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  • 51.
    Gontier, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Eggers, Sönke
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Lindström, Åke
    Department of Ecology, Lund University.
    Modelling habitat preferences and differences in two Parus species in an urbanising region2008In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Gontier, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Comparing GIS-based habitat models for applications in EIA and SEA2010In: Environmental impact assessment review, ISSN 0195-9255, E-ISSN 1873-6432, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 8-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Land use changes. urbanisation and infrastructure developments in particular. cause fragmentation of natural habitats and threaten biodiversity. Tools and measures must be adapted to assess and remedy the potential effects on biodiversity caused by human activities and developments. Within physical planning, environmental impact assessment (EIA) and strategic environmental assessment (SEA) play important roles in the prediction and assessment of biodiversity-related impacts from planned developments. However, adapted prediction tools to forecast and quantify potential impacts on biodiversity components are lacking. This study tested and compared four different CIS-based habitat models and assessed their relevance for applications in environmental assessment. The models were implemented in the Stockholm region in central Sweden and applied to data on the crested tit (Parus cristatus), a sedentary bird species of coniferous forest. All four models performed well and allowed the distribution of suitable habitats for the crested tit in the Stockholm region to be predicted. The models were also used to predict and quantify habitat loss for two regional development scenarios. The study highlighted the importance of model selection in impact prediction. Criteria that are relevant for the choice of model for predicting impacts on biodiversity were identified and discussed. Finally, the importance of environmental assessment for the preservation of biodiversity within the general frame of biodiversity conservation is emphasised.

  • 53.
    Hammer, Monica
    et al.
    Södertörns Högskola.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Franzén, Frida
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Galera, P
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Peterson, Mona
    Söderqvist, Tore
    Andersson, Ingela
    Warghagen, Dan
    Implementing the EU Water Framework Direcitve: opportunities and challenges for sustainable ecosystem management in the Baltic Sea Region2009In: The 15th International Symposium on Society and Resources Management: Meet old and new worlds in research, planning and management. Vienna, Austria, 5-8 July 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 54. Hammer, Monica
    et al.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Franzén, Frida
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Peterson, Mona
    Söderqvist, Tore
    Andersson, Ingela
    Warghagen, Dan
    Governance of water resources in the phase of change: a case study on the implementation of the EU Water Framework Direcitve in the Baltic Sea Region2009In: Coping with Uncertainty: A Multidisiplinary Research Conference on Risk Governance in the Baltic Sea Region. Stockholm, 15-17 November 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 55. Hammer, Monica
    et al.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Petersson, Mona
    Quin, Andrew
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Governance of Water Resources in the Phase of Change: A Case Study of the Implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive in Sweden2011In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 210-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, focusing on the ongoing implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive, we analyze some of the opportunities and challenges for a sustainable governance of water resources from an ecosystem management perspective. In the face of uncertainty and change, the ecosystem approach as a holistic and integrated management framework is increasingly recognized. The ongoing implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD) could be viewed as a reorganization phase in the process of change in institutional arrangements and ecosystems. In this case study from the Northern Baltic Sea River Basin District, Sweden, we focus in particular on data and information management from a multi-level governance perspective from the local stakeholder to the River Basin level. We apply a document analysis, hydrological mapping, and GIS models to analyze some of the institutional framework created for the implementation of the WFD. The study underlines the importance of institutional arrangements that can handle variability of local situations and trade-offs between solutions and priorities on different hierarchical levels.

  • 56. Hammer, Monica
    et al.
    Persson, Klas
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Petersson, Mona
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Dinnétz, Patrik
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Balancing ecosystem services in local and regional water governance: A case study from Lake Mälaren catchment, Sweden2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 57. Hammer, Monica
    et al.
    Petersson, Mona
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Ecosystem services and trade-offs in water governance: a case study of the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive in Sweden2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 58. Hammer, Monica
    et al.
    Petersson, Mona
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Andersson, Ingela
    Cross-scale linkages and trade-offs in multilevel water governance: A case study from the Northern Baltic Sea River Basin District2011In: International Council for the Exploration of the Sea Annual Conference, Copenhagen: International Council for the Exploration of the Sea , 2011, p. ICES CM2011/R:21-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 59. Hedblom, Marcus
    et al.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Characterizing biodiversity in urban areas using remote sensing2011In: Urban Remote Sensing: Monitoring, Synthesis and Modeling in the Urban Environment / [ed] Xiaojun Yang, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2011, p. 287-304Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fauna and flora, and their diversity in cities have long been a neglected research area; instead, more natural environments or environments used for human production, such as forests or rural areas, have been prioritized. However, there has been a recent major increase in studies of urban green areas and their importance for species richness. The urbanization process has led to fragmentation of habitats, which has become one of the greatest threats to biodiversity worldwide. Remote sensing is a cost-efficient data source covering large areas, capturing information in a systematic manner and can provide data for spatiotemporal studies in urban environments. However, few studies have examined biodiversity in urban ecosystems using satellite images. Here, we reviewremote sensing techniques for the study of biodiversity in urban areas, different approaches for characterizing biodiversity with remote sensing and the effects of urbanization on biodiversity; we also discuss applications of remote sensing in planning and management, and past and future avenues for research.We conclude that urban biodiversity studies are still far from exploiting the full potential of advances in data capture, data interpretation and classification methods in combination with field studies for deriving ecologically meaningful information.

  • 60.
    Jamali, Imran Ali
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Shafique, M
    A spatial multi-criteria analysis approach for locating suitable sites for construction of subsurface dams in northern Pakistan2014In: Water resources management, ISSN 0920-4741, E-ISSN 1573-1650, Vol. 28, no 14, p. 5157-5174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pakistan is an agricultural country with an increasing interest for hydropower. Water management problems such as sedimentation and evaporation have been of high concern for surface water reservoirs for many years. Therefore, groundwater storage through subsurface dams could be promising, especially considering the monsoon rainfall and seasonal river flows in Pakistan. The paper aims to develop and test a methodology to locate suitable sites for construction of subsurface dams using spatial multi-criteria analysis (SMCA) in the northern parts of Pakistan. For the study, spatial data on geology, slope, land cover, soil depth and topographic wetness index (TWI) was used. Two weighting techniques, i.e. the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and the factor interaction method (FIM), were employed and compared. The sensitivity of the two methods as well as of the model parameters was analysed. The suitability map derived from AHP yielded about 3 % (16 km(2)) of the total area as most suitable, about 4 % (22 km(2)) as moderately suitable and about 0.8 % (5 km(2)) as least suitable. The suitability map derived from FIM identified about 2.7 % (14 km(2)) of the total area as most suitable, about 4 % (22 km(2)) as moderately suitable and about 1 % (7 km(2)) as least suitable. The sensitivity analyses suggested that AHP was a more robust weighting technique than FIM and that land cover was the most sensitive factor. The methodology presented here shows promising results and could be used in early planning to locate suitable sites for construction of subsurface dams.

