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  • 51.
    Sediqi, Mujtaba
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    4D BIM ADOPTION: THE INCENTIVES FOR AND BARRIERS TO 4D BIM ADOPTION WITHIN SWEDISH CONSTRUCTION COMPANIES2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is perceived to be one of the Building Information Modeling (BIM) leaders in the world. However, studies have shown that 4D BIM, which is a combination of a 3D model and an associated time schedule, is not widely deployed in construction planning practices among contractors. In Sweden many studies focused on BIM adoption in general, but since contractors are the main users of 4D BIM, there is a lack of studies exploring this specific dimension of BIM. This study considers 4D BIM as an innovation; the aim is to find the incentives for and barriers to adopt 4D BIM within the Swedish construction industry. A literature review was conducted and the most common variables were derived; in addition to this, an online questionnaire and a series of interviews targeting Swedish construction companies were conducted. The findings were that 4D BIM is a new start within the Swedish construction industry, where a series of both technical (software, standards, complexity) and non-technical barrier (organizational, lack of client demand, unclear benefits, investment) has an impact on the adoption process. Large companies are the early adopters and use it to maintain their strategic position in the industry, whereas smaller contractors are prone to more barriers and mostly rely on clients´ demand. 

  • 52.
    Holmberg, Victor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Westlund, Wiking
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    5D-BIM i tidigt projektskede: Behov och förutsättningar för teknikdriven förändring2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today Building Information Modelling (BIM) involves more than just 3D-modeling and the dimensions time (4D) and cost (5D) can be added. The positive effects of 5D-BIM and the potential to involve more actors earlier in the project make it interesting to study the needs of 5D-BIM in the early stages of the project. This study has an organizational perspective on change where focus is on how 5D-BIM is perceived and how the technic should be implemented.  This master thesis has been written in collaboration with JM and the interviews are based on actors in early stages within the JM organization. The results of the study are based on JM, which are characterized by ownership of the entire project process from acquisition to management and deliver relatively standardized products. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the needs of 5D-BIM in early stages and the level of information required. The study also focuses on examining the organizational conditions required to motivate the implementation of information systems in existing organizational structures. It appeared in the interview study that it is important for the organization to be clear in its definition of concepts like BIM. The needs found are linked to the knowledge the respondent have on BIM and their definition of BIM. The study shows that the implementation of BIM is strongly linked to collaboration and information management between stakeholders, and that enhanced collaboration between actors is a prerequisite for creating an integrated flow of information. Today there is a need for an integrated system created from a connected flow of information. An integrated flow of information answers the need of making successive calculations on time and cost as well as understanding the effects of decisions made. Today, models lack traceability as desired. Without traceability, the information is specific to the project and cannot be used in other projects. For a successful implementation of 5D-BIM, respondents believe it is important that the technology is implemented step-by-step and adapted to the existing needs. This study indicates that a company's structure and culture are important prerequisites for the implementation of information technology. Implementation is also facilitated by a structured way of working and a culture positive toward changes. Motivation for change within organizations is based on creating value for individuals. Intuitive systems are a prerequisite for individuals to see value in the change and to trust the technology. 

  • 53.
    Nyberg, Josefine
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Rigby, Linda
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Arbetsledarrollen idag: En fallstudie av arbetsledarrollen på ett stort entreprenadföretag2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today the construction industry is going through some major changes in several fields. The past decades development in technology and sustainability has been given larger focus and a desire to use this to improve and make the industry more efficient has developed. Another huge change has been recognized in the general culture in the industry. The industry has for a long time been tinged by male dominance and a “macho culture” which has gradually been changed. Former common occurrence of bribery is another aspect that the industry is currently trying to get rid of. To be able to successfully carry out these changes the role of the middle manager is important and within the construction industry this middle manager can be seen as the construction foreman.  However, there has been few studies based on the role of the construction foreman. The purpose of this study is therefore to create a deeper understanding and knowledge about the role and what it involves. Above all, the writers are interested in understanding the role from the foreman's perspective. The study is therefore based on observations and interviews from six construction foremen at six different projects. The results from the study shows that the role of a construction foreman is more alike than first assumed. It includes a sample of similar tasks and there is a common pattern and structure that makes the role able to define. The main responsibility is to make sure that the construction runs smoothly which is done by leading the workers, collaborate with other parties within the organisation and handle problems that occur. More general, the role includes communication, motivation, planning and acting as a link between different levels in the organisation. The majority of the tasks is reactive, while the tasks that most of the foreman consider value creating is proactive. The biggest changes in the role that has been observed is connected to the leadership. The role has moved towards a softer more coaching form of leadership compared to the previous authoritarian. One of the biggest challenges within the role is to move it towards a more proactive approach instead of today's reactive approach and thus get an even better structure throughout the day. Future development of the role is therefore most likely about trying to steer the role in this direction, trying to impose a bit more structure. Another challenge is to learn to prioritize between different assignments. To find a good balance between outside and inside, between the management and the workers and between having full control and leaving some responsibility to others.

  • 54.
    Martinsson, Mattias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Wennberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    BIM i produktionsplanering: Förutsättningar och ledarskap2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of the AEC industry implementing and using BIM, new roles have been created to manage and lead the work. Research has shown that there are uncertainties regarding these roles, which tasks they should perform and which phases they will be involved in. BIM is generally used more during the design phase than the production phase, even though research shows that there are advantages if BIM is used throughout all phases. This study has investigated how the planning for production could make use of BIM, the conditions for implementation and the role that will manage the work. Based on an interview study, four areas of production planning: safety planning, site planning, time scheduling and calculation are examined. A scenario for each area and how these could be implemented with BIM is presented followed by a survey of the employees working on the matters and their thoughts and their attitude towards it. The case study shows that there are good conditions for using BIM in production planning as employees see great benefits and are positive about working with BIM. At the same time, it is noted that knowledge levels differentiate between the employees and between the areas, which can create an obstacle to the implementation. The BIM manager is considered important in all four areas. In the work with calculations, where employees show a higher experience and knowledge level of BIM than other areas, the role is considered to be needed as mostly technical support. In other areas, BIM managers are considered to take more part of the work process. They show that the BIM manager is considered to have extensive experience in construction. There is an uncertainty about the responsibility for the model in production planning where the BIM manager, site manager and design manager are all considered for the task.

    Based on the employees estimated commitment and competence, the study has presented different leadership styles with respect to the theory of situational leadership. This could be seen as guidance for the BIM manager. For the work with calculations, a delegating leadership style is recommended, for safety and site planning a coaching and supporting leadership style is recommended. For the work with time scheduling a more directing leadership style is recommended.

