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  • 51. Cimarelli, A.
    et al.
    De Angelis, E.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brethouwer, Geert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Talamelli, A.
    Casciola, C. M.
    Sources and fluxes of scale energy in the overlap layer of wall turbulence2015In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 771, p. 407-423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct numerical simulations of turbulent channel flows at friction Reynolds numbers (Re) of 550, 1000 and 1500 are used to analyse the turbulent production, transfer and dissipation mechanisms in the compound space of scales and wall distances by means of the Kolmogorov equation generalized to inhomogeneous anisotropic flows. Two distinct peaks of scale-energy source are identified. The first, stronger one, belongs to the near-wall cycle. Its location in the space of scales and physical space is found to scale in viscous units, while its intensity grows slowly with Re, indicating a near-wall modulation. The second source peak is found further away from the wall in the putative overlap layer, and it is separated from the near-wall source by a layer of significant scale-energy sink. The dynamics of the second outer source appears to be strongly dependent on the Reynolds number. The detailed scale-by-scale analysis of this source highlights well-defined features that are used to make the properties of the outer turbulent source independent of Reynolds number and wall distance by rescaling the problem. Overall, the present results suggest a strong connection of the observed outer scale-energy source with the presence of an outer region of turbulence production whose mechanisms are well separated from the near-wall region and whose statistical features agree with the hypothesis of an overlap layer dominated by attached eddies. Inner-outer interactions between the near-wall and outer source region in terms of scale-energy fluxes are also analysed. It is conjectured that the near-wall modulation of the statistics at increasing Reynolds number can be related to a confinement of the near-wall turbulence production due to the presence of increasingly large production scales in the outer scale-energy source region.

  • 52. Daly, C. A.
    et al.
    Schneider, Tobias M.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Peake, N.
    Secondary instability and tertiary states in rotating plane Couette flow2014In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 761, p. 27-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent experimental studies have shown rich transition behaviour in rotating plane Couette flow (RPCF). In this paper we study the transition in supercritical RPCF theoretically by determination of equilibrium and periodic orbit tertiary states via Floquet analysis on secondary Taylor vortex solutions. Two new tertiary states are discovered which we name oscillatory wavy vortex flow (oWVF) and skewed vortex flow (SVF). We present the bifurcation routes and stability properties of these new tertiary states and, in addition, we describe a bifurcation procedure whereby a set of defected wavy twist vortices is approached. Further to this, transition scenarios at flow parameters relevant to experimental works are investigated by computation of the set of stable attractors which exist on a large domain. The physically observed flow states are shown to share features with states in our set of attractors.

  • 53.
    Deusebio, Enrico
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge, England.
    Brethouwer, Geert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Lindborg, Erik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    A numerical study of the unstratified and stratified Ekman layer2014In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 755, p. 672-704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the turbulent Ekman layer at moderately high Reynolds number, 1600 < Re = delta(E)G/v < 3000, using direct numerical simulations (DNS). Here, delta(E) = root 2v/f is the laminar Ekman layer thickness, G the geostrophic wind, v the kinematic viscosity and f is the Coriolis parameter. We present results for both neutrally, moderately and strongly stably stratified conditions. For unstratified cases, large-scale roll-like structures extending from the outer region down to the wall are observed. These structures have a clear dominant frequency and could be related to periodic oscillations or instabilities developing near the low-level jet. We discuss the effect of stratification and Re on one-point and two-point statistics. In the strongly stratified Ekman layer we observe stable co-existing large-scale laminar and turbulent patches appearing in the form of inclined bands, similar to other wall-bounded flows. For weaker stratification, continuously sustained turbulence strongly affected by buoyancy is produced. We discuss the scaling of turbulent length scales, height of the Ekman layer, friction velocity, veering angle at the wall and heat flux. The boundary-layer thickness, the friction velocity and the veering angle depend on Lf/u(tau), where u(tau) is the friction velocity and L the Obukhov length scale, whereas the heat fluxes appear to scale with L+ = Lu-tau/v.

  • 54.
    Deusebio, Enrico
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Brethouwer, Gert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Lindborg, Erik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Direct numerical simulations of stratified open channel flows2011In: 13th European Turbulence Conference (ETC13): Wall-Bounded Flows And Control Of Turbulence, 2011, p. 022009-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We carry out numerical simulations of wall-bounded stably stratified flows. We mainly focus on how stratification affects the near-wall turbulence at moderate Reynolds numbers, i.e. Re-tau = 360. A set of fully-resolved open channel flow simulations is performed, where a stable stratification has been introduced through a negative heat flux at the lower wall. In agreement with previous studies, it is found that turbulence cannot be sustained for h/L values higher than 1.2, where L is the so-called Monin-Obukhov length and h is the height of the open channel. For smaller values, buoyancy does not re-laminarize the flow, but nevertheless affects the wall turbulence. Near-wall streaks are weakly affected by stratification, whereas the outer modes are increasingly damped as we move away from the wall. A decomposition of the wall-normal velocity is proposed in order to separate the gravity wave and turbulent flow fields. This method has been tested both for open channel and full channel flows. Gravity waves are likely to develop and to dominate close to the upper boundary (centerline for full channel). However, their intensity is weaker in the open channel, possibly due to the upper boundary condition. Moreover, the presence of internal gravity waves can also be deduced from a correlation analysis, which reveals (together with spanwise spectra) a narrowing of the outer structures as the stratification is increased.

  • 55.
    Dogan, Eda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Gatti, Davide
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, Inst Fluid Mech, Kaiserstr 10, D-76131 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Quantification of amplitude modulation in wall-bounded turbulence2019In: Fluid Dynamics Research, ISSN 0169-5983, E-ISSN 1873-7005, Vol. 51, no 1, article id 011408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many recent investigations on the scale interactions in wall-bounded turbulent flows focus on describing so-called amplitude modulation, the phenomenon that deals with the influence of large scales in the outer region on the amplitude of the small-scale fluctuations in the near-wall region. The present study revisits this phenomenon regarding two aspects, namely the method for decomposing the scales and the quantification of the modulation. First, the paper presents a summary of the literature that has dealt with either or both aspects. Second, for decomposing the scales, different spectral filters (temporal, spatial or both) and empirical mode decomposition (EMD) are evaluated and compared. The common data set is a well-resolved large-eddy simulation that offers a wide range of Reynolds numbers spanning Re-theta = 880-8200. The quantification of the amplitude modulation is discussed for the resulting scale components. Particular focus is given to evaluate the efficacy of the various filters to separate scales for the range of Reynolds numbers of interest. Different to previous studies, the different methods have been evaluated using the same data set, thereby allowing a fair comparison between the various approaches. It is observed that using a spectral filter in the spanwise direction is an effective approach to separate the small and large scales in the flow, even at comparably low Reynolds numbers, whereas filtering in time should be approached with caution in the low-to-moderate Re range. Additionally, using filters in both spanwise and time directions, which would separate both wide and long-living structures from the small and fast scales, gives a cleaner image for the small-scales although the contribution to the scales interaction from that filter implementation has been found negligible. Applying EMD to decompose the scales gives similar results to Fourier filters for the energy content of the scales and thereby for the quantification of the amplitude modulation using the decomposed scales. No direct advantage of EMD over classical Fourier filters could be seen. Potential issues regarding different decomposition methods and different definitions of the amplitude modulation are also discussed.

