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  • 51.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Music Listening from an Ecological Perspective2012In: Poster presented at the 12th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition and the 8th Triennial Conference of the European Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    pDM: An expressive sequencer with real-time control of the KTH music-performance rules2006In: Computer music journal, ISSN 0148-9267, E-ISSN 1531-5169, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 37-48Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 53.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    pDM Software2006Other (Refereed)
  • 54.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Ahlback, Sven
    Recognition of the Main Melody in a Polyphonic Symbolic Score using Perceptual Knowledge2009In: Journal of New Music Research, ISSN 0929-8215, E-ISSN 1744-5027, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 155-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is in many cases easy for a human to identify the main melodic theme when listening to a music example. Melodic properties have been studied in several research projects, however, the differences between properties of the melody and properties of the accompaniment (non-melodic) voices have not been addressed until recently. A set of features relating to basic low-level statistical measures were selected considering general perceptual aspects. A new 'narrative' measure was designed intended to capture the amount of new unique material in each voice. The features were applied to a set of scores consisting of about 250 polyphonic ringtones consisting of MIDI versions of contemporary pop songs. All tracks were annotated into categories such as melody and accompaniment. Both multiple regression and support vector machines were applied on either the features directly or on a Gaussian transformation of the features. The resulting models predicted the correct melody in about 90% of the cases using a set of eight features. The results emphasize context as an important factor for determining the main melody. A previous version of the system has been used in a commercial system for modifying ring tones.

  • 55.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Battel, G. U.
    Structural Communication2011In: The Science & Psychology of Music Performance: Creative Strategies for Teaching and Learning, Oxford University Press, 2011Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Variations in timing and dynamics play an essential role in music performance. This is easily shown by having a computer perform a classical piece exactly as written in the score. The result is dull and will probably not affect us in any positive manner, although there may be plenty of potentially beautiful passages in the score. A musician can, by changing the performance of a piece, totally change its emotional character, for example, from sad to happy. How is this possible, and what are the basic techniques used to accomplish such a change? The key is how the musical structure is communicated. Therefore, a good understanding of structure - whether theoretic or intuitive - is a prerequisite for a convincing musical performance. This chapter surveys the basic principles and techniques that musicians use to convey and project music structure, focusing on auditory communication.

  • 56.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Battel, G. U.
    Structural communication2002In: The Science and Psychology of Music Performance: Creative Strategies for Teaching and Learning / [ed] Parncutt, R.; McPherson, G. E., New York: Oxford University Press , 2002, p. 199-218Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The communication of structure in musical expression has been studied scientifically by analyzing variations in timing and dynamics in expert performances, and by analysis by synthesis. The underlying principles have been extracted, and models of the relationship between expression and musical structure formulated. For example, a musical phrase tends to speed up and get louder at the start, and to slow down and get quieter at the end; mathematical models of these variations can enhance the quality of synthesized performances. We overview the dependence of timing and dynamics on tempo, phrasing, harmonic and melodic tension, repetitive patterns and grooves, articulation, accents, and ensemble timing. Principles of structural communication (expression) can be taught analytically, by explaining the underlying principles and techniques with computer-generated demonstrations; or in traditional classroom or lesson settings, by live demonstration. 

  • 57.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Bisesi, Erica
    Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz, Austria .
    Using computational models of music performance to model stylistic variations2014In: Expressiveness in music performance: Empirical approaches across styles and cultures / [ed] Fabian, D.; Timmers, R.; Schubert, E., Oxford University Press, 2014, p. 240-259Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 58.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Bresin, R.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Frydén, L.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, J.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Musical punctuation on the microlevel: Automatic identification and performance of small melodic units1998In: Journal of New Music Research, ISSN 0929-8215, E-ISSN 1744-5027, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 271-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this investigation we use the term musical punctuation for the marking of melodic structure by commas inserted at the boundaries that separate small structural units. Two models are presented that automatically try to locate the positions of such commas. They both use the score as the input and operate with a short context of maximally five notes. The first model is based on a set of subrules. One group of subrules mark possible comma positions, each provided with a weight value. Another group alters or removes these weight values according to different conditions. The second model is an artificial neural network using a similar input as that used by the rule system. The commas proposed by either model are realized in terms of micropauses and of small lengthenings of interonset durations. The models are evaluated by using a set of 52 musical excerpts, which were marked with punctuations according to the preference of an expert performer. * Sound examples are available in the JNMR Electronic Appendix (EA), which can be found on the WWW at http://www.swets.nl/jnmr/jnmr.html

  • 59.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Automatic musical punctuation: A rule system and a neural network approach1997In: Proceedings of KANSEI - The Technology of Emotion, AIMI Intl Workshop, 1997, p. 159-163Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 60.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Real-time control of music performance2008In: Sound to Sense - Sense to Sound: A state of the art in Sound and Music Computing / [ed] Polotti, Pietro; Rocchesso, Davide, Berlin: Logos Verlag , 2008, p. 279-302Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 61.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Hansen, Kjetil Falkenberg
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Fabiani, Marco
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Enabling emotional expression and interaction with new expressive interfaces2009In: Front. Hum. Neurosci. Conference Abstract: Tuning the Brain for Music, 2009, Vol. 9Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 62.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Analysis by synthesis2014In: Music in the Social and Behavioral Sciences / [ed] Thompson, W. F., Los Angeles: Sage Publications, 2014Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 63.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Expressive timing2014In: Music in the Social and Behavioral Sciences / [ed] Thompson, W. F., Los Angeles: Sage Publications, 2014, p. 440-442Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 64.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Overview of the KTH rule system for musical performance2006In: Advances in Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 1895-1171, E-ISSN 1895-1171, Vol. 2, no 2-3, p. 145-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The KTH rule system models performance principles used by musicians when performing a musical score, within the realm of Western classical, jazz and popular music. An overview is given of the major rules involving phrasing, micro-level timing, metrical patterns and grooves, articulation, tonal tension, intonation, ensemble timing, and performance noise. By using selections of rules and rule quantities, semantic descriptions such as emotional expressions can be modeled. A recent real-time implementation provides the means for controlling the expressive character of the music. The communicative purpose and meaning of the resulting performance variations are discussed as well as limitations and future improvements.

  • 65.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Choi, K.
    Schön, Ragnar
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Downie, J. S.
    Elowsson, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Cross-cultural aspects of perceptual features in K-pop: A pilot study comparing Chinese and Swedish listeners2017In: 2017 ICMC/EMW - 43rd International Computer Music Conference and the 6th International Electronic Music Week, Shanghai Conservatory of Music , 2017, p. 291-296Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In previous studies it has been shown that perceptual features can be used as an intermediate representation in music processing to model higher-level semantic descriptions. In this pilot study, we focused on the cross-cultural aspect of such perceptual features, by asking both Chinese and Swedish listeners to rate a set of K-Pop samples using a web-based questionnaire. The music samples were selected from a larger set, previously rated in terms of different emotion labels. The selection procedure of the subset was carefully designed to maximize both the variation of emotion and genre. The listeners rated eight perceptual features: dissonance, speed, rhythmic complexity, rhythmic clarity, articulation, harmonic complexity, modality, and pitch. The results indicated a small but significant difference in the two groups, regarding the average speed and rhythmic complexity. In particular the perceived speed of hip hop was different for the two groups. We discuss the overall consistency of the ratings using this methodology in relation to the interface, selection and number of subjects.

  • 66.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Colombo, V.
    Fryden, L.
    Sundberg, J.
    Generating musical performances with Director Musices2000In: Computer music journal, ISSN 0148-9267, E-ISSN 1531-5169, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 23-29Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 67.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Bodin, L. G.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Performance Rules for Computer-Controlled Contemporary Keyboard Music1991In: Computer music journal, ISSN 0148-9267, E-ISSN 1531-5169, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 49-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A computer program for synthesis of music performance, originally developed for traditional tonal music by means of an analysis-by-synthesis strategy, is applied to contemporary piano music as well as to various computer-generated random music. The program consists of rules that manipulate the durations and sound levels of the tones in a contextdependent way. When applying the rules to this music, the concept harmonic charge, which has been found useful for generating crescendi and diminuendi in performance of traditional tonal music for example, is replaced by chromatic charge. The music is performed on a Casio sampler controlled by a Macintosh II microcomputer. A listening panel of five experts on contemporary piano music or electroacoustic music clearly preferred performances processed by the performance program to "deadpan" performances mechanically replicating the durations and sound levels nominally written in the music score. 

  • 68.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Bodin, L-G
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Performance rules for computer controlled performance of contemporary keyboard music1987In: STL-QPSR, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 079-085Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 69.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    A rule for automatic musical punctuation of melodies1997In: Proc of 3rd Triennial ESCOM Conference, 1997, p. 719-723Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 70.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Hedblad, Anton
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    A Comparison of Perceptual Ratings and Computed Audio Features2011In: Proceedings of the SMC 2011 - 8th Sound and Music Computing Conference, 2011, p. 122-127Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 71.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Iwarsson, JennyKTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.Jansson, ErikKTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.Sundberg, JohanKTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Proceedings of the Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference 19931994Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 72.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Källblad, Anna
    Studio 323 wip:sthlm.
    Experiences from video-controlled sound installations2011In: Proceedings of New Interfaces for Musical Expression - NIME, Oslo, 2011, 2011, p. 128-131Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 73.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Lindeberg, Tony
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computational Science and Technology (CST).
    Hellwagner, Martin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Helgason, Pétur
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Salomão, Gláucia Laís
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Elovsson, Anders
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Lemaitre, Guillaume
    Institute for Research and Coordination in Acoustics and Music, Paris, France.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Prediction of three articulatory categories in vocal sound imitations using models for auditory receptive fields2018In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 144, no 3, p. 1467-1483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vocal sound imitations provide a new challenge for understanding the coupling between articulatory mechanisms and the resulting audio. In this study, we have modeled the classification of three articulatory categories, phonation, supraglottal myoelastic vibrations, and turbulence from audio recordings. Two data sets were assembled, consisting of different vocal imitations by four professional imitators and four non-professional speakers in two different experiments. The audio data were manually annotated by two experienced phoneticians using a detailed articulatory description scheme. A separate set of audio features was developed specifically for each category using both time-domain and spectral methods. For all time-frequency transformations, and for some secondary processing, the recently developed Auditory Receptive Fields Toolbox was used. Three different machine learning methods were applied for predicting the final articulatory categories. The result with the best generalization was found using an ensemble of multilayer perceptrons. The cross-validated classification accuracy was 96.8 % for phonation, 90.8 % for supraglottal myoelastic vibrations, and 89.0 % for turbulence using all the 84 developed features. A final feature reduction to 22 features yielded similar results.

  • 74.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Marklund, Kasper
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    SISYFOS1984Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 75.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Schoonderwaldt, E.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Juslin, P. N.
    Uppsala University.
    Bresin, R.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Automatic real-time extraction of musical expression2002In: Proceedings of the International Computer Music Conference, ICMC 2002, 2002, p. 365-367Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has identified a set of acoustical cues that are important in communicating different emotions in music performance. We have applied these findings in the development of a system that automatically predicts the expressive intention of the player. First, low-level cues of music performances are extracted from audio. Important cues include average and variability values of sound level, tempo, articulation, attack velocity, and spectral content. Second, linear regression models obtained from listening experiments are used to predict the intended emotion. Third, the prediction data can be visually displayed using, for example, color mappings in accordance with synesthesia research. Preliminary test results indicate that the system accurately predicts the intended emotion and is robust to minor errors in the cue extraction.

  • 76.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Schoonderwaldt, Erwin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Hedblad, Anton
    Perceptual ratings of musical parameters2011In: Gemessene Interpretation - Computergestützte Aufführungsanalyse im Kreuzverhör der Disziplinen / [ed] von Loesch, H.; Weinzierl, S., Mainz: Schott 2011, (Klang und Begriff 4) , 2011, p. 237-253Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 77.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Schoonderwaldt, Erwin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics. Hanover University, Germany .
    Hedblad, Anton
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Fabiani, Marco
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Elowsson, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Using listener-based perceptual features as intermediate representations in music information retrieval2014In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 136, no 4, p. 1951-1963Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of perceptual features is introduced for describing general music properties based on human perception. This is an attempt at rethinking the concept of features, aiming to approach the underlying human perception mechanisms. Instead of using concepts from music theory such as tones, pitches, and chords, a set of nine features describing overall properties of the music was selected. They were chosen from qualitative measures used in psychology studies and motivated from an ecological approach. The perceptual features were rated in two listening experiments using two different data sets. They were modeled both from symbolic and audio data using different sets of computational features. Ratings of emotional expression were predicted using the perceptual features. The results indicate that (1) at least some of the perceptual features are reliable estimates; (2) emotion ratings could be predicted by a small combination of perceptual features with an explained variance from 75% to 93% for the emotional dimensions activity and valence; (3) the perceptual features could only to a limited extent be modeled using existing audio features. Results clearly indicated that a small number of dedicated features were superior to a "brute force" model using a large number of general audio features.

  • 78.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Schoonderwaldt, Erwin
    Hanover University of Music, Germany.
    Hedblad, Anton
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Fabiani, Marco
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Elowsson, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Using perceptually defined music features in music information retrieval2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the notion of perceptual features is introduced for describing general music properties based on human perception. This is an attempt at rethinking the concept of features, in order to understand the underlying human perception mechanisms. Instead of using concepts from music theory such as tones, pitches, and chords, a set of nine features describing overall properties of the music was selected. They were chosen from qualitative measures used in psychology studies and motivated from an ecological approach. The selected perceptual features were rated in two listening experiments using two different data sets. They were modeled both from symbolic (MIDI) and audio data using different sets of computational features. Ratings of emotional expression were predicted using the perceptual features. The results indicate that (1) at least some of the perceptual features are reliable estimates; (2) emotion ratings could be predicted by a small combination of perceptual features with an explained variance up to 90%; (3) the perceptual features could only to a limited extent be modeled using existing audio features. The results also clearly indicated that a small number of dedicated features were superior to a 'brute force' model using a large number of general audio features.

  • 79.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Schoonderwaldt, Erwin
    Juslin, Patrik N.
    CUEX: An algorithm for automatic extraction of expressive tone parameters in music performance from acoustic signals2007In: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, ISSN 1610-1928, E-ISSN 1861-9959, Vol. 93, no 3, p. 411-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CUEX is an algorithm that from recordings of solo music performances extracts the tone parameters for tempo, sound level, articulation, onset velocity, spectrum, vibrato rate, and vibrato extent. The aim is to capture the expressive variations in a music performance, rather than to identify the musical notes played. The CUEX algorithm uses a combination of traditional methods to segment the audio stream into tones based on fundamental frequency contour and sound level envelope. From the resulting onset and offset positions, the different tone parameters are computed. CUEX has been evaluated using both synthesized performances and recordings of human performances. For the synthesized performances, tone recognition of 98.7% was obtained in average. The onset and offset precision was 8 ms and 20 ms, respectively, and the sound level precision about 1 dB. Various applications of the CUEX algorithm are discussed. For human performances, the recognition was 91.8% in average.

  • 80.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Sundberg, J.
    Fryden, L.
    Music from motion: Sound level envelopes of tones expressing human locomotion2000In: Journal of New Music Research, ISSN 0929-8215, E-ISSN 1744-5027, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 199-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The common association of music with motion was investigated in a direct way. Could the original motion quality of different gaits be transferred to music and be perceived by a listener? Measurements of the ground reaction force by the foot during different gaits were transferred to sound by using the vertical force curve as sound level envelopes for tones played at different tempi. Three listening experiments assesses the motion quality of the resulting stimuli. In the first experiment, where the listeners were asked to freely describe the tones, 25% of answers were direct references to motion; such answers were more frequent at faster tempi. In the second experiment, where the listeners were asked to describe the motion quality, about half of the answers directly related to motion could be classified as belonging to one of the categories of dancing, jumping, running, walking, or stumbling. Most gait patterns were clearly classified as belonging to one of these categories, independent of presentation tempo. In the third experiment, the listeners were asked to rate the stimuli on 24 adjective scales. A factor analysis yielded four factors that could be interpreted as Swift vs. Solemn (factor 1), Graceful vs. Stamping (factor 2), Limping vs. Forceful (factor 3), and Springy (factor 4, no contrasting adjective). The results from the three experiments were consistent and indicated that each tone (corresponding to a particular gait) could clearly be categorised in terms of motion.

  • 81.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, J.
    Frydén, L.
    Motion in music: Sound level envelopes of tones expressing human locomotion2000In: TMH-QPSR, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 073-082Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 82.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    A Lisp Environment for Creating and Applying Rules for Musical Performance1986In: Proceedings of the International Computer Music Conference 1986, 1986, p. 1-3Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 83.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Comparing runners« decelerations and final ritards1997In: Proc of 3rd Triennial ESCOM Conference, 1997, p. 582-586Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 84.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Does music performance allude to locomotion?: A model of final ritardandi derived from measurements of stopping runners1999In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 105, no 3, p. 1469-1484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation explores the common assumption that music and motion are closely related by comparing the stopping of running and the termination of a piece of music. Video recordings were made of professional dancers’ stopping from running under different deceleration conditions, and instant values of body velocity, step frequency, and step length were estimated. In decelerations that were highly rated for aesthetic quality by a panel of choreographers, the mean body velocity could be approximated by a square-root function of time, which is equivalent to a cubic-root function of position. This implies a linear relationship between kinetic energy and time, i.e., a constant braking power. The mean body velocity showed a striking similarity with the mean tempo pattern of final ritardandi in music performances. The constant braking power was used as the basis for a model describing both the changes of tempo in final ritardandi and the changes of velocity in runners’ decelerations. The translation of physical motion to musical tempo was realized by assuming that velocity and musical tempo are equivalent. Two parameters were added to the model to account for the variation observed in individual ritardandi and in individual decelerations: ~1! the parameter q controlling the curvature, q53 corresponding to the runners’ deceleration, and ~2! the parameter vend for the final velocity and tempo value, respectively. A listening experiment was carried out presenting music examples with final ritardandi according to the model with different q values or to an alternative function. Highest ratings were obtained for the model with q52 and q53. Out of three functions, the model produced the best fit to individual measured ritardandi as well as to individual decelerations. A function previously used for modeling phrase-related tempo variations ~interonset duration as a quadratic function of score position! produced the lowest ratings and the poorest fits to individual ritardandi. The results thus seem to substantiate the commonly assumed analogies between motion and music.

  • 85.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Just Noticable Difference in duration, pitch and sound level in a musical context1994In: Proceedings of 3rd International Conference for Music Perception and Cognition, Liège 1994, 1994, p. 339-340Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 86.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Perception of just noticeable time displacement of a tone presented in a1992In: STL-QPSR, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 097-108Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The JND for a perturbation of the timin<g of a tone appearing in a metrical sequencewas examined in an experiment where 30 listeners of varied musical backgroundwere asked to adjust the timing of thefourth tone in a sequence of six suchthat they heard the sequence as perfectly regular. The tones were presented at aconstant inter-onset time that was varied between 100 ms and 1000 ms. The averageJND was found to be about 10 ms for tones shorter than about 240 ms durationand about 5% ofthe duration for longer tones. Subjects' musical training didnot appear to affect these values.