  • 61.
    Jamali, Imran Ali
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Locating suitable sites for the construction of subsurface dams using GIS2013In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, Vol. 70, no 6, p. 2511-2525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Subsurface dams constitute an affordable and effective method for the sustainable development and management of groundwater resources when constructed on suitable sites. Such dams have rarely been constructed in crystalline rock areas and to best of our knowledge, geographic information system (GIS) has never been used in any methodology for locating suitable sites for constructing these dams. This paper presents a new methodology to locate suitable sites for the construction of subsurface dams using GIS software supported by groundwater balance modelling in a study area Boda-Kalvsvik, Sweden. Groundwater resources were calculated based on digitized geological data and assumptions regarding stratigraphic layering taken from well archive data and geological maps. These estimates were then compared with future extractions for domestic water supply using a temporally dynamic water balance model. Suitability analyses for subsurface dams were based on calculated topographic wetness index (TWI) values and geological data, including stratigraphic information. Groundwater balance calculations indicated that many of the most populated areas were susceptible to frequent water supply shortages. Of the 34 sub-catchments within the study area: ten were over-extracted, nine did not have any water supply demand at all, one was self-sufficient and the remaining 14 were able to meet the water supply demand with surplus storage capacity. Six suitable sites for the construction of subsurface dams were suggested in the vicinity of the over-extracted sites based on suitability analysis and groundwater balance estimates. The new methodology shows encouraging results for regions with humid climate but having limited natural water storage capacities. The developed methodology can be used as a preliminary planning step for subsurface dam construction, establishing a base for more detailed field investigations.

  • 62. Jönsson, Mari
    et al.
    Sjögren, Jörgen
    Hannrup, Björn
    Larsolle, Anders
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Nordström, Maria
    Olsson, Bengt A.
    Strömgren, Monika
    A spatially explicit decision support system for assessment of tree stump harvest using biodiversity and economic criteria2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 21, article id 8900Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stump harvesting is predicted to increase with future increasing demands for renewable energy. This may affect deadwood affiliate biodiversity negatively, given that stumps constitute a large proportion of the deadwood in young managed forests. Spatial decision support for evaluating the integrated effects on biodiversity and production of stump harvesting is needed. We developed a spatially explicit decision support system (called MapStump-DSS), for assessment of tree stump harvesting using biodiversity and economic criteria together with different scenarios for biodiversity conservation and bioenergy market prices. Two novel key aspects of the MAPStump-DSS is that it (1) merges and utilizes georeferenced stump-level data (e.g., tree species and diameter) directly from the harvester with stand data that are increasingly available to forest managers and (2) is flexible toward incorporating both quantitative and qualitative criteria based on emerging knowledge (here biodiversity criteria) or underlying societal drivers and end-user preferences. We tested the MAPStump-DSS on a 45 ha study forest, utilizing harvester data on characteristics and geographical positions for >26,000 stumps. The MAPStump-DSS produced relevant spatially explicit information on the biodiversity and economic values of individual stumps, where amounts of “conflict stumps” (with both high biodiversity and economical value) increased with bioenergy price levels and strengthened biodiversity conservation measures. The MAPStump-DSS can be applied in practice for any forest site, allowing the user to examine the spatial distribution of stumps and to obtain summaries for whole forest stands. Information depicted by the MAPStump-DSS includes amounts, characteristics, biodiversity values and costs of stumps in relation to different scenarios, which also allow the user to explore and optimize biodiversity and economy trade-offs prior to stump harvest.

  • 63. Kalantari, Zahra
    et al.
    Khoshkar, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Falk, Helena
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Accessibility of water-related cultural ecosystem services through public transport: A model for planning support in the Stockholm Region2017In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 346-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Planning for sustainable cities involves supporting compact, energy-efficient urban form as well as maintaining attractive and liveable urban landscapes. Attractive cities depend highly on services provided by ecosystems, especially cultural ecosystem services (ES), which give direct benefits to urban citizens. Therefore, access to a diversity of urban functions and publicly available ES by walking and public transport should be considered when planning for sustainable cities. This could be facilitated by user-friendly planning support models. The aim of this study was to develop a GIS-based model for assessing accessibility to ES, more specifically, water-related cultural ecosystem services (WCES), via walking and public transport, with input from stakeholders. The model was applied to the Stockholm region in Sweden. Travel times and census data were used to derive measures and maps of accessibility to prioritised WCES in the region, today and in urbanisation scenarios for 2050. The results showed how access to WCES varied spatially within the region. The number of potential visitors to different WCES sites now and in the future urbanisation scenarios was estimated, and areas in need for future development of the public transport system as well as WCES were identified. The GIS-based accessibility model has potential to be used as planning support in urban planning.

  • 64.
    Kale, Manoj
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Chakane, Sanjay
    Physics, ASC College, Indapur affiliated to University of Pune, 413 302, India.
    Damage to agricultural yield due to farmland birds, present repelling techniques and its impacts: an insight from the Indian perspective2012In: Journal of Agricultural Technology, ISSN 1686-9141, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 49-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In India, nearly 65% of the people are directly or indirectly dependent on agricultural sector for economic survival. The annual income of farmers is significantly influenced by the yield of the crops, which is continuously decreasing due to natural phenomena and poor technological advancement. However, the particular attention should be paid to the damage caused by birds. While the exact measure of the loss in yield associated with birds is unknown, farmers integrate a number of traditional and conventional techniques to grow and store grains and fruits. Many of the used methods result in extinction of the rare birds. Therefore, there is a need to develop alternative techniques, such as dialogue with the farmers, grain storage authorities and experts in the fields of ornithology, agricultural sectors and field visits, to avoid irreversible harm to the Indian biodiversity. This research analyzes the loss of yield of crop due to birds, explores repelling techniques adopted by the farmers, and addresses the consequences of integrated methods on the bird biodiversity in India. The project unveils the importance an interdisciplinary approach to develop an eco-friendly technique to reduce the loss of both the birds and the crops.

    Download full text (pdf)
    5_IJAT 2012_8_1__Manoj Kale
  • 65. Karimpour, Marziyeh
    et al.
    Karlson, Mårten
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Ecological impacts of transportation infrastructure: A spatial national assessment for Sweden2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 66.
    Karlson, Mårten
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Karlsson, Caroline
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Design and evaluation of railway corridors based on spatial ecological and geological criteria2016In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 46, p. 207-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transport infrastructure is closely linked to several sustainability issues of main policy relevance, and significant impacts on biodiversity as well as resource use and construction costs relate to the corridor design and location in the landscape. The aim of this study was to develop methods for railway corridor planning, in which corridor design and location would be based on important ecological and geological sustainability criteria. The method, an MCA framework including both spatial and non-spatial MCA, was demonstrated on a railway planning proposition in an urbanising area north of Stockholm, Sweden. Alternative spatial alignments for 6 railway corridors were derived based on criteria representing biodiversity, resource efficiency and costs, developed from ecological and geological knowledge, data and models. The method identified a study area specific positive synergy between ecological and geological sustainability criteria. The evaluation part of the methodology could furthermore identify uncertainties in the input data and assumptions and conflicts between ecological criteria. In order to arrive at a well-informed decision support system, the criteria as well as the decision rules employed could be further elaborated. Other relevant sustainability issues would also need to be integrated, such as cultural landscapes, recreation, and other ecosystem services. Still, arriving at a corridor design informed by the ecological and geological conditions in the planned area, as demonstrated by this study, could improve the sustainability performance of transport infrastructure planning.