  • 56. Duguet, Y.
    et al.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Oblique laminar-turbulent interfaces in plane shear flows2013In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 110, no 3, p. 034502-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Localized structures such as turbulent stripes and turbulent spots are typical features of transitional wall-bounded flows in the subcritical regime. Based on an assumption for scale separation between large and small scales, we show analytically that the corresponding laminar-turbulent interfaces are always oblique with respect to the mean direction of the flow. In the case of plane Couette flow, the mismatch between the streamwise flow rates near the boundaries of the turbulence patch generates a large-scale flow with a nonzero spanwise component. Advection of the small-scale turbulent fluctuations (streaks) by the corresponding large-scale flow distorts the shape of the turbulence patch and is responsible for its oblique growth. This mechanism can be easily extended to other subcritical flows such as plane Poiseuille flow or Taylor-Couette flow.

  • 57. Duguet, Yohann
    et al.
    Le Maitre, Olivier
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Stochastic and deterministic motion of a laminar-turbulent front in a spanwisely extended Couette flow2011In: Physical Review E. Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics, ISSN 1539-3755, E-ISSN 1550-2376, Vol. 84, no 6, p. 066315-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate numerically the dynamics of a laminar-turbulent interface in a spanwisely extended and streamwisely minimal plane Couette flow. The chosen geometry allows one to suppress the large-scale secondary flow and to focus on the nucleation of streaks near the interface. It is shown that the resulting spanwise motion of the interface is essentially stochastic and can be modeled as a continuous-time random walk. This model corresponds here to a Gaussian diffusion process. The average speed of the interface and the corresponding diffusion coefficient are determined as functions of the Reynolds number Re, as well as the threshold value above which turbulence contaminates the whole domain. For the lowest values of Re, the stochastic dynamics competes with another deterministic regime of growth of the localized perturbations. The latter is interpreted as a depinning process from the homoclinic snaking region of the system.

  • 58.
    Duguet, Yohann
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philip
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Formation of turbulent patterns near the onset of transition in plane Couette flow2010In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 650, p. 119-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of turbulent patterns in plane Couette flow is investigated near the onset of transition, using numerical simulation in a very large domain of size 800 h x 2h x 356 h. Based on a maximum observation time of 20 000 inertial units, the threshold for the appearance of sustained turbulent motion is Re-c = 324 +/- 1. For Re-c < Re <= 380, turbulent-banded patterns form, irrespective of whether the initial perturbation is a noise or localized disturbance. Measurements of the turbulent fraction versus Re show evidence for a discontinuous phase transition scenario where turbulent spots play the role of the nuclei. Using a smaller computational box, the angle selection of the turbulent bands in the early stages of their development is shown to be related to the amplitude of the initial perturbation.

  • 59.
    Duguet, Yohann
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philip
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Pattern formation in low Reynolds number plane Couette flow2009In: ADVANCES IN TURBULENCE XII: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 12TH EUROMECH EUROPEAN TURBULENCE CONFERENCE / [ed] Eckhardt, B., 2009, Vol. 132, p. 93-96Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 60.
    Duguet, Yohann
    et al.
    Universit´e Paris-Sud, Orsay, France.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Stochastic motion of a laminar/turbulent interface in a shear flow2011In: / [ed] K. Bajer, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plane Couette flow is a classical prototype of a shear flow where transition toturbulence is subcritical, i.e. happens despite linear stability of the base flow. In this studywe are interested in the spatio-temporal competition between the (active) turbulent phase andthe (absorbing) laminar. Our three-dimensional numerical simulations show that the delimitinginterface, when parallel to the streamwise direction, moves in a stochastic manner which wemodel as a continuous-time random walk. Statistical analysis suggests a Gaussian diffusionprocess and allows us to determine the average speed of this interface as a function of theReynolds number Re, as well as the threshold in Re above which turbulence contaminatesthe whole domain. For the lowest value of Re, this stochastic motion competes with anotherdeterministic regime of growth of the localised perturbations. The latter, a rather unexpectedregime, is shown to be linked to the recently found localised snaking solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. An extension of this thinking to more general orientations of the interfaceswill be proposed.

  • 61.
    Duguet, Yohann
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Localized edge states in plane Couette flow2009In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 21, no 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamics at the threshold of transition in plane Couette flow is Investigated numerically in a large spatial domain for a certain type of localized initial perturbation, for Re between 350 and 1000 The corresponding edge state is all unsteady spotlike Structure, localized in both streamwise and spanwise directions, which neither grows nor decays in size. We show that the localized nature of the edge state is numerically robust. and IS not Influenced by the size of the computational domain The edge trajectory appeals to transiently visit localized steady states This suggests that basic spatiotemporally intermittent features of transition to turbulence. such as the growth Of it turbulent spot, call be described as a dynamical system.

  • 62.
    Duguet, Yohann
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Stripy patterns in low-Re turbulent plane Couette flow2010In: SEVENTH IUTAM SYMPOSIUM ON LAMINAR-TURBULENT TRANSITION / [ed] Schlatter P; Henningson DS, 2010, Vol. 18, p. 159-164Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present for the first time a complete bifurcation diagram of plane Couette flow based on direct numerical simulation of the full Navier-Stokes equations. The use of an unusually large computational domain (800h x 2h x 356h) is crucial for the determination of transition thresholds, because it allows to reproduce spatio-temporal intermittency structures such as transient spots, turbulent bands, and laminar holes. The threshold in Re (based on the half-gap) is found to he Re-c = 324 +/- 1 in very good agreement with available experimental data. This work points out that, at the onset of transition in Re, fragmented oblique patterns always emerge from the interaction of growing neighbouring spots. An analogy with thermodynamical phase transition seems relevant to describe the whole transition process.

  • 63. Duguet, Yohann
    et al.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Eckhardt, Bruno
    Self-Sustained Localized Structures in a Boundary-Layer Flow2012In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 108, no 4, p. 044501-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When a boundary layer starts to develop spatially over a flat plate, only disturbances of sufficiently large amplitude survive and trigger turbulence subcritically. Direct numerical simulation of the Blasius boundary-layer flow is carried out to track the dynamics in the region of phase space separating transitional from relaminarizing trajectories. In this intermediate regime, the corresponding disturbance is fully localized and spreads slowly in space. This structure is dominated by a robust pair of low-speed streaks, whose convective instabilities spawn hairpin vortices evolving downstream into transient disturbances. A quasicyclic mechanism for the generation of offspring is unfolded using dynamical rescaling with the local boundary-layer thickness.

