kth.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
123 51 - 100 of 140
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 51.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Larijani, Anahid Nabavi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Ólafsdóttir, Ásdís
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Andréasson, Ingmar J.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Koutsopoulos, Harilaos N.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Bus-Holding Control Strategies Simulation-Based Evaluation and Guidelines for Implementation2012In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, no 2274, p. 100-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transit operations involve several inherent sources of uncertainty, including dispatch time from the origin terminal, travel time between stops, and dwell time at stops. Bus-holding control strategies are a prominent method applied by transit operators to improve transit performance and level of service. The common practice is to regulate departures from a limited number of stops by holding buses until their scheduled departure time. An analysis of the performance of a high-frequency bus line in Stockholm, Sweden, based on automatic vehicle location data showed that this control strategy was not effective in improving service regularity along the line. The analysis also indicated that drivers adjusted their speed according to performance objectives. Implications of a control strategy that regulates departures from all stops on the basis of the headways of the preceding bus and the following bus were evaluated with Bus Mezzo, a transit operations simulation model. The results suggest that this strategy can improve service performance considerably from both passengers' and operator's perspectives. In addition, the strategy implies cooperative operations, as the decisions of each driver are interdependent with other drivers' decisions, and mutual corrections can be made. Difficulties in realizing the benefits of the proposed strategy in practice, such as dispatching from the origin terminal, driver scheduling, and compliance, are discussed. The implications of several practical considerations are assessed by conducting a sensitivity analysis as part of the preparations for a field experiment designed to test the proposed control strategy.

  • 52.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Loutos, Gerasimos
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Evaluating the added-value of online bus arrival prediction schemes2016In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 86, p. 35-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Online predictions of bus arrival times have the potential to reduce the uncertainty associated with bus operations. By better anticipating future conditions, online predictions can reduce perceived and actual passenger travel times as well as facilitate more proactive decision making by service providers. Even though considerable research efforts were devoted to the development of computationally expensive bus arrival prediction schemes, real-world real-time information (RTI) systems are typically based on very simple prediction rules. This paper narrows down the gap between the state-of-the-art and the state-of-the-practice in generating RTI for public transport systems by evaluating the added-value of schemes that integrate instantaneous data and dwell time predictions. The evaluation considers static information and a commonly deployed scheme as a benchmark. The RTI generation algorithms were applied and analyzed for a trunk bus network in Stockholm, Sweden. The schemes are assessed and compared based on their accuracy, reliability, robustness and potential waiting time savings. The impact of RTI on passengers waiting times are compared with those attained by service frequency and regularity improvements. A method which incorporates information on downstream travel conditions outperforms the commonly deployed scheme, leading to a 25% reduction in the mean absolute error. Furthermore, the incorporation of instantaneous travel times improves the prediction accuracy and reliability, and contributes to more robust predictions. The potential waiting time gains associated with the prediction scheme are equivalent to the gains expected when introducing a 60% increase in service frequency, and are not attainable by service regularity improvements.

  • 53.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. Department of Transport and Planning, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands .
    Loutos, Gerasimos
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Real-Time Bus Arrival Information System: An Empirical Evaluation2016In: Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems, ISSN 1547-2450, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 138-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The provision of real-time information concerning bus arrival times could potentially reduce the uncertainty associated with public transport trips and improve the overall level-of-service. In addition, real-time predictions might enable operators to apply proactive control strategies. Even though considerable research efforts were devoted to the development of bus arrival prediction schemes, there is lack of knowledge on the performance of real-world operational systems. This paper aims to investigate the performance of a commonly deployed real-time information generation scheme. A conventionally used scheme is implemented and evaluated based on an empirical analysis. Performance metrics concerning the prediction error accuracy and reliability and their impact on expected waiting time were formulated from both passengers’ and operators’ perspective. The real-time information generator was applied on the trunk line network in Stockholm, Sweden. The accuracy and reliability of the prediction scheme was analysed by comparing the generated predictions against vehicle positioning data. This scheme was found to systematically underestimate the remaining waiting time by 6.2% on average. The provision of real-time information yields a waiting time estimate that is more than twice closer to the actual waiting times than the timetable is. This difference in waiting time expectations is equivalent to 30% of the average waiting time.

  • 54.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Loutos, Gerasimos
    KTH.
    Real-Time Bus Arrival Information System: An Empirical Evaluation2013In: IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems: Proceedings ITSC, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, p. 1310-1315Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waiting time uncertainty is one of the main determinants of public transport reliability and overall level-of-service. The dissemination of real-time information concerning vehicle arrivals is often considered an important measure to reduce unreliability. Moreover, the prediction of downstream vehicle trajectories could also benefit real-time control strategies. In order to adequately analyze the performance of real-time bus arrival information system, the generated predictions have to be compared against empirical bus arrival data. A conventional real-world bus arrival prediction scheme is formulated and applied on the trunk lines network in Stockholm. This scheme was found to systematically underestimate the remaining waiting time by 6.2% on average. Prediction error accuracy and reliability varies considerably over time periods, along the route and as a function of the prognosis horizon. The difference between passengers' waiting time expectations derived from the timetable and real-time information is equivalent to 30% of the average waiting time.

  • 55.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Reimal, Triin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Public Transport Pricing Policy Empirical Evidence from a Fare-Free Scheme in Tallinn, Estonia2014In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, no 2415, p. 89-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities worldwide are looking for new policies to attract travelers to shift from cars to public transport. Policies focused on reducing public transport fares are aimed at improving social inclusion and leading to a modal shift. The City of Tallinn, the capital of Estonia, has recently introduced a fare-free public transport (FFPT) service in an effort to improve accessibility and mobility for its residents. The case of Tallinn is a full-scale, real-world experiment that provides a unique opportunity for investigating the impacts of FFPT policy. A macrolevel empirical evaluation of FFPT impacts on service performance, passenger demand, and accessibility for various groups of travelers is presented. In contrast to previous studies, the influence of FFPT on passenger demand was estimated while changes in supply were controlled. The results indicate that the FFPT measure accounts for an increase of 1.2% in passenger demand, with the remaining increase attributed to an extended network of public transport priority lanes and increased service frequency. The relatively small effect could be attributed to the previous price level and public transport share as well as analysis of the short-term impact. The evidence-based policy evaluation in this paper is instrumental in supporting policy making and facilitating the design of public transport pricing strategies.

  • 56.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Rubensson, Isak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Cebecauer, Matej
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Kholodov, Yaroslav
    Vermeulen, Alex
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Susilo, Yusak
    How fair is the fare? Estimating travel patterns and the impacts of fare schemes for different user groups in Stockholm based on smartcard data: Final report for Trafik och Region 2018 SLL-KTH research project2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a rapid increase in the deployment, acquisition and analysis of automated fare collection (AFC) systems, enabling a profound change in the ability to analyze high-volume data that relate to observed passenger travel behavior and recurrent patterns. The analysis of such passively collected data offers direct access to a continuous flow of observed passenger behavior at a large scale, saving expensive data collection efforts. For a review of the spectrum of applications – from strategic demand estimation to operational service performance measurements.