  • 87.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Perception of just noticeable time displacement of a tone presented in a metrical sequence at different tempos1994In: Proc. of SMAC ’93, Stockholm Music Acoustics Conference, 1994, p. 39-43Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 88.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    Stopping in running and in music performance Part I. Runners’ decelerations and final ritards1997In: TMH-QPSR, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 067-073Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Music and motion are generally assumed to be closely related. In an attempt to analyse such relations with regard to the stopping of running and the termination of a piece of music, we made video recordings of four professional dancers while they were stopping after running. Interstep durations were determined from contact microphones on the floor and step lengths from the video recordings. Two different initial step frequencies were used at three different deceleration conditions. Instant values of body velocity and step frequency were estimated. Six choreographers rated the aesthetic quality of the deceleration from the video recordings. The data curves from highly rated decelerations seemed more regular and smooth as compared to the decelerations rated lower. In highly rated decelerations the change of step frequency could be approximated by a linear function of step number and the mean body velocity as a square root function of time. This implies a linear relationship between kinetic energy and time, i.e., the braking power remained constant throughout these decelerations. The mean body velocity showed a striking similarity with the mean tempo of final ritards in music performances.

  • 89.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Stopping in running and in music performance. Part II. A model of the final ritardando based on runners’ deceleration1997In: TMH-QPSR, Vol. 38, no 2-3, p. 033-046Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A model for describing the change of tempo in final ritardandi is presented. The model was based on the previous finding that runners’ average deceleration can be characterised by a constant brake power. This implies that velocity is as a squareroot function of time or alternatively, a cubic-root function of position. The translation of physical motion to musical tempo is realised by assuming that velocity and musical tempo are equivalent. To account for the variation observed in individual measured ritardandi and in individual decelerations, two parameters were introduced; (1) the parameter q controlling the curvature with q=3 corresponding to the runners’ deceleration, and (2) the parameter v(end) corresponding to the final tempo. A listening experiment gave highest ratings for q=2 and q=3 and lower ratings for higher and lower q values. Out of three tempo functions, the model produced the best fit to individual measured ritardandi and individual decelerations. A commonly used function for modelling tempo variations in phrases (duration is a quadratic function of score position) produced the lowest ratings in the listening experiment and the least good fit to the measured individual ritardandi. The fact that the same model can be used for describing velocity curves in decelerations as well as tempo curves in music provides a striking example of analogies between motion and music.

  • 90.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Time discrimination in a monotonic, isochronous sequence1995In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 5, no 98, p. 2524-2531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In acoustic communication timing seems to be an exceedingly important aspect. The just noticeable difference ~jnd! for small perturbations of an isochronous sequence of sounds is particularly important in music, in which such sequences frequently occur. This article reviews the literature in the area and presents an experiment designed to resolve some conflicting results in the literature regarding the tempo dependence for quick tempi and relevance of music experience. The jnd for a perturbation of the timing of a tone appearing in an isochronous sequence was examined by the method of adjustment. Thirty listeners of varied musical background were asked to adjust the position of the fourth tone in a sequence of six, such that they heard the sequence as perfectly isochronous. The tones were presented at a constant interonset time that was varied between 100 and 1000 ms. The absolute jnd was found to be approximately constant at 6 ms for tone interonset intervals shorter than about 240 ms and the relative jnd constant at 2.5% of the tone interonsets above 240 ms. Subjects’ musical training did not affect these values. Comparison with previous work showed that a constant absolute jnd below 250 ms and constant relative jnd above 250 ms tend to appear regardless of the perturbation type, at least if the sequence is relatively short.

