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  • 51.
    Rothhämel, Malte
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Ijkema, Jolle
    Scania.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Artificial understeer by means of active steering: an investigation of proper handling test methods2013In: Proceedings of the 23rd Symposium of the International Association for Vehicle System Dynamics, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper shows for a heavy truck simulation model the advantages of an artificial understeering functionality realised by a PID controlled active front steering system based on linear calculated yaw rate error. The yaw rate error results from the difference between measured vehicle yaw rate and a linear calculated yaw rate based on steering wheel angle and vehicle speed. The integrated controlled system shows increased performances: The more linear-like behaviour together with a higher understeer gradient over a wide lateral acceleration range which increases safety especially in emergency conditions.

  • 52.
    Rothhämel, Malte
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    IJkema, Jolle
    Scania AB.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Finding correlation between steering feel assessments and the driver’s performance using a moving base driving simulator2011In: FAST-zero’11, Society of Automotive Engineers, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is not yet a standardised method to find mutual corresponding subjective and objective measurements. This paper describes how non-instrumental measurements (made by human measurement gauges) and instrumental measurements (made by measuring instruments) can be distinguished in quantities that are dependent of the vehicle, the driver's skills or the driver's individual preferences. Moreover, this paper shows the correlation between instrumental and non-instrumental measurements.

  • 53.
    Rothhämel, Malte
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Ijkema, Jolle
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Influencing driver chosen cornering speed by means of modified steering feel2014In: Vehicle System Dynamics, ISSN 0042-3114, E-ISSN 1744-5159, Vol. 52, no 4, p. 522-538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an investigation about influencing the driver's behaviour intuitively by means of modified steering feel. For a rollover indication through haptic feedback a model was developed and tested that returned a warning to the driver about too high vehicle speed. This was realised by modifying the experienced steering wheel torque as a function of the lateral acceleration. The hypothesis for this work was that drivers of heavy vehicles will perform with more margin of safety to the rollover threshold if the steering feel is altered by means of decreased or additionally increased steering wheel torque at high lateral acceleration. Therefore, the model was implemented in a test truck with active steering with torque overlay and used for a track test. Thirty-three drivers took part in the investigation that showed, depending on the parameter setting, a significant decrease of lateral acceleration while cornering.

  • 54.
    Rothhämel, Malte
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    IJkema, Jolle
    Scania CV AB.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    On a Method for Generating a Word Pool for the Description of Steering Feel2010In: AVEC 10 - Proceedings, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    “If touching is not a single perception but a plural, then its objects are a plurality, too.” (Aristotle)

    For investigating steering feel, a very important part is how to measure what people feel. The hypothesis in the present research work is that steering feel, as perceived by human beings, can be allotted in dimensions. The steering feel of a certain vehicle can then be seen as a point in a space with multiple orthogonal dimensions. The aim is to find the dimensions that people use to perceive and describe steering feel, in order to define this non-instrumental space. This article describes two modes of evaluation, a manual mode anda mathematical mode using the statistical method of multidimensional scaling. Applying these modes, it has been possible to extract nine dimensions describing the steering feel of road vehicles.