  • 64. Eitel-Amor, G
    et al.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Turbulent boundary layers in long computational domains2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wall-bounded turbulence emerges e.g. along the surface of moving ships and airplanes or in pipelines. The prediction of skin friction and drag is directly related to fuel consumption or the power needed to transport gases through pipelines, thereby emphasizing the practical relevance of wall turbulence

  • 65.
    Eitel-Amor, Georg
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Flores, O.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Hairpin vortices in turbulent boundary layers2014In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 506, no 1, p. 012008-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work addresses the question whether hairpin vortices are a dominant feature of near-wall turbulence and which role they play during transition. First, the parent-offspring mechanism is investigated in temporal simulations of a single hairpin vortex introduced in a mean shear flow corresponding to turbulent channels and boundary layers up to Re-tau = 590. Using an eddy viscosity computed from resolved simulations, the effect of a turbulent background is also considered. Tracking the vortical structure downstream, it is found that secondary hairpins are created shortly after initialization. Thereafter, all rotational structures decay, whereas this effect is enforced in the presence of an eddy viscosity. In a second approach, a laminar boundary layer is tripped to transition by insertion of a regular pattern of hairpins by means of defined volumetric forces representing an ejection event. The idea is to create a synthetic turbulent boundary layer dominated by hairpin-like vortices. The flow for Re-tau < 250 is analysed with respect to the lifetime of individual hairpin-like vortices. Both the temporal and spatial simulations demonstrate that the regeneration process is rather short-lived and may not sustain once a turbulent background has formed. From the transitional flow simulations, it is conjectured that the forest of hairpins reported in former DNS studies is an outer layer phenomenon not being connected to the onset of near-wall turbulence.

  • 66.
    Eitel-Amor, Georg
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Simulation and validation of a spatially evolving turbulent boundary layer up to Reθ = 83002014In: International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, ISSN 0142-727X, E-ISSN 1879-2278, Vol. 47, p. 57-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results of a finely resolved large-eddy simulation (LES) of a spatially developing zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layer up to a Reynolds number of Reθ = 8300 are presented. The very long computational domain provides substantial assessment for suggested high Reynolds number (Re) trends. Statistics, integral quantities and spectral data are validated using high quality direct numerical simulation (DNS) ranging up to Reθ = 4300 and hot-wire measurements covering the remaining Re-range. The mean velocity, turbulent fluctuations, skin friction, and shape factor show excellent agreement with the reference data. Through utilisation of filtered DNS, subtle differences between the LES and DNS could to a large extent be explained by the reduced spanwise resolution of the LES. Spectra and correlations for the streamwise velocity and the wall-shear stress evidence a clear scale-separation and a footprint of large outer scales on the near-wall small scales. While the inner peak decreases in importance and reduces to 4% of the total energy at the end of the domain, the energy of the outer peak scales in outer units. In the near-wall region a clear k - 1 region emerges. Consideration of the two-dimensional spectra in time and spanwise space reveals that an outer time scale λt ≈ 10δ99 / U∞, with the boundary layer thickness δ99 and free-stream velocity U∞, is the correct scale throughout the boundary layer rather than the transformed streamwise wavelength multiplied by a (scale independent) convection velocity. Maps for the covariance of small scale energy and large scale motions exhibit a stronger linear Re dependence for the amplitude of the off-diagonal peak compared to the diagonal one, thereby indicating that the strength of the amplitude modulation can only qualitatively be assessed through the diagonal peak. In addition, the magnitude of the wall-pressure fluctuations confirms mixed scaling, and pressure spectra at the highest Re give a first indication of a -7/3 wave number dependence. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  • 67.
    Eitel-Amor, Georg
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Flores, O.
    Hairpin vortices in turbulent boundary layers2015In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 27, no 2, article id 025108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work presents a number of parallel and spatially developing simulations of boundary layers to address the question of whether hairpin vortices are a dominant feature of near-wall turbulence, and which role they play during transition. In the first part, the parent-offspring regeneration mechanism is investigated in parallel (temporal) simulations of a single hairpin vortex introduced in a mean shear flow corresponding to either turbulent channels or boundary layers (Re-tau less than or similar to 590). The effect of a turbulent background superimposed on the mean flow is considered by using an eddy viscosity computed from resolved simulations. Tracking the vortical structure downstream, it is found that secondary hairpins are only created shortly after initialization, with all rotational structures decaying for later times. For hairpins in a clean (laminar) environment, the decay is relatively slow, while hairpins in weak turbulent environments (10% of nu(t)) dissipate after a couple of eddy turnover times. In the second part, the role of hairpin vortices in laminar-turbulent transition is studied using simulations of spatial boundary layers tripped by hairpin vortices. These vortices are generated by means of specific volumetric forces representing an ejection event, creating a synthetic turbulent boundary layer initially dominated by hairpin-like vortices. These hairpins are advected towards the wake region of the boundary layer, while a sinusoidal instability of the streaks near the wall results in rapid development of a turbulent boundary layer. For Re-theta > 400, the boundary layer is fully developed, with no evidence of hairpin vortices reaching into the wall region. The results from both the parallel and spatial simulations strongly suggest that the regeneration process is rather short-lived and may not sustain once a turbulent background is developed. From the transitional flow simulations, it is conjectured that the forest of hairpins reported in former direct numerical simulation studies is reminiscent of the transitional boundary layer and may not be connected to some aspects of the dynamics of the fully developed wall-bounded turbulence.

  • 68.
    El Khoury, George K.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brethouwer, Geert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Johansson, Arne V.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Turbulent pipe flow: Statistics, Re-dependence, structures and similarities with channel and boundary layer flows2014In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 506, no 1, p. 012010-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct numerical simulation data of fully developed turbulent pipe flow are extensively compared with those of turbulent channel flow and zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer flow for Re-tau up to 1 000. In the near-wall region, a high degree of similarity is observed in the three flow cases in terms of one-point statistics, probability density functions of the wall-shear stress and pressure, spectra, Reynolds stress budgets and advection velocity of the turbulent structures. This supports the notion that the near-wall region is universal for pipe and channel flow. Probability density functions of the wall shear stress, streamwise turbulence intensities, one-dimensional spanwise/azimuthal spectra of the streamwise velocity and Reynolds-stress budgets are very similar near the wall in the three flow cases, suggesting that the three cauonical wall-bounded flows share wally features. In the wake region, the wean streamwise velocity and Reynolds stress budgets show smile expected differences.

  • 69.
    El Khoury, George K.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Noorani, Azad
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Fischer, Paul F.
    Brethouwer, Geert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Johansson, Arne V.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Direct Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Pipe Flow at Moderately High Reynolds Numbers2013In: Flow Turbulence and Combustion, ISSN 1386-6184, E-ISSN 1573-1987, Vol. 91, no 3, p. 475-495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fully resolved direct numerical simulations (DNSs) have been performed with a high-order spectral element method to study the flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a smooth circular pipe of radius R and axial length 25R in the turbulent flow regime at four different friction Reynolds numbers Re (tau) = 180, 360, 550 and . The new set of data is put into perspective with other simulation data sets, obtained in pipe, channel and boundary layer geometry. In particular, differences between different pipe DNS are highlighted. It turns out that the pressure is the variable which differs the most between pipes, channels and boundary layers, leading to significantly different mean and pressure fluctuations, potentially linked to a stronger wake region. In the buffer layer, the variation with Reynolds number of the inner peak of axial velocity fluctuation intensity is similar between channel and boundary layer flows, but lower for the pipe, while the inner peak of the pressure fluctuations show negligible differences between pipe and channel flows but is clearly lower than that for the boundary layer, which is the same behaviour as for the fluctuating wall shear stress. Finally, turbulent kinetic energy budgets are almost indistinguishable between the canonical flows close to the wall (up to y (+) a parts per thousand aEuro parts per thousand 100), while substantial differences are observed in production and dissipation in the outer layer. A clear Reynolds number dependency is documented for the three flow configurations.

