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  • 51.
    Zhou, Qin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Exploration and performance evaluation of a compressed sensing based IR-UWB receiver2013In: 2013 IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband (ICUWB), IEEE , 2013, p. 226-230Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compressed sensing (CS) is an emerging technique which enables sub-Nyquist sampling of sparse or compressible signals. The application of CS theory in the impulse radio ultrawideband (IR-UWB) receiver design has recently attracted much attention. This paper provides an exploration of the CS-based IR-UWB receiver from different aspects: front-end hardware architectures, back-end signal processing algorithms as well as application scenarios. And the performance of the CS receiver regarding the number of CS measurement and different CS recovery algorithms is evaluated and compared against the conventional sub-Nyquist sampling receiver based on energy detection (ED) scheme. Moreover, a strategy to improve the CS receiver performance in handling UWB signals with heavy noise and multipath propagation is proposed.

  • 52.
    Zou, Zhuo
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Impulse Radio UWB for the Internet-of-Things: A Study on UHF/UWB Hybrid Solution2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation investigates Ultra-Wideband (UWB) techniques for the next generation Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) towards the Internet-of-Things (IoT). In particular, an ultra-high frequency (UHF) wireless-powered UWB radio (UHF/UWB hybrid) with asymmetric links is explored from system architecture to circuit implementation.

    Context-aware, location-aware, and energy-aware computing for the IoT demands future micro-devices (e.g., RFID tags) with capabilities of sensing, processing, communication, and positioning, which can be integrated into everyday objects including paper documents, as well as food and pharmaceutical packages. To this end, reliable-operating and maintenance-free wireless networks with low-power and low-cost radio transceivers are essential. In this context, state-of-the-art passive RFID technologies provide limited data rate and positioning accuracy, whereas active radios suffer from high complexity and power-hungry transceivers. Impulse Radio UWB (IR-UWB) exhibits significant advantages that are expected to overcome these limitations. Wideband signals offer robust communications and high-precision positioning; duty-cycled operations allow link scalability; and baseband-like architecture facilitates extremely simple and low-power transmitters. However, the implementation of the IR-UWB receiver is still power-hungry and complex, and thus is unacceptable for self-powered or passive tags.

    To cope with μW level power budget in wireless-powered systems, this dissertation proposes an UHF/UWB hybrid radio architecture with asymmetric links. It combines the passive UHF RFID and the IR-UWB transmitter. In the downlink (reader-tag), the tag is powered and controlled by UHF signals as conventional passive UHF tags, whereas it uses an IR-UWB transmitter to send data for a short time at a high rate in the uplink (tag-reader). Such an innovative architecture takes advantage of UWB transmissions, while the tag avoids the complex UWB receiver by shifting the burden to the reader. A wireless-powered tag providing -18.5 dBm sensitivity UHF downlink and 10 Mb/s UWB uplink is implemented in 180 nm CMOS. At the reader side, a non-coherent energy detection IR-UWB receiver is designed to pair the tag. The receiver is featured by high energy-efficiency and flexibility that supports multi-mode operations. A novel synchronization scheme based on the energy offset is suggested. It allows fast synchronization between the reader and tags, without increasing the hardware complexity. Time-of-Arrival (TOA) estimation schemes are analyzed and developed for the reader, which enables tag localization. The receiver prototype is fabricated in 90 nm CMOS with 16.3 mW power consumption and -79 dBm sensitivity at 10 Mb/s data rate. The system concept is verified by the link measurement between the tag and the reader. Compared with current passive UHF RFID systems, the UHF/UWB hybrid solution provides an order of magnitude improvement in terms of the data rate and positioning accuracy brought by the IR-UWB uplink.

  • 53.
    Zou, Zhuo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Baghaei Nejad, Majid
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    An efficient passive RFID system for ubiquitous identification and sensing using impulse UWB radio2007In: Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik, ISSN 0932-383X, Vol. 124, no 11, p. 397-403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The next generation RFID system for ubiquitous identification and sensing requires both energy and system efficiency. This paper describes an efficient passive RFID system using impulse ultra-wideband radio (IR-UWB), at a 10 m operation range. Unlike conventional passive RFID systems which rely on backscatter and narrowband radio, IR-UWB is introduced as the uplink (communication from a tag to a reader). By utilizing a specialized communication protocol and a novel ALOHA-based anti-collision algorithm, such semi-UWB systems enable a high network throughput (2000 tag/sec) under the low power and low cost constraint. A low power tag design for proof of concept is finally presented.

  • 54.
    Zou, Zhuo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Baghaei-Nejad, Majid
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    An efficient passive RFID system for ubiquitous identification and sensing using impulse UWB radio2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The next generation RFID system for ubiquitous identification and sensing requires both energy and system efficiency. This paper describes an efficient passive RFID system using impulse ultra-wideband radio (IR-UWB), at a 10m operation range. Unlike conventional passive RFID systems which rely on backscatter and narrowband radio, IR-UWB is introduced as the uplink (communication from a tag to a reader). By utilizing a specialized communication protocol and a novel ALOHA-based anti-collision algorithm, such Semi-UWB architecture enables a high network throughput (2000 tag/sec) under the low power and low cost constraint. A tag design for proof of concept is finally presented.

  • 55.
    Zou, Zhuo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Baghaei-Nejad, Majid
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Baseband design for passive semi-UWB wireless sensor and identification systems2007In: Proceedings - 20th Anniversary IEEE International SOC Conference / [ed] Sezer, S; Chen, SJ; Marshall, A; Tran, T, 2007, p. 313-316Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a digital baseband design for passive sensor and identification systems using asymmetric wireless links with ultra wideband (UWB) radio. As opposed to traditional wireless sensor and identification systems using halfduplex communication in narrowband frequency, impulse-LTWB is applied as an uplink in the proposed system. A novel baseband protocol is devised to improve the system efficiency in the multitag environment while maintaining the power constraint. By utilizing adaptive slotted ALOHA anti-collision algorithm, 1000 tags can be processed within 5OOms. The contributions also include the development of a low-power digital baseband processor for passive tags. The simulation is successful and the FPGA prototype is operational. The chip is implemented for ASIC and it Kill be fabricated and tested Kith the front-end in IP6M UMC 0. 18 mu m process.

  • 56.
    Zou, Zhuo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Chen, Qing
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Uysal, Ismail
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Radio frequency identification enabled wireless sensing for intelligent food logistics2014In: Philosophical Transactions. Series A: Mathematical, physical, and engineering science, ISSN 1364-503X, E-ISSN 1471-2962, Vol. 372, no 2017, p. 20130313-Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future technologies and applications for the Internet of Things (IoT) will evolve the process of the food supply chain and create added value of business. Radio frequency identifications (RFIDs) and wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been considered as the key technological enablers. Intelligent tags, powered by autonomous energy, are attached on objects, networked by short-range wireless links, allowing the physical parameters such as temperatures and humidities as well as the location information to seamlessly integrate with the enterprise information system over the Internet. In this paper, challenges, considerations and design examples are reviewed from system, implementation and application perspectives, particularly with focus on intelligent packaging and logistics for the fresh food tracking and monitoring service. An IoT platform with a two-layer network architecture is introduced consisting of an asymmetric tag-reader link (RFID layer) and an ad-hoc link between readers (WSN layer), which are further connected to the Internet via cellular or Wi-Fi. Then, we provide insights into the enabling technology of RFID with sensing capabilities. Passive, semi-passive and active RFID solutions are discussed. In particular, we describe ultra-wideband radio RFID which has been considered as one of the most promising techniques for ultra-low-power and low-cost wireless sensing. Finally, an example is provided in the form of an application in fresh food tracking services and corresponding field testing results.

  • 57.
    Zou, Zhuo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Deng, Ti
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zhou, Qin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mendoza, David S.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Jonsson, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Energy detection receiver with TOA estimation enabling positioningin passive UWB-RFID system2010In: Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband (ICUWB 2010), IEEE conference proceedings, 2010, p. 1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a passive UWB-RFID systemwith Time-Difference-of-Arrival (TDOA) positioning from systemto circuit perspectives. Wireless powered RFID tags with UWBtransmitter transmit wideband pulses to readers, allowing highaccurate Time-of-Arrival (TOA) estimation. Low power lowcomplexity TOA estimations using energy detection receiver areinvestigated. Max Energy Select (MES), Threshold Comparison(TC), and MES-Search-Back (MES-SB) algorithms are evaluatedand analyzed. As a special focus, a prototype of the proposedenergy detection receiver is designed and implemented. It consistsof a 3.1-4.8 GHz IR-UWB analog frontend with high speed digitalcircuits in 90 nm CMOS, and a flexible back-end with a TOAestimator on FPGA.

  • 58.
    Zou, Zhuo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Gidmark, A.
    Charalambous, T.
    Johansson, M.
    Optimal Radio Frequency Energy Harvesting with Limited Energy Arrival Knowledge2016In: IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, ISSN 0733-8716, E-ISSN 1558-0008, Vol. 34, no 12, p. 3528-3539, article id 7543484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We develop optimal sleeping and harvesting policies for radio frequency (RF) energy harvesting devices, formalizing the following intuition: when the ambient RF energy is low, devices consume more energy being awake than what can be harvested and should enter sleep mode; when the ambient RF energy is high, on the other hand, it is essential to wake up and harvest. Toward this end, we consider a scenario with intermittent energy arrivals described by a two-state Gilbert-Elliott Markov chain model. The challenge is that the state of the Markov chain can only be observed during the harvesting action, and not while in sleep mode. Two scenarios are studied under this model. In the first scenario, we assume that the transition probabilities of the Markov chain are known and formulate the problem as a partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP). We prove that the optimal policy has a threshold structure and derive the optimal decision parameters. In the practical scenario where the ratio between the reward and the penalty is neither too large nor too small, the POMDP framework and the threshold-based optimal policies are very useful for finding non-Trivial optimal sleeping times. In the second scenario, we assume that the Markov chain parameters are unknown and formulate the problem as a Bayesian adaptive POMDP and propose a heuristic posterior sampling algorithm to reduce the computational complexity. The performance of our approaches is demonstrated via numerical examples.

  • 59.
    Zou, Zhuo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Jonsson, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Tenhunen, H.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    A digital back-end of energy detection UWB impulse radio receiver2009In: NORCHIP, 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a digital back-end design for energy detection IR-UWB receivers which can be adopted in RFID and wireless sensor applications. A baseband processor is designed on the basis of a novel synchronization and estimation algorithm. It reduces implementation complexity and energy consumption. A programmable timing circuitry with 1.04 ns phase resolution is also devised in this work. The digital back-end is implemented in UMC 90 nm process, with 222 uW power and 140*220 um2 die area.

  • 60.
    Zou, Zhuo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mendoza, David Sarmiento
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Wang, Peng
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. Fudan University, China.
    Zhou, Qin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Jonsson, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. Fudan University, China.
    A Low-Power and Flexible Energy Detection IR-UWB Receiver for RFID and Wireless Sensor Networks2011In: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, ISSN 1549-8328, Vol. 58, no 7, p. 1470-1482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an energy detection Impulse Radio Ultra-Wideband (IR-UWB) receiver for Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) applications. An Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) consisting of a 3-5 GHz analog front-end, a timing circuit and a high speed baseband controller is implemented in a 90 nm standard CMOS technology. A Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is employed as a reconfigurable back-end, enabling adaptive baseband algorithms and ranging estimations. The proposed architecture is featured by high flexibility that adopts a wide range of pulse rate (512 kHz-33 MHz), processing gain (0-18 dB), correlation schemes, synchronization algorithms, and modulation schemes (PPM/OOK). The receiver prototype was fabricated and measured. The power consumption of the ASIC is 16.3 mW at 1 V power supply, which promises a minimal energy consumption of 0.5 nJ/bit. The whole link is evaluated together with a UWB RFID tag. Bit error rate (BER) measurement displays a sensitivity of -79 dBm at 10 Mb/s with 10(-3) BER achieved by the proposed receiver, corresponding to an operation distance over 10 meters under the FCC regulation.

  • 61.
    Zou, Zhuo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Ruan, Yue
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Zheng, Li-Rong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Tenhunen, Hannu
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic, Computer and Software Systems, ECS.
    Impulse UWB Energy Detection Receiver with Energy Offset Synchronization Scheme2009In: 2009 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ULTRA-WIDEBAND (ICUWB 2009), NEW YORK: IEEE , 2009, p. 540-544Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Impulse ultra-wideband radios (IR-UWB) show strong advantages in low power and low cost applications such as RFIDs and wireless sensor networks. This paper presents an IR-UWB receiver based on Energy Detection (ED) with on-off keying (OOK) modulation. A novel synchronization and detection algorithm using the energy offset scheme with adaptive threshold detection is suggested, aiming to reduce energy consumption and simplify hardware complexity. Simulation and FPGA implementation reveal that the proposed method can avoid complex and power consuming synchronization blocks, and reduce the preamble length, whereas maintaining the performance in the target level. Hardware integration issues are discussed, implying that the proposed receiver architecture has the possibility to achieve low complexity and low power implementation with several nJs energy per bit, at a data rate of 10Mb/s.

  • 62.
    Zou, Zhuo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Shao, Botao
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zhou, Qin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zhai, Chuanying
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Mao, Jia
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Baghaei-Nejad, Majid
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Chen, Qiang
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Zheng, Lirong
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronic Systems. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for Intelligence in Paper and Packaging, iPACK.
    Design and demonstration of passive UWB RFIDs: Chipless versus chip solutions2012In: RFID-Technologies and Applications (RFID-TA), 2012 IEEE International Conference on, IEEE , 2012, p. 6-11Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews recent research on Ultra-Wideband (UWB) techniques for the next generation Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) towards the Internet-of-Things (IoT), conducted by Vinn iPack Center at KTH, Sweden. First, we introduce an inkjet printed chipless UWB RFID for ultra-low cost applications such as item-level tracking. The identification number is coded by variations of the impedance over the transmission line, resulting in the OOK modulated data by means of pulse reflections in time domain. Prototypes were fabricated and measured for 4-bit tag and 8-bit tag, respectively. Thanks to the employment of fully printing process and paper substrates, the tag is potentially ultra-low cost in volume production. Second, a wirelessly powered RFID tag with an active UWB transmitter is studied for advanced applications such as wireless positioning and sensing. The tag is powered by UHF continuous waves, whereas it uses an UWB pulse generator to transmit data to the reader. It ensures the improved coverage and accurate positioning over traditional backscattering UHF tags. UWB readers, positioning, and sensing are also discussed in a system perspective. The two solutions reveal that UWB is a viable alternative to existing passive RFIDs adapting both low-cost applications and high-performance sensing and positioning applications.

12 51 - 62 of 62
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