    The FairAccess project leverages on the availability of Access-kort data for the vast majority of trips performed in Stockholm County. The overarching goal of this project is to develop means to analyse empirically the impacts of policy/planning measures based on disaggregate passively collected smart card data. This involves a series of analysis and modelling challenges. We develop and apply a series algorithms to infer of tap-out locations, infer vehicles and travel times, and infer transfers to that journeys can be composed. Tap-in records have been matched with corresponding inferred tap-out locations and time stamps for about 80% of all records. Thereafter, we construct time-dependent origin-destination matrices for which segmentations can be performed with respect to geographical and user product features.

    We demonstrate the approach and algorithms developed by performing a before-after analysis of the fare scheme change from zone-based to flat fares. We analyse changes in travel patterns and derive price elasticities for distinctive market segments. The introduced fare policy delivered the desirable result of an increased ridership through improved convenience of the single-use products. Nevertheless, the significance of the service convenience component was underestimated, which resulted in the price adjustments being not in line with the mobility effects.

    The planning and development of the Stockholm public transport system must rely on the best empirical foundations available to support evidence-based decision-making and make the right priorities. To this end, the development and analysis performed in the FairAccess project lay a necessary foundation for further methodological developments and analyses such as on-board crowding evaluation, demand forecasting and identifying user groups.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 57.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Rufi, F. M.
    Koutsopoulos, Harilaos
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Optimizing the number and location of time point stops2014In: Public Transport, ISSN 1866-749X, E-ISSN 1613-7159, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 215-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public transport service is subject to multiple sources of uncertainty that impact its reliability. Holding control strategies are a common method to prevent the deterioration of service reliability along the route. This paper expands on previous studies by considering the general case of determining both the optimal number and optimal location of the time point stops (TPS) where holding takes place, and assessing their impacts on transit performance using simulation. Holding times are determined based on a real-time headway-based holding strategy designed to improve service regularity by seeking uniform headways along the route. The evaluation of the performance of alternative TPS layouts is simulation-based, using BusMezzo, a transit operations simulation model which models the dynamic performance of bus transit systems. The proposed framework also considers the multiple objectives incorporating passenger and operator points of view. The simulation-based optimization framework was applied in a case study with one of the premium bus lines in Stockholm, Sweden, using two solution methods—greedy and genetic algorithms. A multi-objective evaluation was conducted considering both passenger and operator perspectives. The results demonstrate that transit performance varies considerably with alternative TPS layouts. The best solution obtained by the proposed methodology reduces total weighted passenger journey times and cycle times compared to both the current layout and the case of no holding control. The proposed method could assist transit agencies and operators in evaluating and recommending alternative time point layouts.

  • 58.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Impacts of free public transport: evaluation framework2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 59.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Reimal, T.
    The prospects of fare-free public transport: evidence from Tallinn2016In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The subsidy level of public transport systems varies considerably among systems worldwide. While limited-scale free-fare public transport (FFPT) services such as limited campaigns and fare evasion for special groups or specific services are prevalent, there is only limited evidence on the consequences of introducing a full-fledged FFPT. The case of Tallinn, Estonia offers a full-scale experiment that provides a unique opportunity to investigate the impacts of FFPT. This study examines travel pattern changes based on individual travel habit survey shortly before and almost 1 year after the introduction of FFPT policy in Tallinn based on interviews and travel diaries of a random sample of 1500 household. We analyse modal shift effects and whether they are driven by trip generation or trip substitution, travel attitudes and satisfactions as well as impacts on equity, employment prospects, and trip destination choices. Almost a year after the introduction of FFPT, public transport usage increased by 14 % and there is evidence that the mobility of low-income residents has improved. The effect of FFPT on ridership is substantially lower than those reported in previous studies due to the good level of service provision, high public transport usage and low public transport fees that existed already prior to the FFPT.

  • 60.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. Delft Univ Technol, Dept Transport & Planning, 5048, NL-2600 GA Delft, Netherlands.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Transport Sci, Teknikringen 10, S-11428 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Reimal, Triin
    Ramboll AB, Krukmakargatan 21, S-10462 Stockholm, Sweden..
    The prospects of fare-free public transport: evidence from Tallinn (vol 44, pg 1083, 2017)2018In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 1601-1602Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 61.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Wang, Qian
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Zhao, Yu
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Identification and classification of public transport activity centres in Stockholm using passenger flows data2015In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 48, p. 10-22, article id 1735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban geography could be characterized by analysing the patterns that describe the flows of people and goods. Measuring urban structures is essential for supporting an evidence-based spatial planning policy. The objective of this study is to examine how the spatial-temporal distribution of public transport passenger flow could be used to reveal urban structure dynamics. A methodology to identify and classify centres based on mobility data was applied to Metropolitan Stockholm in Sweden using multi-modal public transport passenger flows. Stockholm is known for its long-term monocentric planning with a dominant central core and radial public transport system. Strategic nodes along its radial public transport system have been a focus for development of sub-centres. Although the regional planning policy embraces a shift towards a polycentric planning policy, the results indicate that this has not been realized insofar.

  • 62.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. Delft Univ Technol, Dept Transport & Planning, Delft, Netherlands..
    West, Jens
    HSL, Helsinki, Finland..
    Learning and adaptation in dynamic transit assignment models for congested networks2020In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, Vol. 2674, no 1, p. 113-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The distribution of passenger demand over the transit network is forecasted using transit assignment models which conventionally assume that passenger loads satisfy network equilibrium conditions. The approach taken in this study is to model transit path choice as a within-day dynamic process influenced by network state variation and real-time information. The iterative network loading process leading to steady-state conditions is performed by means of day-to-day learning implemented in an agent-based simulation model. We explicitly account for adaptation and learning in relation to service uncertainty, on-board crowding and information provision in the context of congested transit networks. This study thus combines the underlying assignment principles that govern transit assignment models and the disaggregate demand modeling enabled by agent-based simulation modeling. The model is applied to a toy network for illustration purposes, followed by a demonstration for the rapid transit network of Stockholm, Sweden. A full-scale application of the proposed model shows the day-to-day travel time and crowding development for different levels of network saturation and when deploying different levels of information availability.

