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  • 51.
    Fornari, Walter
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Picano, Francesco
    Sardina, Gaetano
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Reduced particle settling speed in turbulence2016In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 808, p. 153-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the settling of finite-size rigid spheres in sustained homogeneous isotropic turbulence (1111) by direct numerical simulations using an immersed boundary method to account for the dispersed solid phase. We study semi-dilute suspensions at different Galileo numbers, Ga. The Galileo number is the ratio between buoyancy and viscous forces, and is here varied via the solid-to-fluid density ratio rho(p)/rho(f), The focus is on particles that are slightly heavier than the fluid. We find that in HIT, the mean settling speed is less than that in quiescent fluid; in particular, it reduces by 6 %-60 % with respect to the terminal velocity of an isolated sphere in quiescent fluid as the ratio between the latter and the turbulent velocity fluctuations it is decreased. Analysing the fluid particle relative motion, we find that the mean settling speed is progressively reduced while reducing rho(p)/rho(f) due to the increase of the vertical drag induced by the particle cross-flow velocity. Unsteady effects contribute to the mean overall drag by about 6%-10%. The probability density functions of particle velocities and accelerations reveal that these are closely related to the features of the turbulent flow. The particle mean-square displacement in the settling direction is found to be similar for all Ga if time is scaled by (2a)/u' (where 2a is the particle diameter and a is the turbulence velocity root mean square).

  • 52.
    Fornari, Walter
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Physicochemical Fluid Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Tabaei Kazerooni, Hamid
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Hussong, Jeanette
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Suspensions of finite-size neutrally buoyant spheres in turbulent duct flow2017In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 53. Fouxon, Itzhak
    et al.
    Ge, Zhouyang
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Leshansky, Alexander
    Integral representation of channel flow with interacting particles2017In: Physical review. E, ISSN 2470-0045, E-ISSN 2470-0053, Vol. 96, no 6, article id 063110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We construct a boundary integral representation for the low-Reynolds-number flow in a channel in the presence of freely suspended particles (or droplets) of arbitrary size and shape. We demonstrate that lubrication theory holds away from the particles at horizontal distances exceeding the channel height and derive a multipole expansion of the flow which is dipolar to the leading approximation. We show that the dipole moment of an arbitrary particle is a weighted integral of the stress and the flow at the particle surface, which can be determined numerically. We introduce the equation of motion that describes hydrodynamic interactions between arbitrary, possibly different, distant particles, with interactions determined by the product of the mobility matrix and the dipole moment. Further, the problem of three identical interacting spheres initially aligned in the streamwise direction is considered and the experimentally observed "pair exchange" phenomenon is derived analytically and confirmed numerically. For nonaligned particles, we demonstrate the formation of a configuration with one particle separating from a stable pair. Our results suggest that in a dilute initially homogenous particulate suspension flowing in a channel the particles will eventually separate into singlets and pairs.

  • 54.
    Fransson, Jens H. M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Talamelli, A.
    Cossu, C.
    Experimental study of the stabilization of Tollmien-Schlichting waves by finite amplitude streaks2005In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 17, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has recently been found by using temporal and spatial numerical simulations that steady optimal streaks of moderate amplitude, i.e., sufficiently large but not exceeding the critical amplitude for the inflectional instability, are able to reduce the growth of Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves up to their complete suppression. This investigation aims at experimentally verifying this stabilizing effect by generating stable and symmetric, close to sinusoidal, streaks of moderate amplitudes (similar to 12% of the free-stream velocity) by means of a spanwise array of cylindrical roughness elements. The three-dimensional (3D) streaky base flow is then subjected to a secondary instability generated through a spanwise slot in the plate by means of regulated blowing and suction. In this study the stabilizing role of the streaks on TS waves is unambiguously confirmed and by increasing the height of the roughness elements, thus inducing larger amplitude streaks, we are also able to show that the stabilizing action on the TS waves increases with the streak amplitude. These results are the first to confirm the numerical predictions reported in earlier works. The full cross-stream plane has been measured at different downstream positions allowing a complete evaluation and comparison of the different amplitude measures used in previous experimental works. Furthermore, theoretical impulse response analysis and stability calculations are applied to the present experimental streaky base flow enabling a qualitative comparison of the 3D modulated TS wave distribution.

  • 55.
    Fransson, Jens H. M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Talamelli, A.
    Cossu, C.
    Transition delay by roughness elements2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 56.
    Fransson, Jens H. M.
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Mechanics.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Mechanics.
    Talamelli, Alessandro
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Mechanics.
    Cossu, C.
    Experimental and theoretical investigation of the nonmodal growth of steady streaks in a flat plate boundary layer2004In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 16, no 10, p. 3627-3638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental and theoretical investigation aimed at describing the nonmodal growth of steady and spanwise periodic streamwise streaks in a flat plate boundary layer is presented. Stable laminar streaks are experimentally generated by means of a spanwise periodic array of small cylindrical roughness elements fixed on the plate. The streamwise evolution of the streaks is measured and it is proved that, except in a small region near the roughness elements, they obey the boundary layer scalings. The maximum achievable amplitude is mainly determined by the relative height of the roughness elements. Results are compared with numerical simulations of optimal and suboptimal boundary layer streaks. The theory is able to elucidate some of the discrepancies recently noticed between experimentally realizable nonmodal growth and optimal perturbation theory. The key factor is found to be the wall normal location and the extension of the laminar standing streamwise vortices inducing the streaks. The differences among previous experimental works can be explained by different dominating streak generation mechanisms which can be linked to the geometry and to the ratio between the roughness height and the boundary layer scale.

  • 57.
    Fransson, Jens H M
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Talamelli, Alessandro
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Cossu, Carlo
    Experimental study of the stabilization of Tollmien-Schlichting waves by finite amplitude streaks2006In: Sixth IUTAM Symposium on Laminar-Turbulent Transition / [ed] Govindarajan, R, DORDRECHT: SPRINGER , 2006, Vol. 78, p. 299-304Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The stabilization of Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves in a spanwise modulated Blasius boundary layer has been experimentally verified in the MTL wind tunnel at KTH. The alternating high and low speed streaks were created by regularly spaced cylindrical roughness elements mounted on the flat plate. It is shown that the larger the streak amplitude the larger is the damping effect of the TS-waves, which is in agreement with recent theoretical work.

  • 58.
    Fransson, Jens H. M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Talamelli, A.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Cossu, C.
    Delaying transition to turbulence by a passive mechanism2006In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 96, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing skin friction is important in nature and in many technological applications. This reduction may be achieved by reducing stresses in turbulent boundary layers, for instance tailoring biomimetic rough skins. Here we take a second approach consisting of keeping the boundary layer laminar as long as possible by forcing small optimal perturbations. Because of the highly non-normal nature of the underlying linearized operator, these perturbations are highly amplified and able to modify the mean velocity profiles at leading order. We report results of wind-tunnel experiments in which we implement this concept by using suitably designed roughness elements placed on the skin to enforce nearly optimal perturbations. We show that by using this passive control technique it is possible to sensibly delay transition to turbulence.