  • 91.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    Using Rules to Control the Musical Performance1987In: Actes du Symposium Systèmes Personnels et Informatique Musicale, IRCAM, 1986, 1987Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 92.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    How to terminate a phrase. An analysis-by-synthesis experiment on the perceptual aspect of music performance1987In: Action and Perception of rhythm and music / [ed] Gabrielsson, A., 1987, p. 49-55Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 93.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Preferred quantities of expressive variation in music performance1989In: STL-QPSR, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 053-062Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 94.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Recent musical performance research at KTH1994In: Proceedings of the Aarhus symposium on Generative grammars for music performance 1994, 1994, p. 7-12Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 95.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Rules for musical performance1994Other (Other academic)
  • 96.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Frydén, Lars
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    The KTH rules for musical performance: Overview and recent additions1995In: Proc of 15th Intl Congress on Acoustics (ICA«95), 1995, Vol. 3, p. 431-434Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 97.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Sundström, A.
    Swing ratios and ensemble timing in jazz performance: Evidence for a common rhythmic pattern2002In: Music perception, ISSN 0730-7829, E-ISSN 1533-8312, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 333-349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The timing in jazz ensemble performances was investigated in order to approach the question of what makes the music swing. One well-known aspect of swing is that consecutive eighth notes are performed as long-short patterns. The exact duration ratio (the swing ratio) of the long-short pattern has been largely unknown. In this study, the swing ratio produced by drummers on the ride cymbal was measured. Three well-known jazz recordings and a play-along record were used. A substantial and gradual variation of the drummers' swing ratio with respect to tempo was observed. At slow tempi, the swing ratio was as high as 3.5: 1, whereas at fast tempi it reached 1:1. The often-mentioned triple-feel, that is, a ratio of 2:1, was present only at a certain tempo. The absolute duration of the short note in the long-short pattern was constant at about 100 ms for medium to fast tempi, suggesting a practical limit on tone duration that may be due to perceptual factors. Another aspect of swing is the soloist's timing in relation to the accompaniment. For example, a soloist can be characterized as playing behind the beat. In the second part, the swing ratio of the soloist and its relation to the cymbal accompaniment was measured from the same recordings. In slow tempi, the soloists were mostly playing their downbeats after the cymbal but were synchronized with the cymbal at the off-beats. This implied that the swing ratio of the soloist was considerably smaller than the cymbal accompaniment in slow tempi. It may give an impression of playing behind but at the same time keep the synchrony with the accompaniment at the off-beat positions. Finally, the possibilities of using computer tools in jazz pedagogy are discussed.

  • 98.
    Friberg, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundström, Andreas
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Preferred swing ratio in jazz as a function of tempo1997In: TMH-QPSR, Vol. 38, no 4, p. 019-027Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In jazz music it is common to perform consecutive eighth notes with an alternating duration pattern of long-short. The exact duration ratio (the swing ratio) of the long-short pattern has been largely unknown. The first experiment describes measurements of the swing ratio in the ride cymbal from well-known jazz recordings. The second experiment was a production task where subjects adjusted the swing ratio of a computer generated performance to a preferred value. Both these experiments show that the swing ratio varies approximately linearly with tempo. The swing ratio can be as high as 3.5:1 at comparatively slow tempi around 120 bpm. When the tempo is fast the swing ratio reaches 1:1, that is, the eighth notes are performed evenly. The duration of the short note in the long-short pattern is approximately constant (≅ 100 ms) for medium to fast tempi.

  • 99.
    Gleiser, Julieta E.
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Granqvist, Svante
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    A method for extracting vibrato parameters applied to violin performance1998In: TMH-QPSR, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 039-044Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A method is presented which semi-automatically extracts the fundamental frequency and displays as continuous signals vibrato rate, vibrato extent and sound level. The method is tested on specially made recordings of violin music with piano accompaniment, using a small microphone mounted directly on the violin. The fundamental frequency was successfully extracted by means of a waveform correlation program. Likewise, vibrato rate and extent were extracted separately for each tone from the fundamental frequency signal after elimination of its DC component. The results seem promising, offering the opportunity of visual examination and measurement of changes in vibrato characteristics during performances of entire pieces of music. 

  • 100. Goebl, Werner
    et al.
    Dixon, Simon
    De Poli, Giovanni
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Widmer, Gerhard
    Sense in expressive music performance: Data acquisition, computational studies, and models2008In: Sound to Sense - Sense to Sound: A state of the art in Sound and Music Computing / [ed] Polotti, Pietro; Rocchesso, Davide, Berlin: Logos Verlag , 2008, p. 195-242Chapter in book (Refereed)
123 51 - 100 of 146
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