  • 63.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    West, Jens
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    A dynamic stochastic model for evaluating congestion and crowding effects in transit systems2016In: Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, ISSN 0191-2615, E-ISSN 1879-2367, Vol. 89, p. 43-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most common motivations for public transport investments is to reduce congestion and increase capacity. Public transport congestion leads to crowding discomfort, denied boardings and lower service reliability. However, transit assignment models and appraisal methodologies usually do not account for the dynamics of public transport congestion and crowding and thus potentially underestimate the related benefits. This study develops a method to capture the benefits of increased capacity by using a dynamic and stochastic transit assignment model. Using an agent-based public transport simulation model, we dynamically model the evolution of network reliability and on-board crowding. The model is embedded in a comprehensive framework for project appraisal.A case study of a metro extension that partially replaces an overloaded bus network in Stockholm demonstrates that congestion effects may account for a substantial share of the expected benefits. A cost-benefit analysis based on a conventional static model will miss more than a third of the benefits. This suggests that failure to represent dynamic congestion effects may substantially underestimate the benefits of projects, especially if they are primarily intended to increase capacity rather than to reduce travel times.

  • 64.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    West, Jens
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. SWECO, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Appraisal of increased public transport capacity: The case of a new metro line to Nacka, Sweden2014Report (Other academic)
  • 65.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. Delft Univ Technol, POB 5048, NL-2600 GA Delft, Netherlands.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Zhang, Chen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics.
    Nissan, Albania
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Survey methodology for measuring parking occupancy: Impacts of an on-street parking pricing scheme in an urban center2016In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 47, p. 55-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parking pricing policies can be used as a policy instrument to steer the parking market and reduce the externalities caused by traffic in general and parking in particular. A more efficient management of parking demand can improve the utilization of the limited parking capacity in high-demand areas. Even though parking policies are often a topic of public debate, there is lack of systematic empirical analysis of various parking measures. This paper proposes a survey methodology to empirically measure the impacts of on-street parking policies based on automated parking transaction data. Parking performance is computed based on data available from ticket vending machines calibrated using floating car films. The survey method allows comparing parking occupancy including its temporal variations, allowing the analysis of the accumulated utilization pattern. Average and maximum parking occupancy levels, throughput, parking duration and total fare collection are compared prior and following the introduction of a new parking scheme for visitors to Stockholm inner-city, Sweden. The results indicate that the policy fulfilled its objective to increase the ease of finding a vacant parking place in the central areas and even resulted with underutilized parking spaces.

  • 66.
    Cebecauer, Matej
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Vermeulen, Alex
    TU Delft.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. TU Delft.
    Kholodov, Yaroslav
    TU Delft.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Generating Network-Wide Travel Diaries and OD Matrices Using Stockholm County Smartcard Data2020Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bakgrund: The public transport system in Stockholm extends across the greater Stockholm area, covering ca 6,500 km2 and 2.3 million inhabitants. The system includes 21 commuter train, metro, light rail and tram lines spanning ca 470 km, around 490 bus lines spanning ca 9,100 km, and a number of ferry lines (SLL 2016). The main ticketing system is the Access system, which uses electronic tickets that are loaded onto contactless cards. The system was introduced in limited scale in 2008 and the average number of ticket validations per day has since grown to 1.9 million in 2018. Trafikförvaltningen, Region Stockholm is collecting access smartcard data for several years. Just for year 2017 smartcard data consist of approximately 680 million tap-in records. The majority of tap-ins are recorded at metro gates (45%) and upon boarding buses (41%) while the remaining consists of commuter trains, trams, and ferries. Each card has a unique number, which allows it to be traced and construct the complete journeys and travel diaries. There is a big potential in using these data for different analysis, evaluation, and planning of public transport. We present the framework that enables processing of raw access data in fusion with AVL and network data to the network-wide travel diaries. Furthermore, the estimated OD matrices can be used for measuring the impacts of various interventions such as fare policy and service design changes. The inferred travel diaries also allow for extracting passenger loads for each vehicle trip segment across the network at the same resolution as the flow outputs of schedule-based transit assignment models.

    Metod: Tickets are validated upon access to stations or boarding of vehicles but not on egress or alighting. In other words, the Access system is “tap-in only”. We propose a method to estimate the alighting station in a multimodal public transport system, where tap-in transactions are observed in a complex network. Similar to previous literature it is assumed that the alighting occurs within a certain distance of the next transaction. Furthermore, vehicle and time inference using AVL data is performed. Trip elements are assessed individually resulting in individual travel diaries.

    Resultat och slutsats: The implemented inference algorithms and the derived travel diaries facilitate the construction of OD matrices that are essential input for services planning. The performance of the inferring algorithms is: for the alighting station: 87%; for travel time 70% using AVL data exclusively; considering all trips even without alighting station 86% of all journeys have inferred destination; from which 73% have travel time estimated.

  • 67.
    F. Abenoza, Roberto
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Liu, Chengxi
    KTH. VTI.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. TU Delft.
    Octavius Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    What is the role of weather, built-environment and accessibility geographical characteristics in influencing travelers’ experience?2018In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the effect of weather, accessibility and built-environment characteristics on overall travel experience as well as the experience with the latest trips. These are factors that are often disregarded in the travel satisfaction literature even though they are believed to largely influence the first mile of the door-to-door trip. This study fills a research gap in investigating all these factors by using, amongst other, a relatively large travel satisfaction survey from years 2009 to 2015 and by focusing on urban and peri-urban geographical contexts, the city and county of Stockholm (Sweden), respectively. The results show that county dwellers living close to a metro station and in well linked-to-all areas report higher overall travel satisfaction evaluations. In addition, precipitation and ground covered with snow have a negative influence on travel satisfaction. Our findings indicate that built-environment characteristics exert a rather weak influence on the travel experience, especially in the peri-urban context. However, some aspects such as living in areas with medium densities, low income and with high safety perceptions around public transport stations are associated with higher satisfaction levels. In turn, areas with single land uses are found to have lower travel satisfactions. These results are important for public transport planners and designers in devising measures to prevent and mitigate the negative outcome of some weather conditions and to conceive better designed transit oriented developments.

  • 68.
    Fadaei, Masoud
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Cats, Oded
    TU Delft, The Netherlands.
    An empirical evaluation of measures to improve bus service reliability: Performance metrics and a case study in Stockholm2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates the effects of implementation of a range of physical and operational measures during a pilot study on the busiest and most frequent trunk bus line in Stockholm, Sweden. Vehicle positioning and passenger counts data were analysed to evaluate the impact of the field experiment. The study has proven that the bus service performance has been improved from both passengers and operator perspectives. These measures resulted with a service that is 7% faster on average yielding a 10% decrease in passenger in-vehicle times. The faster service leads to 8 minutes shorter cycle time which could potentially cut the fleet size by 2 buses. The results demonstrate that improved regularity and less bunching leading to a 25% reduction in passengers’ waiting times due to irregularity. However, no apparent change in dwell times has been observed. We estimate that each passenger saved 2 minutes which is 10% of journey time. These time savings amount to 9 million Swedish Crowns (1.1 million USD) per year for weekday afternoon peak periods only. 