  • 55.
    Rothhämel, Malte
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    IJkema, Jolle
    Scania CV AB.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    On the correlation between steering feel and handling in heavy trucks2008In: FISITA World Automotive Congress 2008, Congress Proceedings - Mobility Concepts, Man Machine Interface, Process Challenges, Virtual Reality: Volume 1, 2008, p. 311-317Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving a car gives us a certain feeling. Driving another car returns a very differentexperience. If we could drive with closed eyes, we could nonetheless explain which vehicle itwas we were sitting in. Not only are there differences between sports cars and transporters orlimousines and trucks, but also it is possible to feel the different sensations from drivingtrucks of different manufacturers. It depends on the seat, the sitting position, the view, thesound, the performance, the brakes - and the steering feel.There are many ways how to describe a vehicle's steering feel. There are ISO-standards, suchas ISO/TS 20119 and ISO 14792 that generate characteristic values, there are subjective testsof automotive magazines, and there are opinions of test and race drivers. But exactly there,between the pure objective tests and the subjective impressions that are difficult to describe,exists a gap. This relationship between instrumentally measured numbers and nearlyindescribable feelings has not been fully investigated yet. With a better understanding of thecorrelation between objective values and subjective experience, it may be possible to find ananswer on which parameters can manipulate the feelings.This paper is on an investigation about finding a correlation between instrumental values(values measured by instruments or calculated from those) and non-instrumental values(values obtained by human impressions). The idea is to use drivers as human measuringgauges and let them measure impressions in their own words.Thus, in order to gather a standardized answer that can be evaluated, a questionnaire wasdeveloped. For this questionnaire the most important consideration was to facilitate the testdrivers with their own languages. Therefore, the questions were developed in the test drivers'native language. The characteristic words were chosen corresponding to the results of adouble interrogation process.When people express their feelings like they are accustomed to do, they will utilize a libraryof expressive words instead of numbers. Thus the measuring results will have that character,too. By using the semantic differential method, expressions can be translated into numbers.The semantic differential method is a well-known method especially in psychoacousticswhich allows people describe how noise sounds to them. With this kind of evaluation - valueassigning procedure - a list of parameters comes to existence similar to that containing theinstrumental values. To explore the relation between the instrumental and non-instrumentalvalues, statistical methods are used.

  • 56.
    Sun, Peikun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Jonasson, M.
    Analysis of camber control and torque vectoring to improve vehicle energy efficiency2018In: The Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks, CRC Press/Balkema , 2018, p. 121-128Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the use of camber control and torque vectoring in order to make future vehicles more energy efficient and thereby more environmentally friendly. The energy loss during steady state cornering including rolling resistance loss, aerodynamic loss, longitudinal slip loss and lateral slip loss, is formulated and studied. Camber control, torque vectoring control and a combination of both are compared. From the simulation results, it can be concluded that during steady state cornering, torque vectoring has a very small contribution to energy reduction while camber control can make a significant contribution to energy saving. By combining torque vectoring and camber control during steady state cornering, in theory up to 14% energy saving are found for certain cases.

  • 57.
    Sun, Peikun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Jonasson, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics. Volvo Cars, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Exploring the potential of camber control to improve vehicles' energy efficiency during cornering2018In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Actively controlling the camber angle to improve energy efficiency has recently gained interest due to the importance of reducing energy consumption and the driveline electrification trend that makes cost-efficient implementation of actuators possible. To analyse how much energy that can be saved with camber control, the effect of changing the camber angles on the forces and moments of the tyre under different driving conditions should be considered. In this paper, Magic Formula tyre models for combined slip and camber are used for simulation of energy analysis. The components of power loss during cornering are formulated and used to explain the influence that camber angles have on the power loss. For the studied driving paths and the assumed driver model, the simulation results show that active camber control can have considerable influence on power loss during cornering. Different combinations of camber angles are simulated, and a camber control algorithm is proposed and verified in simulation. The results show that the camber controller has very promising application prospects for energy-efficient cornering.

  • 58.
    Tunay, Tural
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. Adana Alparslan Turkes Science and Technology University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 01180 Adana, Turkey.
    O'Reilly, Ciarán J.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    The significance of roll on the dynamics of ground vehicles subjected to crosswind gusts by two-way coupled simulation of aero- and vehicle dynamics2019In: 26th IAVSD Symposium on Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Improvements in vehicle technologies in recent decades enable the use of lighter materials and the development of control systems for autonomous vehicles. However, these improvements lead to a need for better understanding of how flow phenomena affect crosswind stability of ground vehicles which will enable the design of the less wind-sensitive vehicles. Therefore, the present study investigates the significance of roll on the dynamics of ground vehicles subjected to crosswind gusts. It includes a multidisciplinary approach in which there is a two-way coupled simulation between aerodynamics and vehicle dynamics equations. As a result of the investigations, significant differences have been found be- tween the computations considering no-roll and roll motions.