  • 67.
    Karlson, Mårten
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    A spatial ecological assessment of fragmentation and disturbance effects of the Swedish road network2015In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 134, p. 53-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transportation infrastructure has a wide range of effects on ecological processes, which result in both positive and negative impacts for biodiversity. However, the treatment of biodiversity in planning and environmental assessment have been criticized, especially regarding habitat loss and fragmentation effects, the low use of quantitative methods and that of assessments being descriptive rather than analytical and predictive. The aim of this study was to assess the impacts of the Swedish road network by spatial modelling of road effects, to explore potential impacts of fragmentation and disturbance effects of roads on habitat networks for selected ecological profiles, and to discuss the utility of applying quantitative methods for environmental assessment purposes. Habitat and landcover data was used for creating habitat networks for six ecological profiles. Fragmentation and disturbance effects were modelled in GIS and FRAGSTATS was used to quantify ecologically important landscape metrics on habitat amount and connectivity. The results showed that natural grasslands and southern broadleaved forest were substantially more exposed to road effects in Sweden, compared to old coniferous and trivial broadleaved forest. Furthermore, habitat loss was a main consequence of road effects, and forest species with high area demands were most prone to be adversely impacted. Suggestions on method development in order to increase the quality of the analysis methods for environmental assessment are discussed. The potential is seen as high for use of quantitative ecological methods to generate baseline environmental information as well as coarse predictions on likely consequences of development options, useful for environmental assessment.

  • 68.
    Karlson, Mårten
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Road Ecology in Environmental Impact Assessment2014In: Environmental impact assessment review, ISSN 0195-9255, E-ISSN 1873-6432, Vol. 48, p. 10-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transport infrastructure has a wide array of effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and road and railway networks are increasingly being associated with a loss of biodiversity worldwide. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) are two legal frameworks that concern physical planning, with the potential to identify, predict, mitigate and/or compensate transport infrastructure effects with negative impacts on biodiversity. The aim of this study was to review the treatment of ecological impacts in environmental assessment of transport infrastructure plans and projects. A literature review on the topic of EIA, SEA, biodiversity and transport infrastructure was conducted, and 17 problem categories on the treatment of biodiversity were formulated by means of a content analysis. A review of environmental impact statements and environmental reports (EIS/ER) produced between 2005 and 2013 in Sweden and the UK was then conducted using the list of problems as a checklist The results show that the treatment of ecological impacts has improved substantially over the years, but that some impacts remain problematic; the treatment of fragmentation, the absence of quantitative analysis and that the impact assessment study area was in general delimited without consideration for the scales of ecological processes. Actions to improve the treatment of ecological impacts could include improved guidelines for spatial and temporal delimitation, and the establishment of a quantitative framework including tools, methods and threshold values. Additionally, capacity building and further method development of EIA and SEA friendly spatial ecological models can aid in clarifying the costs as well as the benefits in development/biodiversity tradeoffs.

  • 69.
    Karlson, Mårten
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Lundberg, Kristina
    Ecoloop AB.
    Erlandsson, Åsa
    Hedlund, Anders
    Swedish EIA centre, Swedish Univeristy of Agricultural Science.
    Lindblom, H.
    Swedish EIA centre, Swedish Univeristy of Agricultural Science.
    Application of Environmental Quality Objectives in Regional Scale Infrastructure Projects: a Swedish Example2011In: From biodiversity to ecosystem services: The changing face of EIA, IAIA , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is rarely possible to develop transport infrastructure without significant ecological impacts. A road or a railway will provide new habitat for some species, however, the overall environmental impacts, not at least on biodiversity, tend to be problematic. In order to improve the integration of transport infrastructure in its environmental and cultural settings, different strategies, methods and tools have been developed. EIA and SEA are examples of such methods. In Sweden 16 national environmental quality objectives have been formulated with the intention to guide societal development onto a sustainable path, i.e. to be used in infrastructure planning. The study reviews the experiences of the implementation and utilization of these environmental objectives in infrastructure project planning, including their influence on EIA and SEA procedures. Interviews were held with infrastructure planners, EIA and SEA consultants, representatives of permitting authorities etc.; followed by workshops and seminars. The results show that the objectives are overriding, but difficult to transfer and integrate into the different levels of project planning. Environmental concern seems currently to be driven by other factors. In order to use the official environmental quality objectives as guidance for road and railway planning, consensus on definitions, interpretations and intrinsic relations between different objectives, including the underlying environmental aspects (e.g. between biodiversity and other environmental aspects and objectives such as ‘landscape’), are urged for.

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  • 70.
    Karlson, Mårten
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Seiler, A.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    The effect of fauna passages and landscape characteristics on barrier mitigation successManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Transport infrastructure can impose significant barriers to movements to many, if not most terrestrial animals. Barrier effects can lead to increased isolation of wildlife populations, which in turn might have demographic effects and even increase genetic differentiation between neighbouring populations. This study attempted to clarify the role of fauna passages and generic landscape patterns for connectivity in fragmented landscapes, and to improve the theoretical basis for future experimental approaches to evaluate the effectiveness of barrier mitigation strategies. Specifically, the issue of whether it would be more effective to construct a single large rather than several small crossing structures (SLOSS) was addressed by this study. Three hypotheses were formulated on the relationship between habitat connectivity, as a prerequisite for genetic exchange, and habitat aggregation and contrast between habitat types. Random landscapes with different combinations of aggregation, contrast and number and size of fauna passages were created in a GIS. Connectivity was then quantified as a function of movement resistance using circuit theory and related methods, and measurements from the random landscapes were statistically analysed. The results indicate that in any landscape, it would be more effective to construct several small fauna passages instead of a single large one to mitigate the effect of a barrier. The level of aggregation appeared to have no influence per se on connectivity, and increasing the level of contrast increased the variance in the results. Results indicate that the effectiveness of a fauna passage will to a large extent rely on the location of a fauna passage relative to how the mitigation target species perceive the landscape in terms of contrast between different habitat types. A predefined interval between fauna passages could therefore result in highly ineffective mitigation, in a situation where a fauna passage would be located in habitat perceived as of high resistance. It is recommended that barrier effect mitigation strategies focus on the location and design of several small fauna passages rather than a single large one. Future research should focus on the development of dispersal and movement models for a set focal species that perceive a minimum degree of contrast between habitat types.