  • 69.
    Fadaei, Masoud
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Evaluating the impacts and benefits of public transport design and operational measures2016In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design and operational measures are designed and implemented to improve public transport performance and level-of-service. In the case of urban bus systems, priority, operational and control measures are aimed to elevate bus services to buses with high level of service (BHLS). Even though there is an explosive growth in design and operational measures implementation and growing research interest in investigating their impact on performance indicators, there is lack of a systematic evaluation of their benefits. We present an evaluation framework and a detail sequence of steps for quantifying the impacts of public transport design and operational measures. The effects of service performance on travel times and costs are assessed by accounting for relations between reliability and waiting times, crowding and perceived travel times, and vehicle scheduling and operational costs. The evaluation integrates the implications of reliability on generalized passenger travel costs and operational costs. We deploy the proposed evaluation framework to a field experiment in Stockholm where a series of measures were implemented on the busiest bus line. The results suggest that the total passenger and operator benefits amount to 36.8 million Swedish crowns on an annual basis. The overall assessment of the impacts of design and operational measures enables the comparison of different implementations, assess their effectiveness, prioritize alternative measures and provide a sound basis for motivating investments.

  • 70.
    Fadaei, Masoud
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Cats, Oded
    Delft University of Technology, Netherland..
    Evaluating the Performance and Benefits of Bus Priority, Operation and Control Measures2016In: Proceedings of the 95th Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, Washington DC., 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preferential measures are designed and implemented to improve public transport performance and level-of-service. In the case of urban bus systems, priority, operational and control measures are aimed to elevate bus services to buses with high level of service (BHLS). Even though there is an explosive growth in preferential measures implementation and growing research interest in investigating their impact on performance indicators, there is lack of a systematic evaluation of their benefits. We present an evaluation framework and a detail sequence of steps for quantifying the impacts of public transport preferential measures. The effects of service performance on travel times and costs are assessed by accounting for relations between reliability and waiting times, crowding and perceived travel times, and vehicle scheduling and operational costs. The evaluation integrates the implications of reliability on generalized passenger travel costs and operational costs. We deploy the proposed evaluation framework to a field experiment in Stockholm where a series of measures were implemented on the busiest bus line. The results suggest that the total passenger and operator benefits amount to 47 million Swedish crowns on an annual basis. The overall assessment of the impacts of preferential measures enables the comparison of different implementations, assess their effectiveness, prioritize alternative measures and provide a sound basis for motivating investments.

  • 71.
    Fadaei, Masoud
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Cats, Oded
    Delft University of Technology, Netherland.
    Real-Time Bus Departure Time Predictions: Vehicle Trajectory and Countdown Display Analysis2014In: 2014 IEEE 17th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, p. 2556-2561Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Uncertainty is an important challenge in operating bus systems. Accurate real-time predictions can therefore facilitate adaptive decision making process of both operations and passengers. This scheme should be tractable, fast and reliable to be used in real time applications. This paper presents a hybrid prediction scheme to generate real-time information concerning downstream vehicle trajectories and next bus arrival. The prediction generated by the proposed hybrid scheme integrates three travel time components: schedule, instantaneous and historical data. Genetic algorithm is applied in order to specify the contribution of each data source component to the prediction scheme. The benefits, transferability and estimation form of the proposed scheme were tested by applying it on three trunk bus lines in Stockholm, Sweden. Its performance was compared to a commonly deployed scheme. The results indicate that the proposed scheme reduces significantly the overall mean absolute error for all routes from both operators' and passengers' perspectives.

  • 72.
    Fadaei, Masoud
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Cats, Oded
    Delft University of Technology - TU Delft, Netherlands.
    Rolling Horizon Predictions of Bus Trajectories2014In: OPT-i 2014 - 1st International Conference on Engineering and Applied Sciences Optimization, Proceedings, 2014, p. 875-886Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bus travel times are subject to inherent and recurrent uncertainties. A real-time prediction scheme regarding how the transit system evolves will potentially facilitate more adaptive operations as well as more adaptive passengers’ decisions. This scheme should be tractable, sufficiently fast and reliable to be used in real time applications. For this purpose, a heuristic hybrid scheme for departure time estimation is proposed in this study. The prediction generated by the proposed hybrid scheme consists of three travel time components: schedule, instantaneous and historical data sources. Genetic algorithm is applied in order to specify the contribution of each data source component to the prediction scheme. The proposed scheme was applied for a trunk bus line in Stockholm, Sweden. In addition, the currently deployed scheme was replicated in order to compare the performance of both schemes. The results suggest that the proposed scheme reduces the overall mean absolute error by almost 20%. Moreover the proposed scheme provides better predictions except for very long term predictions where both schemes yield the same performance. 

  • 73.
    Fadaei, Masoud
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. Delft University of Technology, Netherland.
    Bhaskar, Ashish
    Smart Transport Research Centre, School of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Australia.
    A Hybrid Scheme for Real-Time Prediction of Bus TrajectoriesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The uncertainty associated with public transport services can be partially counteracted by developing real-time models to predict downstream service conditions. In this study, a hybrid approach for predicting bus trajectories by integrating multiple predictors is proposed. The prediction model combines schedule, instantaneous and historical data. The contribution of each predictor as well as values of respective parameters is estimated by minimizing the prediction error using a linear regression based heuristic. The hybrid method was applied to five bus lines in Stockholm, Sweden and Brisbane, Australia. The results indicate that the hybrid method consistently outperforms the timetable and delay conservation prediction method for different line layouts, passenger demands and operation practices. Model validation confirms model transferability and real-time applicability. Generating more accurate predictions can help service users adjust their travel plans and service providers to deploy proactive management and control strategies to mitigate the negative effects of service disturbances.

  • 74.
    Fadaei Oshyani, Masoud
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Bhaskar, Ashish
    A hybrid scheme for real-time prediction of bus trajectories: Hybrid Scheme for Real-Time Prediction2017In: Journal of Advanced Transportation, ISSN 0197-6729, E-ISSN 2042-3195, Vol. 50, no 8, p. 2130-2149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The uncertainty associated with public transport services can be partially counteracted by developing real-time models to predict downstream service conditions. In this study, a hybrid approach for predicting bus trajectories by integrating multiple predictors is proposed. The prediction model combines schedule, instantaneous and historical data. The contribution of each predictor as well as values of respective parameters is estimated by minimizing the prediction error using a linear regression heuristic.The hybrid method was applied to five bus lines in Stockholm, Sweden and Brisbane, Australia. The results indicate that the hybrid method consistently outperforms the timetable and delay conservation prediction method for different line layouts, passengerdemands and operation practices.Model validation confirms model transferability and real-time applicability. Generating more accurate predictions can helpservice users adjust their travel plans and service providers to deploy proactive management and control strategies to mitigate the negative effects of service disturbances.