  • 59.
    Wanner, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Edrén, Johannes
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Modelling and experimental evaluation of driver behaviour during single wheel hub motor failures2015In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Future Active Safety Technology Towards zero traffic accidents (FASTzero'15), 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A failure-sensitive driver model has been developed in the research study presented in this paper. The model is based on measurements of human responses to dierent failure conditions inuencing the vehicle directional stability in a moving-base driving simulator. The measurements were made in a previous experimental study where test subjects were exposed to three sudden failure conditions that required adequate corrective measures to maintain the vehicle control and regain the planned trajectory. A common driver model and a failure-sensitive driver model have been compared, and results for the latter agree well with the measured data. The proposed failure-sensitive driver model is capable of maintaining the vehicle control and regaining the planned trajectory similarly to the way in which humans achieved this during a wheel hub motor failure in one of the rear wheels.

  • 60.
    Wanner, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Design and experimental evaluation of a fault-tolerant control strategy with and without a driver in the loopManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a fault-tolerant control strategy for an electric vehicle is developed and analysed for a wheel hub motor failure during a straight line driving manoeuvre. Based on the control allocation principle, an analytical approach is compared to an optimisation approach and both are investigated for their suitability to handle such failures. The analytical control allocation strategy has shown promising results similar to the optimal control allocation strategy. The improvements in vehicle stability and maintained desired path are also verified by experiments. The analytical approach is implemented in an experimental vehicle verifying the simulation results without driver in the loop. An experimental study including drivers is further conducted to analyse the influence of the control allocation strategy on the driver-vehicle interaction for the same manoeuvre. Further improvements for vehicle stability and lateral deviation are found for the driver study when an analytical control allocation strategy is included. The driver-vehicle interaction to a fault is improved strongly due to controller intervention. This fault-tolerant control strategy has shown promising results and its potential to improve traffic safety.

  • 61.
    Wanner, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Fault classification method for the driving safety of electrified vehicles2014In: Vehicle System Dynamics, ISSN 0042-3114, E-ISSN 1744-5159, Vol. 52, no 5, p. 704-732Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fault classification method is proposed which has been applied to an electric vehicle. Potential faults in the different subsystems that can affect the vehicle directional stability were collected in a failure mode and effect analysis. Similar driveline faults were grouped together if they resembled each other with respect to their influence on the vehicle dynamic behaviour. The faults were physically modelled in a simulation environment before they were induced in a detailed vehicle model under normal driving conditions. A special focus was placed on faults in the driveline of electric vehicles employing in-wheel motors of the permanent magnet type. Several failures caused by mechanical and other faults were analysed as well. The fault classification method consists of a controllability ranking developed according to the functional safety standard ISO 26262. The controllability of a fault was determined with three parameters covering the influence of the longitudinal, lateral and yaw motion of the vehicle. The simulation results were analysed and the faults were classified according to their controllability using the proposed method. It was shown that the controllability decreased specifically with increasing lateral acceleration and increasing speed. The results for the electric driveline faults show that this trend cannot be generalised for all the faults, as the controllability deteriorated for some faults during manoeuvres with low lateral acceleration and low speed. The proposed method is generic and can be applied to various other types of road vehicles and faults.

  • 62.
    Wanner, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Influence of vehicle parameters on directional stability during electric powertrain faults in passenger cars2014In: Proceedings of the FISITA 2014 World Automotive Congress, Maastricht, The Netherlands, June 2-6, 2014 / [ed] International Federation of Automotive Engineering Societies, 2014, p. 1-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric powertrain faults that could occur during normal driving can affect the dynamic behaviour of the vehicle and might result in significant course deviations. The severity depends both on the characteristics of the fault itself as well as on how sensitive the vehicle reacts to this type of fault. In this work, a sensitivity study is conducted on the effects of vehicle design parameters, such as geometries and tyre characteristics, and fault characteristics. The vehicle specifications are based on three different parameter sets representing a small city car, a medium-sized sedan and a large passenger car. The evaluation criteria cover the main motions of the vehicle, i.e. longitudinal velocity difference, lateral offset and side slip angle on the rear axle as indicator of the directional stability. A design of experiments approach is applied and the influence on the course deviation is analysed for each studied parameter separately and for all first order combinations. Vehicle parameters of high sensitivity have been found for each criterion. The mass factor is highly relevant for all three motions, while the additional factors wheel base, track width, yaw inertia and vehicle velocity are mainly influencing the lateral and the yaw motion. Changes in the tyre parameters are in general less significant than the vehicle parameters. Among the tyre parameters, the stiffness factor of the tyres on the rear axle has the major influence resulting in a reduction of the course deviation for a stiffer tyre. The fault amplitude is an important fault parameter, together with the fault starting gradient and number of wheels with fault. In this study, it was found that a larger vehicle representing a SUV is more sensitive to these types of faults. To conclude, the result of an electric powertrain fault can cause significant course deviations for all three vehicle types studied.