  • 55.
    Gabert, Henny
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Grönlund, Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Blockchain and smart contracts in the Swedish construction industry2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Blockchain technology with its distributed ledgers attracts massive attention today and creates interest in many different industries. One of the most promising areas for implementation of blockchain technology is its use to create fully automated and decentralized contract solutions, so-called smart contracts. The blockchain technology is also expected to develop the concept of BIM by facilitating the creation of a common model. The problem addressed in this study is the limited amount of research carried out in the blockchain field and the potential use of smart contracts in procurement of services in the construction industry.  The construction industry differs from many other industries as it is project-based with changing circumstances and conditions. The study shows that the construction industry is an industry focused on discussions and disputes, the majority of which are linked to payments and contractual interpretations. Two of the key concepts of the study are therefore moral hazard and opportunistic behavior. Opportunistic behavior can affect norms, the willingness for cooperation and the degree to which parties trust each other. Designing contracts to reduce the risk of moral hazard and opportunistic behavior is therefore an important aspect. The study has chosen to study both relationships that are hierarchical to nature but also peer-to-peer.  The purpose of the study has been to conceptually reflect on percived opportunities and challenges with blockchains in the construction industry regarding two identified applications, smart contracts and BIM. To investigate this, a qualitative interview study has been conducted. The study points to the need for a more standardized building process that is subject to a certain degree of repetition to achieve successful use of a blockchain network and smart contracts. The study also shows that there is a positive attitude from the respondents regarding a possible development for several of the potential applications of blockchain technology. Blockchain technology and smart contracts have the potential to improve the reliability and credibility of logbooks, self-checks and work performed within a building project. Furthermore, the study highlights the importance of long-term relationships and confidence in reducing opportunistic behavior. Based on previous research and empirical analysis, the study contributes to an increased understanding of which levels in the construction industry smart contracts may be applicable. The study shows that smart contracts are not perceived suitable for complex contracts where the work to be performed can be changed many times during the contract period. The study, on the other hand, indicates that blockchain development with BIM is not demanded at the present time. Finally, the study points out that blockchain technology is perceived to have the potential to make the building process more transparent and open with reduced power conditions at the same time as it gets less centralized which opens up the need for research in that direction.

  • 56.
    Hultgren, Michael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Pajala, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Blockchain technology in construction industry: Transparency and traceability in supply chain2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing number of construction products that are manufactured globally through complex supply chains. The results of this is that quality requirements are increasing and the construction industry look towards ways to reassure the sustainability of the materials in their supply chains. The aim of this study is to explore how the new blockchain technology may be used to meet today´s and future requirements of the construction industry and analyze the potential consequences of using the technology. Our work examine how the blockchain technology can support supply chain transparency and material traceability. To explore and analyze how the technology may affect the supply chain of a specific material a case study has been carried out. The task has been focused on how a specific material is handled throughout a suppliers supply chain, from where it originates until final use by a contractor. A hypothetical supply chain has been set-up and analyzed in terms of transparency, traceability and the potential consequences of using the blockchain technology. We have specifically focused on how the blockchain system could be set-up, who should own the blockchain system and what are the sustainable aspects of using blockchain.  The conclusion is that blockchain technology can improve the transparency throughout the entire supply chain. However the need for a complementary technology is needed in order to handle all the problems with traceability. One example of this complementary technology is RFID tagging. Furthermore, some of the consequences that has been identified are; it improves the way to handle supply chain documentation, the reputation of the industry improves, the possibility to remove third party organs increases. 

  • 57.
    Alekhtyar, Mumena
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Building Information Modelling and Virtual Design and Construction: Differentiations and interaction2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within the last decade BIM technology products have been providing the construction industry with various tools that can be used in all construction phases and aspects with a wide set of potentials that range from visualization to simulation, scheduling and cost estimation (Kam , et al., 2016). As a result, the term BIM started to have new interpretation from a process- oriented perspective beside the product-oriented interpretation. These different interpretations and definitions of BIM creates an ambiguity regarding BIM. The ambiguity about what is BIM takes another direction when the term “Virtual Design and Constructions” VDC is used as synonym of BIM as well in many situations. VDC is defined as the use of integrated multi-disciplinary performance models of design-construction projects to support explicit and public business objectives (Kunz & Fischer, 2012). This study is an attempt to answer the following questions: What are the differences between BIM and VDC and how BIM and VDC interact and affect each other. As a result, a timeline for both terms was created based on a historical analysis for the emergence of both terms. Furthermore, more differences between VDC and BIM were located through literature reviews and empirics and this mapping was used to find how each term affects the other.   The study was conducted in Tyréns Swedish consultancy company and it covered two infrastructure projects where VDC is used. 

  • 58.
    Sun, Jingyi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Coworking space in China2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis is aiming to examine the current development situation of Chinese Coworking spaces from both the tenants’ side and the developers’ side, and also estimate its development prospect due to the fact that Coworking is an emerging industry in China in recent years. In order to capture a comprehensive picture of the development status of Coworking space in China, both tenant’s perspective and the developer’s perspective were considered in this thesis. Background knowledge regarding Chinese market and traditional office market is briefly introduced. The method used in the study includes a survey, a semi-structured interview and a case study. According to the results, the tenant’s perspective is derived from the result of the survey, while the developer’s perspective is acquired based on two semi-interviews in Techcode and case study of Urwork. Selected Coworking spaces represent two different types of Coworking space developer among Chinese market. One has real estate developer background and the other is an entrepreneur itself. In conclusion, Chinese Coworking space is still in an immature phase, since developers are still exploring and detecting proper business models. Suggestions to developers were also given by combining the characteristics of the Chinese market and the study result. 

  • 59.
    Englund, Elin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Grönlund, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Current Legal Problems and Risks with BIM in the Swedish AEC Industry2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Architectural, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry is often described as fragmented, highly complex and risk-oriented with major challenges due to the high level of conflicts and low level of productivity. Building Information Modeling (BIM) is claimed to be the future of the AEC industry and is a way to address these issues. A BIM model can be used in all the phases of a facility's life cycle and can result in better quality at lower cost and reduced time-consumption. However, there are not just benefits with BIM but also risks and problems, which can be hard to manage and prevent the adoption of BIM. Several of the risks and problems are connected to legal issues.  This thesis consists of a qualitative research study that explores the current situation of the legal challenges with BIM, which companies are facing in their construction projects in the Swedish AEC industry. The study intends to develop an understanding of the legal problems that hinders the adoption of BIM and how these problems can be minimized. Semi-structured interviews were held with ten respondents in different companies in Sweden to get an understanding of the legal issues with BIM in their construction projects. The result of the interviews showed that the major legal issue with BIM is the capability to define the model as a legal act and rank the model higher than drawings in a contract. In addition, it was found that the difficulty to review that the model is sufficiently correct and reliable is also something that companies see as a hinder for the full adoption of BIM. Therefore, companies still often prefer to have the drawings as a legal act rather than models. 

  • 60.
    Chahrstan, Tony
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Kristola Truc, Axel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Det digitaliserade boendet: Möjligheter och utmaningar för byggherrar och bostadsutvecklare2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid progress of digitalisation has left clear traces on whichever industry it has encountered. It can streamline already existing processes within a company, as well as it has the ability to open up opportunities for new companies with innovative business models to rapidly compete with well-established firms. In the real estate industry the impact of e-commerce on firms within the trade sector and coworking companies’ impressive foothold in the office market are among the most perceptible effects.    However, fewer changes have been noted so far in the residential sector, and nor has the sector received as much attention in academic- as well as non-academic literature. The purpose of this essay is thus to highlight the opportunities and the challenges that affected actors are facing. Furthermore, this paper will investigate whether developers and owners of residential real estate assets are facing different conditions and/or have altered targets when working on developing the housing of tomorrow.  The study is based on qualitative interviews involving ten actors active in the residential market. Among the interviewees are four municipal residential owners, four private residential owners and two developers. The result of this study clearly shows differences when it comes to how the municipal and the private actors consider the opportunity to create new businesses by offering their customers services as complements to the home. The municipal companies choose to stick to their core business while the private ones are clearly determined to offer service solutions that are linked to the home.   Furthermore, the interviews show that developers focus more on developing digitalised service solutions that are attractive to the customers, while the owners, in addition to these solutions, also have a strong desire to develop solutions that can streamline the operations and the management of the properties.   In conclusion, it can be seen that the biggest challenge that all actors within the industry will face is to be able to properly synchronize all components in the property with each other on a common and open platform. Unfortunately, it appears as quite clear that the conceptual smart real estate, which is described in idealistic terms in various reports, is still just a looming utopia.