  • 75.
    Fernandez Abenoza, Roberto
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Susilo, Yusak Octavius
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Travel satisfaction with public transport: Determinants, user classes, regional disparities and their evolution2017In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 95, p. 64-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing public transport ridership while providing a service that better caters to individual travelers poses an important goal and challenge for society, particularly public transport authorities and operators. This study identifies and characterizes current and potential users of public transport in Sweden and identifies the most important determinants of travel satisfaction with Public Transport services for each segment of travelers. In addition, it investigates the changes over time of attribute importance among the different segments and the inter-segment geographical variation of overall satisfaction. The analysis is based on a dataset of almost half a million records. Travelers were clustered based on their socio-demographics, travel patterns and accessibility measures to enable the analysis of determinants of satisfaction for different market segments. The cluster analysis results with five segments of Swedish travelers include: (i) inactive travelers; (ii) long distance commuters; (iii) urban motorist commuters; (iv) rural motorist commuters and;(v) students. By contrasting satisfaction with the importance of each quality of service attribute, three key attributes that should be prioritized by stakeholders are identified: customer interface, operation, network and  length  of  trip time. Interestingly, the results suggest an overall similarity in the importance of service attributes among traveler segments. Nevertheless, some noticeable differences could be observed. The quality of service attributes’ importance levels reveal overall changes in appreciations and consumption goals over time. The more frequent public transport user segments are more satisfied across the board and are characterized by a more balanced distribution of attribute importance while rural motorist commuters are markedly dissatisfied with service operation attributes. This work can help authorities to tailor their policies to specific traveler groups.

  • 76. Gavriilidou, A.
    et al.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Reconciling transfer synchronization and service regularity: real-time control strategies using passenger data2019In: Transportmetrica A: Transport Science, ISSN 2324-9935, E-ISSN 2324-9943, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 215-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time holding control strategies are implemented, among other reasons, in order to protect transfers. In the context of high-frequency services, there is a need to reconcile between striving for single-line regularity and synchronizing inter-line arrivals. Their operationalization depends on the predictions regarding passenger flows across the network. We examine the influence of real-time passenger data on the performance of transfer synchronization control. To this end, we develop two real-time transfer synchronization controllers which make use of different passenger data sources. The controllers differ in their assumptions concerning capacity constraints as well as on-board crowding conditions. The results show that each transferring passenger saves on average 2–10 min thanks to the proposed strategy, while on-board passengers experience a delay of 1–2 min each in most cases. The highest time saving per transferring passenger is obtained when the demand level is low and the controller opts for synchronizing more frequently. Highlights Rule-based holding controller selects transfer synchronization or line regularity The impact of different passenger data on controller performance is investigated On-board crowding conditions are considered by the real-time controller On-board occupancy is the most valuable real-time passenger data source.

  • 77. Gentile, Guido
    et al.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. Delft Univ Technol, Netherlands.
    Introduction to the special issue on public transport modelling2017In: EURO Journal on Transportation and Logistics, ISSN 2192-4376, E-ISSN 2192-4384, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 219-220Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Hatzenbühler, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Fixed-line network design in light of autonomous busesIn: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The maturing of autonomous driving technology in recent years has led to several pilot projects and the initial integration of autonomous pods and buses into the public transport (PT) system. An upcoming field of interest is the induced demand level and changes in network design for public transport system operating autonomous buses. In this work a multi-objective optimization-based multi-agent simulation framework is developed to study potential changes in the network design and frequency settings when autonomous vehicles (AV) systems are deployed on fixed-route networks in addition to existing PT systems. During the optimization process multiple deployment scenarios (network configurations and service frequency) are evaluated and optimized concerning the operator cost, user cost and infrastructure preparation costs of the system. User-focused network design and operator-focused network design are studied for a real-world network in Sweden. The results provide insights into the network design and level of service implications brought about by the deployment of autonomous bus (AB) when those are integrated in route-based PT systems.

  • 79.
    Hatzenbühler, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. Department of Transport and Planning, Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Network design for line-based autonomous bus services2022In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 467-502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The maturing of autonomous driving technology in recent years has led to several pilot projects and the initial integration of autonomous pods and buses into the public transport (PT) system. An emerging field of interest is the design of public transport networks operating autonomous buses and the potential to attract higher levels of travel demand. In this work a multi-objective optimization and multi-agent simulation framework is developed to study potential changes in the network design and frequency settings compared to conventional PT systems when autonomous vehicles (AV) systems are deployed on fixed-route networks. During the optimization process multiple deployment scenarios (network configurations and service frequency) are evaluated and optimized considering the operator cost, user cost and infrastructure preparation costs of the system. User-focused network design and operator-focused network design are studied for a real-world urban area in Sweden. The results provide insights into the network design and level of service implications brought about by the deployment of autonomous bus (AB) when those are integrated in route-based PT systems. We show that the deployment of autonomous buses result with a network design that increases service ridership. In the context of our case study this increase is likely to primarily substitute walking.

  • 80.
    Hatzenbühler, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Transitioning towards the deployment of line-based autonomous buses: Consequences for service frequency and vehicle capacity2020In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 138, p. 491-507Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deployment of autonomous buses (AB) is expected to have consequences for service design facilitated by its cost function structure. We study the impacts of AB deployment in line-based public transport (PT) systems. In particular, we examine the transition phase where AB is sequentially deployed, involving the selection of lines for which AB will be introduced. To this end, we develop a modeling framework using a dynamic public transportation assignment and operations simulation model that captures users' adaptive path choices. An analytical model is used to determine the initial solutions in terms of service frequency and vehicle capacity for the simulation framework. Due to their different cost function structures, the deployment of AB may be accompanied by changes in the service frequency and vehicle capacity settings and consequently also on passenger flow distribution across the network. Both the simultaneous and the sequential deployment of AB on multiple lines are investigated. Deployment solutions are assessed in terms of the both total operator and user cost. The decision variables are vehicle capacity per line, service frequency per line and vehicle technology per line - i.e. either manually driven or fully automated buses. The framework is applied to a case study in Kista, Stockholm. The study shows that AB service have the potential to attract passengers through improved service provision. A sensitivity analysis is carried out concerning the effects of different cost parameters and demand levels on the deployment of AB in fixed line operations.

  • 81.
    Hatzenbühler, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Determining the optimal allocation of automated buses2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 82.
    Hatzenbühler, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. TU Delft.
    Determining the optimal allocation of automated buses on a public transport network2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This research is driven by the general need for affordable, frequent and convenient Public Transport (PT) solutions. Over the last years the advances in the sector of autonomous systems have triggered studies on their effect on PT. AB lower the operational costs due to the removal of labor costs, which in developed countries account for more than half of the overall operational costs. These lower operational costs are expected to lead to higher service frequencies. The introduction of more diverse vehicle sizes is then possible and economical which will allow the operators to target the user demand better than with a fixed sized vehicle fleet. In this we analyse the use of AB systems in existing PT networks by:

    - define an AV specific objective function

    - integrate AV systems in a mesoscopic simulation framework

    - extract KPIs for the economic deployment of AB systems 

    This study aims at answering the following research questions:

    - How can AB systems be used to improve passenger and operator costs on existing lines?