  • 59.
    Fransson, Jens H. M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Talamelli, A.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Cossu, C.
    Experimental analysis of transition delay by means of roughness elements2006In: Collection of Technical Papers: 36th AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference, 2006, p. 1464-1478Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental activity aimed at the development of a passive method for viscous drag reduction in an aerodynamic body is presented. The reduction is achieved by delaying the laminar-turbulent transition of the boundary layer. The research is motivated by previous linear stability analysis where it was demonstrated that stable streaks in a boundary layer are capable to stabilize the growth of Tollmien-Schlichting waves. In this paper the results of a series of experiments on a flat plate are presented. Firstly, it is shown that by means of suitable roughness elements it is possible to generate stable steady streaks of amplitudes up to 12% of the free stream velocity. Secondly, it is demonstrated that the generated streaks are really effective in reducing the growth of the Tollmien-Schlichting waves as predicted by the theory. Finally, it is shown that using this passive control technique it is possible to sensibly delay transition to turbulence.

  • 60.
    Fransson, Jens H. M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Talamelli, Alessandro
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Cossu, C.
    Transition to turbulence delay by means of a passive mechanism2009In: Proceedings of CEAS/KATNET II Conference on Key Aerodynamic Technology, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 61.
    Fransson, Jens H. M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Talamelli, Alessandro
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Cossu, Carlo
    LadHyX, CNRS Ecole Polytechnique.
    Delaying transition to turbulence by a passive mechanism2006In: EFMC6, The 6th Euromech Fluid Mechanics Conference, 2006, p. 360-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 62.
    Fransson, Jens H. M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Talamelli, Alessandro
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Cossu, Carlo
    Transition delay by means of a passive mechanism2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 63. Fukada, T.
    et al.
    Fornari, Walter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Takeuchi, S.
    Kajishima, T.
    A numerical approach for particle-vortex interactions based on volume-averaged equations2018In: International Journal of Multiphase Flow, ISSN 0301-9322, E-ISSN 1879-3533, Vol. 104, p. 188-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To study the dynamics of particles in turbulence when their sizes are comparable to the smallest eddies in the flow, the Kolmogorov length scale, efficient and accurate numerical models for the particle-fluid interaction are still missing. Therefore, we here extend the treatment of the particle feedback on the fluid based on the volume-averaged fluid equations (VA simulation) in the previous study of the present authors, by estimating the fluid force correlated with the disturbed flow. We validate the model against interface-resolved simulations using the immersed-boundary method. Simulations of single particles show that the history effect is well captured by the present estimation method based on the disturbed flow. Similarly, the simulation of the flow around a rotating particle demonstrates that the lift force is also well captured by the proposed method. We also consider the interaction between non-negligible size particles and an array of Taylor–Green vortices. For density ratios ρd /ρc ≥ 10, the results show that the particle motion captured by the VA approach is closer to that of the fully-resolved simulations than that obtained with a traditional two-way coupling simulation. The flow disturbance is also well represented by the VA simulation. In particular, it is found that history effects enhance the curvature of the trajectory in vortices and this enhancement increases with the particle size. Furthermore, the flow field generated by a neighboring particle at distances of around ten particle diameters significantly influences particle trajectories. The computational cost of the VA simulation proposed here is considerably lower than that of the interface-resolved simulation.

  • 64.
    Ge, Zhouyang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Holmgren, Hanna
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Informat Technol, Div Sci Comp, Box 337, S-75105 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Kronbichler, Martin
    Tech Univ Munich, Inst Computat Mech, Boltzmannstr 15, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Kreiss, Gunilla
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Informat Technol, Div Sci Comp, Box 337, S-75105 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Effective slip over partially filled microcavities and its possible failure2018In: Physical Review Fluids, ISSN 2469-990X, Vol. 3, no 5, article id 054201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivated by the emerging applications of liquid-infused surfaces (LIS), we study the drag reduction and robustness of transverse flows over two-dimensional microcavities partially filled with an oily lubricant. Using separate simulations at different scales, characteristic contact line velocities at the fluid-solid intersection are first extracted from nanoscale phase field simulations and then applied to micronscale two-phase flows, thus introducing a multiscale numerical framework to model the interface displacement and deformation within the cavities. As we explore the various effects of the lubncant-toouter-fluid viscosity ratio A2/A0 th(mu)over tilde( )c(mu)over tilde(1), thary number Ca, the static contact angle A> and t theta(s), filling fraction of the cavity <5, we f delta d that the effective slip is most sensitive to the parameter S. The effects of A2/A1 an(mu)over tilde( )A(mu)over tilde(a )re ge theta(s)erally intertwined but weakened if <5 < 1. delta M 1er, for an initial filling fraction S = 0.94 delta our results show that the effective slip is nearly independent of the capillary number when it is small. Further increasing Ca to about O.OIA1/A20.01(mu)over tilde(1)/(mu)over tilde(2)ntify a possible failure mode, associated with lubricants draining from the LIS, for A2/A1 A (mu)over tilde(2)1(mu)over tilde(1)V less than or similar to y viscous lubricants (e.g., A2/A1 > (mu)over tilde()),(mu)over tilde(h)owever, are immune to such failure due to their generally larger contact line velocity.

  • 65.
    Haque, Simon
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Lashgari, Iman
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Giannetti, Flavio
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Stability of fluids with shear-dependent viscosity in the lid-driven cavity2012In: Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0377-0257, E-ISSN 1873-2631, Vol. 173-174, p. 49-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The classical problem of the lid-driven cavity extended infinitely in the spanwise direction is considered for non-Newtonian shear-thinning and shear-thickening fluids, where the viscosity is modeled by the Carreau model. Linear stability is used to determine the critical Reynolds number at which the two-dimensional base-flow becomes unstable to three-dimensional spanwise-periodic disturbances. We consider a square cavity, characterized by steady unstable modes, and a shallow cavity of aspect ratio 0.25, where oscillating modes are the first to become unstable for Newtonian fluids. In both cases, the critical Reynolds number first decreases with decreasing power-index n (from shear-thickening to shear-thinning fluids) and then increase again for highly pseudoplastic fluids. In the latter case, this is explained by the thinner boundary layers at the cavity walls and less intense vorticity inside the domain. Interestingly, oscillating modes are found at critical conditions for shear-thickening fluids in a square cavity while the shallow cavity supports a new instability of lower frequency for large enough shear-thinning. Analysis of kinetic energy budgets and structural sensitivity are employed to investigate the physical mechanisms behind the instability.