  • 63.
    Wanner, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Edrén, Johannes
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Jonasson, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Wallmark, Oskar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Fault-Tolerant Control of Electric Vehicles with In-Wheel Motors through Tyre-Force Allocation2012In: Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Advanced Vehicle Control, Seoul: Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers (JSAE) , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a fault handling strategy for electric vehicles with in-wheel motors. The ap-plied control algorithm is based on tyre-force allocation. One complex tyre-force allocation meth-od, which requires non-linear optimization, as well as a simpler tyre force allocation method are developed and applied. A comparison between them is conducted and evaluated against a standard reference vehicle with an Electronic Stability Control (ESC) algorithm. The faults in consideration are electrical faults that can arise in in-wheel motors of permanent-magnet type. The results show for both tyre-force allocation methods an improved re-allocation after a severe fault and thus re-sults in an improved state trajectory recovery. Thereby the proposed fault handling strategy be-comes an important component to improve system dependability and secure vehicle safety.

  • 64.
    Wanner, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Kreusslein, Maria
    TU Chemnitz.
    Augusto, Bruno
    VTI.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Trigell, Annika Stensson
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Single wheel hub motor failures and their impact on vehicle and driver behaviour2016In: Vehicle System Dynamics, ISSN 0042-3114, E-ISSN 1744-5159, Vol. 54, no 10, p. 1345-1361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research work studies the impact of single wheel hub motor failures on the dynamic behaviour of electric vehicles and the corresponding driver reactions. An experimental study in a moving-base driving simulator is conducted to analyse the influence of single wheel hub motor failures for motorway speeds. Driver reaction times are derived from the measured data and discussed in their experimental context. The failure is rated objectively on the dynamic behaviour of the vehicle and compared to the subjective evaluation. Findings indicate that critical traffic situations impairing traffic safety can occur for motorway speeds. Clear counteractions by the drivers had to be taken.

  • 65.
    Wanner, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Kreußlein, Maria
    Department of Psychology, Technische Universitat Chemnitz, Chemnitz, Germany.
    Augusto, Bruno
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Single wheel hub motor failures and their impact on vehicle and driver behaviourManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This research work studies the impact of single wheel hub motor failures on the dynamic behaviour of electric vehicles and the corresponding driver reactions. An experimental study in a moving-base driving simulator is conducted to analyse the inuence of single wheel hub motor failures for motorway speeds. Driver reaction times are derived from the measured data and discussed in their experimental context. The failure is rated objectively on the dynamic behaviour of the vehicle and compared to the subjective evaluation. Findings indicate that critical trac situations impairing trac safety can occur for motorway speeds. Clear counteractions by the drivers had to be taken.

  • 66.
    Wanner, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Neumann, Isabel
    Department of Psychology, Technische Universitat Chemnitz, Chemnitz, Germany.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Cocron, Peter
    Department of Psychology, Technische Universitat Chemnitz, Chemnitz, Germany.
    Bierbach, Maxim
    Active Vehicle Safety, Emissions and Energy, Federal Highway Research Institute (BASt), Bergisch Gladbach, Germany.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Experimental study on single wheel hub motor failures and their impact on the driver-vehicle behavior2016In: Proceedings of the ASME 2015 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference IDETC/CIE 2015, Boston, USA: ASME Press, 2016, article id UNSP V003T01A001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental field study investigating the impact of single wheel hub motor failures on the dynamic behavior of a vehicle and the corresponding driver reaction is presented in this work. The experiment is performed at urban speeds on a closed off test track. The single wheel hub motor failure is emulated with an auxiliary brake system in a modified electric vehicle. Driver reaction times are derived from the measured data and discussed in their experimental context. The failure is rated and evaluated objectively based on the dynamic behavior of the vehicle. Findings indicate that driver reactions are more apparent for the accelerator pedal compared to the steering wheel response. The controllability evaluation of the vehicle behavior shows that no critical traffic situation occurs for the tested failure conditions. However, even small deviations of the vehicle can impair traffic safety, specifically for other traffic participants like bicyclist and pedestrians.