    - What are the implications of the cost trade off in terms of the defined KPI?

    - On which lines is the deployment of AB systems most interesting in terms of social welfare?

    Methods: The implementation of the framework adopts a simulation based optimization approach. The multi-agent simulation software (BusMezzo) uses the networks routes and the decision variables as input values. Subsequently the simulation is executed, and the filtered results will be handed to the Genetic Algorithm optimization. The objective function minimizes the overall cost which is the sum of operator costs (capital costs & operation cost) and user cost (travel time, waiting time, ticket cost,..). This loop is executed until convergence. The decision variables for the optimization module are the vehicle capacity, the frequency per route and the vehicle type. For validation of the optimization approach described above a brute force analysis is done on the synthetic Network provided by Spiess & Florian. In the brute force analysis the entire solution space for the network is displayed and can be analyzed. This allows for deeper understanding of the underlying processes and validates the optimization results. With the knowledge of this approach the optimization parameters are configured.

    Results: The proposed model was applied to a on-going pilot case study in the area of Kista in Stockholm. The proposed model is generally applicability for larger scale problems. Possible applications of the proposed methodology are:

    - tool for identifying the most promising areas for introducing AB

    - measurement for the economic impact of AB Systems on PT

    - the design of the network for a mixed operation

    Potential extensions of the model include the fleet composition and fleet size per line of special AB zones in high user demand areas.

    The main results and conclusions are:

    - Frequency and Capacity have comparable impact on total cost

    - Introducing Autonomous Vehicle on high demand lines is beneficial

    - There are "sweet spots" for operating for operating vehicle mixes

    - some configurations are only profitably operable with autonomous vehicle

  • 83.
    Hatzenbühler, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Gidofalvi, Gyözö
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Modular Vehicle Routing for Combined Passenger and Freight TransportIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The continuous increase in urban deliveries and the ongoing urbanization of large cities require the development of efficient and sustainable transportation solutions. This study investigates the impact of modular vehicle concepts and the consolidation of different demand types in the route planning on the efficiency of the urban freight and passenger transportation system. Modularity is achieved by connecting multiple vehicles together to form a platoon. The consolidation of different demand types is realized by simultaneously consider passenger and freight demand in the optimization algorithm. The considered vehicles are specific for each demand type by can be connected freely, hence it is possible to transport different demand types in the same platoon. The cost terms in the problem formulation are comprised of travel time costs, travel distance costs, fleet size costs, and cost considering unserved requests. The modular vehicle operations are modeled in a novel pickup and delivery problem which is solved using CPLEX and Adaptive Large Neighborhood Search (ALNS). In an extensive scenario study, the potentials of the new modular vehicle type are explored for different spatial and temporal demand distributions. A parameter study on vehicle capacity, vehicle range and cost saving assumptions is performed to study their influence on the efficiency. The experiments carried out indicate a general cost savings of 48% due to modularity and an additional 9% due to consolidation. The reduction mainly stems from reduced operating costs and reduced trip duration, while the same number of requests can be served in all cases. Empty vehicle kilometers are reduced by more than 60% by consolidation and modularity. The proposed model and optimization framework can be used by companies and policy makers to identify required fleet sizes, optimal vehicle routes and cost savings due to different types of operation and vehicle technology.

  • 84.
    Hatzenbühler, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Gidofalvi, Gyözö
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. Department of Transport and Planning, Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands.
    Modular vehicle routing for combined passenger and freight transport2023In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 173, p. 103688-103688, article id 103688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the potential of modular vehicle concepts and consolidation to increasethe efficiency of urban freight and passenger transport. Modularity is achieved by connectingmultiple vehicles together to form a platoon. Consolidation is realized by integrating passengerand freight demand in the routing problem. Vehicles are specific for each demand type but canbe connected freely, allowing the transport of multiple demand types in the same platoon. Therouting problem formulation considers travel time costs, travel distance costs, fleet size costs,and unserved requests costs. The operations are modeled in a novel modular multi-purposepickup and delivery problem (MMP-PDP) which is solved using CPLEX and Adaptive LargeNeighborhood Search (ALNS). In an extensive scenario study, the potential of the modularvehicle type is explored for different spatial and temporal demand distributions. A parameterstudy on vehicle capacity, vehicle range and platoon cost saving is performed to assess theirinfluence on efficiency. The experiments indicate a cost saving of 48% due to modularity and anadditional 9% due to consolidation. The reduction mainly stems from reduced operating costsand reduced trip duration, while the same number of requests can be served in all cases. Emptyvehicle kilometers are reduced by more than 60% by consolidation and modularity. A large-scalecase study in Stockholm highlights the practical applicability of the modular transport system.The proposed model and optimization framework can be used by companies and policy makersto identify required fleet sizes, optimal vehicle routes and cost savings due to different typesof operation and vehicle technology

  • 85.
    Hatzenbühler, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Gidofalvi, Gyözö
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Multi-purpose Pickup and Delivery Problem for Combined Passenger and Freight TransportIn: Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, ISSN 1366-5545, E-ISSN 1878-5794Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent developments in modular transport vehicles allow deploying multi-purpose vehicles which can alternately transport different kinds of flows. In this study, we propose a novel variant of the pickup and delivery problem, the multi-purpose pickup and delivery problem, where multi-purpose vehicles are assigned to serve a multi-commodity flow. We solve a series of use case scenarios using an exact optimization algorithm and an adaptive large neighborhood search algorithm. We compare the performance of a multi-purpose vehicle fleet to a mixed single-use vehicle fleet. Our findings suggest that total costs can be reduced by an average of 13% when multi-purpose vehicles are deployed, while at the same time reducing the total vehicle trip duration and total distance travelled by an average of 33% and 16%, respectively. The size of the fleet can be reduced by an average of 35%. The results can be used by practitioners and policymakers to decide on whether the combination of passenger and freight demand flows with multi-purpose vehicles in a given system will yield benefits compared to existing fleet configurations.

  • 86.
    Hatzenbühler, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Gidofalvi, Gyözö
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Multi-purpose pickup and delivery problem for combined passenger and freight transport2024In: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in the development of modular transport vehicles allow deploying multi-purpose vehicles, which enable alternate transport of different demand types. In this study, we propose a novel variant of the pickup and delivery problem, the multi-purpose pickup and delivery problem, where multi-purpose vehicles are assigned to serve a multi-commodity flow. We solve a series of use case scenarios using an exact optimization algorithm and an adaptive large neighborhood search algorithm. We compare the performance of a multi-purpose vehicle fleet to a mixed fleet of single-purpose vehicles. Depending on cost parameters, our findings suggest that in certain scenarios, the total costs can be reduced by an average of 13% when multi-purpose vehicles are deployed, while at the same time reducing total vehicle trip duration and total distance traveled by on average 33% and 16%, respectively. The required fleet size can be reduced by 35% on average when operating multi-purpose vehicles. The results can be used by practitioners and policymakers to determine if the combined service of passenger and freight demand flows with multi-purpose vehicles in a given system will yield benefits compared to existing transport operations.

