the research questions. Findings suggest that MTG should strive to improve the engagement of their advertising products, through the use of contextual segmentation and self-segmentation. This goes against the current trend in online advertising, where segmentation is primarily used for ad targeting. The reason for not adhering to the trend is that MTG’s advertising customers operate in a television mindset, where ad targeting is of a very limited nature and engagement is of greater perceived value.

  • 92.
    KOHLBERG, MARCUS
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    WESTMAN, LARS-PETER
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Advertising product improvementopportunities using segmentationin Video-on-Demand services: A case study of MTG’s opportunities in the shift from television tostreaming video2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    More and more people choose to watch television online through online video-ondemand services. For media corporations, such as the Modern Times Group (MTG),

    this means that video-on-demand will become an increasingly important source of

    revenue. Because video-on-demand is an online service, advertising products offered

    therein are in competition with other online advertising products. Currently, MTG’s

    video-on-demand advertising products are the same as on regular television, meaning

    they haven’t yet taken advantage of any advertising product development opportunities

    made possible by Internet technology. The purpose of this thesis is therefore to

    determine what MTG’s strategy should be to improve the competitiveness and revenue

    of their video-on-demand advertising products, and what key concerns need to be

    addressed in order to realize the determined strategy. By request of the commissioner,

    MTG, possible uses of segmentation to achieve the strategy are studied.

    The methods used to collect data include multiple interviews both at MTG and at their

    current advertising customers, as well as web analytics and a questionnaire. Both

    qualitative and quantitative analysis was used to answer the research questions.

    Findings suggest that MTG should strive to improve the engagement of their advertising

    products, through the use of contextual segmentation and self-segmentation. This goes

    against the current trend in online advertising, where segmentation is primarily used for

    ad targeting. The reason for not adhering to the trend is that MTG’s advertising

    customers operate in a television mindset, where ad targeting is of a very limited nature

    and engagement is of greater perceived value.

  • 93.
    Kordestani, A
    et al.
    Luleå Technical University.
    Limayem, M
    Luleå Technical University.
    Salehi-Sangari, Esmail
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Blomgren, Henrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Business Development and Entrepreneurship.
    Why a few social networking sites succeed while many fail2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 94. Kordestani, Arash
    et al.
    Amini, Mehdi
    Salehi-Sangari, Esmail
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Environmentally and Socially Responsible Buyer Supplier Relationship Management2015In: Ideas In Marketing: Finding The New And Polishing The Old, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2015, p. 445-446Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 95.
    LAGER, LIVA
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    EKENGER, CHARLOTTE
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Does Wrapp help companies create brandadvocates?2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet through social online networks and media has come to change our behavior when it comes to how we communicate and what we communicate. The latest shift is that from desktop to mobile, following the product developments happening with mobile phones making them smarter, portable and connected mini computers.

    This has had an effect on companies marketing strategies. To simply apply older marketing strategies on this new media channel is not sufficient. Instead new strategies and approaches are needed, and the social element needs to be implemented to a larger extent.

    The purpose with this report is to investigate a new social mobile marketing tool created by the tech start up Wrapp, and to analyse whether or not the tool helps companies create brand advocates. The data collecting and analysis of Wrapp as a brand advocacy tool is limited to the American market and two of the partner brands’ Facebook campaigns  onducted in this setting.

    Wrapp enables for companies to give out free and paid gift cards to Facebook friends through and mobile and web based application. In the research an interview study where we asked respondents represented by Wrapp employees about their conceptions on brand advocacy and social media marketing was conducted. An analysis of the Wrapp Facebook campaign tool was also done, to see if the tool shows exponential growth and virality in branded gift cards sent.

    Results are presented and efforts are made to draw parallels between the empirical findings and theory presented in the literature review concerning mainly brand advocates, social media marketing, viral marketing and WOM.

    The result from the Facebook campaign tool analysis shows, that the Wrapp tool on the merican market is yet to become viral. From the interviews we examine and present results to complement this finding, also to get a broader understanding on what creates brand advocacy. To the compiled results we apply a model assumed to describe how brand advocates are created. By doing this we reach our main conclusion, Wrapp does not based on our analysis create brand advocates, but the act of brand advocacy.

    The model as such could be a way for companies to investigate whether or not new social media platforms create brand advocates, by examining and evaluating the building blocks necessary to have an efficient brand advocacy strategy.

