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  • 51.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Physical and acoustic factors that interact with the singer to produce the choral sound1991In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 128-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the people who perform music do so in the capacity of choir singers. An understanding of the particular acoustic properties of the choral sound is of interest not only to performers, but also to educators, architectural acousticians, audio technicians, and composers. The goal of choir acoustics is to describe various aspects of choral sound in acoustic terms, thereby taking into account the acoustics of voice production, the acoustics of rooms, and psychoacoustic properties of the auditory system. This article is an overview of choir acoustics research done in Stockholm over the past 8 years. It is an abridged and adapted version of an overview given in the author’s dissertation, Acoustical Aspects of Choir Singing. Three different kinds of experiments were made: (a) the control of phonation frequency and the vowel articulation of choir singers were investigated, by having individual choir singers perform vocal tasks on demand or in response to auditory stimuli; (b) typical values of sound levels, phonation frequency scatter, and long-time averaged spectra were obtained by measurements on choir singers rehearsing in ensemble under normal or near-normal conditions; and (c) models for certain aspects of choral sound were formulated and evaluated by synthesis. The choir singer’s performance is based on two acoustic signals: her or his own voice (the feedback) and the rest of the choir (the reference). Intonation errors were found to be induced or increased by (a) large level differences between the feedback and the reference, (b) several perceptually unfavorable spectral properties of the reference, and (c) articulatory maneuvers, i.e., intrinsic pitch. The magnitude of the errors would be indirectly related to room acoustics (a and b) and to voice usage and musical/textual content (b and c). When singing alone, singers from one choir used a vowel articulation that was different from that in speech and also more unified; it was also in some respects different from solo singing. Long-time average spectrum effects of room acoustics and musical dynamics were large, as expected; those of choir type and musical material were smaller. To some extent, choirs adapted their sound level and voice usage to the room acoustics. Small random fluctuations in phonation frequency, called "€œflutter"€ and "€œwow,"€ are always present in human voices. With multiple voices, flutter and wow cause, through interference, a pseudorandom, independent amplitude modulation of partial tones, which is known to cue the perceptual "€œchorus effect." The chorus effect is also influenced by the reverberation properties of the room. Choral sounds were explored by means of synthesis, and the importance of realistic flutter was established. Flutter in choir singers was analyzed and simulated in single synthesized voices. Expert listeners were unable to discriminate between simulated and authentic flutter.

  • 52.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Preferred self-to-other ratios in choir singing1999In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 105, no 6, p. 3563-3574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Choir singers need to hear their own voice in an adequate self-to-other ratio (SOR) over the rest ofthe choir. Knowing singers’ preferences for SOR could facilitate the design of stages and of choral formations. In an experiment to study the preferred SOR, subjects sang sustained vowels together with synthesized choir sounds, whose loudness tracked that of their own voice. They could control the SOR simply by changing their distance to the microphone. At the most comfortable location, the SOR was measured. Experimental factors included unison and four-part tasks, three vowels and two levels of phonation frequency. The same experiment was run four times, using sopranos, altos, tenors, and basses, with stimulus tones adapted for each category. The preferred self-to-other ratios were found to be similar to SORs measured previously in actual performance, if a little higher. Preferences were quite narrow, typically +/-2 dB for each singer, but very different from singer to singer, with intrasubject means ranging from -1 to +15 dB. There was no significant difference between the unison and the four-part tasks, although this might have been caused by systematic differences in the stimulus sounds. Some effects of phonation frequency and vowel were significant, but interdependent and difficult to interpret. The results and their relevance to live choir singing are discussed.

  • 53.
    Ternström, Sten
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Andersson, Marie
    Scandinavian College of Manual Medicine.
    Bergman, Ulrika
    Scandinavian College of Manual Medicine.
    An effect of body massage on voice loudness and phonation frequency in reading2000In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 146-151Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 54.
    Ternström, Sten
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Bohman, M.
    Södersten, M.
    Loud speech over noise: Some spectral attributes, with gender differences2006In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 119, no 3, p. 1648-1665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In seeking an acoustic description of overloaded voice, simulated environmental noise was used to elicit loud speech. A total of 23 adults, 12 females and 11 males, read six passages of 90 s duration, over realistic noise presented over loudspeakers. The noise was canceled out, exposing the speech signal to analysis. Spectrum balance (SB) was defined as the level of the 2-6 kHz band relative to the 0.1-1 kHz band. SB averaged across many similar vowel segments became less negative with increasing sound pressure level (SPL), as described in the literature, but only at moderate SPL. At high SPL, SB exhibited a personal saturation point, above which the high-band level no longer increased faster than the overall SPL, or even stopped increasing altogether, on average at 90.3 dB WO cm) for females and 95.5 dB for males. Saturation occurred 6-8 dB; below the personal maximum SPL, regardless of gender. The loudest productions were often characterized by a relative increase in low-frequency energy, apparently in a sharpened first formant. This suggests a change of vocal strategy when the high spectrum can rise no further. The progression of SB with SPL was characteristically different for individual subjects.