  • 87.
    Hatzenbühler, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Gidofalvi, Gyözö
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatics.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Multi-purpose vehicle assignment for combined passenger and freight transport2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in the development of modular transport vehicles allow deploying multi-purpose vehicles, which enable alternate transport of different demand types. In this study, we propose a novel variant of the pickup and delivery problem, the multi-purpose pickup and delivery problem, where multi-purpose vehicles are assigned to serve a multi-commodity flow. We solve a series of use case scenarios using an exact optimization algorithm and an adaptive large neighborhood search algorithm. We compare the performance of a multi-purpose vehicle fleet to a mixed fleet of single-purpose vehicles. Our findings suggest that total costs can be reduced by an average of 13% when multi-purpose vehicles are deployed, while at the same time reducing total vehicle trip duration and total distance travelled by on average 33% and 16%, respectively. The required fleet size can be reduced by 35% on average when operating multi-purpose vehicles. The results can be used by practitioners and policymakers to determine if the combined service of passenger and freight demand flows with multi-purpose vehicles in a given system will yield benefits compared to existing transport operations.

  • 88.
    Hlotova, Yevheniia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. Delft Univ Technol, Dept Transport & Planning, Netherlands.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Traffic and Logistics. Delft Univ Technol, Fac Technol Policy & Management, Netherlands.
    Measuring Bus Drivers' Occupational Stress Under Changing Working Conditions2014In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, no 2415, p. 13-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress is an immense problem in modern society; approximately half of all occupational illnesses are directly or indirectly related to stress. The work of a bus driver is typically associated with high stress levels that negatively influence individual well-being as well as workforce management. The current study examined the impact of newly proposed working conditions on bus drivers' occupational stress by monitoring heart rate and by collecting data on mental workload with a questionnaire in operational driving conditions. The main determinants of stress levels were identified through multiple regression analysis. Results indicated that bus drivers experienced considerably lower stress levels under a new control strategy that shifts the performance objective from schedule adherence to service regularity. Higher stress levels were recorded during extreme weather conditions and peak hours and among inexperienced drivers. The measurements were performed with low-cost sports devices that can easily be used by practitioners.

  • 89.
    Jenelius, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Kollektivtrafikens sårbarhet och strategier för att minska den: En simuleringsstudie i Stockholm2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 90.
    Jenelius, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    The Value of New Cross-Radial Links for Public Transport Network Robustness2014In: Vulnerability, Uncertainty, and Risk: Quantification, Mitigation, and Management - Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Vulnerability and Risk Analysis and Management, ICVRAM 2014 and the 6th International Symposium on Uncertainty Modeling and Analysis, ISUMA 2014, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2014, p. 638-647Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of new links to network topology could potentially contribute to greater capability to withstand system breakdowns. This paper analyzes the value of adding new cross-radial links for public transport network robustness. The value is evaluated in terms of passenger welfare under disruptions. Using a model that considers passengers' dynamic travel choices, stochastic traffic conditions, timetables and capacity constraints, a new light rail transit line in Stockholm, Sweden is evaluated. The results show that: (1) the cross-radial link reduces the impacts of disruptions of critical links; and (2) the total value of robustness is positive and significantly offsets the loss in welfare caused by disruption of the cross-radial link itself. 

  • 91.
    Jenelius, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    The value of new public transport links for network robustness and redundancy2015In: Transportmetrica A: Transport Science, ISSN 2324-9935, E-ISSN 2324-9943, Vol. 11, no 9, p. 819-835Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common argument for introducing new links or services to transport networks is that they will contribute to greater capability to withstand system breakdowns. This paper presents a methodology for assessing the value of new links for public transport network robustness, considering disruptions of other lines and links as well as the new links themselves. The value is evaluated in terms of passenger welfare under disruptions and can be compared to traditional welfare benefits and investment costs. Distinction is made between the value of robustness, defined as the change in welfare during disruption compared to the baseline network, and the value of redundancy, defined as the change in welfare losses due to disruption. The paper introduces the total values of robustness and redundancy by considering a full space of scenarios and their respective frequencies. Using a model that considers passengers' dynamic travel choices, stochastic traffic conditions, timetables and capacity constraints, results are more nuanced than analyses based only on network topology and other static attributes. A new cross-radial light rail transit line in Stockholm, Sweden, is evaluated. The new link increases welfare levels under all scenarios and has a positive value of robustness. However, disruption costs increase under some scenarios and the value of redundancy is negative. In general, the value of redundancy depends on the new link's role as complement or substitute and passengers' ability to utilise spare capacity during short-term unexpected disruptions.

  • 92.
    Jenelius, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Kholodov, Yaroslav
    TU Delft.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. TU Delft.
    van Oort, Niels
    TU Delft.
    Mouter, Niek
    TU Delft.
    Cebecauer, Matej
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Vermeulen, Alex
    TU Delft.
    Public transport fare elasticities from smartcard data: A natural experiment in Stockholm2021Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 93.
    Khan, Mohd Aiman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Cebecauer, Matej
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    A comprehensive review of viability and operability of dynamic charging solutions for autonomous electric vehicles2023Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 94.
    Kholodov, Yaroslav
    et al.
    TU Delft.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. TU Delft.
    van Oort, Niels
    TU Delft.
    Mouter, Niek
    TU Delft.
    Cebecauer, Matej
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Vermeulen, Alex
    TU Delft.
    Transport fare elasticities from smartcard data: A natural experiment in Stockholm2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper develops a method for analysing the elasticity of travel demand to public transport fares. The methodology utilizes public transport smartcard data for collecting disaggregate, full population data about passengers’ travel behaviour. The study extends previous work by deriving specific fare elasticities for distinct socioeconomic (e.g., car ownership and income) groups and public transport modes (metro, trains and buses), and by considering the directionality of the fare change. The case study involves a public transport fare policy introduced by the regional administration of Stockholm County in January 2017, where the zonal fare system was replaced by a flat-fare policy. The overall fare elasticity of travel funds is found to be -0.46. User sensitivity grows along with the journey distance. Metro users demonstrate the lowest sensitivity, followed by bus and commuter train riders. Low socioeconomic groups are sensitive to a price increase and do not adjust their behaviour with a price decrease, whereas the high-factor groups’ sensitivity is the opposite. In addition to the direct effect of changed fares, simplification and unification of the fare scheme appears to have substantially contributed to its attractiveness. The flat fare may allow the geographic disparity of public transport travel to be reduced and new users to be attracted from remote areas who are more prone to own cars.