  • 71.
    Karlson, Mårten
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Seiler, Andreas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    The effect of fauna passages and landscape characteristics on barrier mitigation success2017In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 105, p. 211-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transport infrastructure can impose significant barriers to movements to many, if not most terrestrial animals. Barrier effects can lead to increased isolation of wildlife populations, which in turn might have demographic effects and even increase genetic differentiation between neighbouring populations. This study attempted to clarify the role of fauna passages and generic landscape patterns for connectivity in fragmented landscapes, and to improve the theoretical basis for future experimental approaches to evaluate the effectiveness of barrier mitigation strategies. Specifically, the issue of whether it would be more effective to construct a single large rather than several small crossing structures (SLOSS) was addressed by this study. Three hypotheses were formulated on the relationship between habitat connectivity, as a prerequisite for genetic exchange, and habitat aggregation and contrast between habitat types. Random landscapes with different combinations of aggregation, contrast and number and size of fauna passages were created in a GIS. Connectivity was then quantified as a function of movement resistance using circuit theory and related methods, and measurements from the random landscapes were statistically analysed. The results indicate that in any landscape, it would be more effective to construct several small fauna passages instead of a single large one to mitigate the effect of a barrier. The level of aggregation appeared to have no influence per se on connectivity, and increasing the level of contrast increased the variance in the results. It is recommended that barrier effect mitigation strategies focus on the location and design of several small fauna passages rather than a single large one. Future research should focus on the development of dispersal and movement models for a set focal species. The effectiveness of increasing fauna passage dimensions above those of crossing structures that are evidently used by the intended species should also need more research.

  • 72.
    Karlsson, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Ali, Imran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Earon, Robert
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Comparison of methods for predicting regolith thickness in previously glaciated terrain, Stockholm, Sweden2014In: Geoderma, ISSN 0016-7061, E-ISSN 1872-6259, Vol. 226, p. 116-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about regolith thickness is important in several civil and environmental engineering fields. However, subsurface characteristics such as regolith thickness are difficult to determine through surface investigations and maps at regional scales. This paper presents four methods for estimating regolith thickness in a GIS environment for previously glaciated terrain with high frequency of rock outcrops: linear regression (LR) using topographical covariates; inverse distance weighting (IOW) interpolation of regolith thickness point data from well drillings: a trigonometrical approach (TA) developed for this study which uses outcrop slopes and distance between outcrops; and a simplified regolith model (SRM). The SRM is a model modified from TA which estimates the regolith thickness based on outcrops, slopes and the distance to outcrops in eight directions. The methods were compared for three study areas (Tyreso, Vallentuna and Osteraker) in Stockholm County, Sweden. Based on the results in this paper, LR proved to be the most accurate method for regolith thickness estimation, measured through root mean square error values. Whereas IDW was the most accurate method in terms of error within 2 m, which would make it a suitable model if and when large datasets of regolith point data are available. When drilling data is scarce then both the TA and SRM methods can be used for regolith estimations. However, the SRM proved to be a more accurate regolith thickness model compared to TA. SRM shows promising results and could be used at a preliminary stage in engineering projects where little or no data is available prior to detailed field investigations in previously glaciated terrain.

  • 73.
    Karlsson, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Jamali, Imran Ali
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Earon, Roberg
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Simplified Regolith Model (SRM): A GIS approach to estimate regolith thickness using outcrop slopes and distance to outcrops2015In: Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 17, EGU2015-10232, 2015, EGU General Assembly, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 74.
    Karlsson, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Lyon, Steve
    Stockholms Universitet.
    The impact of expert knowledge on natural hazard susceptibility assessment using spatial multi-criteria analysis2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 75.
    Karlsson, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Lyon, Steve W
    Natural hazard susceptibility assessment for road planning using spatial multi-criteria analysisManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Inadequate infrastructural networks can be detrimental to a society if transport between locations becomes hindered or delayed, especially due to natural hazards which are more difficult to control. Thus determining natural hazard susceptible areas and incorporating them in the initial planning process, may reduce infrastructural damages in the long run. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of expert judgements for assessing natural hazard susceptibility through a spatial multi-criteria analysis (SMCA) approach using hydrological, geological and land use factors. To utilize SMCA for decision support, an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was adopted where expert judgements were evaluated individually and in an aggregated manner. The estimates of susceptible areas were then compared with the methods Weighted linear combination (WLC) using equal weights and Factor interaction method (FIM). Results showed that inundation received the highest percentage of susceptibility. Using expert judgement showed to perform almost same as Equal weighting where the difference (i.e. average) in susceptibility between the two for inundation was around 4%. Results also showed that downscaling could negatively affect the susceptibility assessment and be highly misleading. Susceptibility assessment through SMCA is useful for decision support in early road planning despite its limitation to selection and use of decision rule and criteria. A natural hazard SMCA could be used to indicate areas where more investigations need to be undertaken from a natural hazard point of view, and to identify areas thought to have higher susceptibility along existing roads where mitigation measures could be targeted after in-situ investigations.

  • 76.
    Karlsson, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Natural hazard susceptibility assessment for road planning using spatial multi-criteria analysis2017In: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 60, no 5, p. 823-851Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inadequate infrastructural networks can be detrimental to society if transport between locations becomes hindered or delayed, especially due to natural hazards which are difficult to control. Thus determining natural hazard susceptible areas and incorporating them in the initial planning process, may reduce infrastructural damages in the long run. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of expert judgements for assessing natural hazard susceptibility through a spatial multi-criteria analysis (SMCA) approach using hydrological, geological and land use factors. To utilize SMCA for decision support, an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was adopted where expert judgements were evaluated individually and in an aggregated manner. The estimates of susceptible areas were then compared with the methods weighted linear combination (WLC) using equal weights and factor interaction method (FIM). Results showed that inundation received the highest susceptibility. Using expert judgement showed to perform almost the same as Equal weighting where the difference in susceptibility between the two for inundation was around 4%. The results also showed that downscaling could negatively affect the susceptibility assessment and be highly misleading. Susceptibility assessment through SMCA is useful for decision support in early road planning despite its limitation to the selection and use of decision rules and criteria. A natural hazard SMCA could be used to indicate areas where more investigations need to be undertaken from a natural hazard point of view, and to identify areas thought to have higher susceptibility along existing roads where mitigation measures could be targeted after in-situ investigations.