  • 55.
    Ternström, Sten
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Cabrera, D.
    Davis, P.
    Self-to-other ratios measured in an opera chorus in performance2005In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 118, no 6, p. 3903-3911Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four volunteer members of the chorus of Opera Australia, representing four different voice categories, wore binaural pairs of wireless microphones during a penultimate dress rehearsal on the Opera Theater stage of the Sydney Opera House. From the recordings, data were obtained oil sound levels and on the self-to-other ratios (SORs). The sound levels were comparable to those found in loud music in chamber choir performance. The average SOR ranged from +10 to +15 dB. Compared to chamber choirs in other types of room, the SOR values were high. On a separate occasion, the stage support parameters ST1 (early reflections) and ST2 (late reflections) were measured over the whole stage area. STI was about -16 dB, which is typical for opera stages, and -20 dB for ST2, which is unusually low. It is concluded that the SOR in the opera chorus depends mostly on choir formation, which is highly variable, and that an opera chorus artist generally can hear his or her own voice very well, but little of the others and of the orchestra. This was confirmed by informal listening to the recordings.

  • 56.
    Ternström, Sten
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    D'Amario, Sara
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH. University of York.
    Selamtzis, Andreas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Effects of the lung volume on the electroglottographic waveform in trained female singers2018In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To determine if in singing there is an effect of lung volume on the electroglottographic waveform, and if so, how it varies over the voice range. Study design: Eight trained female singers sang the tune “Frère Jacques” in 18 conditions: three phonetic contexts, three dynamic levels, and high or low lung volume. Conditions were randomized and replicated. Methods: The audio and EGG signals were recorded in synchrony with signals tracking respiration and vertical larynx position. The first 10 Fourier descriptors of every EGG cycle were computed. These spectral data were clustered statistically, and the clusters were mapped by color into a voice range profile display, thus visualizing the EGG waveform changes under the influence of fo and SPL. The rank correlations and effect sizes of the relationships between relative lung volume and several adduction-related EGG wave shape metrics were similarly rendered on a color scale, in voice range profile-style ʻvoice maps.ʼ Results: In most subjects, EGG waveforms varied considerably over the voice range. Within subjects, reproducibility was high, not only across the replications, but also across the phonetic contexts. The EGG waveforms were quite individual, as was the nature of the EGG shape variation across the range. EGG metrics were significantly correlated to changes in lung volume, in parts of the range of the song, and in most subjects. However, the effect sizes of the relative lung volume were generally much smaller than the effects of fo and SPL, and the relationships always varied, even changing polarity from one part of the range to another. Conclusions: Most subjects exhibited small, reproducible effects of the relative lung volume on the EGG waveform. Some hypothesized influences of tracheal pull were seen, mostly at the lowest SPLs. The effects were however highly variable, both across the moderately wide fo-SPL range and across subjects. Different singers may be applying different techniques and compensatory behaviors with changing lung volume. The outcomes emphasize the importance of making observations over a substantial part of the voice range, and not only of phonations sustained at a few fundamental frequencies and sound levels.

  • 57.
    Ternström, Sten
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics. KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Analysis and simulation of small variations in the fundamental frequency of sustained vowels1989In: STL-QPSR, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 001-014Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 58.
    Ternström, Sten
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Monteverdi’s vespers. A case study in music synthesis1988In: STL-QPSR, Vol. 29, no 2-3, p. 093-105Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The article describes the methods used in synthesizing a performance of the first movement of Monteverdi's Vespers from 1610. The synthesis combines results from studies of singing voice acoustics, ensemble acoustics, and rules for music performance. The emphasis is on the synthesis of choir sounds.