  • 61.
    Olsson, Julia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Samaan, Julia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Development of e-commerce within fast moving consumer goods2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, we can observe a shift in consumer behavior where more products are being consumed online. For food or so called fast moving consumer goods it has taken longer to start this transition than for other industries such as books and electronics but now it is on the rise and it has been an overall increase of 30 to 37 % in the last couple of years. A continuous increase in e-commerce will most likely lead to major changes in the real estate industry as the retail industry will not be in need of physical stores to the same way as they are used today. In line with these structural changes new business models will be created that strikes out old ones.  The aim of this report is to account for the development of e-commerce within fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) and to evaluate the business models of the main traditional retailers. By comparing how retailer’s business models meet the underlying theory of consumers purchasing behavior online, the purpose is to explain what retailers will be successful in the future. To fulfil the aim of the report an examination has been made of relevant theories such as the theory of planned behavior and its key factors essential to run a successful business model for online retailing within FMCG. Apart from the theory of planned behavior, the business model of IKEA that has been proven to be successful, is used as a reference model. The research is restricted to two of our four main retailers in Sweden for food which is ICA and Bergendahls (City Gross). To answer the research questions a qualitative method has been used in the thesis by performing two case studies on ICA respectively Bergendahls with the collection of primary data in form of interviews, which have been complemented with secondary data. By comparing the business models of ICA and Bergendahls with the theoretical models and the reference object IKEA the purpose is to determine if they will be successful online or not. The key to having a successful business model and online platform is to focus mainly on the wired lifestyle and the customers attitude towards it, which is the most important factor affecting the consumers’ intention towards buying food online. Freshness and novelty are the second and third most important factors affecting the consumers’ intention towards buying food online and therefore shall these factors be the retailers next focus area. In order to pin point what is important for their business and to be able to focus on the right factors for being successful and gaining market shares the retailers should have a separate model for e-commerce.

  • 62.
    Hall, Jonathan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Digitalization of Facility Management: Financial Incentives2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The digital reality is within this current moment debated and something that affects people. Upcoming years in real estate in general, it will be crucial of developments within the industry concerning digital solutions. The processes, business and approaches that have affected an industry for a very long time are changing in its foundations. Owning a property or managing an object in the coming years in an increasingly digitized world will bring new types of demands on organizations that intend to participate in the development. For a long time, digitization has existed as a concept seeming exciting and interesting. Smart devices have taken a larger part of time through telephones, televisions and likewise. Banking processes have evolved through phones and other digital tools to provide new variations of banking services. Airports have developed digital check-in services, which mean that you are actually virtually on the plane before you arrive at the airport. The development of these banking and tourism services changes the market and companies have been able to take part of the market by providing new solutions.  In development and innovation, there is a term used repeatedly, the idea of a “disruptive innovation”. More explicitly, a new innovation that destroys the previously functioning market. As a concrete example, the previously well-functioning camera - today largely exchanged for the digital camera. Or the previously mentioned development of banks and flight processes. It has previously been functioning markets, however, these new processes and innovations have eliminated earlier working solutions by performing better.   The study investigates possibilities closer if there are potential "disruptive innovations" in facility management and digital key control. The thesis has been focusing on the consequences of digital keys by using a model to analyse the impact on work in a future process. The physical key is one of the most ancient innovations that have been refined and developed over the centuries. With the new digital reality, it may be possible to find a new process that create better functions. 

  • 63.
    Gustafsson, Karl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Lund Riboe, Alex
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Eftermarknaden för byggprojekt inom kommersiella fastigheter: ett organisations- och relationsperspektiv2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In most industries, competition is hard, the construction industry is no exception. One way of standing strong in the market is finding other means of competition than the traditional: price and quality. This master thesis aims at investigating the importance of the aftermarket for contractors and property owners. The thesis is written together with the construction company Zengun, whose intention is to improve its management of the aftermarket. The study has been conducted exploratively with focus on the relationship between the contractor and the property owner in the time after completion of a building project. Interviews have been conducted with representatives from four of Stockholm's major commercial property owners and representatives from two construction companies. The thesis starts with theories of service marketing, relationship management theory and organizational theory which are subsequently analyzed and discussed. The study shows that the aftermarket in the construction industry does not work satisfactorily and efficiently. This view is shared by representatives from both property owners and construction companies. The contractor does not spend a lot of time and energy on the aftermarket, even though it is the aftermarket that constitutes the majority of a building's technical service life. One reason for this is the difficulty for the contractor to see the profitability in aftermarket investments. Aftermarket-related work take place at the expense of the production of new projects, where new production is prioritized. To succeed in the aftermarket, it is important to understand what long-term benefits it can provide. With a separate aftermarket organization, the contractor eliminates the conflict of interest between production in projects and aftermarket-related jobs. The separate aftermarket organization creates the conditions for other units of construction companies to become more profitable. In addition, there is an opportunity to strengthen the relationship with the property owner and its facility management unit which can generate new projects. In order for the aftermarket organization to work, it requires that certain factors, conditions and risks be taken into account. If this is considered and the contractor can change their approach and organization in the aftermarket, it can be made more effective and adding value for both construction companies and property owners.

  • 64.
    Moström, Elin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Stopner, Märta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    E-handelns påverkan på fysiska handelsytor2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish e-commerce is growing rapidly each year. During 2017 the growth was equal to 17 percent and the percentage of the total retail industry is now 8.7 percent. How the retail industry develops very much affects the real estate owners who provide the physical retail spaces. The goal of this master thesis is to examine how the development and expansion of e-commerce affects the real estate companies in their choices of how to manage their retail space. The study is based on a qualitative research method where a literature study has been performed alongside interviews with real estate owners. In total, six real estate companies have been interviewed, as well as two retail consultants who provide an external view of the topics and contribute their thoughts of the future retail environment.  What has been observed is that most of the retail companies work actively with the upcoming changes and have strategies, or at least some sort of goal, to be able to follow the development of the retail industry. Also discussed in the results are some topics related to the management of the retail space that are believed to have to change or evolve in the future, such as leases, tenant mixture and cooperation. The consultants, on the other hand, don’t fully agree that the real estate owners have as much control over the situation and work with as clear strategies as they claim. What can also be seen is that the real estate companies work in somewhat similar ways even though they have different types of real estate, some have city locations and some have shopping centres. They all seem to agree that in the future, they have to create shopping areas where people will want to go to socialize and hang out, places that give them something that they cannot buy online. 

  • 65.
    Montelius, Erika
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Marija, Pavlovic
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Ersättning vid inrättande av vattenskyddsområde2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This degree project will investigate whether it is possible to regulate current legislation regarding remuneration in case of shortage of property on the land of the landowners, in cases where expropriation occurs in order to promote environmental protection for specific purposes. The investigation defines the current environmental protection, to water conservation areas, where there are essentially restrictions on ownership of the drinking water in various respects, for example, to ensure the drinking water of the municipality.

    The legal-judicial method will base the on-going investigation, in which we will analyze and study relevant theory, such as legal texts, doctrine, practice and literature in the current research area. Supplementary interviews will be carried out and legal cases will be explained, in order to illustrate how the theory is transformed into practice. Water conservation areas are created to preserve and ensure the quality and quantity of raw water resources. The protection is set up to counteract continuous and temporary contamination that human beings cause today or by land use in the future. Use of pesticides is what causes the greatest pollution in land use. It has been discovered that remains from chemical particles have been found in water, even though the chemicals have long been banned. This indicates that the decomposition process of the chemicals takes a long time and demonstrates the importance of striving for a sustainable use of pesticides. The European Union has established water directives to protect and ensure water quality around Europe.