  • 66.
    Herbst, Astrid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    The effect of the sweep angle on the turbulent separation bubble on a flate plate2006Report (Other academic)
  • 67.
    Herbst, Astrid H.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. Bombardier Transportation Sweden AB, Västerås.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Henningson, Dan Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    The effect of the sweep angle on the turbulent separation bubble on a flate plate2007In: Advances in Turbulence XI - Proceedings of the 11th EUROMECH European Turbulence Conference, 2007, p. 230-232Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 68. Hoepffner, Jerome
    et al.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Stochastic approach to the receptivity problem applied to bypass transition in boundary layers2008In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 20, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To study the flow behavior in the presence of external disturbances of chaotic nature, a stochastic approach is pursued. In particular, transition to turbulence in boundary layers exposed to high levels of free-stream turbulence is considered. The late stages of this transition scenario, characterized by the growth and breakdown of streamwise-elongated streaks, are examined by considering the linear evolution of perturbations to a base flow consisting of the Blasius profile and the streaks. A stochastic initial condition is considered where the free-stream perturbations are described by the correlations of isotropic homogeneous turbulence. The spatial correlation of the excited flow at later times can be computed by the numerical solution of a Lyapunov equation. It is shown that free-stream turbulence has the necessary features to excite secondary energy growth, thus playing a central role in the transition to turbulence. The method proposed here can be used to examine the receptivity of other flows to external noise whose statistical properties are known or can be modeled.

  • 69.
    Hoepffner, Jérôme
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Brandt, L.uca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Transient growth on boundary layer streaks2005In: Journal of fluid mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, Vol. 537, p. 91-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The linear perturbations evolving on streamwise boundary layer streaks which yield maximum energy growth are computed. The steady and spanwise-periodic streaks arising from the nonlinear saturation of optimally growing streamwise vortices are considered as base flow. It is shown that significant transient growth may occur for both sinuous antisymmetric perturbations and for varicose symmetric modes. The energy growth is observed at amplitudes significantly below the threshold beyond which the streaks become linearly unstable and is largest for sinuous perturbations, to which the base flow considered first become unstable. The optimal initial condition consists of velocity perturbations localized in the regions of highest shear of the streak base flow, tilted upstream from the wall. The optimal response is still localized in the areas of largest shear but it is tilted in the flow direction. The most amplified perturbations closely resemble the unstable eigenfunctions obtained for streaks of higher amplitudes. The results suggest the possibility of a transition scenario characterized by the non-modal growth of primary perturbations, the streaks, followed by the secondary transient growth of higher frequency perturbations. The implication for turbulent flow is also discussed.

  • 70.
    Ilak, Milos
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Bagheri, Shervin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Rowley, Clarence W.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Model Reduction of the Nonlinear Complex Ginzburg-Landau Equation2010In: SIAM Journal on Applied Dynamical Systems, ISSN 1536-0040, E-ISSN 1536-0040, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 1284-1302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reduced-order models of the nonlinear complex Ginzburg-Landau (CGL) equation are computed using a nonlinear generalization of balanced truncation. The method involves Galerkin projection of the nonlinear dynamics onto modes determined by balanced truncation of a linearized system and is compared to a standard method using projection onto proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) modes computed from snapshots of nonlinear simulations. It is found that the nonlinear reduced-order models obtained using modes from linear balanced truncation capture very well the transient dynamics of the CGL equation and outperform POD models; i.e., a higher number of POD modes than linear balancing modes is typically necessary in order to capture the dynamics of the original system correctly. In addition, we find that the performance of POD models compares well to that of balanced truncation models when the degree of nonnormality in the system, in this case determined by the streamwise extent of a disturbance amplification region, is lower. Our findings therefore indicate that the superior performance of balanced truncation compared to POD/Galerkin models in capturing the input/output dynamics of linear systems extends to the case of a nonlinear system, both for the case of significant transient growth, which represents a basic model of boundary layer instabilities, and for a limit cycle case that represents a basic model of vortex shedding past a cylinder.

  • 71.
    Klinkenberg, Joy
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    de Lange, H. C.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Linear stability of particle laden flows: the influence of added mass, fluid acceleration and Basset history force2014In: Meccanica (Milano. Print), ISSN 0025-6455, E-ISSN 1572-9648, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 811-827Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both modal and non-modal linear stability analysis of a channel flow laden with particles is presented. The particles are assumed spherical and solid and their presence modelled using two-way coupling, with Stokes drag, added mass and fluid acceleration as coupling terms. When the particles considered have a density ratio of order one, all three terms become important. To account for the volume and mass of the particles, a modified Reynolds number is defined. Particles lighter than the fluid decrease the critical Reynolds number for modal stability, whereas heavier particles may increase the critical Reynolds number. Most effect is found when the Stokes number defined with the instability time scale is of order one. Non-modal analysis shows that the generation of streamwise streaks is the most dominant disturbance-growth mechanism also in flows laden with particles: the transient growth of the total system is enhanced proportionally to the particle mass fraction, as observed previously in flows laden with heavy particles. When studying the fluid disturbance energy alone, the optimal growth hardly changes. We also show that the Basset history force has a negligible effect on stability. The inclusion of the extra interaction terms does not show any large modifications of the subcritical instabilities in wall-bounded shear flows.

  • 72.
    Klinkenberg, Joy
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    de Lange, H. C.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Modal and non-modal stability analysis of a channel flow seeded with light particles2011In: European journal of mechanics. B, Fluids, ISSN 0997-7546, E-ISSN 1873-7390Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Both modal and non-modal stability analysis of a channel flow laden with light particles is presented. The particles are assumed spherical and solid and their presence modeled using two-way coupling, with Stokes drag, added mass and fluid acceleration as coupling terms. The Stokes drag is a function of particle relaxation time and mass fraction, while added mass and fluid acceleration are a function of mass fraction and density ratio. When the particles considered have a density ratio of order one, all three terms are important. Modal analysis shows a decrease in critical Reynolds number proportional to the mass fraction for all particle relaxation times at a density ratio of one. Lighter particles decrease the critical Reynolds number further, whereas heavier particles might increase the critical Reynolds number. Most effect is found when the stability Stokes number is of order one. Non-modal analysis shows that the transient growth of the total system is enhanced in proportion to the particle mass fraction, as observed in flows laden with heavy particles. The generation of streamwise streaks is still the most dominant disturbance-growth mechanism in particle laden flows with light particles. Thus, the presence of particles may not work to delay the transition.

  • 73.
    Klinkenberg, Joy
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    de Lange, H. C.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Modal and non-modal stability of particle-laden channel flow2011In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 064110-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modal and non-modal linear stability analysis of channel flow with a dilute particle suspension is presented where particles are assumed to be solid, spherical, and heavy. The two-way coupling between particle and fluid flow is therefore modeled by the Stokes drag only. The results are presented as function of the particle relaxation time and mass fraction. First, we consider exponentially growing perturbations and extend previous findings showing the potential for a significant increase of the critical Reynolds number. The largest stabilization is observed when the ratio between the particle relaxation time and the oscillation period of the wave is of order one. By examining the energy budget, we show that this stabilization is due to the increase of the dissipation caused by the Stokes drag. The observed stabilization has led to the hypothesis that dusty flows can be more stable. However, transition to turbulence is most often subcritical in canonical shear flows where non-modal growth mechanisms are responsible for the initial growth of external disturbances. The non-modal analysis of the particle-laden flow, presented here for the first time, reveals that the transient energy growth is, surprisingly, increased by the presence of particles, in proportion to the particle mass fraction. The generation of streamwise streaks via the lift-up mechanism is still the dominant disturbance-growth mechanism in the particle laden flow; the length scales of the most dangerous disturbances are unaffected, while the initial disturbance growth can be delayed. These results are explained in terms of a dimensionless parameter relating the particle relaxation time to the time scale of the instability. The presence of a dilute solid phase therefore may not always work as a flow-control strategy for maintaining the flow as laminar. Despite the stabilizing effect on modal instabilities, non-modal mechanisms are still strong in internal flows seeded with heavy particles. Our results indicate that the initial stages of transition in dilute suspensions of small particles are similar to the stages in a single phase flow.