  • 70.
    Gong, Jing
    et al.
    KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for High Performance Computing, PDC.
    Markidis, Stefano
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), High Performance Computing and Visualization (HPCViz). KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Schliephake, Michael
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), High Performance Computing and Visualization (HPCViz). KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Laure, Erwin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), High Performance Computing and Visualization (HPCViz). KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Henningson, Dan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Peplinski, Adam
    Hart, Alistair
    Doleschal, Jens
    Henty, David
    Fischer, Paul
    Nek5000 with OpenACC2015In: Solving software challenges for exascale, 2015, p. 57-68Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nek5000 is a computational fluid dynamics code based on the spectral element method used for the simulation of incompressible flows. We follow up on an earlier study which ported the simplified version of Nek5000 to a GPU-accelerated system by presenting the hybrid CPU/GPU implementation of the full Nek5000 code using OpenACC. The matrix-matrix multiplication, the Nek5000 gather-scatter operator and a preconditioned Conjugate Gradient solver have implemented using OpenACC for multi-GPU systems. We report an speed-up of 1.3 on single node of a Cray XK6 when using OpenACC directives in Nek5000. On 512 nodes of the Titan supercomputer, the speed-up can be approached to 1.4. A performance analysis of the Nek5000 code using Score-P and Vampir performance monitoring tools shows that overlapping of GPU kernels with host-accelerator memory transfers would considerably increase the performance of the OpenACC version of Nek5000 code.

  • 71.
    Guemes, A.
    et al.
    Univ Carlos III Madrid, Aerosp Engn Res Grp, Leganes, Spain..
    Vila, C. Sanmiguel
    Univ Carlos III Madrid, Aerosp Engn Res Grp, Leganes, Spain..
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Ianiro, A.
    Univ Carlos III Madrid, Aerosp Engn Res Grp, Leganes, Spain..
    Discetti, S.
    Univ Carlos III Madrid, Aerosp Engn Res Grp, Leganes, Spain..
    Flow organization in the wake of a rib in a turbulent boundary layer with pressure gradient2019In: Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, ISSN 0894-1777, E-ISSN 1879-2286, Vol. 108, p. 115-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of a streamwise pressure gradient on the wake developed by wall-attached square ribs in a turbulent boundary layer is investigated experimentally. Favourable-, adverse- and zero-pressure-gradient conditions (FPG, APG and ZPG, respectively) are reproduced at matched friction Reynolds number and non-dimensional rib height. Flow-field measurements are carried out by means of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Turbulence statistics are extracted at high resolution using an Ensemble Particle Tracking Velocimetry approach. Modal analysis is performed with Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD). We demonstrate that a non-dimensional expression of the pressure gradient and shear stress is needed to quantify the pressure-gradient effects in the wake developing past wall-attached ribs. We suggest the Clauser pressure-gradient parameter beta, commonly used in the literature for the characterization of turbulent boundary layers under the effect of a pressure gradient, as a suitable parameter. The results show that, in presence of an adverse pressure gradient, the recirculation region downstream of the rib is increased in size, thus delaying the reattachment, and that the peak of turbulence intensity and the shed eddies are shifted towards larger wall-normal distances than in the ZPG case. The observed changes with respect to the ZPG configuration appear more intense for larger magnitude of beta, which are more likely to be obtained in APG than in FPG due to the reduced skin friction and increased displacement thickness.

  • 72.
    Herbst, Astrid H.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Simulations of turbulent flow in a plane asymmetric diffuser2007In: Flow Turbulence and Combustion, ISSN 1386-6184, E-ISSN 1573-1987, Vol. 79, no 3, p. 275-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large-eddy simulations (LES) of a planar, asymmetric diffuser flow have been performed. The diverging angle of the inclined wall of the diffuser is chosen as 8.5 degrees, a case for which recent experimental data are available. Reasonable agreement between the LES and the experiments is obtained. The numerical method is further validated for diffuser flow with the diffuser wall inclined at a diverging angle of 10 degrees, which has served as a test case for a number of experimental as well as numerical studies in the literature (LES, RANS). For the present results, the subgrid-scale stresses have been closed using the dynamic Smagorinsky model. A resolution study has been performed, highlighting the disparity of the relevant temporal and spatial scales and thus the sensitivity of the simulation results to the specific numerical grids used. The effect of different Reynolds numbers of the inflowing, fully turbulent channel flow has been studied, in particular, Re-b = 4,500, Re-b = 9,000 and Re-b = 20,000 with Re-b being the Reynolds number based on the bulk velocity and channel half width. The results consistently show that by increasing the Reynolds number a clear trend towards a larger separated region is evident; at least for the studied, comparably low Reynolds-number regime. It is further shown that the small separated region occurring at the diffuser throat shows the opposite behaviour as the main separation region, i.e. the flow is separating less with higher Re-b . Moreover, the influence of the Reynolds number on the internal layer occurring at the non-inclined wall described in a recent study has also been assessed. It can be concluded that this region close to the upper, straight wall, is more distinct for larger Re-b . Additionally, the influence of temporal correlations arising from the commonly used periodic turbulent channel flow as inflow condition (similar to a precursor simulation) for the diffuser is assessed.

  • 73.
    Hosseini, Seyed M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Vinuesa, Ricardo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Hanifi, Ardeshir
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. Swedish Defense Research Agency, FOI, Sweden.
    Henningson, Dan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Direct numerical simulation of the flow around a wing section at moderate Reynolds number2016In: International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, ISSN 0142-727X, E-ISSN 1879-2278, Vol. 61, p. 117-128Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract A three-dimensional direct numerical simulation has been performed to study the turbulent flow around the asymmetric NACA4412 wing section at a moderate chord Reynolds number of R e c = 400 , 000 , with an angle of attack of A o A = 5 ∘ . The mesh was optimized to properly resolve all relevant scales in the flow, and comprises around 3.2 billion grid points. The incompressible spectral-element Navier–Stokes solver Nek5000 was used to carry out the simulation. An unsteady volume force is used to trip the flow to turbulence on both sides of the wing at 10% of the chord. Full turbulence statistics are computed in addition to collection of time history data in selected regions. The Reynolds numbers on the suction side reach Reτ ≃ 373 and R e Ξ = 2 , 800 with the pressure-gradient parameter ranging from β ≈ 0.0 to β ≈ 85. Similarly, on the pressure side, the Reynolds numbers reach Reτ ≈ 346 and R e Ξ = 818 while β changes from β ≈ 0.0 to β ≈ − 0.25 . The effect of adverse pressure gradients on the mean flow is consistent with previous observations, namely a steeper incipient log law, a more prominent wake region and a lower friction. The turbulence kinetic energy profiles show a progressively larger inner peak for increasing pressure gradient, as well as the emergence and development of an outer peak with stronger APGs. The present simulation shows the potential of high-order (spectral) methods in simulating complex external flows at moderately high Reynolds numbers.