    In Sweden, county councils and municipalities decide if water protection areas are to be established for a specific field of land. As there is a need to protect water resources, there is also a need to implement land use restrictions when drafting water protection regulations. The water protection regulations lead to land use restriction, which implies that certain types of actions or activities either become licensed or completely prohibited. All individuals who own a property are subject to property protection, according to the law. The European Convention “Article 1 Protection of Property” have influenced chapter 2 section 15 of the RF, in the Swedish legislation. The property owner's property protection is strong and can only be terminated by expropriation or to meet important public interests. Compensation shall be given in cases where expropriation occurs, according to the grounds stated in law. In case of compensation for actions that take place for health, environmental or safety reasons, the right to compensation shall comply with what is claimed by applicable legislation.

    The Environmental Code (MB) regulates and maintains limitations in the health and environmental impact of both present and future. The goal is to achieve sustainable development and ensure that living and future generations get a healthy and good living environment. Thus, it is the provisions of the Environmental Code that provide the right to establish protection areas with different purposes. The environmental protection provisions are intended to provide protection against harmful effects in these areas. It is thus, the authority that decides establishment of a protection area, where position must both regulate the interest of the protection as to the interest of the individual. As the individual's right to use land or water is restricted by a safeguard clause, the limitation must not exceed the time required to meet the purpose of the protection. A balance of interest must always be done when establishing a protection area.

    The individual is entitled to apply for exemption from the restrictions and for compensation for intrusion established to accommodate public interest. In the case of the right to compensation, the provisions of the Environmental Code (MB) chapter 31 shall apply. The section states that compensation should be given for decisions requiring land or land use in the affected part of a property, to be significantly hampered. Thus, the regulation implies that the property owner is entitled to compensation in cases where damage of the kind referred to arises as a result of the establishment of a protection regulation under chapter 7 section 22 MB. According to chapter 31, MB shall apply the provisions of ExL when calculating the landowner's compensation.

    In cases where compensation cannot be decided in the applicable special legislation for the specific purpose, provisions in the Expropriation Act shall apply. Restrictions that can regulate and impose the ownership must be of general interest, essential and no alternative locations may be available. Expropriation occurs either through ownership, utility or servitude on nonstate property.

    Furthermore, the intrusion must be socio-economically profitable, which means that the intrusion must consider the disadvantages that the public and the individual suffer from, whereby an interest balance must be made between the general and the individual. Compensation shall be paid in cases where the property owner, in the case of a forced acquisition of ownership, is liable for damage that occurs when an infringement is instituted. There are various ways to calculate the amount of compensation. Partly by means of liquidation (entire property) and intrusion compensation (part of property), which in both cases refers to the expropriation of a land area, where remuneration is based on the market value / market value reduction plus another 25 % and if the compensation would not cover the damage, other compensation is paid to cover the remaining damage. Compensation can also be granted for corporate injury that occurs when the property being expropriated is affected by changed usage conditions. This degree project focuses on investigating two different remuneration methods for calculating compensation in the water conservation area; Agricultural Standards and IAN Methods The agricultural standard was established to determine compensation for road interference, based on calculating infringement compensation according to the extent of the damage. The IAN method estimates the legal reduction in the real estate owner's return value and thereby determines other financial damage to the property owner.

    The authors, through interviews and court cases, have obtained information that has led to a stated conclusion for the work.

    The conclusion of the investigation is that no specific method can be established to calculate the compensation for the establishment of water conservation areas. The calculation of remuneration varies on a case by case basis and should be assessed according to the conditions for the individual. The degree project also discusses different proposals for future research areas and how further investigations can be carried out in the field, including clarify how compensation is determined and regulated according to the nature of the infringement.

  • 66.
    Gregorsson, Linn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Jönsson, Astrid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Exploring the effects of Proptech in the hotel industry: Can digitalization provide sustainable growth for hotels?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The hotel industry is long known to be a traditional and conservative industry, with very few changes the last decades. While the surrounding industries have adopted new technology and improved processes, the hotel business is far behind. The hotels’ inefficient use of space, new consumer demands together with a rise of alternative competitors imply that the industry needs to improve. Additionally, the built industry has a large environmental impact where there is room to improve processes. This thesis labels challenges in the hotel industry, new market conditions affecting the industry and new technology (“Proptech”). The aim of this research is to examine how to achieve sustainable growth in the hotel industry by exploiting innovative technology. The research is conducted with a qualitative research method. Empirics have been collected through semi-structured interviews with professionals within the subject area such as hotel operators, hotel advisors and Proptech investors, developers and researchers. A literature review has been carried out to explain underlying fundamentals of the research field. The empirical findings are discussed against the theoretical findings to provide suggestions for solutions within the subject area. The findings of this thesis suggest that there are several external areas, which have advanced more rapidly within technology, impacting the hotel industry and implying numerous changes that need to be introduced on the hotel market. Proptech can solve for many of the identified challenges, and result in higher growth for the hotel industry. The theoretical implications of this thesis identify three focal areas where Proptech can be advantageous; customization, space flexibility and management processes. 

  • 67.
    Ali, Ali
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Jeng, Michelle
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Flexibla hyresförhållanden på lager- och logistikfastighetsmarknaden: En kvalitativ studie om e-handelns påverkan2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    "The demand that e-commerce is giving rise to today is contradictive to us property owners. Because e-commerce companies have a temporary need of something that will last for a very long time."

    - Matthias Kettelhoit, NREP

    The continuous development of digitalization as well as the growing e-commerce have profoundly changed the retail industry, where shifts in consumer behavior in particular has been one of the driving forces for retailers to adapt their business models. The rise of new retail trends and the number of e-commerce companies has increased significantly. This imposes new demands on property owners, not least on the rental market in the warehouse and logistics segment, where the traditionally long leases now are being challenged by tenants' demand for flexible rental conditions. The purpose of this study was to investigate how property owners can meet this demand. The method chosen for the study was a qualitative method, where semi-structured interviews were conducted with property owners, e-commerce companies and a third-party logistics provider. The study showed that the rapidly increasing e-commerce is a driving force for modern warehouses and flexible leasing conditions being sought by tenants. The conclusion that can be drawn from this study is that there is a difference in what large and small e-commerce companies define as valuable flexible leasing conditions. In order for property owners to meet the demand for flexibility from large e-commerce companies, offering of expansion opportunities will be crucial. Moreover, the study shows that the noted demand for short leases is merely a response to the lack of space flexibility within the segment. To further add, it may be necessary to implement new rental models in order for property owners to better meet the demand for flexibility from startups and small e-commerce companies. In an attempt to attract this target group, a revenue-based rental model was brought up for discussion in this paper as a way for property owners to gain greater market share of e-commerce.