  • 77.
    Karlsson, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Miliutenko, Sofiia
    KTH.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Toller, Susanna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Life cycle assessment in road infrastructure planning using spatial geological dataManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Karlsson, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Miliutenko, Sofiia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Toller, Susanna
    Life cycle assessment in road infrastructure planning using spatial geological data2017In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 1302-1317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to outline and demonstrate a new geographic information system (GIS)-based approach for utilising spatial geological data in three dimensions (i.e. length, width and depth) to improve estimates on earthworks during early stages of road infrastructure planning. Methods: This was undertaken by using three main methodological steps: mass balance calculation, life cycle inventory analysis and spatial mapping of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use. The mass balance calculation was undertaken in a GIS environment using two assumptions of geological stratigraphy for two proposed alternative road corridors in Sweden. The estimated volumes of excavated soil, blasted rock and filling material were later multiplied with the GHG emission and energy use factors for these processes, to create spatial data and maps in order to show potential impacts of the studied road corridors. The proposed GIS-based approach was evaluated by comparing with actual values received after one alternative was constructed. Results and discussion: The results showed that the estimate of filling material was the most accurate (about 9 % deviation from actual values), while the estimate for excavated soil and blasted rock resulted in about 38 and 80 % deviation, respectively, from the actual values. It was also found that the total volume of excavated and ripped soils did not change when accounting for stratigraphy. Conclusions: The conclusion of this study was that more information regarding embankment height and actual soil thickness would further improve the model, but the proposed GIS-based approach shows promising results for usage in LCA at an early stage of road infrastructure planning. Thus, by providing better data quality, GIS in combination with LCA can enable planning for a more sustainable transport infrastructure.

  • 79.
    Karlsson, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Miliutenko, Sofiia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Toller, Susanna
    Swedish Transport Agency.
    Towards a better planning process: Can geological data be useful?2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 80. Kraxner, Florian
    et al.
    Lundvall, Anders
    Hörnell-Willebrand, Maria
    Haraldsson, Hördur V
    Nordström, Eva-Maria
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Pang, Xi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Eriksson, Ljusk Ola
    Lämås, Tomas
    Shvidenko, Anatoly
    Schepaschenko, Dimitry
    Leduc, Sylvain
    Yowargana, Ping
    Patrizio, Piera
    Mesfun, Sennai
    Pietsch, Stephan A
    Franklin, Oskar
    Krasovskii, Andrey
    Khabarov, Nikolay
    Balkovic, Juraj
    Nilsson, Sten B
    Planning the future forests: managing for wildlife in a climate constrained landscape2017In: Book of Abstracts, 2017, p. 655-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multipurpose functionality is a paradigm when it comes to forest management. This includes sustainability, resilience, stand stability, wildlife management, recreation, clean water and air, or healthy soils - to name a few. The world is aiming at a maximum global warming of 2-deg by 2100, but cumulative emissions are still rising. Higher temperatures are associated with higher risks of extreme events such as storm, flood, droughts, pests and fires etc. - and at the same time, forest systems are key for any mitigation activity to avoid such dangerous climate change. But how will a managed forest look like in the future? How can we understand the underlying dynamics and make our forests fit for the increased need for carbon storage, biomass for energy and sustainable wood and non-wood forest products like game, while maintaining biodiversity, recreational and protected areas. Moreover, we need to address all challenges on limited land and establish action from policy development allthe way to their implementation within a short time frame. Based on Sweden's forests, traditionally considered a role model for successfully bridging a multitude of demands, we present a modeling approach that should serve as a planning tool for enhancing forests' risk resilience and capacity of integrating diverse demands and different ecosystem-services. Guided by the expertise of Sweden's Environmental Protection Agency, national forest and habitat shift models from SLU and KTH will be linked with global land use models and engineering tools from IIASA. Hereby, special emphasis will be put on ecosystem services from wildlife, different scenarios of forest intensification and the optimization of biomass for bioenergy production. First estimates show that spatially explicit modeling can substantially support decision making by optimizing multipurpose use of both managed and protected areas and steering habitat shift for maintaining biodiversity and improving wildlife (game)management.

  • 81. Kåresdotter, Elisie
    et al.
    Page, Jessica
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Näsström, Helena
    Chen, Si
    Kalantari, Zahra
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering. Department of Physical Geography and Bolin Centre for Climate Research, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Navarino Environmental Observatory (NEO), Greece.
    First mile/last mile problems in smart and sustainable cities: A case study in Stockholm County2022In: The Journal of urban technology, ISSN 1063-0732, E-ISSN 1466-1853, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 115-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first mile/last mile (FM/LM) problem in public transport refers to the spatial accessibility of public transport and is the most important factor determining whether an individual will choose public transport. The FM/LM problem in Stockholm County, Sweden, was evaluated using a Geographic Information System estimating distances to public transport for the years 2019 and 2035. Overall, the population in Stockholm County, have good access to public transport. However, access varies with abilities, with elderly having 50 percent and elderly impaired 15 percent of their area within walking distance to public transport compared with the average citizen. Planned developments can provide good access to public transport, with extensive improvements for the elderly. However, inadequate planning for population increase will likely decrease the perceived public transport accessibility. Apartments and commercial buildings in the study area have high access to public transport. Elderly people have good access within city and regional centers, while access could be improved in other areas. Inclusion of FM/LM in the planning support system used in Stockholm could help mitigate FM/LM problems and extend access to public transport to all people of different abilities. This is vital in creating sustainable mobility networks and achieving sustainable development in smart cities.

  • 82. La Sorte, Frank
    et al.
    Lepczyk, Christopher
    Aronson, Myla
    Goddard, Mark
    Katti, Madhusudan
    MacGregor-Fors, Ian
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Nilon, Charles
    Warren, Paige
    Nicholas, William
    Yang, Jun
    The phylogenetic and functional diversity of regional breeding bird assemblages is reduced and constricted through urbanization2018In: Diversity & distributions: A journal of biological invasions and biodiversity, ISSN 1366-9516, E-ISSN 1472-4642, Vol. 24, no 7, p. 928-938Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urbanization broadly affects the phylogenetic and functional diversity of natural communities through a variety of processes including habitat loss and the introduction of non-native species. Due to the challenge of acquiring direct measurements, these effects have been studied primarily using ‘space-for-time’ substitution where spatial urbanization gradients are used to infer the consequences of urbanization occurring across time. The ability of alternative sampling designs to replicate the findings derived using space-for-time substitution has not been tested. Here, we contrastthe phylogenetic and functional diversity of breeding bird assemblages in 58 cities worldwide with the corresponding regional breeding bird assemblages estimated using geographic range maps. Our findings indicate that urban areas are associated with lower phylogenetic diversity, lower phylogenetic beta diversity, a reduction in the least evolutionary distinctspecies, and the complete loss of the most evolutionarily distinct species. We found no evidence that these effects were related to the presence of non-native species. At a function level, our findings indicate that urban areas were associated with fewer aquatic species, fewer small and especially large bodied species, fewer narrowly and especially broadly distributed species, fewer herbivores, and fewer aquatic foraging species. Conversely, urban areas were associated with a greater prevalence of passerines, doves and pigeons, granivores, species that forage in association with vegetation or in the air, and species with more generalized associations with foraging strata. In total, our findings indicate that urbanization is associated with the overall reduction and constriction of phylogenetic and functional diversity, results that largely replicated those generated using space-for-time substitution, increasing our confidence in the quality of the combined inferences. When direct measurements are unavailable, our findings emphasize the value of developing independent sampling methods that broaden and reinforce our understanding of the ecological implications of urbanization.