  • 74.
    Hufnagel, Lorenz
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Canton, Jacopo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Marin, Oana
    Merzari, Elia
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    The three-dimensional structure of swirl-switching in bent pipe flow2017In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 835, p. 86-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swirl-switching is a low-frequency oscillatory phenomenon which affects the Dean vortices in bent pipes and may cause fatigue in piping systems. Despite thirty years worth of research, the mechanism that causes these oscillations and the frequencies that characterise them remain unclear. Here we show that a three-dimensional wave-like structure is responsible for the low-frequency switching of the dominant Dean vortex. The present study, performed via direct numerical simulation, focuses on the turbulent flow through a 90 degrees pipe bend preceded and followed by straight pipe segments. A pipe with curvature 0.3 (defined as ratio between pipe radius and bend radius) is studied for a bulk Reynolds number Re = 11 700, corresponding to a friction Reynolds number Re-tau approximate to 360. Synthetic turbulence is generated at the inflow section and used instead of the classical recycling method in order to avoid the interference between recycling and swirl-switching frequencies. The flow field is analysed by three-dimensional proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) which for the first time allows the identification of the source of swirl-switching: a wave-like structure that originates in the pipe bend. Contrary to some previous studies, the flow in the upstream pipe does not show any direct influence on the swirl-switching modes. Our analysis further shows that a three-dimensional characterisation of the modes is crucial to understand the mechanism, and that reconstructions based on two-dimensional POD modes are incomplete.

  • 75.
    Ilak, Milos
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Bagheri, Shervin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Chevalier, Mattias
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Henningson, Dan Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Stability of a jet in crossflow2011In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 23, no 9, p. 091113-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 76.
    Ilak, Milos
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Bagheri, Shervin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Bifurcation and stability analysis of a jet in cross-flow: onset of global instability at a low velocity ratio2012In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 696, p. 94-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study direct numerical simulations (DNS) of a jet in cross-flow at low values of the jet-to-cross-flow velocity ratio R. We observe that, as the ratio R increases, the flow evolves from simple periodic vortex shedding (a limit cycle) to more complicated quasi-periodic behaviour, before finally becoming turbulent, as seen in the simulation of Bagheri et al. (J. Fluid. Mech., vol. 624, 2009b, pp. 33-44). The value of R at which the first bifurcation occurs for our numerical set-up is found, and shedding of hairpin vortices characteristic of a shear layer instability is observed. We focus on this first bifurcation, and find that a global linear stability analysis predicts well the frequency and initial growth rate of the nonlinear DNS at the critical value of R and that good qualitative predictions about the dynamics can still be made at slightly higher values of R where multiple unstable eigenmodes are present. In addition, we compute the adjoint global eigenmodes, and find that the overlap of the direct and the adjoint eigenmode, also known as a 'wavemaker', provides evidence that the source of the first instability lies in the shear layer just downstream of the jet.

  • 77.
    Ivanov, Ilya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), High Performance Computing and Visualization (HPCViz).
    Machado, Rui
    Rahn, Mirko
    Akhmetova, Dana
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computational Science and Technology (CST).
    Laure, Erwin
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), High Performance Computing and Visualization (HPCViz). KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Gong, Jing
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for High Performance Computing, PDC. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Henningson, Dan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Fischer, Paul
    Markidis, Stefano
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), High Performance Computing and Visualization (HPCViz). KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Evaluating New Communication Models in the Nek5000 Code for Exascale2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Kametani, Yukinori
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. The University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Fukagata, K.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Drag reduction in spatially developing turbulent boundary layers by spatially intermittent blowing at constant mass-flux2016In: Journal of turbulence, ISSN 1468-5248, E-ISSN 1468-5248, Vol. 17, no 10, p. 913-929Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of large-eddy simulations of spatially developing turbulent boundary layers with uniform blowing at moderate Reynolds numbers (based on free-stream velocity, U∞, and momentum thickness, θ) up to Reθ ≈ 2500 were performed with the special focus on the effect of intermittent (separated in streamwise direction) blowing sections. The number of blowing sections, N, investigated is set to be 3, 6, 20, 30 and compared to N = 1, which constitutes the reference case, while the total wall-mass flux is constrained to be the same for all considered cases, corresponding to a blowing amplitude of 0.1% of U∞ for the reference case. Results indicate that the reference case provides a net-energy saving rate of around 18%, which initially decreases at most 2% points for N = 3 but recovers with increasing N, where the initial reduction of the drag reduction is found to be related to the shorter streamwise length of the intermittent blowing sections. The physical decomposition of the skin friction drag through the Fukagata-Iwamoto-Kasagi (FIK) identity shows that the distribution of all components over each blowing section has similar trends, resulting in similar averaged values over the whole control region.

  • 79.
    Kametani, Yukinori
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Fukagata, K.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Physics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Effect of uniform blowing/suction in a turbulent boundary layer at moderate Reynolds number2015In: International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, ISSN 0142-727X, E-ISSN 1879-2278, Vol. 55, p. 132-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of well-resolved large-eddy simulations (LES) of a spatially evolving turbulent boundary layer with uniform blowing or suction is performed in order to investigate the effect on skin friction drag as well as turbulence statistics and spectral composition at moderate Reynolds numbers up to Reθ=2500, based on the free-stream velocity and the momentum-loss thickness. The amplitude of uniform blowing or suction is set to be 0.1% of the free-stream velocity with different streamwise ranges of the controlled region.The boundary layer is thickened by blowing and thinned by suction. The Reynolds shear and normal stresses are increased by blowing and decreased by suction, most prominently, in the outer region. Through spectral analysis of the streamwise velocity and cross-spectra of the Reynolds shear stress, the enhancement and reduction of the fluctuation energy in the outer region by blowing and suction are found, respectively. It is also found that the emergence of a second peak in the outer region is promoted by blowing, while it is inhibited in the case of suction.In spite of the weak amplitude of the control, more than 10% of drag reduction and enhancement are achieved by means of blowing and suction, respectively. In the case of blowing, where drag reduction is achieved, the mean drag reduction rate increases as the blowing region extends because the local reduction rate, i.e.the streamwise gradient of the mean drag reduction rate, grows in the streamwise direction. The net-energy saving rate and the control gain have the same trends. It is found that a more effective skin friction drag reduction and control efficiency can be achieved with a wider control region that starts at a more upstream location.