  • 74.
    Klinkenberg, Joy
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Sardina, Gaetano
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    de Lange, H. C.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Numerical Simulations of laminar-turbulent transition in particle-laden channel flow2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct Numerical Simulation of a particle-laden channel flow is performed, with particles assumed solid, spherical and heavy. Two-way coupling between fluidand particles is modeled with Stokes drag. The equations describing the fluid flow are solved with an Eulerian mesh and those describing particles are solved in a Lagrangian frame. The numerical code is validated with results from linear optimal growth from previous studies; the optimal growth of streamwise vortices resulting in streamwise streaks is still the most efficient mechanism for disturbance amplification at subcritical conditions as for the case of a single phase fluid.

    We consider transition initiated by two initial disturbances well-known in literature, streamwise vortices and oblique waves. The threshold energy for transition is computed for both cases. It is observed that streamwise vortices in combination with an oblique wave as additional initial disturbance, result ina small increase of threshold energy compared to a clean fluid. In addition, the time at which transition occurs clearly increases for disturbances of equal initial energy. The threshold energy in the case of the so-called oblique scenario, increases by a factor about 4 in the presence of particles. The results are explained by considering the reduced amplification of oblique modes in the presence of particles.

    The results from these two classical scenarios indicate that, although stability analysis shows hardly any effect on optimal growth, particles do influence secondary instabilities and streak breakdown, thus the non-linear stages of transition, in two different ways. The presence of particles introduced threedimensional, streamwise-dependent modulations, especially at low concentrations, that may trigger and enhance secondary instabilities of streamwiseindependent streaks. On the other hand, particles decrease the amplitude ofoblique modes thus delaying transition initiated by their nonlinear interactions as in the oblique scenario.

  • 75.
    Klinkenberg, Joy
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Sardina, Gaetano
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    de Lange, H. C.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Numerical study of laminar-turbulent transition in particle-laden channel flow2013In: Physical Review E. Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics, ISSN 1539-3755, E-ISSN 1550-2376, Vol. 87, no 4, p. 043011-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present direct numerical simulations of subcritical transition to turbulence in a particle-laden channel flow, with particles assumed rigid, spherical, and heavier than the fluid. The equations describing the fluid flow are solved with an Eulerian mesh, whereas those describing the particle dynamics are solved by Lagrangian tracking. Two-way coupling between fluid and particles is modeled with Stokes drag. The numerical code is first validated against previous results from linear stability: the nonmodal growth of streamwise vortices resulting in streamwise streaks is still the most efficient mechanism for linear disturbance amplification at subcritical conditions as for the case of a single phase fluid. To analyze the full nonlinear transition, we examine two scenarios well studied in the literature: (1) transition initiated by streamwise independent counter-rotating streamwise vortices and one three-dimensional mode and (2) oblique transition, initiated by the nonlinear interaction of two symmetric oblique waves. The threshold energy for transition is computed, and it is demonstrated that for both scenarios the transition may be facilitated by the presence of particles at low number density. This is due to the fact that particles may introduce in the system detrimental disturbances of length scales not initially present. At higher concentrations, conversely, we note an increase of the disturbance energy needed for transition. The threshold energy for the oblique scenario shows a more significant increase in the presence of particles, by a factor about four. Interestingly, for the streamwise-vortex scenario the time at which transition occurs increases with the particle volume fraction when considering disturbances of equal initial energy. These results are explained by considering the reduced amplification of oblique modes in the two-phase flow. The results from these two classical scenarios indicate that, although linear stability analysis shows hardly any effect on optimal growth, particles do influence secondary instabilities and streak breakdown. These effects can be responsible of the reduced drag observed in turbulent channel flow laden with heavy particles.

  • 76.
    Lambert, Ruth A.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Picano, Francesco
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Breugem, Wim-Paul
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Active suspensions in thin films: nutrient uptake and swimmer motion2013In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 733, p. 528-557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A numerical study of swimming particle motion and nutrient transport is conducted for a semidilute to dense suspension in a thin film. The steady squirmer model is used to represent the motion of living cells in suspension with the nutrient uptake by swimming particles modelled using a first-order kinetic equation representing the absorption process that occurs locally at the particle surface. An analysis of the dynamics of the neutral squirmers inside the film shows that the vertical motion is reduced significantly. The mean nutrient uptake for both isolated and populations of swimmers decreases for increasing swimming speeds when nutrient advection becomes relevant as less time is left for the nutrient to diffuse to the surface. This finding is in contrast to the case where the uptake is modelled by imposing a constant nutrient concentration at the cell surface and the mass flux results to be an increasing monotonic function of the swimming speed. In comparison to non-motile particles, the cell motion has a negligible influence on nutrient uptake at lower particle absorption rates since the process is rate limited. At higher absorption rates, the swimming motion results in a large increase in the nutrient uptake that is attributed to the movement of particles and increased mixing in the fluid. As the volume fraction of swimming particles increases, the squirmers consume slightly less nutrients and require more power for the same swimming motion. Despite this increase in energy consumption, the results clearly demonstrate that the gain in nutrient uptake make swimming a winning strategy for micro-organism survival also in relatively dense suspensions.

  • 77.
    Lashgari, Iman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Niazi Ardekani, Mehdi
    KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Banerjee, Indradumna
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology.
    Russom, Aman
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Inertial migration of spherical and oblate particles in straight ductsIn: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study numerically the inertial migration of a single rigid sphere and an oblate spheroid in straight square and rectangular ducts. A highly accurate interface-resolved numerical algorithm is employed to analyse the entire migration dynamics of the oblate particle and compare it with that of the sphere. Similarly to the inertial focusing of spheres, the oblate particle reaches one of the four face-centred equilibrium positions, however they are vertically aligned with the axis of symmetry in the spanwise direction. In addition, the lateral trajectories of spheres and oblates collapse into an equilibrium manifold before ending at the equilibrium positions, with the equilibrium manifold tangential to lines of constant background shear for both sphere and oblate particles. The differences between the migration of the oblate and sphere are also presented, in particular the oblate may focus on the diagonal symmetry line of the duct cross-section, close to one of the corners, if its diameter is larger than a certain threshold. Moreover, we show that the final orientation and rotation of the oblate exhibit a chaotic behaviour for Reynolds numbers beyond a critical value. Finally, we document that the lateral motion of the oblate particle is less uniform than that of the spherical particle due to its evident tumbling motion throughout the migration. In a square duct, the strong tumbling motion of the oblate in the first stage of the migration results in a lower lateral velocity and consequently longer focusing length with respect to that of the spherical particle. The opposite is true in a rectangular duct where the higher lateral velocity of the oblate in the second stage of the migration, with negligible tumbling, gives rise to shorter focusing lengths.These results can help the design of microfluidic systems for bio-applications.