  • 83.
    LarsOlle, Anders
    et al.
    SLU.
    Caruso, A
    Hannrup, Björn
    Hansson, Per-Anders
    Jönsson, Mari
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Nordström, Maria
    Olsson, Bengt
    Rudolphi, Jörgen
    Strömgren, M
    A multi-criteria decision support model for optimal stump harvesting2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A multi-criteria decision support model for optimal stump harvesting Sweden was developed. The model quantifies the effect of harvesting each individual stump over a harvesting object in four criteria's: - Biodiversity (Biodiversity value index) - Economy (SEK) - Greenhouse gas emissions (CO2) - Soil and water (Soil and water preservation index) The four criteria's are sometimes in conflict to each other, and uses values that are not directly comparable. The intended use for this model is to contribute with the objective evaluation of all four criteria's in the decision in what stumps to harvest and what stumps to leave in the harvesting object. The model uses individual stump data (e.g. position, tree species and stump biomass) and harvesting object GIS data (roads, elevation map, soil map, terrain map). Primary data on individual stumps comes from the logging system in the stem harvesters: GPS and operator classification. Such data are routinely collected in harvesters. Official map data for the harvesting object are available from the Swedish mapping, cadastral and land registration authority (Lantmäteriet). This includes the topographic map and elevation maps data in 2 m resolution. Also, GIS data are collected in the inspections before harvesting the stems. The biodiversity sub-model considers different types of wood-dependent organisms (lichens, mosses, insects and fungi) in terms of their habitat requirements, vulnerability, sun exposure preferences, locality, etc. A panel of external experts has drawn up a grading scale of stump values for the different taxonomic groups. The proximity to key habitats and exposure to sunlight are derived from a spatial model. In the economic sub-model the potential net return from each stump is calculated based on estimated revenue from harvested stump biomass and the costs of stump harvesting and transport (based on cost functions and GIS calculations of transport distances). An energy and climate sub-model incorporates greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from forest operations and the effect of advancing GHG emissions when stump biomass is incinerated instead of being left to decompose. Soil and water issues are handled within a sub-model estimating the consequences for long-term soil fertility (nutrient cycling and soil compaction) and water (leaching of plant nutrients and mercury, and particle transport due to soil damage by heavy machinery). Each criteria is evaluated in totally four sub-models. To be able to compare the resulting value from each of the criteria, a harvesting index from 0 to 1 is calculated for each stump. The value 0 represents ‘Not at all suitable for harvest’ and 1 ‘Highly suitable for harvest’. Through this, a stump of high biodiversity value is assigned a low harvesting index in the biodiversity sub-model and a large, easily accessible stump is assigned a high harvesting index in the economic sub-model. When calculating the total net index, the harvesting index from each criteria has to be weighed together using one coefficient for each criteria. The weighing coefficient for each criteria is chosen according to the preferences of the decision maker. The tool offers the end-user possibilities to prioritise and plan for cost-effective stump harvesting, while minimising negative environmental impacts.

  • 84.
    Larsolle, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Hannrup, Björn
    Skogforsk.
    Jönsson, Mari
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Nordström, Maria
    Skogforsk.
    Olsson, Bengt
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Rudolphi, Jörgen
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Strömgren, Monica
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Modellbaserat beslutsstöd för stubbskörd [Model based decision support for stump harvest, in Swedish]2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study a decision support model for tree stump harvest was developed. The model takes into account four criteria: economy, energy and climate, biodiversity, and land and water. The value of each individual tree stump was calculated separately for each criterion. The four criteria values were then weighed together into a final suitability score for stump harvest. The final suitability score decided whether the decision support model recommended harvest of each individual tree stump or not. Data from the harvester collected at final felling was used as input to the decision support model. For each stump the values used in the model was dry mass, stump diameter, tree species and position. In addition, the harvesters log track was used as a basis for localising the terrain roads within the stand. Other geographical data used was elevation data, presence of objects with special value for biodiversity and land/water, such as key biotopes, open water and moist soil. A special study was conducted to estimate the soil stability from a topographical wetness index.The decision support model was evaluated on an existing felling 2010 in Northern Uppland. The area was 45 hectares with about 26 000 stumps. The result of the decision support model showed that general economic parameters had the greatest impact in both sensitivity and scenario analysis. The most important variable was the price for stump biomass at road side. The decision support model results left continuous areas of the stand with all stumps unharvested. The reason for this was the economy criterion's sensitivity to the local amount of stump withdrawal per hectare. Low stump withdrawal gave high harvesting costs. In that economy was the only criterion which motivated stump harvest, the model never suggested harvesting a stump unless surrounding stumps were harvested too.There is potential for developing this decision support model further using updated knowledge and examining the impact of different criteria on the final model result. The decision support model has good opportunities to serve as a comprehensive planning basis in order to ensure sustainable stump harvest.

  • 85.
    Lundgren, Kajsa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Samuelsson, Henny
    Stockholm Vatten och Avfall, City of Stockholm.
    Planning support for reducing risks related to flooding in the Stockholm Region2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The urbanization trend during the last decades have several environmental impacts, particularly associated with increasing runoff and flood hazard, and decreasing water quality. These topics have been investigated all around the world, but relatively little is known about the impacts of urban development at the early stage of the urban planning in cities. This project aims to develop planning support tools for addressing impacts of different urbanization patterns in alternative planning scenarios on surface water within the City of Stockholm, the capital of Sweden.

    With the help of urban planners at the municipality, alternative future urban scenarios will be created and assessed from a hydro-meteorological risk assessment perspective. The scenarios will include alternative development patterns for buildings, infrastructure and supply of several regulating and cultural ecosystem services. For the water-related risk assessment, a hydrological model will be set up and validated using available data for a selected catchment that is affected by the scenarios. This will then be used to assess the impacts of the scenarios on the hydrological response and its implications. In the end, the results are expected to contribute to identifying how localization and type of different ecosystem services in the urban planning can be employed as nature-based solutions for hydro-meteorological risk reduction and climate adaptation.

  • 86.
    Manolan Kandy, Deepa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Kuhlefelt, Anna
    Wretling, Vincent
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    A GIS based integrated participatory approach for wind-farm siting2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind energy plays a vital role to meet growing energy needs and to replace non-renewable energy sources to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Sweden has set the goal of 100% renewable electricity by 2040 with a major share coming from wind energy. In this context, Sweden has a national strategy for sustainable wind power development, with suggested development shares for each region. However, wind energy development also faces a multitude of ecological and societal impacts that needs consideration. Therefore, wind power planning face major challenges and there is a need for systematic planning support, integrating scientific knowledge and stakeholder valuation. The REWIND project aims to develop GIS-based methods based on multi-criteria analysis (MCA) for sustainable wind power planning.