  • 80.
    Kametani, Yukinori
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Fukagata, Koji
    Ramis, Örlü
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Drag reduction in turbulent boundary layers: Effect of uniform blowing and suction.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 81.
    Kametani, Yukinori
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Fukagata, Koji
    Keio University, Japan.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Drag reduction in spatially developing turbulent boundary layer by blowing at constant mass-flux.2015In: Proc 9th Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena Conference,, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 82.
    Kametani, Yukinori
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Orlu, R.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philip
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Fukagata, K.
    Effects of Uniform Blowing or Suction on the Amplitude Modulation in Spatially Developing Turbulent Boundary Layers2016In: ADVANCES IN COMPUTATION, MODELING AND CONTROL OF TRANSITIONAL AND TURBULENT FLOWS, WORLD SCIENTIFIC PUBL CO PTE LTD , 2016, p. 185-194Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large-eddy simulations of spatially evolving turbulent boundary layers with uniform blowing or suction were performed at a moderate Reynolds number (based on free-stream velocity U-infinity and momentum thickness theta) of up to Re-theta approximate to 2500 in the uncontrolled case. Aiming at the control of external flows, the influence on the skin friction drag and turbulent statistics is investigated with the control amplitude of 0.1% of U-infinity. While uniform blowing reduces the skin-friction coefficient and enhances the amplitude of all components of the turbulence intensities, uniform suction reverses the effect on the skin friction and scales turbulent intensities with wall units throughout the inner layer. A net-energy saving rate S of around 13% could be achieved by blowing over the controlled surface. Since the locally defined S develops in the streamwise direction, the global S increases as the streamwise length of the controlled region is expanded. The fact that the control gain has similar trend in the streamwise direction indicates that the control efficiency increases the streamwise length of the uniform blowing region. The 2D amplitude modulation map shows that the correlation between the energy of the small scale turbulence and the large scale modulation velocity is remarkably increased (decreased) around the diagonal and off-diagonal peaks by blowing (suction). These results are directly linked to the observed enhancement of turbulence intensities in the inner layer for the blowing and obtained inner-scaling for the suction case.

  • 83.
    Kametani, Yukinori
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Fukagata, K.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Drag reduction in spatially developing turbulent boundary layers by blowing at constant mass-flux2015In: 9th International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena, TSFP 2015, TSFP-9 , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of large-eddy simulations of spatially developing turbulent boundary layers with uniform blowing at moderate Reynolds numbers (based on free-stream velocity, U∞ and momentum thickness, θ) up to Reθ ∼ 2500 were performed with the special focus on the effect of intermittent (separated in streamwise direction) blowing sections. The number of blowing sections, N, investigated is set to be 3, 6, 20, 30 and compared to N = 1, which constitutes the reference case, while the total wall-mass flux is constrained to be the same for all considered cases, corresponding to a blowing amplitude of 0.1% of U∞ for the reference case. Results indicate that the reference case provides a net-energy saving rate of around 18%, which initially decreases at most 2 percentage points for N = 3 but recovers with increasing N. The initial reduction of the drag reduction is due to the shorter streamwise length of intermittent blowing sections. The physical decomposition of the skin friction drag through the FIK identity (Fukagata et at, 2002), shows that the distribution of all components over each blowing section has similar trends, resulting in similar averaged values over the whole control region.

  • 84.
    Khapko, Taras
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Duguet, Yohann
    LIMSI-CNRS, Université Paris-Sud.
    Kreilos, Tobias
    Fachbereich Physik, Philipps-Universität Marburg.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Eckhardt, Bruno
    Fachbereich Physik, Philipps-Universität Marburg.
    Henningson, Dan Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Complexity of localised coherent structures in a boundary-layer flow2014In: The European Physical Journal E Soft matter, ISSN 1292-8941, E-ISSN 1292-895X, Vol. 37, no 32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study numerically transitional coherent structures in a boundary-layer flow with homogeneous suction at the wall (the so-called asymptotic suction boundary layer ASBL). The dynamics restricted to the laminar-turbulent separatrix is investigated in a spanwise-extended domain that allows for robust localisation of all edge states. We work at fixed Reynolds number and study the edge states as a function of the streamwise period. We demonstrate the complex spatio-temporal dynamics of these localised states, which exhibits multistability and undergoes complex bifurcations leading from periodic to chaotic regimes. It is argued that in all regimes the dynamics restricted to the edge is essentially low-dimensional and non-extensive.

  • 85.
    Khapko, Taras
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Kreilos, T.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Duguet, Y.
    Eckhardt, B.
    Henningson, Dan Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Edge states as mediators of bypass transition in boundary-layer flows2016In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 801, article id R2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of edge states is investigated in the asymptotic suction boundary layer in relation to the receptivity process to noisy perturbations and the nucleation of turbulent spots. Edge tracking is first performed numerically, without imposing any discrete symmetry, in a large computational domain allowing for full spatial localisation of the perturbation velocity. The edge state is a three-dimensional localised structure recurrently characterised by a single low-speed streak that experiences erratic bursts and planar shifts. This recurrent streaky structure is then compared with predecessors of individual spot nucleation events, triggered by non-localised initial noise. The present results suggest a nonlinear picture, rooted in dynamical systems theory, of the nucleation process of turbulent spots in boundary-layer flows, in which the localised edge state plays the role of state-space mediator.

  • 86.
    Khapko, Taras
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Kreilos, Tobias
    Emergent Complexity in Physical Systems Laboratory (ECPS), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Duguet, Yohann
    LIMSI, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay.
    Eckhardt, Bruno
    Fachbereich Physik, Philipps-Universität Marburg.
    Henningson, Dan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Edge states as mediators of bypass transition in boundary-layer flows2016In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of edge state is investigated in the asymptotic suction boundary layer in relation with the receptivity process to noisy perturbations and the nucleation of turbulent spots. Edge tracking is first performed numerically, without imposing any discrete symmetry, in a large computational domain allowing for full spatial localisation of the perturbation velocity. The edge state is a three-dimensional localised structure recurrently characterised by a single low-speed streak that experiences erratic bursts and planar shifts. This recurrent streaky structure is then compared with predecessors of individual spot nucleation events, triggered by non-localised initial noise. The present results suggest a nonlinear picture, rooted in dynamical systems theory, of the nucleation process of turbulent spots in boundary-layer flows, in which the localised edge states play the role of state-space mediator.

  • 87.
    Khapko, Taras
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Kreilos, Tobias
    Fachbereich Physik, Philipps-Universität Marburg.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Duguet, Yohann
    LIMSI-CNRS, Université Paris-Sud.
    Eckhardt, Bruno
    Fachbereich Physik, Philipps-Universität Marburg.
    Henningson, Dan Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Localized edge states in the asymptotic suction boundary layer2013In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 717, no R6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamics on the laminar-turbulent separatrix is investigated numerically for boundary-layer flows in the subcritical regime. Constant homogeneous suction is applied at the wall, resulting in a parallel asymptotic suction boundary layer (ASBL). When the numerical domain is sufficiently extended in the spanwise direction, the coherent structures found by edge tracking are invariably localized and their dynamics shows bursts that drive a remarkable regular or irregular spanwise dynamics. Depending on the parameters, the asymptotic dynamics on the edge can be either periodic in time or chaotic. A clear mechanism for the regeneration of streaks and streamwise vortices emerges in all cases and is investigated in detail.

  • 88.
    Khapko, Taras
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Duguet, Yohann
    LIMSI, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay.
    Henningson, Dan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Turbulence collapse in a suction boundary layer2016In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 795, p. 356-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Turbulence in the asymptotic suction boundary layer is investigated numerically at the verge of laminarisation using direct numerical simulation. Following an adiabatic protocol, the Reynolds number Re is decreased in small steps starting from a fully turbulent state until laminarisation is observed. Computations in a large numerical domain allow in principle for the possible coexistence of laminar and turbulent regions. However, contrary to other subcritical shear flows, no laminar–turbulent coexistence is observed, even near the onset of sustained turbulence. High-resolution computations suggest a critical Reynolds number Reg≈270, below which turbulence collapses, based on observation times of O(105) inertial time units. During the laminarisation process, the turbulent flow fragments into a series of transient streamwise-elongated structures, whose interfaces do not display the characteristic obliqueness of classical laminar–turbulent patterns. The law of the wall, i.e. logarithmic scaling of the velocity profile, is retained down to Reg, suggesting a large-scale wall-normal transport absent in internal shear flows close to the onset. In order to test the effect of these large-scale structures on the near-wall region, an artificial volume force is added to damp spanwise and wall-normal fluctuations above y+=100, in viscous units. Once the largest eddies have been suppressed by the forcing, and thus turbulence is confined to the near-wall region, oblique laminar–turbulent interfaces do emerge as inother wall-bounded flows, however only transiently. These results suggest that oblique stripes at the onset are a prevalent feature of internal shear flows, but will not occur in canonical boundary layers, including the spatially growing ones.

  • 89.
    Khapko, Taras
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Duguet, Yohann
    Henningson, Dan Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Turbulence and laminarisation in the spatially extended asymptotic suction boundary layer2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We study numerically transitional coherent structures in a boundary-layer flow with homogeneous suction at the wall (the so-called asymptotic suction boundary layer ASBL). The dynamics restricted to the laminar-turbulent separatrix is investigated in a spanwise-extended domain that allows for robust localisation of all edge states. We work at fixed Reynolds number and study the edge states as a function of the streamwise period. We demonstrate the complex spatio-temporal dynamics of these localised states, which exhibits multistability and undergoes complex bifurcations leading from periodic to chaotic regimes. It is argued that in all regimes the dynamics restricted to the edge is essentially low-dimensional and non-extensive.

  • 90.
    Kleusberg, Elektra
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Mikkelsen, R. F.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Ivanell, Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    High-Order Numerical Simulations of Wind Turbine Wakes2017In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 854, no 1, article id 012025Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous attempts to describe the structure of wind turbine wakes and their mutual interaction were mostly limited to large-eddy and Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations using finite-volume solvers. We employ the higher-order spectral-element code Nek5000 to study the influence of numerical aspects on the prediction of the wind turbine wake structure and the wake interaction between two turbines. The spectral-element method enables an accurate representation of the vortical structures, with lower numerical dissipation than the more commonly used finite-volume codes. The wind-turbine blades are modeled as body forces using the actuator-line method (ACL) in the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Both tower and nacelle are represented with appropriate body forces. An inflow boundary condition is used which emulates homogeneous isotropic turbulence of wind-tunnel flows. We validate the implementation with results from experimental campaigns undertaken at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU Blind Tests), investigate parametric influences and compare computational aspects with existing numerical simulations. In general the results show good agreement between the experiments and the numerical simulations both for a single-turbine setup as well as a two-turbine setup where the turbines are offset in the spanwise direction. A shift in the wake center caused by the tower wake is detected similar to experiments. The additional velocity deficit caused by the tower agrees well with the experimental data. The wake is captured well by Nek5000 in comparison with experiments both for the single wind turbine and in the two-turbine setup. The blade loading however shows large discrepancies for the high-turbulence, two-turbine case. While the experiments predicted higher thrust for the downstream turbine than for the upstream turbine, the opposite case was observed in Nek5000.

  • 91. Kreilos, T.
    et al.
    Khapko, Taras
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schneider, T. M.
    Veble, G.
    Duguet, Y.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Eckhardt, B.
    Turbulence transition in the asymptotic suction boundary layer2013In: International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena, TSFP 2013, TSFP-8 , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the transition to turbulence in the asymptotic suction boundary layer (ASBL) by direct numerical simulation. Tracking the motion of trajectories intermediate between laminar and turbulent states we can identify the invariant object inside the laminar-Turbulent boundary, the edge state. In small domains, the flow behaves like a travelling wave over short time intervals. On longer times one notes that the energy shows strong bursts at regular time intervals. During the bursts the streak structure is lost, but it reforms, translated in the spanwise direction by half the domain size. Varying the suction velocity allows to embed the flow into a family of flows that interpolate between plane Couette flow and the ASBL. Near the plane Couette limit, the edge state is a travelling wave. Increasing the suction, the travelling wave and a symmetry-related copy of it undergo a saddle-node infinite-period (SNIPER) bifurcation that leads to bursting and discrete-symmetry shifts. In wider domains, the structures localize in the spanwise direction, and the flow in the active region is similar to the one in small domains. There are still periodic bursts at which the flow structures are shifted, but the shift-distance is no longer connected to a discrete symmetry of the flow geometry. Two different states are found by edge tracking techniques, one where structures are shifted to the same side at every burst and one where they are alternatingly shifted to the left and to the right.

  • 92.
    Kreilos, Tobias
    et al.
    Emergent Complexity in Physical Systems Laboratory (ECPS), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne.
    Khapko, Taras
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Duguet, Yohann
    LIMSI, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay.
    Henningson, Dan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Eckhardt, Bruno
    Fachbereich Physik, Philipps-Universität Marburg.
    Bypass transition and spot nucleation in boundary layers2016Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The spatio-temporal aspects of the transition to turbulence are considered in the case of a boundary-layer flow developing above a flat plate exposed to free-stream turbulence. Combining results on the receptivity to free-stream turbulence with the nonlinear concept of a transition threshold, a physically motivated model suggests a spatial distribution of spot nucleation events. To describe the evolution of turbulent spots a probabilistic cellular automaton is introduced, with all parameters directly fitted from numerical simulations of the boundary layer. The nucleation rates are then combined with the cellular automaton model, yielding excellent quantitative agreement with the statistical characteristics for different free-stream turbulence levels. We thus show how the recent theoretical progress on transitional wall-bounded flows can be extended to the much wider class of spatially developing boundary-layer flows.