  • 96.
    Lee, Linda
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Advice from creative consumers: a study of online hotel reviews2014In: International Journal of Technology Marketing, ISSN 1741-878X, E-ISSN 1741-8798, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 53-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This studyexplores what creative consumers are compelled to say about hotels throughonline reviews.  Online reviews arehighly influential, with consumers preferring the advice of other consumersover industry experts or information provided by the marketer.  Over 7,000 online hotel reviews posted onTripAdvisor were examined, using Leximancer, a content analysis tool.  This study provides insights on the factorscontributing to guest satisfaction and dissatisfaction in luxury hotels andmoderate hotels.  It also demonstrates theimportance of the information provided by creative consumers, both in terms ofmarket research and as part of an overall marketing communicationsinitiative. 

  • 97.
    Levihn, Fabian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Dynamics (Closed 20130101).
    Nuur, Cali
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Dynamics (Closed 20130101).
    Blomgren, Henrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Corporate response to climate change mitigation: What can we learn from annual reports of European industries?2011In: International Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management, ISSN 2217-2661, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 77-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change and how best to mitigate its impact has in recent decades prefigured in the industrialdevelopment debate. Awareness about future costs related to increased atmospheric temperaturesprovides an incentive for lowering greenhouse gas emissions such as CO2. At the same time,measures to mitigate climate change do not only induce corporate uncertainty and pressure, but it isalso provides opportunities for new businesses domains and models. The coverage of climate changeissues from mass media broke with earlier trends and increased in the middle of the last decade. Howabout corporate focus? Was climate change issue on the corporate agenda by then?This study presents a content analysis of more than 1100 shareholder letters from 131 of the largestEuropean public liability companies between 2000 to 2009. The main purpose of this paper is toanalyze climate change from a corporate perspective. Was climate change discussed by ChiefExecutive Officers (CEO) and board chairmen during this time? If so, to what extent and are thereindustrial differences?This study shows that climate change appeared on the corporate strategic agenda in year 2005, frompreviously occupying a marginal place. In 2008, corporate climate change discussions were largelypushed aside by the financial crisis. It also show a trend where a shift has occurred from a generalinterest, towards one more divided between different industries.

  • 98.
    Levihn, Fabian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Tongur, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Blomgren, Henrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Business Development and Entrepreneurship.
    A New wave for Diesel2011In: Technology and the Global Challenges: Security, Energy Water and the Environment, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapidly increasing demand from emerging economies, depletion of existing crude oil resources, the discovery rate of new resources, climate change issues and more will affect future oil prices. Will this mean an end to the usage of internal combustion engines (ICE) in heavy-duty vehicle configurations or will these engines see new improvements along their trajectory? This report is an analysis of lessons from the development of ICE efficiency during past oil crises. Based on the analysis conclusions are drawn on the possible development of ICEs assuming a future scenario of higher oil prices. More specific the new policy scenario from IEAs world energy outlook 2010 is used. By analyzing the braked specific fuel consumption (BSFC) contra the oil price over time, important findings indicates the span for future possible development regarding energy efficiency. History shows that manufacturer continuously have improved energy efficiency of heavy-duty vehicles. As such the main finding from this study raises the question: Will we see a new wave of development in the future scenario?

  • 99.
    Lilford, Neil
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing.
    Caruana, Albert
    Pitt, Leyland
    Psychometric properties of the feedback orientation scale among south african salespersons2014In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 114, no 1, p. 126-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feedback to employees is an important management tool, and the literature demonstrates that it has a positive effect on learning, motivation, and job performance. This study investigates in a non-U.S. context the psychometric properties of the Feedback Orientation Scale. Data were gathered from a sample of 202 salespersons from a large South African firm within the industrial fuels and lubricants sector. Confirmatory Factor Analysis provided evidence for the intended dimensionality, reliability, and convergent and discriminant validity of the scale.

  • 100.
    Lilford, Neil
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Vigar-Ellis, Debbie
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial marketing. University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa .
    Nel, Deon
    University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Big Five personality traits and financial salesperson performance: An application of Chernoff faces2014In: Journal of Financial Services Marketing, ISSN 1363-0539, E-ISSN 1479-1846, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 146-154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying the personality traits of effective sales people has been a long-standing challenge to sales managers and researchers in a wide range of contexts, from business to business, to retail and services. A definitive identification of the characteristics of the ideal salesperson remains elusive. We investigate the impact of the Big 5 personality traits on the performance of salespersons in a large financial services organization, our purpose being to graphically illustrate how personality traits differ, according to different levels of sales performance. We present the results graphically using Chernoff faces. The study demonstrates that this approach provides valuable insights to sales managers, and has several possible applications in relation to financial salesperson-performance management.

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