  • 59.
    Ternström, Sten
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Granqvist, Svante
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Personal computers in the voice laboratory: Part one-the computing environment2009In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 224-227Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 60.
    Ternström, Sten
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Granqvist, Svante
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Speech Communication and Technology.
    Personal computers in the voice laboratory: Part two-audio devices2010In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 98-102Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 61.
    Ternström, Sten
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Howard, D.
    Synthesizing singing: What's the buzz?2004In: Proceedings of the 2nd Intl Physiology and Acoustics of Singing Conference, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 62.
    Ternström, Sten
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Jers, H.
    Nix, J.
    Group and Ensemble Vocal Music2012In: The Oxford Handbook of Music Education / [ed] McPherson, G. E.; Welch, G. F., Oxford University Press , 2012, p. 581-593Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 63.
    Ternström, Sten
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Johansson, Dennis
    Selamtzis, Andreas
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    FonaDyn - A system for real-time analysis of the electroglottogram, over the voice range2018In: Software Quality Professional, ISSN 1522-0540, SoftwareX, ISSN 2352-7110, Vol. 7, p. 74-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From soft to loud and low to high, the mechanisms of human voice have many degrees of freedom, making it difficult to assess phonation from the acoustic signal alone. FonaDyn is a research tool that combines acoustics with electroglottography (EGG). It characterizes and visualizes in real time the dynamics of EGG waveforms, using statistical clustering of the cycle-synchronous EGG Fourier components, and their sample entropy. The prevalence and stability of different EGG waveshapes are mapped as colored regions into a so-called voice range profile, without needing pre-defined thresholds or categories. With appropriately ‘trained’ clusters, FonaDyn can classify and map voice regimes. This is of potential scientific, clinical and pedagogical interest.

  • 64.
    Ternström, Sten
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Kalin, G.
    Formant frequency adjustment in barbershop singing2007In: Proc of 19th ICA / [ed] Calvo-Manzano, A. et al., 2007, p. 206-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 65.
    Ternström, Sten
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Karna, D. R.
    Choir2011In: The Science & Psychology of Music Performance: Creative Strategies for Teaching and Learning, Oxford University Press, 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past couple of decades, research into the acoustics of choir singing has uncovered numerous interesting effects that are of potential relevance to choral performance. Some concern voice production, others have to do with the acoustics of the stage and the auditorium, while still others are related to our sense of hearing. Many of them are rather subtle and, if taken in isolation, of minor importance. When the acoustical circumstances combine constructively, however, choral singing is certain to become easier; conversely, when they combine destructively, choral performance is likely to suffer. This chapter describes in detail some phenomena that are expected to be particularly interesting and useful to choral directors and singers who are curious about choir acoustics.

  • 66.
    Ternström, Sten
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Nordmark, Jan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Intonation preferences for major thirds with non-beating ensemble sounds1996In: Proc. of Nordic Acoustical Meeting: NAM'96, Helsinki, 1996, p. 359-365, article id F2Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The frequency ratios, or intervals, of the twelve-tone scale can be mathematically dejned in several slightly diferent ways, each of which may be more or less appropriate in different musical contexts. For maximum mobility in musical key, instruments of our time with fixed tuning are typically tuned in equal temperament, except for performances of early music or avant-garde contemporary music. Some contend that pure intonation, being free of beats, is more natural, and would be preferred in instruments with variable tuning. The sound of choirs is such that beats are very unlikely to serve as cues for intonation. Choral performers have access to variable tuning, yet have not been shown to prefer pure intonation. The difference between alternative intonation schemes is largest for the major third interval. Choral directors and other musically expert subjects were asked to adjust to their preference the intonation of 20 major third intervals in synthetic ensemble sounds. The preferred size of the major third was 395.4 cents, with intra-subject averages ranging from 388 to 407 cents.

  • 67.
    Ternström, Sten
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Pabon, Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH. Royal Conservatoire, The Hague, NL.
    Accounting for variability over the voice range2019In: Proceedings of the ICA 2019 and EAA Euroregio / [ed] Martin Ochmann, Michael Vorländer, Janina Fels, Aachen, DE: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Akustik (DEGA e.V.) , 2019, p. 7775-7780Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers from the natural sciences interested in the performing arts often seek quantitative findings with explanatory power and practical relevance to performers and educators. However, the complexity of singing voice production continues to challenge us. On their own, entities that are readily measurable in the domain of physics are rarely of direct relevance to excellence in the domain of performance; because information on one level of representation (e.g., acoustic) is artistically meaningful mostly when interpreted in a context at a higher level of representation (e.g., emotional or semantic). Also, practically any acoustic or physiologic metric derived from the sound of a voice, or from other signals or images, will exhibit considerable variation both across individuals and across the voice range, from soft to loud or from low to high pitch. Here, we review some recent research based on the sampling paradigm of the voice field, also known as the voice range profile. Despite large inter-subject variation, the localizing by fo and SPL in the voice field will make the recorded values very reproducible within subjects. We demonstrate some technical possibilities, and argue the importance of making physical measurements that provide a more encompassing and individual-centric view of singing voice production.