  • 68.
    Ferreira Sjöström, Nicole
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Från samfinansieringsprojekt till platssamverkan: Hur skapar vi långsiktiga samarbeten för bättre urbana miljöer?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    International, national and local initiatives encourage the development of public spaces towards inclusive, safe and sustainable cities. Contributions from different public and private organisations are needed to improve public places. Many people refer to the international Business Improvement District (BID) model, which involves collaboration between municipalities, property owners, merchants and other industry actors to ensure well-maintained and attractive public environments. Private businesses have however experienced conflicts with the municipality when trying to implement BID-inspired methods in Stockholm. This study investigates how BID-inspired methods are used for long-term management of urban environments in Sweden and within the Stockholm municipality. It is a qualitative study with an exploratory approach that addresses the problem area using the following three procedures:

    (1) Observations, interviews and participation in seminars

    (2) Document-based case studies of existing organisations that implement BID-inspired methods in Sweden

    (3) Exploration of Stockholm municipality’s procedures regarding the use of public places

    The study discusses both municipal and private perspectives to investigate BID as a phenomenon and as a tool. The results show that BID-inspired methods can be applied in all locations where there is more than one industry actor and that there are a large number of organisations in Sweden already implementing similar methods. However, there are potential conflicts between private interests and the municipality's responsibility to keep public places accessible to the public. Stockholm municipality wants to be careful when implementing new tools and procedures to minimize the risk that certain people will reap benefits at the expense of others. However, they find it important to be innovative about these issues and they believe that such models are more viable when methods for collective actions in place management become verified and systematised. The lack of clearly defined structures and guidelines for implementing such collaborative models is thus a limiting factor, and the conclusion is that the industry would benefit from an umbrella organisation providing support and guidance for local work.

  • 69.
    Ingelgård, Mathilda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Regnell, Louise
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Green is the New Black: A study of investor reliance in green bond investments in the Swedish real estate market2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    After the environmental debate was put firmly into economics literature, an emerging sustainable finance sector attempts to discipline corporate social and environmental behaviour, in which the financial markets and the real estate sector have been stated to play particularly important roles. Research within Swedish real estate financing has identified a growing interest of sustainable financing, mentioning green bonds in particular. Green bonds are based on traditional corporate bonds with the difference that green bonds possess an element of influence. The issuer is obliged to report back to the investor how net proceeds from the issuance have been used to finance green projects, which creates a requirement for transparency. The fact that green bonds is a fairly new financing and investment alternative whilst simultaneously growing incredibly fast has highlighted the significance of reliance for green bonds as a financial product. The aim of this study has been to explore in what ways green bonds in the Swedish real estate market are being initiated and structured and subsequently governed to establish investor reliance.  This research is conducted with a qualitative methodology on the basis of an exploratory nature, and the collection of qualitative data has mainly been performed through semi-structured interviews with all categories of stakeholders currently involved in the use of green bonds in the Swedish real estate market. The empirical results and subsequent analysis have concluded that it is obvious that there are numerous positive incentives related to issuing green bonds. All positive incentives consequently give rise to concerns regarding the true purpose of the issuances and whether or not these are aligned with the original purpose of the product. The more positive incentives, the more the risk of greenwashing increases. The risk of greenwashing could pose a significant threat to the general perception of and reliance in the green bond market. Obviously, all positive incentives do not necessarily entail greenwashing; there has to be positive incentives for the market of green bonds to occur, especially as it is a widely appreciated product with a generally good purpose. However, the issuers must be transparent, and the investors must be aware of the potential risk factors in order to establish investor reliance in green bonds as a financial product.

  • 70.
    Onsbring Gustafsson, Lovisa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Housing Construction in Stockholm: Fundamental Factors’ Impact on Construction Volume2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Housing availability plays a central role for the mobility in the labour market and for the economic growth in a country. Housing construction in Sweden is now increasing strongly after a period of low construction during and after the financial crisis in 2008. Despite this, many of the Swedish municipalities indicate that there is a housing shortage, especially in the metropolitan regions. The main reason for this is that the population has grown at a faster pace compared to the number of homes. This thesis uses a regression analysis to analyse what fundamental economic factors that affected housing construction in Stockholm County between 1992 and 2016.  The result from the regression analysis shows that the repo rate, inflation, GDP, population, unemployment, housing prices, and construction cost, with a lag of seven, seven, zero, one, six, two, and three quarters respectively, have a significant effect on housing construction. Furthermore, the regression model showed a low significance level for income, thus this variable was excluded from the model. Moreover, a time trend was included in the regression model. The time trend shows statistically significance, and its β coefficient implies an approximate 3% increase in housing construction per year, on average. Moreover, the regression model, presented in this thesis, has an R-squared value of 0.73, which indicates that the model can explain 73% of the variation in housing construction in Stockholm County between 1992 and 2016.

  • 71.
    Palmquist, Jacob
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    How to identify downturns within an office submarke: A quantitative time series analysis of Stockholm CBD2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The last couple of years there has been a significant increase in demand of attractive office locations in Stockholm consequently leading to all-time low office prime yields within the Central Business District (CBD), indicating warning signals regarding an overheated submarket. As the real estate market is crucial for the economy as a whole, it is essential to improve the understanding and predictability of future real estate cycles. This study produced three different logistic regression models with the purpose of identifying downturns in the office market of Stockholm CBD. The most successful model were able to predict 74 % of the actual downturns occurring throughout 114 observed quarters between Q3 1989 and Q4 2017. The dependent downturn variable consist of prime yield explained by variables on a national basis combined with submarket specific variables. Another produced model contained variables regarding confidence and expectations of tenants in Stockholm. However that model was unsatisfactory, leading to this study’s suggestion of further research on fluctuations of demand related to the current characteristics of Stockholm CBD. 

  • 72.
    Flodin, Emil
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Steinkeller, Philip
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Hur har avvecklandet av skuggratings påverkat intresset för licensierade kreditratings bland svenska fastighetsbolag?: En studie kring trender inom den svenska fastighetsmarknaden2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish real estate market has for many years been able to demonstrate a well profound economic development with minor impacts from the global financial crisis (2007-2008). The market has managed to maintain good conditions for newly established and traditional real estate companies. These companies have been able to fund themselves through short term bank loans and issuing financial instruments to investors. Due to a stable economic development, many of the Swedish real estate companies have been able to expand their property portfolio and the market value for real estates has increased. Due to its strong financial standing these real estate companies have been able to display high credit worthiness. The credit worthiness was previously presented to Nordic investors with a shadow rating supplied by a bank or a similar entity. Over the past two years due to new regulations on European capital markets many Swedish banks decided to stop providing shadow ratings. In parallel to this change, many real estate companies chose to reallocate their operations outside of Sweden and started to seek more capital from other European investors markets. Thus, issuing international licensed credit ratings became a very common strategy amongst Swedish Real Estate companies as an opportunity to find international investors. The differences between licensed credit ratings and shadow ratings are huge and many European investors will only invest in companies with licensed credit ratings. The benefits of having a credit rating are numerous as it contributes with a higher level of transparency for investors and it serves as an independent certificate of the company's financial and operational status. The disadvantages of an international licensed credit rating are that it can be quite expensive and the rating is based on international guidelines focusing on global key ratios and not focused on given conditions in a local market. This qualitative study will analyse the Swedish real estate market and its peers in order to investigate what rationales the real estate companies have to be more positively oriented to issue licensed credit ratings. By testing hypotheses based on different economic and utility maximizing theories the objective of this study is to review the trend shift in the market. The trend shift could be derived from a natural strategic development, in the Swedish real estate market, were as many peers want to replicate European markets and other competitors. Alternatively, the change may be part of a new trend were the cancellation of issuing shadow ratings has resulted in companies replacing the former tool with new licensed credit ratings. The new trend is mainly based on the fact that many real estate companies issue licensed credit ratings in order to find foreign investors and acquire foreign capital as well as to diversify their loan portfolio and reduce their bank loans. In addition, the property companies often require a certificate of how well developed they are and to verify that they have maintained a good financial status. While banks no longer issue shadow ratings and different markets have shown higher demands for licensed credit ratings the current situation has also created a market for local licensed peers. This part of the market will meet the needs of smaller companies while international credit rating agencies will play a more vital part of the Swedish financial market.