  • 78.
    Lashgari, Iman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Physicochemical Fluid Mechanics.
    Picano, Francesco
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Physicochemical Fluid Mechanics.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Physicochemical Fluid Mechanics.
    Transition and self-sustained turbulence in dilute suspensions of finite-size particles2015In: Theoretical and Applied Mechanics Letters, ISSN 2095-0349, Vol. 5, p. 121-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the transition to turbulence of channel flow of finite-size particle suspensions at low volume fraction, i.e., Φ ≈ 0.001. The critical Reynolds number above which turbulence is sustained reduces to Re ≈ 1675, in the presence of few particles, independently of the initial condition, a value lower than that of the corresponding single-phase flow, i.e., Re ≈ 1775. In the dilute suspension, the initial arrangement of the particles is important to trigger the transition at a fixed Reynolds number and particle volume fraction. As in single phase flows, streamwise elongated disturbances are initially induced in the flow. If particles can induce oblique disturbances with high enough energy within a certain time, the streaks breakdown, flow experiences the transition to turbulence and the particle trajectories become chaotic. Otherwise, the streaks decay in time and the particles immigrate towards the channel core in a laminar flow. 

  • 79.
    Lashgari, Iman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Picano, Francesco
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. University of Padova, Italy.
    Breugem, W. -P
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Transition to Turbulence in the Presence of Finite Size Particles2015In: Procedia IUTAM, Elsevier, 2015, p. 211-217Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the transition from laminar to turbulent flow in a channel seeded with finite-size neutrally buoyant particles. A fixed ratio of 10 between the channel height and the particle diameter is considered. The flow is examined in the range of Reynolds numbers 500 ≤ Re ≤; 5000 and the particle volume fractions 0.001 ≤ Φ ≤; 0.3. We report a non-monotonic behavior of the threshold value of the Reynolds number above which the flow becomes turbulent, in agreement with previous experimental studies. The mean square velocity fluctuations and Reynolds shear stress of the fluid phase are reduced by increasing the particle volume fraction at a fixed Re=1500, while the mean square velocities of the solid phase are enhanced monotonically suggesting a transition from fluid to particle dominated dynamics at high volume fraction.

  • 80.
    Lashgari, Iman
    et al.
    KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Picano, Francesco
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Physicochemical Fluid Mechanics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. University of Padova, Italy.
    Breugem, Wim Paul
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Physicochemical Fluid Mechanics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Channel flow of rigid sphere suspensions: Particle dynamics in the inertial regime2016In: International Journal of Multiphase Flow, ISSN 0301-9322, E-ISSN 1879-3533, Vol. 78, p. 12-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider suspensions of neutrally-buoyant finite-size rigid spherical particles in channel flow and investigate the relation between the particle dynamics and the mean bulk behavior of the mixture for Reynolds numbers 500 ≤ Re ≤ 5000 and particle volume fraction 0 ≤ Φ ≤ 0.3, via fully resolved numerical simulations. Analysis of the momentum balance reveals the existence of three different regimes: laminar, turbulent and inertial shear-thickening depending on which of the stress terms, viscous, Reynolds or particle stress, is the major responsible for the momentum transfer across the channel. We show that both Reynolds and particle stress dominated flows fall into the Bagnoldian inertial regime and that the Bagnold number can predict the bulk behavior although this is due to two distinct physical mechanisms. A turbulent flow is characterized by larger particle dispersion and a more uniform particle distribution, whereas the particulate-dominated flows is associated with a significant particle migration towards the channel center where the flow is smooth laminar-like and dispersion low. Interestingly, the collision kernel shows similar values in the different regimes, although the relative particle velocity and clustering clearly vary with inertia and particle concentration.

  • 81.
    Lashgari, Iman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Physicochemical Fluid Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Picano, Francesco
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Physicochemical Fluid Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. Department of Physics, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy .
    Breugem, Wim-Paul
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Physicochemical Fluid Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Laminar, Turbulent, and Inertial Shear-Thickening Regimes in Channel Flow of Neutrally Buoyant Particle Suspensions2014In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 113, no 25, p. 254502-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this Letter is to characterize the flow regimes of suspensions of finite-size rigid particles in a viscous fluid at finite inertia. We explore the system behavior as a function of the particle volume fraction and the Reynolds number (the ratio of flow and particle inertia to viscous forces). Unlike single-phase flows, where a clear distinction exists between the laminar and the turbulent states, three different regimes can be identified in the presence of a particulate phase, with smooth transitions between them. At low volume fractions, the flow becomes turbulent when increasing the Reynolds number, transitioning from the laminar regime dominated by viscous forces to the turbulent regime characterized by enhanced momentum transport by turbulent eddies. At larger volume fractions, we identify a new regime characterized by an even larger increase of the wall friction. The wall friction increases with the Reynolds number (inertial effects) while the turbulent transport is weakly affected, as in a state of intense inertial shear thickening. This state may prevent the transition to a fully turbulent regime at arbitrary high speed of the flow.

  • 82.
    Lashgari, Iman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Picano, Francesco
    Costa, Pedro
    Breugem, Wim-Paul
    Brandt, L.uca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Turbulent channel flow of a dense binary mixture of rigid particles2017In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 818, p. 623-645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study turbulent channel flow of a binary mixture of finite-sized neutrally buoyant rigid particles by means of interface-resolved direct numerical simulations. We fix the bulk Reynolds number and total solid volume fraction, Re-b = 5600 and Phi = 20 %, and vary the relative fraction of small and large particles. The binary mixture consists of particles of two different sizes, 2h/d(l) = 20 and 2h/d(s) = 30 where h is the half-channel height and d(l) and d(s) the diameters of the large and small particles. While the particulate flow statistics exhibit a significant alteration of the mean velocity profile and turbulent fluctuations with respect to the unladen flow, the differences between the mono-disperse and bi-disperse cases are small. However, we observe a clear segregation of small particles at the wall in binary mixtures, which affects the dynamics of the near-wall region and thus the overall drag. This results in a higher drag in suspensions with a larger number of large particles. As regards bi-disperse effects on the particle dynamics, a non-monotonic variation of the particle dispersion in the spanwise (homogeneous) direction is observed when increasing the percentage of small/large particles. Finally, we note that particles of the same size tend to cluster more at contact whereas the dynamics of the large particles gives the highest collision kernels due to a higher approaching speed.