    In the case study of the County of Västernorrland, stakeholders are engaged in the main MCA steps, the design step with factor selection, treatment and aggregation, as well as weighting, and the evaluation step. Preparing this, to gain credibility, we analyse not only scientific literature but also existing planning documents and legal judgments in order to find relevant factors and their treatment and valuation. For the MCA process, we built the REWIND–GIS toolbox in Python for ArcGIS where factor parameters can be easily altered and conflicts in terms of different criteria can be aggregated and scrutinized. Through this a wide array of uncertainties can be tested, such as graded safety distances or conflict areas in varying degrees. Weights of factors from stakeholders are integrated into the model to arrive at different scenarios for suitable sites which are evaluated.

    The evaluation and ranking of alternatives can then use the original factors, weights and conflicts while adding also new emerging factors, spatial or non-spatial. In this stage different methods of evaluation are also compared and tested. Through the systematic and transparent approach, planners have various options to choose from the decision space with improved understanding about the trade-offs in a quantified manner. REWIND bridges the knowledge gap in treatment of diverse factors and their performances spatially, through development of the transferable REWIND-GIS tool. This planning support tool will enable sustainable wind power planning on regional level, considering main sustainability aspects and diversified perspectives.

  • 87.
    Manolan Kandy, Deepa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Spatial planning for wind energy development using GIS2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 88.
    Manolan Kandy, Deepa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Wretling, Vincent
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Kuhlefelt, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Byström, Gustaf
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Polatidis, Heracles
    Dept. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Campus Gotland, Sweden.
    Barney, Andrew
    Dept. of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University, Campus Gotland, Sweden.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Spatial multicriteria framework for sustainable wind-farm planning – accounting for conflicts2024In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 189, article id 113856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Considerable pressure is placed on wind power in Sweden due to the country’s goal of generating 100 % of its electricity from fossil free resources. The aim was to develop the REWIND methodological framework to support wind power planning, built on spatial multi-criteria analysis (SMCA). In addition, the purpose was to develop a conflict score as a novel component of this framework, for handling goal conflicts. This framework includes the scoping, design and evaluation stages. It was applied in a case study of Västernorrland County with extensive involvement of stakeholders throughout the process. 

    The conflict score allows a separate analysis of trade-offs between factors, highlighting potential conflicts across the landscape to increase transparency. Thus, users are allowed to decide on a threshold on how much conflict among factors should be allowed for areas to qualify as planning alternatives. Critical issues that will need further attention concern quality and availability of data, creation of representative spatial indicators for the factors, weighting methods, and uncertainty analysis. The REWIND framework is open-ended and allows for further development to provide planning support that gives more control of factors and conflicts to be acceptable in real-world planning. Capacity building involving stakeholders in the design of planning alternatives are crucial. In Sweden, it can promote a more proactive planning process in the municipalities, supported by the regional actors, leading to a more predictable permitting process for developers. This will be useful for inclusive wind power planning in any country, since it is applicable on different scales.

  • 89.
    Manolan Kandy, Deepa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Wretling, Vincent
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Linking multi-criteria approaches to spatial planning for wind energy development in two case studies in Sweden2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden aims to achieve 100% renewable electricity by year 2040 with a major share expectation from wind. In this context, the national strategy developed for wind power development estimates expected shares from each County. With this increased expectations from each county, Spatial Multi-Criteria Analysis (SMCA) is used as a tool to integrate contributing and conflicting criteria that influence wind energy planning to find sustainable solutions. A majority of studies accommodating larger number of criteria uses Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) or OWA to solve wind farm siting problems. By this, weights obtained from the stake-holders indicating importance of the criteria are used to allow trade-off between criteria to reach a negotiated decision when there are areas not available as in an ideal scenario. Through this opinions of stakeholders from diverse expertise are thus meant to be incorporated in a transparent and democratic way. However, these trade-off may disguise conflicts which need to be handled in a controlled way. 

    The REWIND project aims to develop a framework and GIS tools to conduct SMCA for sustainable wind power planning. The study also addresses planning issues that arises when following the standard approach and ways to handle it. 

    Two case studies are included in this project with the collaboration of Västernorrland and Västra Götaland Counties. The methodology includes selection of criteria and transformation into a uniform suitability scale. These factors are aggregated through a conflict score, to prevent high trade-offs in later stages.  Secondly, the importance of one factor over the other is obtained from stake-holders through some weighting method. In general, when the number of factors are more than 9, clustering into groups in hierarchical structure (planning tree) is carried out to calculate weights. The basis for the groups varies and the most common way of clustering is based on the three pillars of sustainability. This not only restricts comparison of factors belonging to different clusters, but it also controls the weight distribution indirectly. The symmetricity of the tree and how it impacts final weights are often overlooked by the participants who carry out weighting and their involvement become more or less pointless. To tackle this, the Ranking-Rating (RR) method is developed and used in the framework, where factors are grouped into different level of importance first, then ranked and rated within each group. Finally, the suitability scores of different scenarios are used to identify suitable sites for wind energy planning.

    Through this systematic and transparent approach planners are given various options to choose from the decision space with more clear understanding about the trade-offs in a quantified manner.  Moreover rectifying the standard approach where stake-holders can get integrated in the process more effectively can strengthen the strategic planning process and reduce the delays and difficulties during the permitting process. The REWIND methodological framework, also bridges knowledge gaps through integrating and treating diverse factors with stakeholder involvement in useful ways through development the GIS-based tool. The REWIND tool is transferable and can be used for wind power planning on regional and municipal scales. 

  • 90.
    Mazzaro de Freitas, Flavio Luiz
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Sparovek, Gerd
    Univ Sao Paulo, Soil Sci Dept, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil.
    Berndes, Göran
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Space Earth & Environm, Phys Resource Theory, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Persson, Martin
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Space Earth & Environm, Phys Resource Theory, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Englund, Oskar
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Space Earth & Environm, Phys Resource Theory, Gothenburg, Sweden ; Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Ecotechnol & Sustainable Bldg Engn, Englund GeoLab, Östersund, Sweden.
    Baretto, Alberto
    Univ Sao Paulo, Soil Sci Dept, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Potential increase of legal deforestation in Brazilian Amazon after Forest Act revision2018In: Nature Sustainability, E-ISSN 2398-9629, Vol. 1, p. 665-670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Brazilian Amazon rainforest is protected largely by command and control regulation of public and private land. The Brazilian Forest Act requires private landholders within the Amazon to set aside 80% of their land as legal reserves for nature protection, but this requirement can be reduced to 50% if more than 65% of a state’s territory is protected public land (for example, public conservation units and indigenous reserves). In the ongoing land designation process in Brazil, some Amazonian states may cross this 65% threshold. We assess the potential reduction in the legal reserve requirement from 80% to 50%, through spatially explicit modelling of scenarios concerning land tenure consolidation, employing up-to-date databases on land ownership. Depending on the outcome of land designation processes and political priorities, some 6.5–15.4 million hectares of private land previously protected as legal reserves may become available for legal deforestation. While protection of public land is crucial for safeguarding the Amazon, revisions of federal and state legislation may be needed to avoid the further extension of protected public land triggering increased legal deforestation on private lands. Zero-deforestation commitments and other initiatives may mitigate impacts in the absence of such revision.