  • 73.
    Säfström, Olivia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Söderbaum, Karl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Huvudentreprenörens övertagande av underentreprenörers materialansvar: Effekter och förutsättningar2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the area of building logistics there are great possibilities for improvement since it is today very costly and entails many disruptions in the production. The logistics handled by the subcontractors are often not synchronized with the logistics of the main contractor which leads to more difficulties. Bad communication between the actors and a relationship characterized by mistrust hinders more integrated logistics. The purpose of this study is to examine an alternative solution where the material responsibility is changed from the subcontractor to the main contractor. Such a solution entails that the main contractor is responsible for all the logistics and that the subcontractor will perform the assembly. Through interviews with a main contractor and several subcontractors and suppliers this study aims to answer both how the building logistics and the relationship between main contractor and subcontractor will be affected. As an effect of the change of material responsibility the main contractor will get a higher level of control over the logistics which results in a bigger responsibility but also the possibility to improve deliverance certainty and that the main time schedule is followed. As a consequence of them handling all the logistics they can to a greater extent utilize resources such as joint loading via storage facilities or an internal third-party logistics provider. The main contractor can have an earlier and more direct communication with the supplier. The subcontractor will have less responsibility as a result of the change but also a lowered control over the logistics which leads to a stronger dependence on the main contractor. This implies an increased cooperation between the actors and thus a demand for an improved communication. The main contractor will become less dependent on the subcontractor and therefore the risk for the subcontractor to be replaced will increase. The main benefit with the change of material responsibility is according to the study that the on-site logistics will improve. Difficulties with the reorganization are partly in cultural norms as it will change the subcontractor’s role in the construction logistics and partly in the main contractor’s lack of knowledge about the subcontractor’s material. The study also shows that there is a worry among the actors about who is responsible when a material problem occurs and the change demands an investigation process to determine whether a construction error is caused by a material or assembly error.  To conclude; this study shows a big potential in the material responsibility changing from the subcontractor to the main contractor but for such a reorganization to be successful the subcontractor should be included in the process of developing the reorganization. Furthermore, this demand a clear division of responsibilities, an improved communication and an understanding for the other actors’ perspective. If the actors succeed with this change of material responsibility it can lead to a more effective production.

  • 74.
    Öster, Julia-Olina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Hälsofrämjande fastighetsägande: Fastighetsägarens möjligheter och incitament till hälsofrämjande kontorsmiljöer2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A generally increased focus on health and well-being is observed in society and occupant well-being is said to be one of the most evident trends in Corporate Real Estate. The growing recognition of evidence linking individual’s health to productivity and work performance has turned health and well-being into a business case, and certification systems and frameworks focused on health and well-being has emerged in the real estate and construction industry. Still, research shows a general lack of knowledge on how the physical environment affects the individual’s health and well-being in the promoting context and whether the property owner has a responsibility or incentive to promote occupant health and well-being is still unexplored. Aim: The aim of the study is to explore and provide insights about if and how real estate owners on the Swedish office market work towards promoting occupant health and well-being through their real estate products and services. Method: The explorative study was conducted with a primarily qualitative research approach. Data was collected through a content analysis based on annual and sustainability reports from ten real estate owners and through interviews with representatives from three real estate owners and two advisory firms, all with expertise in social sustainability. Conclusions: The results from the study suggest that the property owner can create favorable conditions for health and well-being of their building occupants by incorporating these issues more closely in their sustainability strategies as a part of their corporate social responsibility. The study shows that engaging in health promotion could create a competitive advantage and that the property owner’s responsibility for occupants perceived health and well-being, besides providing an environment that is considered safe, is expected to grow during the years to come. Further, aspects of health and well-being are expected to be increasingly evident in existing environmental certification systems and prominent in the dialogue between property owners and building occupants. Though, it can be seen that the question of how to work with health promotion to achieve the most effective results is still underexplored and that the newly emerging health focused certification systems are not considered well-suited for the Swedish real estate market hence, the cost-effectiveness is questioned. The results suggest that there is a need to find alternative strategic ways to promote occupant health and well-being and the respondents see potential in using nudging strategies. 

  • 75.
    Kulkarni, Rohan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Dahiya, Rohit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    IMPLEMENTATION BARRIERS FOR KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT: FOR SMEs IN INDIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is one of the largest industries in the world and its contribution to the Indian GDP is 7.74% and the Indian construction industry is worth $120 Billion. Though major part of the sector is governed by the small to medium enterprises. The SMEs work from small cities to larger metropolitans. With new technologies coming to front everywhere due to globalization and ease of communication through the media such as the internet, many companies have tried to adopt Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). Managing the critical information has always been an issue in these sector, and any lessons learnt from the previous project or ongoing project goes in vain as they fail to use this information efficiently. Use of knowledge management systems (KMS) is uncommon but is known in the Indian industries but the construction sector is far behind in this area. Many large companies (mostly telecom, but some construction companies) are using KMS or similar systems; but there is no such evidence of use of a KMS by the SMEs in the sector. So, keeping this in mind, the purpose of this thesis is to identify the barriers in implementation of a Knowledge Management System of Small-to-Medium Scale Construction Companies in India. The work is based on a questionnaire survey from Indian cities Delhi, Pune and Ahmednagar. Using statistical analysis methods, we have investigated into the barriers that are hindering use of Knowledge Management in the SMEs in India. From the analysis and the findings, we have projected major issues in the sector such as information and communication technology, Human resources, Organization level and on Market level. A clear look at these showed that the organizations were facing issue with identifying relevant knowledge to store or they cannot figure out what they will need in the future. Other prevailing factor are lack of motivation and lack of the absorptive capacity which hinders the implementation of the Km effectively. Another concrete finding was rapid change in the IT tools which create time lag between the organization action and the response to it because of the time needed to get familiar with new technology.

  • 76.
    Bredin, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Boberg, Tobias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Implementering och användning av BIM i byggproduktion: En fallstudie om förändringsledning på en av Sveriges största byggkoncerner2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry today lives with the epithet to be conservative with low productivity, which is partly due to the slow digital development in the industry. Digitalization opens for opportunities to streamline operations and one part of the digitalization of the construction industry is Building Information Modeling, BIM. BIM has been shown to improve performance and cooperation in construction projects but it requires organizational changes, both in terms of new roles and knowledge. Furthermore, the implementation process is complex in technology-driven processes and requires leadership with clear strategies. This study aims to increase the understanding of how change management affects the use of digital tools in renovation projects as well as highlighting the factors that influence the usage. The study was based on the theories Diffusion of Innovation and Kotter's 8-step model for change management. Through a case study on three renovation projects, the implementation of digital tools has been studied. In the study, 14 semi-structured interviews were conducted with a digital coach, BIM coordinator, project management teams and project managers. Factors identified were that change takes time and in a first phase it is primarily the self-interest that governs the use. If there exist resistance to change, it appears to be important with clear strategies and a change vision to convince and motivate the employees. In order for employees to get support in their use throughout the implementation process, close leadership is required, together with an organization structure that enables continuous follows-ups and evaluations of the digital tool. Finally, the results of the study and previous research in the field concluded the importance of thoughtful strategies, clear leadership, and open communication within the organization to change existing working methods.