  • 83.
    Lashgari, Iman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Pralits, Jan O.
    Giannetti, Flavio
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    First instability of the flow of shear-thinning and shear-thickening fluids past a circular cylinder2012In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 701, p. 201-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first bifurcation and the instability mechanisms of shear-thinning and shear-thickening fluids flowing past a circular cylinder are studied using linear theory and numerical simulations. Structural sensitivity analysis based on the idea of a 'wavemaker' is performed to identify the core of the instability. The shear-dependent viscosity is modelled by the Carreau model where the rheological parameters, i.e. the power-index and the material time constant, are chosen in the range 0.4 <= n <= 1.75 and 0.1 <= lambda <= 100. We show how shear-thinning/shear-thickening effects destabilize/stabilize the flow dramatically when scaling the problem with the reference zero-shear-rate viscosity. These variations are explained by modifications of the steady base flow due to the shear-dependent viscosity; the instability mechanisms are only slightly changed. The characteristics of the base flow, drag coefficient and size of recirculation bubble are presented to assess shear-thinning effects. We demonstrate that at critical conditions the local Reynolds number in the core of the instability is around 50 as for Newtonian fluids. The perturbation kinetic energy budget is also considered to examine the physical mechanism of the instability.

  • 84.
    Lashgari, Iman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Tammisola, Outi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Citro, Vincenzo
    Juniper, Matthew
    Department of Engineering, Cambridge University, Cambridge.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    The planar X-junction flow: stability analysis and control2014In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 753, p. 1-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bifurcations and control of the flow in a planar X-junction are studied via linear stability analysis and direct numerical simulations. This study reveals the instability mechanisms in a symmetric channel junction and shows how these can be stabilized or destabilized by boundary modification. We observe two bifurcations as the Reynolds number increases. They both scale with the inlet speed of the two side channels and are almost independent of the inlet speed of the main channel. Equivalently, both bifurcations appear when the recirculation zones reach a critical length. A two-dimensional stationary global mode becomes unstable first, changing the flow from a steady symmetric state to a steady asymmetric state via a pitchfork bifurcation. The core of this instability, whether defined by the structural sensitivity or by the disturbance energy production, is at the edges of the recirculation bubbles, which are located symmetrically along the walls of the downstream channel. The energy analysis shows that the first bifurcation is due to a lift-up mechanism. We develop an adjustable control strategy for the first bifurcation with distributed suction or blowing at the walls. The linearly optimal wall-normal velocity distribution is computed through a sensitivity analysis and is shown to delay the first bifurcation from Re=82.5" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: normal; font-family: inherit; vertical-align: baseline; display: inline; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; position: relative;">Re=82.5Re=82.5 to Re=150" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; line-height: normal; font-family: inherit; vertical-align: baseline; display: inline; word-spacing: normal; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; position: relative;">Re=150Re=150. This stabilizing effect arises because blowing at the walls weakens the wall-normal gradient of the streamwise velocity around the recirculation zone and hinders the lift-up. At the second bifurcation, a three-dimensional stationary global mode with a spanwise wavenumber of order unity becomes unstable around the asymmetric steady state. Nonlinear three-dimensional simulations at the second bifurcation display transition to a nonlinear cycle involving growth of a three-dimensional steady structure, time-periodic secondary instability and nonlinear breakdown restoring a two-dimensional flow. Finally, we show that the sensitivity to wall suction at the second bifurcation is as large as it is at the first bifurcation, providing a possible mechanism for destabilization.

  • 85.
    Lashgari, Iman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Tammisola, Outi
    Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
    Citro, Vincenzo
    DIIN, University of Salerno, Fisciano, Italy.
    Juniper, Matthew P.
    Department of Engineering, Univerisyt of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    The planar X-junction flow: stability analysis and control2014In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 753, p. 1-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bifurcations and control of the flow in a planar X-junction are studied via linear stability analysis and direct numerical simulations. This study reveals the instability mechanisms in a symmetric channel junction and shows how these can be stabilized or destabilized by boundary modification. We observe two bifurcations as the Reynolds number increases. They both scale with the inlet speed of the two side channels and are almost independent of the inlet speed of the main channel. Equivalently, both bifurcations appear when the recirculation zones reach a critical length. A two-dimensional stationary global mode becomes unstable first, changing the flow from a steady symmetric state to a steady asymmetric state via a pitchfork bifurcation. The core of this instability, whether defined by the structural sensitivity or by the disturbance energy production, is at the edges of the recirculation bubbles, which are located symmetrically along the walls of the downstream channel. The energy analysis shows that the first bifurcation is due to a lift-up mechanism. We develop an adjustable control strategy for the first bifurcation with distributed suction or blowing at the walls. The linearly optimal wall-normal velocity distribution is computed through a sensitivity analysis and is shown to delay the first bifurcation from Re = 82.5 to Re = 150. This stabilizing effect arises because blowing at the walls weakens the wall-normal gradient of the streamwise velocity around the recirculation zone and hinders the lift-up. At the second bifurcation, a three-dimensional stationary global mode with a spanwise wavenumber of order unity becomes unstable around the asymmetric steady state. Nonlinear three-dimensional simulations at the second bifurcation display transition to a nonlinear cycle involving growth of a three-dimensional steady structure, time-periodic secondary instability and nonlinear breakdown restoring a two-dimensional flow. Finally, we show that the sensitivity to wall suction at the second bifurcation is as large as it is at the first bifurcation, providing a possible mechanism for destabilization.

  • 86.
    Li, Qiang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Direct numerical simulation of a turbulent boundary layer with passive scalar transport2010In: Direct and Large-Eddy Simulation 7, 2010, p. 321-327Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fully-resolved direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer with passive scalars over a flat plate under zero pressure gradient (ZPG) has been carried out using a spectral method with about 40M grid points. The highest Reynolds number based on the momentum thickness and free-stream velocity is Re θ = 850 and the molecular Prandtl numbers for the scalars range from 0.2 to 2.0. The intermittent region near the boundary-layer edge was identified by investigating the high-order moments and PDF. In addition, it was found that the streamwise velocity is similar to the scalar distribution at Pr = 0. 71 with isoscalar wall boundary condition. Far away from the wall, the two quantities become less correlated.

  • 87.
    Li, Qiang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    DNS of a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer with passive scalar transport2009In: International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, ISSN 0142-727X, E-ISSN 1879-2278, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 916-929Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a spatially developing turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate under zero pressure gradient (ZPG) has been carried out. The evolution of several passive scalars with both isoscalar and isoflux wall boundary condition are computed during the simulation. The Navier-Stokes equations as well as the scalar transport equation are solved using a fully spectral method. The highest Reynolds number based on the free-stream velocity U-infinity and momentum thickness 0 is Re-0 = 830, and the molecular Prandtl numbers are 0.2, 0.71 and 2. To the authors' knowledge, this Reynolds number is to date the highest with such a variety of scalars. A large number of turbulence statistics for both flow and scalar fields are obtained and compared when possible to existing experimental and numerical simulations at comparable Reynolds number. The main focus of the present paper is on the statistical behaviour of the scalars in the outer region of the boundary layer, distinctly different from the channel-flow simulations. Agreements as well as discrepancies are discussed while the influence of the molecular Prandtl number and wall boundary conditions is also highlighted. A Pr scaling for various quantities is proposed in outer scalings. In addition, spanwise two-point correlation and instantaneous fields are employed to investigate the near-wall streak spacing and the coherence between the velocity and the scalar fields. Probability density functions (PDF) and joint probability density functions (JPDF) are shown to identify the intermittency both near the wall and in the outer region of the boundary layer. The present simulation data will be available online for the research community.