  • 68.
    Ternström, Sten
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Pabon, Peter
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics. Royal Conservatoire, The Hague, Netherlands.
    Södersten, M.
    The Voice Range Profile: its function, applications, pitfalls and potential2016In: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, ISSN 1610-1928, E-ISSN 1861-9959, Vol. 102, no 2, p. 268-283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An overview is given of the current status of the computerised voice range profile (VRP) as a voice measurement paradigm. Its operating principles are described, and sources of errors and variability are discussed. The features of the VRP contour and its characterisaï¿œtion are described. Methods for performing statistics on VRP contour and interior data are considered. Examples are given of clinical, pedagogical and research applications. Finally, issues with the models used to interpret VRP data are discussed. It is concluded that, while the VRP offers a convenient frame of reference for a multitude of voice assessment metrics, it also exposes the many degrees of freedom in the voice to an extent that challenges us to improve our models of how the voice functions over a large range and in a dynamic setting.

  • 69.
    Ternström, Sten
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Formant frequencies of choir singers1989In: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 86, no 2, p. 517-522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The four lowest formant frequencies were measured in eight members of the bass section of a good amateur choir under two conditions: (1) when reading the text of a poem aloud; and (2) when performing the same text as a song. Certain formant frequency differences were observed that were similar to those previously found between professional singers’ spoken and sung vowels. In singing, the intersubject scatter of the three lowest formant frequencies was smaller, and the fourth formant was lower.

  • 70.
    Ternström, Sten
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Formant-based synthesis of singing2007In: Proc Interspeech 2007, 2007, p. 2-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rule-driven formant synthesis is a legacy technique that still has certain advantages over currently prevailing methods. The memory footprint is small and the flexibility is high. Using a modular, interactive synthesis engine, it is easy to test the perceptual effect of different source waveform and formant filter configurations. The rule system allows the investigation of how different styles and singer voices are represented in the low-level acoustic features, without changing the score. It remains difficult to achieve natural-sounding consonants and to integrate the higher abstraction levels of musical expression.

  • 71.
    Ternström, Sten
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Intonation precision of choir singers1988In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 84, no 1, p. 59-69Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 72.
    Ternström, Sten
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Colldén, A
    Articulatory Fo perturbations and auditory feedback1988In: Journal of speech and hearing research, ISSN 0022-4685, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 187-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Singers are required to sing with a high degree of precision of fundamental frequency (Fo). Does this mean that they have learned to compensate for the change of pitch that has been described in speech during production of different vowels? Experienced choir singers sang sustained tones with a change of vowel in mid-tone. The fundamental frequency was measured, and the resulting Fo contours were evaluated with respect to Fo effects coincident with the vowel changes. The tasks were performed both with normal auditory feedback and with the auditory feedback masked by noise in headphones. The vowels (i) and (y) were found to be associated with higher Fo than other vowels. The irregularities in the Fo curves were somewhat larger in the absence of auditory feedback. This is consistent with findings during speech production. The instability in Fo, measured as the standard deviation over each tone, was also larger in the absence of feedback.

  • 73.
    Ternström, Sten
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Synthesizing choir singing1988In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 332-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analysis by synthesis is a method that has been successfully applied in many areas of scientific research. In speech research, it has proven to be an excellent tool for identifying perceptually relevant acoustical properties of sounds. This paper reports on some first attempts at synthesizing choir singing, the aim being to elucidate the importance of factors such as the frequency scatter in the fundamental and the formants. The presentation relies heavily on sound examples.