  • 77.
    Ellenfors, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Waller, Hedvig
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Increased profitability by offering more flexibility?: Flexible workspace from the perspective of a commercial real estate owner2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to examine flexible workspaces from the perspective of a real estate owner. The research questions include how flexible workspaces will develop in Stockholm, how well the provision of flexible workspaces fit into the business model for real estate companies and how they can accommodate solutions on flexibility in their portfolio.  The method used consists of two parts, firstly a case study performed on the London based real estate company British Land who have developed a concept for flexible workspace called Storey. The second part consisted of eleven interviews with representatives from real estate companies in Stockholm. By combining these two parts, a sound basis for mapping the success factors for how to extend a business model by offering flexible workspaces along with an appreciation of its future development could be made. The findings include the real estate companies’ perception that increased levels of flexibility will be a common sight in the real estate landscape in the future. There are however several different approaches on which strategy to choose in order to offer concepts for flexibility in an office portfolio, all depending on the organisational structure and business model for the individual real estate company. The contribution of this study is therefore that real estate companies can gain a number of benefits by offering flexibility in their portfolio.

  • 78.
    Tchibaline, Alexander
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Mårtensson, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Informational attributes behind consumer payment habits and settlement preference2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is known for being at the forefront of becoming a cashless society.However, cash continues to be an important part of the payment ecosystem butthere are limited studies and data regarding the preference for holding cash. Previousstudies have shown that the use of cash is declining with regards to comers and thatthere are behavior differences between cultures and sociodemographic groups inregards to characteristics and preferences for payment methods. The aim of thisstudy was to investigate the informational attributes that drives the preference forholding cash by studying two extreme cases, Sweden which is a pioneer of cashlesssociety, and Germany which is one of the most conservative cash-intensivecountries in the Western world. Primary quantitative data was derived fromstandardized questionnaires issued in both countries by Loomis AB; the data wasdescribed and analyzed with applicable statistical procedures. A multivariate analysiswas performed on a specific segment of the collected data were the respondents hadbeen asked to rate cash associated statements based on their agreeableness towardsthem. These segments were then examined through a Principal component analysisto determine the underlying dimensions regarding preferences for cash. Our resultssuggest that Germans withdrew cash more frequently, from a wider spectrum ofdenominations and carried it to a larger extend than Swedes. Swedes made limitedwithdrawals, of small denominations and preferred to carry smaller amounts of cash.The results also show that there were differences in the perception and preferencesfor cash between sociodemographic groups, with e.g. older age groups being used to itand the youngest using it due to ‘status quo bias’. The main conclusions include thatthe informational attributes such as security, anonymity, ease of use and paymentinfrastructure was the main drives for the preferences of holding cash.

  • 79.
    Köseci, Firat Can
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Integrated Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to Building Information Modelling (BIM)2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Building Information Modelling (BIM) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) are at the core of construction projects. LCA is one of the key elements of sustainability in the construction projects and an improved LCA process can be achieved through the adoption of BIM. Exploring the characteristics of a BIM-based LCA process from the different perspectives of interoperability and identifying the effects of adopting regionally different EPD databases are significant.  The LCA add-in tools, One Click LCA and Tally, have been selected to identify the differences in the LCA results caused by adopting regionally different Environmental Product Declaration (EPD) databases. To observe the differences in the LCA results, the LCA processes were run through the LCA add-in tools. The input data, the system boundaries and the LCA scope were kept the same for the LCA processes. The LCA results were produced through the integrated LCA add-in tools. The GWP values in manufacturing module, produced by One Click LCA, were embedded into the Solibri model of Akademiska Sjukhuset project. Value level of interoperability in the BIM-based LCA processes was detected and analyzed according to the interaction types that were obtained between the LCA add-in tools and the BIM software. Obstacles in increasing the value level of interoperability to a higher level in today’s BIM-based LCA processes were also focused. Furthermore, the benefits and drawbacks of the BIM-based LCA processes were identified. At last, the differences between BIM-based LCA and traditional LCA process were identified along with future possibilities. It was observed that adopting regionally different EPD databases has significant effects on the LCA results. The semantic detail level of the BIM model and the data extraction quality came to the forefront in identifying the benefits and drawbacks. The interaction types in the studied BIM-based LCA processes were identified as “Collaboration” interaction type. Accordingly, the value level of interoperability in both BIM-based LCA processes was obtained as the high level of value innovation along with efficiency and differentiation. Moreover, the convenience of use, time and resource efficiency and improved accuracy obtained through the BIM-based LCA processes were concluded as some of the major differences from the traditional LCA processes.

  • 80.
    Ahlbäck, Moa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Integrerade arbetsmetoder med Virtual Design and Construction2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual Design and Construction (VDC) was introduced early in the 21st century in order to encourage work with computer based models and construction planning in the design phase. VDC is a concept that has been embraced by several construction and consulting companies in order to develop their work with Building Information Model (BIM), innovations and cooperation within construction projects. VDC is a concept that keeps evolving and is being redefined by individuals and companies. This has contributed to a conceptual confusion within the construction sector about the definition of VDC. Furthermore, construction projects tend to be fragmented with project members that are working in silos and primarily focusing on their own discipline. In order to decrease the fragmentation within construction projects integrated working methods can be applied. Therefor the purpose of this master thesis is to explore the concept VDC and how it can stimulate integrated working methods.  The study is examined using qualitative methods based on scientific literature and an interview study. The scientific literature is defining VDC conceptually and two integrated working methods Integrated Concurrent Engineering (ICE) and Integrated Project Delivery (IPD). Furthermore, the interview study includes respondents from the construction industry whose reflections and thoughts about the subject are being presented. The study is geographically limited to Sweden.  The result shows the current ambiguity of how VDC is defined. In order to avoid a conceptual confusion a common definition should be formulated with national guidelines that describe how work with VDC should be conducted. Furthermore, VDC can stimulate an integrated approach through increased cohesion within construction projects, including common objectives within the project and joint problem solving between project members.

  • 81.
    Runestam, Ludvig
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Wiksell, Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Kan blockkedjan förbättra transaktionsprocessen?: En studie om blockkedjans funktion för kommersiella fastighetstransaktioner2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Commercial real estate assets are characterized by time-consuming and complex transaction processes that are distinguished from many other asset classes. Information asymmetries and absence of standardisation forms an inefficient commercial real estate market, with high transaction costs for both acquisitions and divestments. In line with the technological progress and digitalisation of industries, blockchain technology has awakened a lot of interest.  As the foundation behind cryptocurrencies, more and more industries have begun to recognise and implement blockchain-based systems to facilitate transaction-related activities. Previous studies have discussed how blockchain can change property management and how the technology can affect the real estate market from an overall perspective. Hence, this study is based on the lack of earlier research on how commercial real estate transactions can be improved by using blockchain technology. Accordingly, this study aims at investigating the opportunities and challenges involved in implementing blockchain in the transaction process, with the purpose of providing insight into how this can change the commercial real estate market. To address and analyse the research question, the study uses previous academic research studies within the commercial real estate transaction process and blockchain technology in order to compose a theoretical framework. The study has conducted a qualitative research method through semi-structured interviews. The interviews have contributed to a comprehensive analysis and thus deeper understanding of how blockchain technology can be used in the real estate transaction process. Based on the analysis, it is possible to identify a number of opportunities and challenges with blockchain technology within the transaction process. The conclusions that have emerged from the study are blockchain's ability to contribute to more efficient information processing, by counteracting information asymmetries, achieving higher transparency and creating more reliable data. Furthermore, blockchain can improve network security and provide an autonomous and clear process the completion of the transaction, resulting in faster decision making and lower transaction costs. Beyond the positive aspects of blockchain, the study also shows significant challenges in terms of complex and costly implementation as well as legal and regulatory resistance.