  • 88.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Monokrousos, Antonios
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Feedback control of boundary layer bypass transition: experimental and numerical progress2009In: 47th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Orlando, FL, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental and numerical work at the Linné FLOW Centre on active control of transition induced by free-stream turbulence is reviewed and two extensions to previous work are reported. Previously, an experimental setup with upstream sensors and downstream actuators has been built. It has been demonstrated that an 

    ad-hoc  control algorithm is able to give a considerable attenuation of the disturbance amplitude downstream of the ac- tuators. Furthermore, large-eddy simulations (LES) of optimal feedback control have been performed for a similar flow configuration and disturbance attenuation as well as transition delay have been obtained. Two extensions are made. First, an effort is made to match the disturbance behavior in the experimental flow case and in the LES. Control is applied in simulations of the matched system aiming at approaching the type of actuation used in the experiments (localized suction). The control law is still computed as optimal feedback of the linear system. As the actuation ability approaches the experiments (where much simpler controllers were used), so does the control effect. Second, system identification (SI) is applied to the experimental data and a more efficient controller is designed. It is made plausible that controllers designed by SI can give considerable improvements in the disturbance attenuation. Implications for future work in the area of active control are discussed.

  • 89.
    Lupo, Giandomenico
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Niazi Ardekani, Mehdi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Duwig, Christophe
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    An Immersed Boundary Method for flows withevaporating dropletsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 90. Miyauchi, Suguru
    et al.
    Hayase, Toshiyuki
    Banaei, Arash Alizad
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Loiseau, Jean-Christophe
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Two-dimensional numerical simulation of the behavior of a circular capsule subject to an inclined centrifugal force near a plate in a fluid2017In: JOURNAL OF FLUID SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, ISSN 1880-5558, Vol. 12, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to examine mechanical interactions between erythrocytes and a blood vessel surface, the frictional characteristics between erythrocytes and plates in plasma have been measured by an inclined centrifuge microscope. The frictional characteristics have been properly reproduced by a numerical simulation of a rigid erythrocyte model assuming a flat bottom surface. However, validity of the assumption has not been confirmed. The purpose of this fundamental study, therefore, was to clarify the behavior of a two-dimensional circular capsule subjected to inclined centrifugal force near a plate in a fluid. An unsteady simulation was performed for various values of the angles of the inclined centrifugal force and membrane elasticity. In equilibrium states, a lubrication domain with high pressure and a large shear stress is formed between the capsule and the base plate, and the bottom surface of the capsule becomes flat with a positive attack angle. The gap distance and translational and rotational velocities increase with decreasing membrane elasticity or increasing centrifugal force angle. The attack angle increases with increasing membrane elasticity or centrifugal force angle. The results in this study qualitatively justified the assumption of the former numerical study that erythrocytes in an inclined centrifuge microscope have a flat bottom surface and its result that they have a positive attack angle in equilibrium state.

  • 91.
    Monokrousos, Antonios
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Bottaro, Alessandro
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Di Vita, Andrea
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics and the Optimal Path to Turbulence in Shear Flows2011In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 106, no 13, p. 134502-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We determine the initial condition on the laminar-turbulent boundary closest to the laminar state using nonlinear optimization for plane Couette flow. Resorting to the general evolution criterion of nonequilibrium systems we optimize the route to the statistically steady turbulent state, i.e., the state characterized by the largest entropy production. This is the first time information from the fully turbulent state is included in the optimization procedure. We demonstrate that the optimal initial condition is localized in space for realistic flow domains.

  • 92.
    Monokrousos, Antonios
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Control of a separating boundary layer with travelling waves on the wall2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We perform numerical simulations of control of a separating laminar boundary layer by means of blowing and suction at the wall in the form of traveling waves. Separation is imposed by prescribing accelerating and decelerating free-stream velocity for the flow over a flat plate. We find that downstream traveling waves already at very low amplitudes are able to eliminate the separation and induce a turbulent but attached boundary layer flow. Upstream traveling waves of relatively higher amplitudes only slightly reduce separation while keeping the flow laminar. The amplitude of the blowing/suction needed to achieve such significant effects are considerably smaller than those previously considered for drag reduction and transition delay in plane geometries.

  • 93.
    Monokrousos, Antonios
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Mavriplis, Catherine
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Optimal disturbances above and upstream of a flat plate with an elliptic-type leading edge2014In: Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics, ISSN 0935-4964, E-ISSN 1432-2250, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 147-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adjoint-based iterative methods are employed to compute linear optimal disturbances in a spatially growing boundary layer around an elliptic leading edge. The Lagrangian approach is used where an objective function is chosen and constraints are assigned. The optimisation problem is solved using power iterations combined with a matrix-free formulation, where the state is marched forward in time with a standard direct numerical simulation solver and backward with the adjoint solver until a chosen convergence criterion is fulfilled. We consider the global and, more relevant to receptivity studies, the upstream localised optimal initial condition leading to the largest possible energy amplification at time T. We find that the two-dimensional initial condition with the largest potential for growth is a Tollmien-Schlichting-like wave packet that includes the Orr mechanism and is located inside the boundary layer downstream of the leading edge. Three-dimensional optimal disturbances induce streaks by the lift-up mechanism. Requiring the optimal initial condition to be localised upstream of the plate enables us to better study the effects of the leading edge on the boundary layer receptivity mechanisms. Two-dimensional upstream disturbances are inefficient at triggering unstable eigenmodes, whereas three-dimensional disturbances induce streamwise streaks with significant growth.

  • 94.
    Monokrousos, Antonios
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Mavriplis, Catherine
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Optimal disturbances of flow above a flat plate with an elliptic leading edge2011In: 7th International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena, TSFP 2011, International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena, TSFP , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adjoint-based iterative methods are employed in order to compute linear optimal disturbances in the case of a spatially growing boundary layer around an elliptic leading edge. The Lagrangian approach is used where an objective function is chosen and constraints are assigned. The optimization problem is solved using power iterations combined with a matrix-free formulation, where the state is marched forward in time with a standard DNS solver and backward with the adjoint solver until a chosen criterion is fulfilled. We consider the global and the upstream localized optimal initial condition leading to the largest possible energy amplification at time T . We find that the two-dimensional initial condition with the largest potential for growth is a Tollmien-Schichting-like wave packet that includes the Orr mechanism and is located inside the boundary layer, downstream of the leading edge. The localized optimal initial condition method allows a more precise systematic study of leading edge effects; we propose it a new method to study receptivity. We find the two-dimensional disturbances are inefficient at triggering an unstable eigenmode. The three-dimensional disturbances exploit the lift up mechanism; both the global and upstream localized disturbances give significant growth. These findings support the hypothesis of high receptivity to three-dimensional disturbances. 