  • 67.
    Wanner, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Survey on fault-tolerant vehicle design2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fault-tolerant vehicle design is an emerging inter-disciplinary research domain, which is of increasedimportance due to the electrification of automotive systems. The goal of fault-tolerant systems is to handleoccuring faults under operational condition and enable the driver to get to a safe stop. This paperpresents results from an extended survey on fault-tolerant vehicle design. It aims to provide a holisticview on the fault-tolerant aspects of a vehicular system. An overview of fault-tolerant systems in generaland their design premises is given as well as the specific aspects related to automotive applications. Thepaper highlights recent and prospective development of vehicle motion control with integrated chassiscontrol and passive and active fault-tolerant control. Also, fault detection and diagnosis methods arebriefly described. The shift on control level of vehicles will be accompanied by basic structural changeswithin the network architecture. Control architecture as well as communication protocols and topologiesare adapted to comply with the electrified automotive systems. Finally, the role of regulations andinternational standardization to enable fault-tolerant vehicle design is taken into consideration.

  • 68.
    Wanner, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    StenssonTrigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Survey on fault-tolerant vehicle design2012In: World Electric Vehicle Journal, ISSN 2032-6653, E-ISSN 2032-6653, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 598-609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fault-tolerant vehicle design is an emerging inter-disciplinary research domain, which is of increased importance due to the electrification of automotive systems. The goal of fault-tolerant systems is to handle occuring faults under operational condition and enable the driver to get to a safe stop. This paper presents results from an extended survey on fault-tolerant vehicle design. It aims to provide a holistic view on the fault-tolerant aspects of a vehicular system. An overview of fault-tolerant systems in general and their design premises is given as well as the specific aspects related to automotive applications. The paper highlights recent and prospective development of vehicle motion control with integrated chassis control and passive and active fault-tolerant control. Also, fault detection and diagnosis methods are briefly described. The shift on control level of vehicles will be accompanied by basic structural changes within the network architecture. Control architecture as well as communication protocols and topologies are adapted to comply with the electrified automotive systems. Finally, the role of regulations and international standardization to enable fault-tolerant vehicle design is taken into consideration.

  • 69.
    Wanner, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Wallmark, Oskar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Jonasson, Mats
    Volvo Cars AB.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Control allocation strategies for an electric vehicle with a wheel hub motor failure2015In: International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing, ISSN 1745-6436, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 263-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three fault-tolerant control strategies for electric vehicles with wheel hub motors are presented and compared, which are all based on the control allocation principle. The main objective is to maintain the directional stability of the vehicle in case of a component failure during high speed manoeuvres. Two simplified strategies that are suited for on-board implementation are derived and compared to an optimal control allocation strategy and a reference vehicle with a basic electronic stability control system. The occurring faults are considered to be in the electric high-voltage system that can arise in wheel hub motors. All three control allocation strategies show improved re-allocation of traction forces after a severe fault, and hence an improved directional stability. However, the performance of both simplified algorithms shows limitations in case of force demands outside the capabilities of the respective actuator. This work shows that vehicle safety is increased by the proposed fault-tolerant control strategies.

  • 70.
    Winkler, Niklas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Efraimsson, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Aerodynamics of road vehicles in transient cross-winds-coupling aero to vehicle dynamics2014In: Proceedings of the Mini Conference on Vehicle System Dynamics, Identification and Anomalies, Technical University of Budapest , 2014, p. 63-70Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ground vehicles are sensitive to crosswinds, affecting aerodynamic and handling performance, and in some cases safety. Therefore it is important to be able to predict vehicle performance when exposed to crosswinds. The aim of the work presented in this paper is to assess the order of the model complexity in order to capture the vehicle behaviour during a transient crosswind event, regarding the interaction of the aerodynamic forces and the vehicle dynamic response. That is, the necessity to perform a full dynamic coupling instead of a static coupling to capture the vehicle performance both with respect to aerodynamics and the vehicle dynamics as is done today. The model used in the computations is based on the Ground Transportation System (GTS) model, which is simulated to run on a road passing a crosswind passage. The aerodynamic computations are performed using Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) coupled to a bicycle model for the vehicle dynamics. Here, two degrees of freedom are considered, that is, lateral translation and yaw motion. The change of the vehicle position in the aerodynamic domain is enabled through the use of the overset mesh technique. The results show that the full dynamic coupling is needed for large yaw angles of the vehicle, where the static coupling over-predicts the aerodynamic loads and in turn the vehicle motion.