  • 82.
    Saleh, Ari
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Munoz, Marvin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Knowledge transfer in smart office environment2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge has come to be regarded as an important strategic asset for organizations. This asset is something that companies want to take advantage of in their office environments. With the growing integration of IoT solutions in office environments, underlaying the so-called smart offices, knowledge transfer in these environments has been affected. The new technology can contribute to an improvement of previous means of transferring knowledge or introducing new approaches to knowledge transfer. This study addresses how organizations with smart offices gain access to knowledge through knowledge transfer. As this study investigates an area that is quite new, the goal has been to study comprehensively how knowledge transfer occurs in a selected smart office concept. To fulfill the purpose of the study, an interview study has been conducted on two companies that currently use the smart office concept. The study has presented processes, models and factors for knowledge transfer. Based on the processes, models of knowledge transfer and its influencing factors, an analysis and identification of knowledge transfer in smart offices has been presented. The empirical material has been gathered through interviews with those in charge of the chosen companies. The result of the empirical data collection shows that the various tools in the smart office environment investigated contribute to improved knowledge transfer through increased trust, collaboration and spontaneous interactions between colleagues. In the analysis, it has also been stated that the increasing integration of smart office features will lead to an increase in the development of the various features which in turn could affect knowledge transfer within organizations.

  • 83.
    Axelsson, Birger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Kommunala markanvisningar i Stockholms län: En jämförelse mellan elva kommuner mellan åren 2015-20172018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A Swedish municipal land allocation can be regarded as an option for a developer to purchase municipal land. This study investigates and analyses the various processes that lead to the availability of land for housing developers via municipal land allocations in Stockholm County. The study examines partly a municipal perspective, which deals with the actual allocation of land. In addition, a housing developer’s perspective is investigated, which deals with different corporate allocations.  The study includes a literature study, a content analysis based on a unique dataset based on secondary data from municipalities, and hypothesis testing using chi-squared tests. The literature study investigates land allocations in a historical context, then how the process is considered today, both from a national and an international perspective. Secondary data for the content analysis consists of information about all land allocations in eleven municipalities in Stockholm County between the years 2015-2017. The information is obtained after contact with the municipalities in question. The study regards land allocations as directly comparable observations. The land allocations are divided into direct and tender allocations. Hypothesis testing using chi-squared tests has been conducted to test different hypotheses about which types of companies that get different types of land allocations.  The study shows that municipalities work differently with land allocations. Municipalities have different conditions that emerge in different ways of working. Tender allocations have higher land prices than direct allocations, which may mean different things. “Game rules” in tender allocations are both unclear and unpredictable. They are unclear because of a total use of a large amount of assessment criteria in relation to the number of land allocations. They are unpredictable because of the lack of weighted criteria, with specified points or percentages, in only half of the cases. Price is generally assessed as the most important criterion in tender allocations. Different types of companies are different successful in different types of allocations. Turnover and listing have statistically significant impact on this. Public utility companies are awarded more land allocations than others, but in a historical context, they are assigned fewer apartments compared to previous decades in the late 1900s. Large companies act irrationally with tender allocations. Many housing developers show short-term interest in land allocations, where two out of three have never been awarded any land.

  • 84.
    Ljungberg, Charlotte
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Tillander, Tobias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Konflikten på Sveriges studentbostadsmarknad: En intressekonflikt mellan bostadsutvecklare och politiker?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today there is a persistent student housing shortage. It is mainly in the major cities in Sweden, such as Stockholm where the situation is highly problematic. Building student housing is a complex and challenging process. The lack of financial incentives aswell as high production costs create obstacles. As a results of this barely any student housing is built, despite good intentions. Simplified building regulations and economic incentives are therefore of utmost importance. Especially when increasing building volumes and creating a balanced student housing market. The purpose of the study is to investigate and analyze if there is a possible conflict between the actors in the student housing market.  Furthermore, this could inhibit a well-balanced market. From the literature study, three hypotheses concerning accessibility requirements, noise requirements and the financial support for student housing development are created. Actors in the student housing market have been interviewed to find a possible conflict and furthermore identify potential solutions. The result shows that a separate housing category for student housing is needed to facilitate changes in guidelines and regulations. Availability requirements should be reduced to decrease production costs and enable higher utilization-rates of the projects. However, the requirements should not be reduced throughout. A proportion of approximately 20% accessibility-adapted accommodation should be required in each project. Currently there are difficulties measuring the noise requirements and the effect of them. Several student housing developers has therefore chosen not to fully exploit the limits due to quality reasons. This indicate that the requirements may be too generous. It is therefore necessary that the developers and politicians cooperate on this issue in order to find an equilibrium position. The financial support currently available for student housing, is not profitable to use. Therefore, many of the developers choose not to take advantage of the support, as it becomes more beneficial to develop new projects without. To conclude, resources should be invested in housing allowance, benefiting the group that actually is in need of the support - the students. This also preserves a consistent rental level among developers' real estate stock. Greater collaboration between politicians and student housing developers is required to obtain a student housing market that is in balance in the future.

  • 85.
    Hillman, Sara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Niklasson, Beatrice
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Konvertering av kontorsfastigheter till äldreboenden: Fastighetsägarens perspektiv2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are several ways for a property owner to reduce vacancies. One way is to convert the property to another purpose. Adaption of properties has always been done due to the fact that it may be more expensive to demolish and rebuild. Conversions of vacant office properties into other uses are desirable from a sustainability perspective because it may lead to an increase in social-, economic-, and environmental values. During the 1970s many commercial properties were built around the world. Historically, the commercial real estate industry has been cyclical.  Netherlands was one of the countries that suffer due to high vacancies during the real estate crisis in the 1990s, especially in office buildings. By the end of the decade, Conversion Meter was created as a tool to assess the potential of converting office properties into housing. Today there are signs that office properties do not meet the tenant’s requirements. Efficient and flexible office properties in central locations are attractive as a workplace. While outdated office properties in less popular locations have a lower demand and hence might have a risk of high vacancy rates. At the same time there is a high demand on housing for the elderly. Sweden faces the challenge of providing care homes for the aging population. A conversion of obsolete office spaces in peripheral locations into care homes can be seen as an opportunity. There are several reasons why property owners would be interested in this market. This includes the location being less sensitive to location aspects, having the possibility to establish long leases, and the ability to receive government grants during conversion as well as generally higher rental levels as compared to office spaces. The main aim of this study is to investigate whether it is possible to develop a modified version of Conversion Meter to measure the potential for converting office properties into housing for elderly in Sweden. Three case studies have been conducted by creating and using a modified version of Conversion Meter with cash flow analysis for office properties in Lidingö, Sollentuna, and Upplands Väsby municipalities. The study shows that it is possible to modify Conversion Meter to measure the potential for converting office properties into care homes. In the study, Conversion Meter has been modified to a Swedish context and a cash flow analysis has been added. Additionally, political risks have been added to the tool. The main differences between the models are the target group's preferences, legal and building law, addition of cash flow analysis, and addition of political risks. By using cash flow analysis, the case studies show that it is profitable to convert office buildings into care homes. The greatest profitability observed is in the property in Upplands Väsby. The outcome of the calculations depends on the level of interest rates, vacancy rates, and differences in rental levels before and after the conversion. Potential biases to the study include parameters in the modified Conversion Meter are not precise and the tool must undergo continuous updates after changes.

  • 86.
    Hillman, Sara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.