  • 95.
    Monokrousos, Antonios
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Mavriplis, Catherine
    Henningson, Dan Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Optimal disturbances above and upstream a flat plate with an elliptic leading edge2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Adjoint-based iterative methods are employed in order to compute linear optimal disturbances in a spatially growing boundary layer around an elliptic leading edge. The Lagrangian approach is used where an objective function is chosen and constraints are assigned. The optimisation problem is solved using power iterations combined with a matrix-free formulation, where the state is marched forward in time with a standard DNS solver and backward with the adjoint solver until a chosen convergence criterion is fulfilled. We consider the global and the upstream localised optimal initial condition leading to the largest possible energy amplification at time T. We found that the twodimensional initial condition with the largest potential for growth is a Tolmien-Schlichting-like wave packet that includes the Orr mechanism and is located inside the boundary layer, downstream of the leading edge. Three-dimensional disturbances induce streaks by the lift-up mechanism. Localised optimal initial condition enables us to better study the effects of the leading edge; with this approach we propose a new method to study receptivity. Two-dimensional upstream disturbances, are inefficient at triggering an unstable eigenmode. The three-dimensional disturbances instead induce elongated streamwise streaks; both the global and upstream localised disturbances give significant growth. This advocates for high receptivity to three-dimensional disturbances.

  • 96.
    Monokrousos, Antonios
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Henningson, Dan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    DNS and LES of estimation and control of transition in boundary layers subject to free-stream turbulence2008In: International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, ISSN 0142-727X, E-ISSN 1879-2278, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 841-855Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transition to turbulence occurring in a flat-plate boundary-layer flow subjected to high levels of free-stream turbulence is considered. This scenario, denoted bypass transition, is characterised by the non-modal growth of streamwise elongated disturbances. These so-called streaks are regions of positive and negative streamwise velocity alternating in the spanwise direction inside the boundary layer. When they reach large enough amplitudes, breakdown into turbulent spots occurs via their secondary instability. In this work, the bypass-transition process is simulated using direct numerical simulations (DNS) and large-eddy simulations (LES). The ADM-RT subgrid-scale model turned out to be particularly suited for transitional flows after a thorough validation. Linear feedback control is applied in order to reduce the perturbation energy and consequently delay transition. This case represents therefore an extension of the linear approach (Chevalier, M., Hoepffner, J., Åkervik, E., Henningson, D.S., 2007a. Linear feedback control and estimation applied to instabilities in spatially developing boundary layers. J. Fluid Mech. 588, 163-187, 167-187.) to flows characterised by strong nonlinearities. Control is applied by blowing and suction at the wall and it is both based on the full knowledge of the instantaneous velocity field (i.e. full information control) and on the velocity field estimated from wall measurements. The results show that the control is able to delay the growth of the streaks in the region where it is active, which implies a delay of the whole transition process. The flow field can be estimated from wall measurements alone: The structures occurring in the "real" flow are reproduced correctly in the region where the measurements are taken. Downstream of this region the estimated field gradually diverges from the "real" flow, revealing the importance of the continuous excitation of the boundary layer by the external free-stream turbulence. Control based on estimation, termed compensator, is therefore less effective than full information control.

  • 97.
    Monokrousos, Antonios
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Lundell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Feedback Control of Boundary-Layer Bypass Transition: Comparison of Simulations with Experiments2010In: AIAA Journal, ISSN 0001-1452, E-ISSN 1533-385X, Vol. 48, no 8, p. 1848-1851Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 98.
    Monokrousos, Antonios
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Åkervik, Espen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Global optimal disturbances in the Blasius flow using time-steppersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The stability of the Blasius flat-plate boundary-layer flow to three-dimensional disturbances is studied by means of optimisation methods at relatively high Reynolds numbers. We consider both the optimal initial condition leading to the largest growth at finite times and the optimal time-periodic forcing leading to the largest asymptotic response. Both optimisation problems are solved using a Lagrange multiplier technique, where the objective function is the kinetic energy of the flow perturbations and the constraints involve the linearised Navier-Stokes equations. In both cases the evolution equations for the Lagrange multiplier are the adjoint Navier-Stokes equations. The approach proposed here is particularly suited to examine convectively unstable flows, where single global eigenmodes of the system do not capture the downstream growth of the disturbances. The optimal initial condition for spanwise wavelengths of the order of the boundary layer thickness are streamwise vortices exploiting the lift-up mechanism to create streaks. For long spanwise wavelengths it is the Orr mechanism combined with oblique wave packet propagation that dominates. It is found that the latter mechanism is dominant for the relatively high Reynolds number and the long computational domain considered here. The spatial structure of the optimal forcing is similar to the that of the optimal initial condition, and the response to forcing is also dominated by the Orr/oblique wave mechanism, however less so than in the former case. The lift-up mechanism is, as in the local approach using the Orr-Sommerfeld squire equations, most efficient at zero frequency and degrades slowly for increasing frequencies.

  • 99.
    Monokrousos, Antonios
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Åkervik, Espen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Global three-dimensional optimal disturbances in the Blasius boundary-layer flow using time-steppers2010In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 650, p. 181-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global linear stability of the flat-plate boundary-layer flow to three-dimensional disturbances is studied by means of an optimization technique. We consider both the optimal initial condition leading to the largest growth at finite times and the optimal time-periodic forcing leading to the largest asymptotic response. Both optimization problems are solved using a Lagrange multiplier technique, where the objective function is the kinetic energy of the flow perturbations and the constraints involve the linearized Navier-Stokes equations. The approach proposed here is particularly suited to examine convectively unstable flows, where single global eigenmodes of the system do not capture the downstream growth of the disturbances. In addition, the use of matrix-free methods enables us to extend the present framework to any geometrical configuration. The optimal initial condition for spanwise wavelengths of the order of the boundary-layer thickness are finite-length streamwise vortices exploiting the lift-up mechanism to create streaks. For long spanwise wavelengths, it is the Orr mechanism combined with the amplification of oblique wave packets that is responsible for the disturbance growth. This mechanism is dominant for the long computational domain and thus for the relatively high Reynolds number considered here. Three-dimensional localized optimal initial conditions are also computed and the corresponding wave packets examined. For short optimization times, the optimal disturbances consist of streaky structures propagating and elongating in the downstream direction without significant spreading in the lateral direction. For long optimization times, we find the optimal disturbances with the largest energy amplification. These are wave packets of Tollmien-Schlichting waves with low streamwise propagation speed and faster spreading in the spanwise direction. The pseudo-spectrum of the system for real frequencies is also computed with matrix-free methods. The spatial structure of the optimal forcing is similar to that of the optimal initial condition, and the largest response to forcing is also associated with the Orr/oblique wave mechanism, however less so than in the case of the optimal initial condition. The lift-up mechanism is most efficient at zero frequency and degrades slowly for increasing frequencies. The response to localized upstream forcing is also discussed.

  • 100.
    Monokrousos, Antonios
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Åkervik, Espen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Brandt, Luca
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Optimal disturbances with iterative methods2010In: SEVENTH IUTAM SYMPOSIUM ON LAMINAR-TURBULENT TRANSITION / [ed] Schlatter P; Henningson DS, 2010, Vol. 18, p. 533-536Conference paper (Refereed)
1234 51 - 100 of 185
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