  • 74.
    Ternström, Sten
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Speech Transmission and Music Acoustics.
    Södersten, M.
    Bohman, M.
    Cancellation of simulated environmental noise as a tool for measuring vocal performance during noise exposure2002In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 195-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It can be difficult for the voice clinician to observe or measure how a patient uses his voice in a noisy environment. We consider here a novel method for obtaining this information in the laboratory. Worksite noise and filtered white noise were reproduced over high-fidelity loudspeakers. In this noise, I I subjects read an instructional text of 1.5 to 2 minutes duration, as if addressing a group of people. Using channel estimation techniques, the site noise was suppressed from the recording, and the voice signal alone was recovered. The attainable noise rejection is limited only by the precision of the experimental setup, which includes the need for the subject to remain still so as not to perturb the estimated acoustic channel. This feasibility study, with 7 female and 4 male subjects, showed that small displacements of the speaker's body, even breathing, impose a practical limit on the attainable noise rejection. The noise rejection was typically 30 dB and maximally 40 dB down over the entire voice spectrum. Recordings thus processed were clean enough to permit voice analysis with the long-time average spectrum and the computerized phonetogram. The effects of site noise on voice sound pressure level, fundamental frequency, long-term average spectrum centroid, phonetogram area, and phonation time were much as expected, but with some interesting differences between females and males.

  • 75. Titze, Ingo R.
    et al.
    Baken, Ronald J.
    Bozeman, Kenneth W.
    Granqvist, Svante
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Basic science.
    Henrich, Nathalie
    Herbst, Christian T.
    Howard, David M.
    Hunter, Eric J.
    Kaelin, Dean
    Kent, Raymond D.
    Kreiman, Jody
    Kob, Malte
    Loefqvist, Anders
    McCoy, Scott
    Miller, Donald G.
    Noe, Hubert
    Scherer, Ronald C.
    Smith, John R.
    Story, Brad H.
    Svec, Jan G.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Wolfe, Joe
    Toward a consensus on symbolic notation of harmonics, resonances, and formants in vocalization2015In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 137, no 5, p. 3005-3007Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 76. van Besouw, R. M.
    et al.
    Howard, D. M.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Towards an understanding of speech and song perception2005In: Logopedics, Phoniatrics, Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, E-ISSN 1651-2022, Vol. 30, no 3-4, p. 129-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The human singing voice plays an important role in music of all societies. It is an extremely flexible instrument and is capable of producing a tremendous range of sounds. As such, the human voice can be hard to classify and poses a major challenge for automatic audio discrimination and classification systems. Speech/song discrimination is an implicit goal of speech/music discrimination, where a division is sought between speech and song, such that the singing voice can be grouped together with other musical instruments in the same category. However, the division between speech and song is unclear and even human attempts at speech/song discrimination can be highly subjective and open to discussion. In this paper we present the results of a test that was designed to investigate differences in auditory perception for speech and song. Twenty-four subjects were instructed to attend to either the words or pitch, or both words and pitch of context-free spoken and sung phrases. After presentation of each phrase, subjects were asked to either type the words that they recalled, or select the correct pitch contour from a choice of four graphical representations, or do both, depending on the task specified before presentation of the phrase. The results of the experiment show a decrease in the amount of linguistic information retained by subjects for sung phrases and also a decrease in accuracy of response for the sung phrases when subjects attended to both words and pitch instead of words or pitch alone.

  • 77. Warhurst, Samantha
    et al.
    Madill, Catherine
    McCabe, Patricia
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics.
    Yiu, Edwin
    Heard, Robert
    Perceptual and Acoustic Analyses of Good Voice Quality in Male Radio Performers2017In: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 259.e1-259.e12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives

    Good voice quality is an asset to professional voice users, including radio performers. We examined whether (1) voices could be reliably categorized as good for the radio and (2) these categories could be predicted using acoustic measures.

    Participants and Methods

    Male radio performers (n = 24) and age-matched male controls performed “The Rainbow Passage” as if presenting on the radio. Voice samples were rated using a three-stage paired-comparison paradigm by 51 naive listeners and perceptual categories were identified (Study 1), and then analyzed for fundamental frequency, long-term average spectrum, cepstral peak prominence, and pause or spoken-phrase duration (Study 2).

    Results

    Study 1: Good inter-judge reliability was found for perceptual judgments of the best 15 voices (good for radio category, 14/15 = radio performers), but agreement on the remaining 33 voices (unranked category) was poor. Study 2: Discriminant function analyses showed that the SD standard deviation of sounded portion duration, equivalent sound level, and smoothed cepstral peak prominence predicted membership of categories with moderate accuracy (R2 = 0.328).

    Conclusions

    Radio performers are heterogeneous for voice quality; good voice quality was judged reliably in only 14 out of 24 radio performers. Current acoustic analyses detected some of the relevant signal properties that were salient in these judgments. More refined perceptual analysis and the use of other perceptual methods might provide more information on the complex nature of judging good voices.

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