  • 91.
    Mizgajski, Andrzej
    et al.
    Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland.
    Breuste, Jürgen
    University of Salzburg, Austria.
    Albert, Christian
    Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Germany.
    Gruehn, Dietwald
    Dortmund University of Technology, Germany.
    Kozova, Maria
    Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia.
    Miklos, Laszlo
    Technical University in Zvolen, Slovakia.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Implementation of landscape ecological knowledge: Achievements and challenges2010In: The Problems of Landscape Ecology, ISSN 1899-3850, Vol. XXVIII, p. 9-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives a synthetic presentation of problems related to the practical application of results in land-scape ecological studies. The diagnoses presented are based on the findings of ILECO2010 symposium, which was devoted to this. The assessment considered several aspects, which determine the possibility to apply the landscape ecological  knowledge.  These  include  spatial  planning,  spatial  management,  issues  related  to  the  efficiency  assess-ment  of  actions  taken  and  collection  of  data  essential  for  the  decision-making  process.  Individual  problems  were  complemented with conclusions of a general nature.

  • 92. Mozgeris, Gintautas
    et al.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Pang, Xi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Trubins, Renats
    Treinys, Rimgaudas
    Future projection for forest management suggests a decrease in the availability of nesting habitats for a mature-forest-dwelling raptor2021In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 491, article id 119168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for timber, bioenergy feedstock and other forest products, leading to intensified forest harvesting, is expected to increase in the coming decades. A reduction in the delivery of forest ecosystem services and, specifically, biodiversity, including the provision of habitats for mature-forest-dwelling raptors, has been attributed to the intensification of forest exploitation. Therefore, in order to adopt adequate conservation measures to create a timely buffer against the consequences of increased harvesting, it is critically important to understand how the availability of nesting habitats for protected species will fluctuate in the future landscape. In this study, using the LandSim tool, we modelled the dynamics of the forests and nesting habitat availability for the forest-nesting raptor, the lesser spotted eagle Clanga pomarina, for the next 50 years in eastern Lithuania, Central Europe. Our findings indicate that the share of forests available for final harvesting is expected to increase rapidly in the coming decades due to a large amount of forest stands reaching a mature age, if current forest management practices, despite them being considered as relatively conservative, are continued. As a consequence, the availability of nesting habitats will constantly decrease in nesting territories, as well as elsewhere in the landscape, in the coming decades. We suggest that species conservation strategies should not only incorporate directly targeted measures to protect nest sites from destruction and disturbance, but also, at the very least, preserve a sufficient amount of nesting habitats in areas inhabited by eagle pairs and, at best, at the landscape scale.

  • 93.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Att tillämpa landskapsekologiska metoder i stadsplanering2010In: IALE – International Association for Landscape Ecology / [ed] Lisberg Jensen, E., Uppsala: Centrum för biologisk mångfald , 2010, p. 1-54Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 94.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Biodiversity, ecosystem services and renewable energy options2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 95.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Energy systems and environmental assessment: the sustainability of renewables2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 96.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Förnybar energi och landskap: att planera för mångbruk2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 97.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    GIS-based habitat models in spatial planning2007In: Habitat modelling - A tool for managing landscapes?: Report from a workshop held in Sunnersta, Sweden, 14-17 February 2006 / [ed] Brainerd, S.M., Seiler A. and Kastdalen, L., Norsk Institut for Naturforskning , 2007, p. 22-26Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 98.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Landscape Ecological Analysis and Assessment in an Urbanising Environment - forest birds as biodiversity indicators2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve a sustainable development, impacts onbiodiversity of urbanisation, infrastructure, land use changesand other developments must be considered on a landscape andregional scale. Landscape ecology can provide a conceptualframework for the assessment of consequences of long-termdevelopment processes like urbanisation on biodiversity on alandscape scale, and for evaluating the impacts of alternativeplanning scenarios. The aim of this study was to explore theeffects of habitat quality, quantity and connectivity on forestbird diversity in an urban-rural gradient. The purpose of theanalyses was to develop knowledge and methods for integratingbiodiversity issues in planning and assessments in anurbanising environment, on landscape and regional scales.

    The study area was situated in and around Stockholm, thecapital of Sweden, covering the city centre, suburbs andperi-urban areas. Data on breeding forest birds were collectedthrough bird censuses in an urban-suburban gradient. In orderto embrace also the peri-urban areas for a more completeurban-rural gradient, data on two fragmentation-sensitiveforest grouse species were obtained through a questionnaire tohunters in the whole study area. Response variables in theanalyses were forest bird species richness and diversity,relative species richness and occurrence of single sensitivespecies like selected sedentary forest birds, including theforest grouse species, and red list species. Habitat quality,quantity and connectivity were analysed using available data onabiotic conditions, including urban disturbances, andvegetation in geographical information systems. In addition, afield study on vegetation structure and composition wasperformed in a subset of the smaller sample sites.Relationships between the response variables and habitatquality, quantity and connectivity were explored usingstatistical methods like multivariate statistics and regressionmodelling. Further, for some models, spatial dependencies werequantified and accounted for. When habitat models wereretrieved, they were used for spatial predictions of habitatsuitability. They were also applied on future planningscenarios in order to predict and assess the impacts onsensitive species. In the urban-rural gradient, the foreststructure and composition changed, so that in more urban areas,coniferous forest on rich soils, wet forests and wetlandsbecame less abundant and more scattered. Sensitive birdspecies, tied to these habitat types, were shown to besensitive to habitat fragmentation caused by urbanisation.Large, well-connected habitat patches and aggregations ofsuitable habitat in the landscape had a higher probability ofoccupancy when compared to other patches. For the forest grousespecies, effects of car traffic added to the explanation oftheir distribution. By contrast, deciduous forest was stillquite common in predominantly urban areas, due to both latechanges in land use and a history of human preferences. Certainred listed bird species tied to deciduous forest did not seemto be affected by isolation, and also occurred in suitablehabitats in some highly urbanised areas. Furthermore, relativespecies richness in the urban-suburban gradient was related tomulti-layered deciduous forest habitats with a large amount ofdead wood. Such habitats were associated with natural shorelineand with old pastures and parks. From the derived statisticalmodels, describing the relationships between sensitive speciesand environmental variables, predictive habitat maps could becreated for the present situation and for planning scenarios.The predictions of the impacts on habitats of sensitive speciesmade it possible to quantify, integrate and visualise theeffects of urbanisation scenarios on aspects of biodiversity ona landscape scale.

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  • 99.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Landscape ecological analysis and assessment in an urbanizing environment2009In: Ecology of Cities and Towns: A Comparative Approach / [ed] McDonnell, M.J., Breuste, J. and Hahs, A.K., New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009, p. 439-455Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 100.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Methods for environmental assessment of wind power policy and plans2013Conference paper (Other academic)
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