  • 95. Kholodov, Yaroslav
    et al.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    van Oort, Niels
    Mouter, Niels
    Cebecauer, Matej
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Vermeulen, Alex
    Public transport fare elasticities from smartcard data: Evidence from a natural experiment2021In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 105, p. 35-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper develops a method for analysing the elasticity of travel demand to public transport fares. The methodology utilizes public transport smartcard data for collecting disaggregate full population data about passengers’ travel behaviour. The study extends previous work by deriving specific fare elasticities for distinct socioeconomic (e.g., car ownership and income) groups and public transport modes (metro, trains and buses), and by considering the directionality of the fare change. The case study involves a public transport fare policy introduced by the regional administration of Stockholm County in January 2017, where the zonal fare system for single-trip tickets was replaced by a flat-fare policy. The overall fare elasticity of travel funds is found to be −0.46. User sensitivity grows along with the journey distance. Metro users demonstrate the lowest sensitivity, followed by bus and commuter train riders. Low socioeconomic groups, in particular with respect to car ownership, tend to be less sensitive than the high-factor groups. In addition to the direct effect of changed fares, simplification and unification of the fare scheme appears to have substantially contributed to its attractiveness. The flat fare may allow the geographic disparity of public transport travel to be reduced and new users to be attracted from remote areas who are more prone to own cars.

  • 96.
    Kolkowski, Lukas
    et al.
    Delft Univ Technol, Dept Transport & Planning, Delft, Netherlands..
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. Delft Univ Technol, Dept Transport & Planning, Delft, Netherlands..
    Dixit, Malvika
    Delft Univ Technol, Dept Transport & Planning, Delft, Netherlands..
    Verma, Trivik
    Delft Univ Technol, Fac Technol Policy & Management, Delft, Netherlands..
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Cebecauer, Matej
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Rubensson, Isak Jarlebring
    Publ Transport Adm, Trafikforvaltningen, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Measuring activity-based social segregation using public transport smart card data2023In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 110, article id 103642Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While social segregation is often assessed using static data concerning residential areas, the extent to which people with diverse background travel to the same destinations may offer an additional perspective on the extent of urban segregation. This study further contributes to the measurement of activity-based social segregation between multiple groups using public transport smart card data. In particular, social segregation is quantified using the ordinal information theory index to measure the income group mix at public transport journey destination zones. The method is applied to the public transport smart card data of Stockholm County, Sweden. Applying the index on 2017-2020 data sets for a selected week, shows significant differences between income groups' segregation along the radial public transport corridors following the opening of a major rail project in the summer of 2017. The overall slight decrease in segregation over the years can be linked to declining segregation in the city center as a travel destination and its public transport hubs. Increasing zonal segregation is observed in suburban and rural zones with commuter train stations. This method helps to quantify social segregation, enriching the analysis of urban segregation and can aid in evaluating policies based on the dynamics of social life.

  • 97.
    Kolkowski, Lukas
    et al.
    TU Delft.
    Dixit, Malvika
    TU Delft.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. TU Delft.
    Verma, Trivik
    TU Delft.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Measuring activity-based social segregation using public transport smart card data2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While social segregation is often assessed using static data concerning residential areas, the extentto which people with diverse background travel to the same destinations may offer an additional perspective on the extent of urban segregation. This study further contributes to the measurement of activity-based social segregation between multiple groups using public transport smart card data. In particular, social segregation is measured using the ordinal information theory index to measure the income group mix at public transport journey destination zones. The method isapplied to the public transport smart card data of Stockholm County, Sweden. Applying the index on 2017-2020 smart card data sets for a selected week, shows significant differences between income groups’ segregation along the radial public transport corridors. The overall slight decrease in income segregation over the years can be linked to declining segregation in the city center as a travel destination and its public transport hubs. Increasing zonal segregation is observed in suburban and rural zones with commuter train stations. This method helps to quantify social segregation, enriching the analysis of urban segregation and can aid in evaluating policies based on the dynamics of social life.

  • 98. Laskaris, Georgios
    et al.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. Department of Transport and Planning, Technical University of Delft, Delft, the Netherlands.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Rinaldi, Marco
    Viti, Francesco
    A holding control strategy for diverging bus lines2021In: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, E-ISSN 1879-2359, Vol. 126, article id 103087Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Holding has been extensively used as control strategy to regulate public transport operations, especially to maintain even headways and prevent buses of the same line to bunch up. Applying holding to multiple lines requires however to deal with the transition between corridor and branching segments. In this study, we introduce a holding criterion for network configurations with lines that operate jointly along a common corridor and then diverge to individual branches serving different urban areas. The proposed holding decision rule accounts for all different passenger groups in the overlapping segment and considers the transition to individual line operation. The holding rule is evaluated using simulation for different demand levels and compositions and is compared with state-of-the-art control schemes for a real-world network. Results show that the proposed multi-line control yields performance improvements along the shared transit corridor as well as at the line level. The performance of the control scheme is affected by the demand composition and we provide indications regarding the conditions under which multi-line control is advisable.

  • 99. Laskaris, Georgios
    et al.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Rinaldi, Marco
    Viti, Francesco
    Multiline holding based control for lines merging to a shared transit corridor2019In: Transportmetrica B: Transport Dynamics, ISSN 2168-0566, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 1062-1095Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In transit corridors, multiple lines share a sequence of consecutive stops to provide higher joint frequency in higher demand areas. A key challenge is to coordinate the transition from single line to joint operation. A holding control strategy aimed at minimizing passenger travel times is introduced for lines merging into a shared corridor, accounting for the coordination of vehicle arrivals from the merging lines as well as the regularity of each line. The criterion is tested using an artificial network and a real-world network to analyze the impact of demand distribution and compare cooperative versus single line control. We illustrate how the real-time strategy yields overall passenger gains, depending on the composition of different user groups. Results are assessed based on operation and passenger performance indicators and show that coordination is achieved. When combined with joint control in the common part, the proposed approach achieves consistent network-wide travel time benefits.

  • 100.
    Laskaris, Georgios
    et al.
    University of Luxembourg.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. TU Delft.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Rinaldi, Marco
    University of Luxembourg.
    Viti, Francesco
    University of Luxembourg.
    Principles for setting single or multiline bus holding control based on network characteristics2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public Transport networks often include one or more sets of common consecutive stops between different lines to offer more capacity in busier segments, or to allow transfers. In such networks, both single line and multiline control can in principle be applied. In this study, we investigate the effect of both the size of different segments of the network and the characteristics of demand distribution on the performances of single line and multiline control. After introducing the key elements that characterize networks with overlapping segments, two sets of scenarios (a stop set size and a demand-based scenario) are conducted on different network configurations, for both control schemes. Results show that the choice between the two control alternatives is more sensitive to demand distribution than to the lines’ topology. Passenger groups traversing different stop sets are the most consequential in terms of chosen control strategy’s optimality. The results suggest applying multiline shared transit corridor control for corridors given that those stops account for at least 50% of the total number of boarding passengers.

123 51 - 100 of 140
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf