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  • 51. Titarenko, Yu E.
    et al.
    Batyaev, V. F.
    Titarenko, A. Yu
    Butko, M. A.
    Pavlov, K. V.
    Florya, S. N.
    Tikhonov, R. S.
    Zhivun, V. M.
    Ignatyuk, A. V.
    Mashnik, S. G.
    Leray, S.
    Boudard, A.
    Cugnon, J.
    Mancusi, D.
    Yariv, Y.
    Nishihara, K.
    Matsuda, N.
    Kumawat, H.
    Mank, G.
    Gudowski, Waclaw
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Reactor Physics.
    Measurement and simulation of the cross sections for nuclide production in W-nat and Ta-181 targets irradiated with 0.04- to 2.6-GeV protons2011In: Physics of Atomic Nuclei, ISSN 1063-7788, E-ISSN 1562-692X, Vol. 74, no 4, p. 551-572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cross sections for nuclide production in thin (nat)Wand Ta-181 targets irradiated by 0.04-2.6-GeV protons have been measured by direct gamma spectrometry using two gamma spectrometers with the resolutions of 1.8 and 1.7 keV in the Co-60 1332-keV gamma line. As a result, 1895 yields of radioactive residual product nuclei have been obtained. The Al-27(p, x)Na-22 reaction has been used as a monitor reaction. The experimental data have been compared with the MCNPX (BERTINI, ISABEL), CEM03.02, INCL4.2, INCL4.5, PHITS, and CASCADE07 calculations.

  • 52. Titarenko, Yu E.
    et al.
    Batyaev, V. F.
    Titarenko, A. Yu
    Butko, M. A.
    Pavlov, K. V.
    Florya, S. N.
    Tikhonov, R. S.
    Zhivun, V. M.
    Ignatyuk, A. V.
    Mashnik, S. G.
    Leray, S.
    Boudard, A.
    Cugnon, J.
    Mancusi, D.
    Yariv, Y.
    Nishihara, K.
    Matsuda, N.
    Kumawat, H.
    Mank, G.
    Gudowski, Waclaw
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Reactor Physics.
    Measurement and simulation of the cross sections for the production of Gd-148 in thin W-nat and Ta-181 targets irradiated with 0.4- to 2.6-GeV protons2011In: Physics of Atomic Nuclei, ISSN 1063-7788, E-ISSN 1562-692X, Vol. 74, no 4, p. 573-579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cross sections for the production of Gd-148 in W-nat and Ta-181 targets irradiated by 0.4-, 0.6-, 0.8-, 1.2-, 1.6-, and 2.6-GeV protons at the ITEP accelerator complex have been measured by direct alpha spectrometry without chemical separation. The experimental data have been compared with the data obtained at other laboratories and with the theoretical simulations of the yields on the basis of the BERTINI, ISABEL, CEM03.02, INCL4.2, INCL4.5, CASCADE07, and PHITS codes.

  • 53.
    Titarenko, Yu. E.
    et al.
    ITEP, Moscow 117218, Russia..
    Batyaev, V. F.
    ITEP, Moscow 117218, Russia..
    Titarenko, A. Yu.
    ITEP, Moscow 117218, Russia..
    Butko, M. A.
    ITEP, Moscow 117218, Russia..
    Pavlov, K. V.
    ITEP, Moscow 117218, Russia..
    Tikhonov, R. S.
    ITEP, Moscow 117218, Russia..
    Florya, S. N.
    ITEP, Moscow 117218, Russia..
    Mashnik, S. G.
    Los Alamos Natl Lab, Los Alamos, NM 87545 USA..
    Gudowski, Waclaw
    KTH.
    High-energy threshold reaction rates on 0.8 GeV proton-irradiated thick Pb-target2008In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON NUCLEAR DATA FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, VOL 2, PROCEEDINGS / [ed] Bersillon, O Gunsing, F Bauge, E Jacqmin, R Leray, S, E D P SCIENCES , 2008, p. 1209-+Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This works presents results of activation-aided determination of threshold reaction rates in 92 Bi-209, Pb-nat, Au-197, Ta-181, Tm-169, In-nat, Nb-93, Zn-64, Cu-65, Cu-63, Co-59, F-19, and C-12 samples and in 121 Al-27 samples. All the samples are aligned with the proton beam axis inside and outside the demountable 92-cm thick Pb target of 15-cm diameter assembled of 23 4-cm thick discs. The samples are placed on 12 target disks to reproduce the long axis distribution of protons and neutrons. In June 2006, the target was exposed for 18 hours to a 800-MeV proton beam extracted from the ITEP U-10 accelerator. The proton fluence and the proton beam shape were determined using the 27Al (p,X)7 Be monitor reaction. The total number of protons onto the target was (6.0 +/- 0.5). 10(15). The reaction rates were determined by the direct gamma-spectrometry techniques. The GC-2518 detectors of 1.8 keV resolution and the DGDK-60V detectors of 2.9 keV resolution at the 1332 keV gamma-line were used to take the measurements. In total, 1196 gamma-spectra have been measured, and about 1500 reaction rates determined. The measured reaction rates were simulated by the MCNPX code using the following databases: ENDF/B6 for neutrons below 20 MeV, MENDL2 for 20-100 MeV neutrons, and MENDL2P for proton cross sections up to 200 MeV. An acceptable agreement of simulations with experimental data has been found.

  • 54.
    Titarenko, Yu. E.
    et al.
    Inst Theoret & Expt Phys, Moscow 117218, Russia..
    Batyaev, V. F.
    Inst Theoret & Expt Phys, Moscow 117218, Russia..
    Titarenko, A. Yu.
    Inst Theoret & Expt Phys, Moscow 117218, Russia..
    Butko, M. A.
    Inst Theoret & Expt Phys, Moscow 117218, Russia..
    Pavlov, K. V.
    Inst Theoret & Expt Phys, Moscow 117218, Russia..
    Tikhonov, R. S.
    Inst Theoret & Expt Phys, Moscow 117218, Russia..
    Florya, S. N.
    Inst Theoret & Expt Phys, Moscow 117218, Russia..
    Mashnik, S. G.
    Los Alamos Natl Lab, Los Alamos, NM 87545 USA..
    Ignatyuk, A. V.
    Inst Phys & Power Engn, Obninsk 249020, Russia..
    Gudowski, Waclaw
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Residual nuclide formation in Pb-206,Pb-207,Pb-208,Pb-nat and Bi-209 induced by 0.04-2.6 GeV protons as well as in Fe-56 induced by 0.3-2.6 GeV protons2008In: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON NUCLEAR DATA FOR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, VOL 2, PROCEEDINGS / [ed] Bersillon, O Gunsing, F Bauge, E Jacqmin, R Leray, S, E D P SCIENCES , 2008, p. 1099-+Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work is aimed at experimental determination of independent and cumulative yields of radioactive residual product nuclei in the intermediate energy proton-irradiated thin targets made of highly isotopic enriched and natural lead (Pb-206,Pb-207,Pb-208,Pb-nat), bismuth (Bi-209), and highly isotopic enriched iron (Fe-56). 5972 independent and cumulative yields of radioactive residuals nuclei have been measured in 55 thin Pb and Bi targets irradiated by 0.04, 0.07, 0.10, 0.15, 0.25, 0.6, 0.8, 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, and 2.6 GeV protons. Besides, 219 yields have been measured in 0.3, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.6 GeV proton-irradiated Fe target. In both cases, the protons were extracted from the ITEP U-10 synchrotron. The measured data are compared with experimental results obtained elsewhere and with theoretical calculations by seven codes. The predictive power was found to be different for each of the codes tested, but was satisfactory on the whole in the case of spallation products. At the same time, none of the codes can describe well the product yields throughout the whole product mass range, and all codes must be further improved.

  • 55. Tucek, Kamil
    et al.
    Jolkkonen, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Power Safety.
    Wallenius, Janne
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Reactor Physics.
    Gudowski, Waclaw
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Power Safety.
    Studies of an accelerator-driven transuranium burner with hafnium-based inert matrix fuel2007In: Nuclear Technology, ISSN 0029-5450, E-ISSN 1943-7471, Vol. 157, no 3, p. 277-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neutronic and burnup characteristics of an accelerator-driven transuranium burner in a startup mode were studied. Different inert and absorbing matrices as well as lattice configurations were assessed in order to identify suitable fuel and core design configurations. Monte Carlo transport and burnup codes were used in the analyses. The lattice pin pitch was varied to optimize the source efficiency and coolant void worth while respecting key thermal and material-related design constraints posed by fuel and cladding. A HfN matrix appeared to provide a good combination of neutronic, burnup, and safety characteristics: maintaining a hard neutron spectrum, yielding acceptable coolant void reactivity and source efficiency, and alleviating the burnup reactivity swing. A conceptual design of a (TRU,Hf)N fueled, lead-bismuth eutectic-cooled accelerator-driven system was developed. Twice higher neutron fission-to absorption probabilities in Am isotopes were achieved compared to reactor designs relying on ZrN or YN inert matrix fuel. The production of higher actinides in the fuel cycle is hence limited, with a Cm fraction in the equilibrium fuel being similar to 40% lower than for cores with ZrN matrix-based fuel. The burnup reactivity swing and associated power peaking in the core are managed by an appropriate choice of cycle length (100 days) and by core enrichment zoning. A safety analysis shows that the system is protected from instant damage during unprotected beam overpower transient.

  • 56.
    Tucek, Kamil
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Reactor Physics.
    Wallenius, Janne
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Reactor Physics.
    Gudowski, Waclaw
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Coolant void worth in fast breeder reactors and accelerator-driven transuranium and minor-actinide burners2004In: Annals of Nuclear Energy, ISSN 0306-4549, E-ISSN 1873-2100, Vol. 31, no 15, p. 1783-1801Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Liquid metal coolant void worth have been calculated as a function of fuel composition and core geometry for several model fast breeder reactors and accelerator-driven systems (ADSs). The Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with continuous energy cross-section libraries was used for this study. With respect to the core void worth, lead/bismuth cooled FBR, appear to be inferior to those employing sodium for pitch-to-diameter ratios exceeding 1.4. It is shown that in reactor systems cooled by lead/bismuth eutectic radial steel pin reflector significantly lowers the void worth. The void worth proves to be a strong function of the fuel composition, reactor cores with high content of minor actinides in fuel exhibiting larger void reactivities than systems with plutonium based fuel. Enlarging the lattice pitch in ADS burners operating on Pu rich fuel decreases the void worth while the opposite fact is true for ADSs employing americium based fuels.

  • 57. Von Lensa, W.
    et al.
    Boucher, L.
    Gonzales, E.
    Greneche, D.
    Gudowski, Wacław
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Reactor Physics.
    Marivoet, J.
    Nabbi, R.
    Odoj, R.
    Zimmerman, C. H.
    Red-impact: A European research programme to assess the impact of partitioning and transmutation on final nuclear waste disposal2008In: Int. Congr. Adv. Nucl. Power Plants - ICAPP, "Nucl. Renaiss. Work", 2008, p. 2564-2573Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is the objective of the EU-funded 'Red-Impact' project to analyse the impact of partitioning, transmutation and waste reduction technologies on the final nuclear waste disposal. The partnership of 25 organisations is originating from European nuclear industry, waste agencies, research centres and universities. The system studies focus on a realistic evolution of P&T technologies and advanced fuel cycles which can be deployed incrementally on an industrial scale as well as on future developments such as reactors of the third and fourth generation (Gen III & Gen IV) and Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS). A comprehensive inventory of all existing and foreseen nuclear fuel cycle facilities in Europe has been performed including a review on worldwide ongoing R&D programs on P&T. Thus, it was possible to select a set of three so-called "industrial scenarios", taking into account industrial feasibility of alternate strategies leading to increased actiniae burning and reduced actinide generation based on direct disposal (reference case) or MOXfuel for LWR and plutonium recycle in Sodium Fast Reactors (SFR). R&D needs for the development of processes and technologies have also been addressed. In addition, three 'innovative scenarios ' have been identified allowing multi-recycling of plutonium and minor actinides in SFR and Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS) as well as GANEX or COEXprocess and PYRO reprocessing technologies. Waste streams have been calculated for all of these scenarios including the transition from the present situation towards new fuel cycle options. These data provide the input to specific analyses on the impact on geological disposal in different host formations such as granite, clay and salt. The results show that advanced fuel cycles influence the required size of the geological repository in case of disposal in clay, salt or hard rock formations. Recycling of all the actinides results in a reduction of the necessary gallery length (depending on geology and design) at least by a factor 3. If additionally cesium and strontium are extracted from the high-level waste for separate decay, the reduction factor will become 10 or more. In the frame of the project, the feasibility and the impact of the Cs or Sr separated management were not assessed or evaluated. Transmutation of the actinides fast neutron spectrum reactors (FR or ADS) results in a limited reduction of the maximum dose because the dose is essentially due to long-lived fission and activation products. On the other hand, reprocessing the spent fuel decreases the maximum dose at the storage with a factor 5 because a considerable fraction of the iodine is separated from the high level waste during reprocessing. The radiotoxicity in the high level waste or spent fuel as well as human intrusion doses after 500 years are drastically reduced by the transmutation of the actinides. Evaluating actinide minimization systems and industrialised P&T in general requires an assessment of relevant nuclear fuel cycles especially with regard to the economic, environmental and societal advantages/disadvantages (i.e. the sustainability of the fuel cycles). Thus, a set of indicators has been derived for each of these areas. The results are analysed using the multi-criterion analysis approach which allows the importance of each of the indicators to be specified.

  • 58.
    Wallenius, Janne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Reactor Physics.
    Tucek, K.
    Carlsson, J.
    Gudowski, Waclaw
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Physics.
    Application of burnable absorbers in an accelerator-driven system2001In: Nuclear science and engineering, ISSN 0029-5639, E-ISSN 1943-748X, Vol. 137, no 1, p. 96-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of burnable absorbers (BAs) to minimize power peaking, reactivity loss, and capture-to-fission probabilities in an accelerator-driven waste transmutation system has been investigated. Boron-IO-enriched B4C absorber rods were introduced into a lead-bismuth-cooled core fueled with transuranic (TRU) discharges from light water reactors to achieve the smallest possible power peakings at beginning-of-life (BOL) subcriticality level of 0.97 Detailed Monte Carlo simulations show that a radial power peaking equal to 1.2 at BOL is attainable using a four-zone differentiation in BA content. Using a newly written Monte Carlo burnup code, reactivity losses were calculated to be 640 pcm per percent TRU burnup for unrecycled TRU discharges. Comparing to corresponding values in BA-free cores, BA introduction diminishes reactivity losses in TRU-fueled subcritical cores by similar to 20%. Radial power peaking after 300 days of operation at 1200-MW thermal power was0.92, which appears to be acceptable, with respect to limitations in cladding and fuel temperatures. In addition, the else of BAs yields significantly higher fission-to-capture probabilities in even-neutron-number nuclides. Fission-to-absorption probability ratio for Am-241 equal to 0.33 was achieved in the configuration studied. Hence, production of the strong alpha-emitter Cm-242 is reduced, leading to smaller fuel-swelling rates and pin pressurization. Disadvantages following BA introduction such as increase of void worth and decrease of Doppler feedback in conjunction with small values of beta (eff), need to be addressed by derailed studies of subcritical core dynamics.

  • 59.
    Ålander, Alexandra
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Reactor Physics.
    Dufek, Jan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Reactor Physics.
    Gudowski, Waclaw
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Nuclear Power Safety.
    From once-through nuclear fuel cycle to accelerator-driven transmutation2006In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 562, no 2, p. 630-633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study simulation of different nuclear fuel cycle scenarios are performed. The reference scenario corresponds to a medium size nuclear power country, with 10 light water reactors (LWRs). The study addresses long-term, equilibrium fuel cycle scenarios, with and without plutonium recycling (MOX) in LWRs and transuranics (TRU) burning in accelerator-driven systems (ADS). However, also short-term phase-out scenarios, including TRU burning in ADS, are performed. The equilibrium simulation showed that four ADS units, each of 800 MWt, are sufficient to burn an amount of plutonium and americium corresponding to the build-up of those elements. The phase-out simulation of a country adopting an approach to reduce the spent nuclear fuel inventory, showed that complementary burning of TRU in three to four ADS units appear suitable. The fuel cycle simulations have been performed using the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Simulation (NFCSim) code [C.G. Bathke, E.A. Schneider, NFCSim User's Manual, Los Alamos National Laboratory Report LA-UR-04-8369, 2004.] and the Monteburns code [D.I. Poston, H.R. Trellue, User's Manual, Version 2.0 for Monteburns, Version 1.0, LA-UR-99-4999, 1999.].

12 51 - 59 of 59
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