  • 71.
    Winkler, Niklas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Efraimsson, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Coupling aerodynamics to vehicle dynamics in transient crosswinds including a driver model2016In: Computers & Fluids, ISSN 0045-7930, E-ISSN 1879-0747, Vol. 138, p. 26-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we assess the order of model complexity needed to capture a vehicle behaviour during a transient crosswind event, regarding the interaction of the aerodynamic loads and the vehicle dynamic response. The necessity to perform a full dynamic coupling, including feedback in real-time, instead of a static coupling to capture the vehicle performance both with respect to aerodynamics and the vehicle dynamics is evaluated. The computations are performed for a simplified bus model that is exposed to a transient crosswind. The aerodynamic loads are obtained using Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) with the overset mesh technique coupled to a single-track model for the vehicle dynamics including a driver model with three sets of controller parameters to obtain a realistic scenario. Two degrees of freedom are handled by the vehicle dynamics model; lateral translation and yaw motion. The results show that the full dynamic coupling is needed for large yaw angles of the vehicle, where the static coupling over-predicts the aerodynamic loads and in turn the vehicle motion. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  • 72. Yoshimura, Kimiyasu
    et al.
    Davari, Mohammad Mehdi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Studying Road Roughness Effect on Rolling Resistance Using Brush Tyre Model and Self-Affine Fractal Surfaces2016In: The Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks - Proceedings of the 24th Symposium of the International Association for Vehicle System Dynamics, IAVSD 2015, CRC Press, 2016, p. 273-280Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While there are many tyre and vehicle dependent factors that affect the rollingresistance, the road properties play also an influential role in the overall resistance on the vehicle.The aim of this study is to develop amodel that can estimate the effect of road roughness on rollingresistance of tyres where both the texture-dependent and independent factors are contributing tooverall rolling resistance. In this paper, a method based on the self-affine fractal surfaces is usedto model realistic road characteristics in order to couple it with a brush based tyre model to beable to study the influence of road roughness on tyre rolling resistance. The simulation resultssuggest that the rolling resistance increases with increased RMS-value and both the macro- andthe micro-texture have an influence on the rolling resistance while the macro-texture effect is moreinfluential. The results of this paper can be related to the estimation of fuel economy on differentroad textures, from macro-texture to micro-texture and further optimisation of road surfaces.

  • 73.
    Zhang, Wenliang
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. National Engineering Laboratory for Electric Vehicles and the Collaborative Innovation Centre for Electric Vehicles in Beijing.
    Wang, Zhenpo
    School of Mechnical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology.
    Zou, Changfu
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Advanced Vehicle State Monitoring:: Evaluating Moving Horizon Estimators and Unscented Kalman Filter2019In: IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, ISSN 0018-9545, E-ISSN 1939-9359, Vol. 68, no 6, p. 5430-5442, article id 8682143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Active safety systems must be used to manipulate the dynamics of autonomous vehicles to ensure safety. To this end, accurate vehicle information, such as the longitudinal and lateral velocities, is crucial. Measuring these states, however, can be expensive, and the measurements can be polluted by noise. The available solutions often resort to Bayesian filters such as the Kalman filter, but can be vulnerable and erroneous when the underlying assumptions do not hold. With its clear merits in handling nonlinearities and uncertainties, moving horizon estimation (MHE) can potentially solve the problem and is thus studied for vehicle state estimation. This paper designs an unscented Kalman filter, standard MHE, modified MHE and recursive least squares MHE to estimate critical vehicle states, respectively. All the estimators are formulated based upon a highly nonlinear vehicle model that is shown to be locally observable. The convergence rate, accuracy and robustness of the four estimation algorithms are comprehensively characterised and compared under three different driving manoeuvres. For MHE-based algorithms, the effects of horizon length and optimisation techniques on the computational efficiency and accuracy are also investigated.

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