  • 93. Kreilos, Tobias
    et al.
    Khapko, Taras
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Duguet, Yohann
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Eckhardt, Bruno
    Bypass transition and spot nucleation in boundary layers2016In: PHYSICAL REVIEW FLUIDS, ISSN 2469-990X, Vol. 1, no 4, article id 043602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spatiotemporal aspects of the transition to turbulence are considered in the case of a boundary-layer flow developing above a flat plate exposed to free-stream turbulence. Combining results on the receptivity to free-stream turbulence with the nonlinear concept of a transition threshold, a physically motivated model suggests a spatial distribution of spot nucleation events. To describe the evolution of turbulent spots a probabilistic cellular automaton is introduced, with all parameters directly obtained from numerical simulations of the boundary layer. The nucleation rates are then combined with the cellular automaton model, yielding excellent quantitative agreement with the statistical characteristics for different free-stream turbulence levels. We thus show how the recent theoretical progress on transitional wall-bounded flows can be extended to the much wider class of spatially developing boundary-layer flows.

  • 94.
    Lenaers, Peter
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Li, Qiang
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brethouwer, Geert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Negative streamwise velocities and other rare events near the wall in turbulent flows2011In: 13th European Turbulence Conference (ETC13): Wall-Bounded Flows And Control Of Turbulence, Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2011, p. 022013-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Negative streamwise velocities, extreme wall-normal velocites and high flatness values for the wall-normal fluctuations near the wall are investigated for turbulent channel flow simulations at a series of Reynolds numbers up to Reτ = 1000 in this paper. Probability density functions of the wall-shear stress and velocity components are presented, as well as joint probability density functions of the velocity components and the pressure. Backflow occurs more often (0.06% at Reτ = 1000) and further away from the wall into the buffer layer for rising Reynolds number. An oblique vortex outside the viscous sublayer is found to cause this backflow. Extreme v events occur also more often for rising Rey nolds number. Positive and negative velocity spikes appear in pairs, located on the two edges of a strong streamwise vortex: the negative spike occurring in a high speed streak indicating a sweeping motion, while the positive spike is located between a high and low speed streak. These extreme v events cause high flatness values near the wall (F(v) = 43 at Reτ = 1000).

  • 95.
    Lenaers, Peter
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Li, Qiang
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brethouwer, Geert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Örlü, Ramis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Rare backflow and extreme wall-normal velocity fluctuations in near-wall turbulence2012In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 035110-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rare negative streamwise velocities and extreme wall-normal velocity fluctuations near the wall are investigated for turbulent channel flow at a series of Reynolds numbers based on friction velocity up to Re-tau = 1000. Probability density functions of the wall-shear stress and velocity components are presented as well as joint probability density functions of the velocity components and the pressure. Backflow occurs more often (0.06% at the wall at Re-tau = 1000) and further away (up to y(+) = 8.5) from the wall for increasing Reynolds number. The regions of backflow are circular with an average diameter, based on ensemble averages, of approximately 20 viscous units independent of Reynolds number. A strong oblique vortex outside the viscous sublayer is found to cause this backflow. Extreme wall-normal velocity events occur also more often for increasing Reynolds number. These extreme fluctuations cause high flatness values near the wall (F(v) = 43 at Re-tau = 1000). Positive and negative velocity spikes appear in pairs, located on the two edges of a strong streamwise vortex as documented by Xu et al. [Phys. Fluids 8, 1938 (1996)] for Re-tau = 180. The spikes are elliptical and orientated in streamwise direction with a typical length of 25 and a typical width of 7.5 viscous units at y(+) approximate to 1. The negative spike occurs in a high-speed streak indicating a sweeping motion, while the positive spike is located in between a high and low-speed streak. The joint probability density functions of negative streamwise and extreme wall-normal velocity events show that these events are largely uncorrelated. The majority of both type of events can be found lying underneath a large-scale structure in the outer region with positive sign, which can be understood by considering the more intense velocity fluctuations due to amplitude modulation of the inner layer by the outer layer. Simulations performed at different resolutions give only minor differences. Results from experiments and recent turbulent boundary layer simulations show similar results indicating that these rare events are universal for wall-bounded flows. In order to detect these rare events in experiments, measurement techniques have to be specifically tuned.

  • 96.
    Lenaers, Peter
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics of Industrial Processes. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brethouwer, Geert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Johansson, Arne
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    A new high-order method for the simulation of incompressible wall-bounded turbulent flows2014In: Journal of Computational Physics, ISSN 0021-9991, E-ISSN 1090-2716, Vol. 272, p. 108-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new high-order method for the accurate simulation of incompressible wall-bounded flows is presented. In the stream- and spanwise directions the discretisation is performed by standard Fourier series, while in the wall-normal direction the method combines high-order collocated compact finite differences with the influence matrix method to calculate the pressure boundary conditions that render the velocity field exactly divergence-free. The main advantage over Chebyshev collocation is that in wall-normal direction, the grid can be chosen freely and thus excessive clustering near the wall is avoided. This can be done while maintaining the high-order approximation as offered by compact finite differences. The discrete Poisson equation is solved in a novel way that avoids any full matrices and thus improves numerical efficiency. Both explicit and implicit discretisations of the viscous terms are described, with the implicit method being more complex, but also having a wider range of applications. The method is validated by simulating two-dimensional Tollmien-Schlichting waves, forced transition in turbulent channel flow, and fully turbulent channel flow at friction Reynolds number Re-tau = 395, and comparing our data with analytical and existing numerical results. In all cases, the results show excellent agreement showing that the method simulates all physical processes correctly.

  • 97.
    Lenaers, Peter
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics of Industrial Processes.
    Brethouwer, Geert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Johansson, Arne
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    A new high-order method for the simulation of incompressible wall-bounded turbulent pipe flowManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 98.
    Lenaers, Peter
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Brethouwer, Gert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Johansson, Arne
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    A new high-order method for the accurate simulation of incompressible wall-bounded flows2015In: 9th International Conference on Direct and Large-Eddy Simulation, 2013, Springer Publishing Company, 2015, p. 133-138Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new high-order method for the accurate simulation of incompressible wall-bounded flows is presented. In stream- and spanwise direction the discretisation is performed by standard Fourier series, while in wall-normal direction the method combines high-order collocated compact finite differences with the influence matrix method to calculate the pressure boundary conditions that render the velocity field divergence-free. The main advantage over Chebyshev collocation is that in wall normal direction, the grid can be chosen freely and thus excessive clustering near the wall is avoided. Both explicit and implicit discretisations of the viscous terms are described, with the implicit method being more complex, but also having a wider range of applications. The method is validated by simulating fully turbulent channel flow at friction Reynolds number Reτ=395, and comparing our data with existing numerical results. The results show excellent agreement proving that the method simulates all physical processes correctly.

  • 99.
    Lenaers, Peter
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brethouwer, Gert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Johansson, Arne V.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    A new high-order method for simulating turbulent pipe flow2016In: Springer Proceedings in Physics, Springer, 2016, p. 211-215Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 100.
    Li, Qiang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Chen, Xi
    Wu, You
    She, Zhen-Su
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Hussain, Fazle
    Understanding wall turbulence: Part II: analysis of turbulent boundary layer2011Report (Other academic)
123456 51 - 100 of 262
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