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  • 51. Benoît, Catherine
    et al.
    Norris, Gregory A.
    Valdivia, Sonia
    Ciroth, Andreas
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys. Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Bos, Ulrike
    Prakash, Siddharth
    Ugaya, Cassia
    Beck, Tabea
    The Guidelines for Social Life Cycle Assessment of products: Just in time!2010Inngår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 15, nr 2, s. 156-163Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Authors of different sustainability journals, including authors of articles in past issues of the International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment have acknowledged the rising interest and the pressing need for a social and socio-economic life cycle assessment methodology and identified challenges in its development and implementation. Social life cycle assessment (LCA) allows identification of key issues, assessing, and telling the story of social conditions in the production, use, and disposal of products. In this article, the United Nations Environment Programme/The Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Guidelines for Social Life Cycle Assessment of Products will be presented.

    Aim and scope The guidelines demystifies the assessment of product life cycle social impacts and presents an effective framework representing the consensus of an international group of experts leading research in this field. The guidelines complement those for environmental life cycle assessment and life cycle costing, and by doing so contribute to the full assessment of goods and services within the context of sustainable development. They enable a larger group of stakeholders to engage. Key aspects of the framework and the research needs identified in the guidelines will be summarized.

    Conclusions In a globalized world where transparency and information occupies a predominant place and where consumers and companies reach out to shed light on both the brightest and the darkest side of the economy and, when applicable, transform its condition, social LCA brings strong value. At a moment where major companies and initiatives are going forward with using LCA and are trying to track and communicate about the social impacts of their products they are increasingly held accountable for the guidelines for social life cycle assessment arrive just in time to inform their efforts.

  • 52.
    Berglund, Daniel
    et al.
    Tyréns AB, Stockholm, 118 86, Sweden.
    Kharazmi, Parastou
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap.
    Miliutenko, S.
    Björk, Folke
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Comparative life-cycle assessment for renovation methods of waste water sewerage systems for apartment buildings2018Inngår i: Journal of Building Engineering, E-ISSN 2352-7102, Vol. 19, s. 98-108Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This comparative life-cycle assessment highlights three main alternatives for renovation of waste water sewerage: pipe replacement, cured- in- place pipe (CIPP) lining (also called sliplining) and renovation by coatings. The functional unit of this study is a six-story block house that was built in 1960 and has 29 apartments. The characterized results of environmental impacts display an advantage for CIPP-lining over pipe replacement in 14 of the 18 studied impact categories. Regarding those categories in which impacts were comparatively large, when looking at the average impact from a European citizen according to the ReCiPe methodology for life cycle inventory list, pipe replacement has greater impacts than CIPP-lining. In general, the impacts of pipe replacement are related to new tiles, expanded polyester cement, the screed, and the material for waterproofing, as well as the electricity needed for drying the structure. The CIPP-lining method displays higher impacts than pipe replacement in just four categories. These impacts are, to a large extent, caused by the use of consumables such as gloves and cotton cloths. From an LCA-perspective, the study shows that the CIPP and coatings relining methods have advantages over pipe replacement under the condition that the technical lifetime is the same for these methods. Still, the uncertainty of service life, as well as Bisphenol A (BPA) emissions, remain as issues of concern for further study. There are also other differences among the alternatives that ultimately influence a property owner's choice of method, such as costs, inconvenience for the residents, renewal of bathroom interiors, and the way in which the property owner values the alternative technologies.

  • 53.
    Bertling, Sofia
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Corrosion-included metal runoff from external constructions and its environmental interaction: a combined field and laboratory investigation of Zn, Cu, Cr and Ni for risk assessment2005Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The 1990s has seen an increased awareness of possible environmental effects of corrosion-induced metal release from outdoor constructions. Considerable efforts have been initiated to perform critical assessments of possible risks of selected metals. Gaps of knowledge have been identified and research investigations started. This doctoral thesis is the result of an interdisciplinary research effort in which scientific insight into corrosion, soil chemistry and ecotoxicology has been integrated. The work comprises atmospheric exposure of pure metals and commercial materials for outdoor use. The focus is on release of four metals, copper, zinc, chromium and nickel. Their chemical speciation and bioavailable fraction in metal runoff were determined, both at the release moment and after environmental interaction with, e.g., soil and limestone. Total metal concentrations in runoff are influenced both by material properties (e.g., corrosion product solubility, and specific surface area) and by exposure parameters (e.g., rain volume, intensity, contact time and pollutants). Long-term runoff rates of copper, zinc, chromium and nickel were based on exposures (4-8 years) at standardized conditions (45o inclination facing south) in Stockholm, Sweden. Runoff rates for pure copper range from 1.2 to 1.5 g m-2 yr-1, depending on year. At the copper release moment the potential environmental effect was evaluated using 72 hours growth inhibition test with the green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata. This resulted in a mean value of 15 μg L-1 causing a 50% growth reduction (EC50). Long-term runoff rates for pure zinc range from 1.9 to 2.5 g m-2 yr-1. A considerable variation in average annual runoff rates (0.07-2.5 mg zinc m2yr-1) was observed between different investigated commercial zinc-based materials. An average 72 hour (EC50) value of 69 μg L-1 towards Raphidocelis subcapitata was found for runoff water from zinc-based materials. Long-term runoff rates from stainless steel of grade 304 and 316 range from 0.23 to 0.30 chromium and 0.28 to 0.52 nickel mg m-2 yr-1, with corresponding concentrations in the runoff at the release moment far below reported ecotoxic concentrations for chromium and nickel.

    Two predictive runoff rate models were successfully developed for transforming copper runoff rate data from Stockholm to other exposure sites. One model is based on rain pH, yearly precipitation and building geometry, and the other on average annual SO2 concentration, yearly precipitation and building geometry. In addition to total metal concentration, adequate effect assessments also require information on chemical speciation of the released metal and its bioavailability. Metal chemical speciation in runoff was determined experimentally through an ion selective electrode (for copper), and also modelled with the Windermere Humic Aquatic model (WHAM (V)). Bioavailability assessments were generated through bioassay tests. At the moment of metal release, all methods show that the majority (60-99%) of the metal in runoff exists in its most bioavailable form, the hydrated metal ion. During subsequent environmental entry the metal undergoes major reductions in concentration and bioavailability. This was evidenced by model column studies of the capacity of soil to retain and immobilize the metal in runoff water, and by model and field column studies of the capacity of limestone to retain copper. The retention by soil of all metals investigated is very high (96-99.8%) until each materials retention capacity is reached. Limestone also exhibits a substantial capacity (5- 47%) to retain copper. The capacity is significantly increased by increased amount and decreased fraction of limestone particles.

    Any outer or inner surface with significant retention ability and with low possibility of subsequent mobilization is an excellent candidate for neutralizing metal release and its potential ecotoxic effects. This was demonstrated through computer modelling (WHAM(V)) and biosensor tests (Biomet™), which showed the most bioavailable and ecotoxic metal species to be reduced during passage through soil and limestone. Predictions based on the computer model HYDRUS-1D suggest a time-period of between 4 and 8000 years, depending on runoff water and soil characteristics, before saturation in soil retention capacity of copper and zinc is reached. A significant fraction of the retained metal is extractable towards the strong complexing agent EDTA, indicating possible future mobilisation. It is also available for plant uptake, as shown by DGT- (Diffuse Gradients in Thin films-) analysis of copper and zinc in soil.

    The data generated, presented and discussed are all believed to be important for risk assessment work related to corrosion-induced metal release from outdoor constructions. As evidenced from this doctoral thesis, such work requires a complete set of data on annual runoff rates, concentrations, chemical speciation and bioavailability and its changes during environmental entry, together with knowledge on, e.g., type of material, service life of coating, building geometry, and dewatering system.

  • 54.
    Bertling, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Degryse, F.
    Laboratory for Soil and Water Management, Catholic University of Leuven.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Smolders, E.
    Laboratory for Soil and Water Management, Catholic University of Leuven.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Model studies of corrosion induced copper runoff fate in soil2006Inngår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 25, nr 3, s. 683-691Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory experiments have been performed with 3-cm soil columns simulating the fate of corrosion-induced copper runoff in contact with soil. The investigation simulates approximately 30 years (assuming an infiltration surplus of 25 cm/year) of continuous percolation of copper containing runoff water of a concentration realistic at the immediate release situation (4.8 mg/L) into four soils representative of urban conditions. Two of the three investigated topsoils reached their breakthrough of copper within the simulated time, while the third topsoil did not show a breakthrough. The subsoil reached a breakthrough after approximately 10 years of simulated exposure. To simulate more realistic outdoor scenarios, the laboratory-obtained breakthrough curves were modeled with Hydrus-1D (R) using a Langmuir-Freundlich model to describe copper sorption, the parameters of which were estimated from soil properties (pH, organic carbon content). The model predicts longer breakthrough times with increasing pH and organic content of the soil and with decreasing concentrations of copper and dissolved organic carbon in the runoff water. The time span for copper in runoff water (at concentrations of 0.01-10 mg/L) to reach a soil depth of 50 cm varied between 170 and more than 8,000 years for the predicted field scenarios.

  • 55.
    Bertling, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Berggren Kleja, Daniel
    Department of Soil Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Korrosionslära.
    Long-term corrosion-induced copper runoff from natural and artificial patina and its environmental impact2006Inngår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 25, nr 3, s. 891-898Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall objective of this paper is to present an extensive set of data for corrosion-induced copper dispersion and its environmental interaction with solid surfaces in the near vicinity of buildings. Copper dispersion is discussed in terms of total copper flows, copper speciation and bioavailability at the immediate release situation, and its changes during transport from source to recipient. Presented results are based on extensive field exposures (eight years) at an urban site, laboratory investigations of the runoff process, published field data, generated predictive site-specific runoff rate models, and reactivity investigations toward various natural and manmade surfaces, such as those in soil, limestone, and concrete. Emphasis is placed on the interaction of copper-containing runoff water with different soil systems through long-term laboratory column investigations. The fate of copper is discussed in terms of copper retention, copper chemical speciation, breakthrough capacities, and future mobilization based on changes in copper concentrations in the percolate water, computer modeling using the Windermere Humic Aqueous Model, and sequential extractions. The results illustrate that, for scenarios where copper comes in extensive contact with solid surfaces, such as soil and limestone, a large fraction of released copper is retained already in the immediate vicinity of the building. In all, both the total copper concentration in runoff water and its bioavailable part undergo a significant and rapid reduction.

  • 56.
    Bertling, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Materialvetenskap.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Materialvetenskap.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Materialvetenskap.
    Immobilization of copper in runoff water from roofing materials by limestone, soil and concrete2002Inngår i: 15th Internatioal Corrosion Conference: Granada, Spain, 2002Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 57.
    Bertling, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Materialvetenskap.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Materialvetenskap.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Materialvetenskap.
    The capacity of limestone to immobilize copper in runoff water: a laboratory investigation2002Inngår i: 15th International Corrosion Conference: Granada, Spain, 2002Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 58.
    Bertling, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Materialvetenskap.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Materialvetenskap.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Materialvetenskap.
    Berggren, D.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Materialvetenskap.
    Environmental effects of zinc runoff from roofing materials: a new multidisciplinary approach2002Inngår i: Outdoor Atmospheric Corrosion / [ed] Townsend HE, 2002, Vol. 1421, s. 200-215Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this work is to study changes in concentration and bioavailability of zinc-containing runoff water, released from roofing materials, upon passage through soil. The experimental approach is based on simulating the interaction between zinc in artificial runoff water and soil in a column system.

    The total zinc concentration of runoff was substantially reduced when passing through the soil and suggests marked zinc retention, During a constant flow and supply of zinc into the soil, equivalent to three and a half years of precipitation in Stockholm, a zinc retention capacity of approximately 99% was recorded, Not only the total concentration, but also the bio-available portion of the total zinc concentration was reduced after passage through soil, Most of the retained zinc was located in top 3 cm of the soil core and suggests the total capacity for zinc retention of the investigated soil to be about 140 years per kilogram soil in an isolated system in real systems, changes of temperature, pH, microbial activity, weathering of minerals and deposition of new organic material must be considered.

    The results form part of the effect assessment, preceding future risk assessment of the environmental effects of dispersed zinc.

  • 59.
    Bertling, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Leygraf, Christofer
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Berggren, Kleja D.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Occurrence and fate of corrosion-induced zinc in runoff water from external structures2006Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 367, nr 2-3, s. 908-923Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper comprises data from an extensive cross-disciplinary research project aiming to elucidate the environmental fate of corrosion-induced zinc release from external structures. It includes an exposure assessment that provide long-term runoff rates, concentrations and chemical speciation of zinc, from 14 zinc-based materials exposed during 5 years in Stockholm, Sweden, and an effect assessment including bioavailability and ecotoxicity measurements, both at the immediate release situation and after soil interaction.Runoff rates of total zinc ranged from 0.07 to 2.5g Znm(-2) yr(-1) with zinc primarily released as the free ion for all materials investigated. The average effect concentration, causing a 50% growth reduction after 72h to the green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata, was at the immediate release situation 69 mu g ZnL-1. Upon interaction of runoff water with soil, which simulated 18 to 34years of exposure, the total zinc concentration was significantly reduced, from milligram per litre to microgram per litre levels. Simultaneously, the most bioavailable fraction of zinc in runoff, the hydrated zinc(II)-ion, decreased from more than 95% to about 30%. The major fraction, 98-99%, of the introduced total zinc concentration in the runoff water was retained within the soil. As long as the soil retention capacity was not reached, this resulted in zinc concentrations in the percolate water transported through the soil layer, close to background values and below growth inhibition concentrations for the green algae investigated. Zinc retained in soil was to a large extent (85-99.9%) extractable with EDTA, and available for plant uptake after 5 to 7months of ageing.

  • 60.
    Bitencourt de Oliveira, Felipe
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Life Cycle Assessment of a High-Density Datacenter Cooling System: TeliaSonera’s ‘Green Room’ Concept2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The increasingly power load of datacenters worldwide and consequently, the increase on heat dissipation by electronic components, have been highlighting the importance of efficiently designing cooling solutions for such systems. In fact, bad management of the cooling system can greatly increase the total electricity consumption in a datacenter. This being said, TeliaSonera in order to decrease the total electricity consumption in its datacenters, has developed a new cooling solution known as the Green Room concept. Therefore in order to evaluate the potential environmental benefits related to this product, this work was developed. The Life Cycle Assessment methodology in accordance to ISO 14040/43 standards was applied to assess its environmental performance, from cradle-to-grave. Moreover the software SimaPro, the Ecoinvent database and the ReCiPe impact assessment method were also utilized.

    The results emphasized the phases and activities during Green Room life cycle presenting the highest potential impacts. This being said, the utilization phase presented for every impact category analyzed the highest potential impacts, with exception of ozone depletion category, which was dominated by material extraction and manufacturing phase, due to the presence of R134a refrigerant. In addition transportation phase presented the lowest values for every category and the end of life phase exposed considerable impact mitigation for the whole life cycle. Moreover extraction and manufacturing phases presented copper, steel and the refrigerant R134a as the most impacting materials for damage to human health, damage to ecosystems and damage to resources, respectively. Finally, improvements were proposed in order to increase the environmental performance of this cooling system.

  • 61.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Kemiteknik.
    Survey of Approaches to Improve Reliability in LCA2002Inngår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 64-72Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Limitations of data quality and difficulties to assess uncertainty are long since acknowledged problems in LCA. During recent years a range of tools for improvement of reliability in LCA have been presented, but despite this there is still a lack of consensus about how these issues should be handled. To give basic understanding of data quality and uncertainty in LCA, key concepts of data quality and uncertainty in the context of LCA are explained. A comprehensive st~rvey of methods and approaches for data quality management, sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty analysis published in the LCA literature is presented. It should serve as a guide to further reading for LCA practitioners interested in improving data quality management and uncertainty assessment in LCA projects. The suitability of different tools for addressing different types of uncertainty and future needs in this field is discussed.

  • 62.
    Björklund, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Kemiteknik.
    Bjuggren, Charlotte
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Kemiteknik.
    Waste Modelling Using Substance Flow Analysis and Life Cycle Assessment1998Inngår i: Proceedings of the Air & Waste Management Association’s Annual Meeting, Stockholm: KTH , 1998, s. 15pp-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer models of municipal waste management have been developed initially to focus on cost minimization. As focus in local planning changed, the objective of these models now include environmental optimization. The development of life-cycle assessment (LCA) as a standard means to quantify environmental impact, and of substance flow analysis (SFA) as a means to track down causes of environmental problems has offered new possibilities in this field. The ORWARE (ORganic WAste REsearch) connects LCA and SFA for evaluation of environmental impact in waste planning. Despite the holistic approach of waste planning models, they do not necessarily facilitate decision making.

  • 63.
    Björklund, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Kemiteknik.
    Bjuggren, Charlotte
    Dalemo, Magnus
    Sonesson, Ulf
    Planning biodegradable waste handling in StockholmManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 64.
    Björklund, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Kemiteknik.
    Bjuggren, Charlotte
    Dalemo, Magnus
    Sonesson, Ulf
    Planning Biodegradable Waste Management in Stockholm1999Inngår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 3, nr 4, s. 43-58Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental impact of the management of biodegradable waste in Stockholm, based mainly on incineration and landfilling, was compared to systems with significant nutrient recycling; large-scale composting, anaerobic digestion, and separate collection and utilization of urine. The systems' emissions, residual products, energy turnover, and resource consumption were evaluated from a life-cycle perspective, using a computerized model, ORWARE (ORganic WAste REsearch model).

    Transportation was of relatively low importance to overall environmental impact, even at high rates of nutrient recycling. This is remarkable considering the geographical setting of Stockholm, with high population density and little nearby farmland. Ancillary systems, such as generation of electricity and district heating, were crucial for the overall outcome.

    Increased recycling of nutrients in solid biodegradable waste in Stockholm can reduce net environmental impact, whereas separation of human urine to be spread as fertilizer cannot yet be introduced without increased acidification. Increased nutrient recycling from solid biodegradable waste inevitably increases spreading of metals on arable land. Urine is by far the least contaminated residual product. Spreading of all other residuals would be limited by their metal content.

  • 65.
    Björklund, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Kemiteknik.
    Bjuggren, Charlotte
    Dalemo, Magnus
    Sonesson, Ulf
    System boundaries in waste management models-Comparing different approaches1998Inngår i: Systems engineering models for waste management : proceedings from the international workshop held in Gothenburg, Sweden 25-26 February 1998 / [ed] Sundberg, Johan, 1998Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 66.
    Blomgren, Axel
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Influence of logging residues on MeHg accumulation in soil2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Forestry has been found to increase the accumulation of methyl mercury (MeHg), a highly neurotoxic compound, in forest soils. However, little is known about how forestry influences catchment processes that governs the mercury (Hg) methylation process. Logging residues are used in harvested catchments in stick roads to reduce soil disturbances caused by forestry machinery. Logging residues left on site after harvest have been suggested to act as a source of high-quality organic matter that stimulates the activity of the microorganisms that carry out the methylation of Hg. In addition, logging residues might influence the activity and abundance of methylating bacteria by reducing the temperature fluctuations in soils below residues and by increasing the soil moisture content. To evaluate the impact of logging residues on the accumulation of MeHg, an experimental field study was carried out in three sites, one in Uppland and two in Västerbotten. The concentration of MeHg was compared between soils covered with residues and soils without residues, and between the lower and upper parts residue piles. Logging residues were not found to influence the levels of MeHg in soils. However, an increased accumulation of MeHg was found in the lower part of residue piles. The accumulation of MeHg in the lower parts was accompanied by a reduced temperature amplitude and an increased water content compared to the upper part of the piles. The increased formation of MeHg might have been mediated by an increased water content in the lower part of the residue piles, possibly by increasing the abundance and activity of Hgmethylating microorganisms due to suboxic/anoxic conditions within biofilms around decomposing needles. The dissolved organic matter composition in soil water differed in soils below residues compared to without residues, but the organic matter signature in soil water under residues was not found to be compliant with an elevated mercury methylation rate. As MeHg accumulated in the lower part of residue piles could become mobilized and transferred to surface water, the suitability of using logging residues in stick roads depends on the location within the catchment. The removal of logging residues could prevent the potential mobilization of MeHg from residue piles. Though, as soil disturbances may cause an increased Hg methylation rate and mediate MeHg export to surface waters, other form of protection, e.g. logging mats, should be used if logging residues are not used to protect soils. 

  • 67.
    Blomqvist, Camilla
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Zingmark, Natalie
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Optimala biodrivmedel för inblandning i diesel: En jämförelse mellan tre biodrivmedel2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    2018 beslutade Sveriges regering att införa en reduktionsplikt som ämnar att reducera växthusgasutsläpp inom transportsektorn och därmed öka användningen av biodrivmedel. Bränsleleverantörer i Sverige har genom reduktionsplikten en skyldighet att blanda in förnyelsebart drivmedel i fossila bränslen. För diesel ska motsvarande 20 procent växthusgaser reduceras med hjälp av inblandning av biobränsle fram till 2020 och från 2021 och framåt ska 21 procent växthusgasemissioner reduceras varje år. Målet om en fossilfri fordonsflotta 2030 förväntas därför uppnås successivt år för år genom detta initiativ. Problematiken är dock att det idag inte finns tillräckliga mängder av biodiesel för att kunna ersätta fossilt diesel till den nivå som plikten ställer krav på. Det krävs därför forskning, innovationer och investeringar för att kunna möjliggöra en expandering av biodieselproduktionen så att behovet av biodrivmedel kan mötas. Syftet med denna rapport är att undersöka vilket biodiesel som är mest optimalt för inblandning i diesel utifrån tillgång, kostnad och miljöpåverkan. Målet är en fossilfri och miljömässigt hållbar transportsektor och för att undersöka vilket biodiesel som presterar bäst har en litteraturstudie genomförts på drivmedlen HVO (hydrerad vegetabilisk olja), FAME (fettsyrametylester) i form av RME (rapsmetylester) och FT-diesel (Fischer Tropsch-diesel) i form av BTL (biogas i flytande form). Sedan har en multikriterieanalys (MKA) följt av en känslighetsanalys implementerats för att jämföra de tre alternativen mot varandra på ett flertal, av författarna utvalda, kriterier. Resultatet visade att HVO genererade högst medelvärde vilket antas vara det mest optimala. I känslighetsanalysen som genomfördes för att testa resultatets osäkerheter och sensitivitet mot hypotetiska förändringar, presterade HVO och FT-diesel bäst. RME presterade sämst i multikriterieanalysen och känslighetsanalysen, vilket innebär att den inte lämpar sig för att användas i större grad än det görs idag. Den kritik som riktar sig mot verktyget MKA innefattar oftast att resultatet innehar en viss typ av subjektivitet sådant att poängen som tilldelas påverkas av författarnas kunskaper och erfarenheter. En av anledningarna till att känslighetsanalys genomförs är för att försöka eliminera denna osäkerhet. De parametrar som har störst inverkan på resultatet och som författarna anser ha mest påverkan på den framtida utvecklingen är tillgången på råvaror, produktionskostnaden samt hur mycket som produceras av varje drivmedel årligen. Slutsatsen är att HVO är mest optimalt för inblandning i diesel idag, men står inför utmaningen att finna alternativa råvaror då restprodukter som HVO produceras av finns i begränsad mängd. BTL skulle vara en stark kandidat om det gjordes investeringar så att det skulle bli tillgängligt på den kommersiella marknaden. RME har många brister och lämpar sig inte för expandering, ett beslut som EU redan tagit och som denna rapport styrker.

  • 68.
    Borg, Emelie
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Pereira de Moraes, Felicia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Varför sorterar inte Lidingöbor ut sitt matavfall?: Matavfallsinsamling för småhushåll på Lidingö2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Lidingö har sedan 2010 erbjudit sina invånare att bli abonnenter av tjänsten för matavfallsinsamling. Trots årliga kampanjer har de dock inte samma anslutningsgrad som kommuner som har ett taxerings - och insamlingssystem som fungerar på liknande sätt. Syftet med detta arbete är därför att svara på; Varför sorterar inte småhus ut matavfall i Lidingö stad trots att det finns förutsättningar för det? Genom litteraturstudier och utskickad enkät till boende på Lidingö har anledningar till varför majoriteten av småhus-hushållen inte är abonnenter tagits fram samt vilka åtgärder som Lidingö stad kan bistå med för att få fler av dessa att bli abonnenter. Det som identifierades som anledningar till att Lidingöbor inte sorterar var främst att de var oroliga för lukt, de hade för lite matavfall och de saknade information. Kampanjer som ansågs fungera väl genom resultat från litteraturstudier i beteendeförändring och jämförelse med andra kommuner var att använda informatörer eller dörrknackare samt att involvera boende i funktionen och driften av systemet. De slutgiltiga åtgärdsförslagen till Lidingö var att synliggöra information bättre och på ett sätt som får de boende att känna sig personligt engagerade till att sortera samt att minska trösklarna i systemet.

  • 69.
    Borggren, Clara
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys (flyttat 20130630). KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys (flyttat 20130630). KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Pappersbok och elektronisk bok på läsplatta: en jämförande miljöbedömning2009Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 70.
    Borggren, Clara
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys. Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys. Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Books from an environmental perspective - Part 1: Environmental impacts of paper books sold in traditional and internet bookshops2011Inngår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 138-147Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The sale and distribution of books are activities that have changed through increased use of the internet. The main aim of this paper was to determine the potential environmental impacts of paper books and identify key issues determining the magnitude of those impacts. A second aim was to study the environmental difference between a paper book bought in a traditional bookshop and through an internet bookshop. In addition, areas with a lack of data and major uncertainties were to be noted.

    Materials and methods A screening life cycle assessment was performed on an average hardback novel produced and read in Sweden. The data used were general data from Ecoinvent 2.0 and site-specific data from companies participating in the study, whenever average data were not available.

    Results and discussion The results showed the most important processes to be pulp and paper production. However, if a substantial distance was travelled by car, to buy a book or collect it, this had a major influence on the environmental performance. Comparing the two bookshop alternatives, the results showed a slight benefit for the internet bookshop due to fewer books being returned to the publisher and the avoidance of energy use at the traditional bookshop. The buyer of a book could significantly influence the total impact by choosing to walk to the bookshop or to combine the trip with several other activities to decrease the impact of the travel per activity performed. When books ordered via the internet were sent by postal services directly to the end consumer, the climate change impact was lowered.

    Conclusions This study showed that, in addition to the paper used, the way books are bought and distributed, including possible personal transportation, can significantly affect the total environmental impact of paper books. The impact per book read can be significantly decreased by sharing books with others.

  • 71.
    Brick, Karolina
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Barriers for implementation of the Environmental Load Profile and other LCA-based tools2008Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The building sector is a vital part in the progress towards environmental sustainability, because of its high potential to decrease the environmental impact. However, the building industry remains one of the most critical industries for the adoption of environmental sustainability principles, because of several unique characteristics in terms of e.g. long-lived products and many stakeholders involved. Environmental assessment tools have an important role to play in implementing environmental sustainability in the building sector, as they provide a clear declaration of what are considered the key environmental considerations and also provide a way of communicating these issues. The Environmental Load Profile (ELP) is a Swedish Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) based tool for the built environment, originally developed as an instrument for evaluation of the environmental performance of Hammarby Sjöstad (HS), a new city district in Stockholm, Sweden. The ELP is facing implementation, aiming to be established as an instrument of common acceptance. Experiences and results from the ELP has revealed that it can be applied to give a comprehensive picture of the environmental performance of a city district, but also that the tool has a number of weaknesses and there is much to improve in the practical procedures for the use of the tool in environmental assessments.

    This research project has the overall goal of making the ELP a stakeholder-accepted methodology for LCA-based assessment for the built environment. The overall goal includes two subgoals: (i) a research goal is to find an acceptable compromise in the design of the ELP tool between a natural science and technology based scientific accuracy and a social-science based acceptance of the tool and (ii) an implementation goal is to study and report experience from the use of the tool as developed today. The thesis consists of three papers: (i) the first is a study of two Swedish LCA-based tools for the built environment, which is based on comparative assessments using the ELP and EcoEffect (EE), (ii) the second is based on a questionnaire and interview study, in which we have investigated responses on LCA-based tools for the built environment among stakeholder representatives of Sweden’s building sector, with the purpose to identify barriers and opportunities for increased use of such tools and (iii) the third is based on case studies in HS using the ELP. We have identified the dominant environmental aspects in the ELP and also investigated the accuracy of the results. The study is completed with a development of a simplified version of the ELP, which also is applied in HS.

    Findings show that despite applying the comparative parts of the ELP and EE on an equal basis (i.e. the object specific data), differences in results were found. The following factors give rise to the differences: (i) differences in material grouping and life expectancy for the construction materials used, (ii) diverse Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data and (iii) different impact assessment. The required level of knowledge to compare, analyse and evaluate assessments made with the ELP and EE, is relatively high, which creates an educational barrier towards increased tool use. A number of other barriers that could mitigate a fruitful implementation of LCA-based tools in Sweden’s building sector have also been identified. We have found barriers between: (i) the current and the desired environmental work within the sector, (ii) the knowledge of and the use of LCA-based tools and (iii) the developers of the tools and the potential users. Other barriers further identified are especially connected to: (i) data (availability and credibility), (ii) costs, (iii) time, (iv) customer pressure, (v) knowledge and (vi) incentives. We have also identified the following opportunities for increased use of the tools: (i) different design of the tools for different actors and situations, (ii) combine LCA with LCC, (iii) involve environmental assessment in the implementation of the EU Directive on energy performance of buildings, (iv) develop reference values, (v) simplify input-data collection, (vi) improve environmental labelling and (vii) provide incentives. In the development of a simplified ELP we have noticed that the most important aspects contributing to the environmental load at a city district level (50 % of the total amount), covers 91-99 % of the total environmental load. The thesis shows that different simplifications of the ELP-tool are required for different purposes, actors and situations. A simplified version of the ELP, “ELP-light” was developed and applied in HS. In the development of ELP-light, we have used some of the identified opportunities and bridged some of the identified barriers.

  • 72.
    Brick, Karolina
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    A comparative study of two Swedish LCA-based tools for practical environmental evaluation of buildings2007Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management, ISSN 1464-3332, E-ISSN 1757-5605, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 319-339Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, two LCA-based tools for the built environment have been developed the last years: the "Environmental Load Profile" and "EcoEffect". Both are standing in front of an implementation phase and it is therefore important that they may deliver credible and consistent results to end users and facilitate a transition to more environmentally benign building construction and administration. The present study looked at the differences in results that may appear when using the tools and where they come from. Applying the two tools for assessment of a new building on equal basis created differences in results. However, both tools pointed at energy use in the administration phase of the life cycle being the most significant factor for environmental impact, consistent with other studies. The results indicate that: (i) differences in material grouping and life expectancy for the construction materials used, (ii) differences in LCI-data used and (iii) different classification and characterisation models used, give rise to important differences.

  • 73.
    Brick, Karolina
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Towards simplification of the Environmental Load ProfileManuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 74.
    Brick, Karolina
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Svanberg, Cecilia
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Barriers and opportunities for increased use of LCA-based tools for the built environment: Stakeholder responses2008Inngår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 75.
    Brolinson, Hanna
    et al.
    SCB.
    Palm, Viveka
    SCB.
    Wadeskog, Anders
    SCB.
    Sörme, Louise
    SCB.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Konsumtionsbaserade miljöindikatorer: Underlag för uppföljning av generationsmålet2012Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 76.
    Brown, Nils W. O.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Methane Dissolved in Wastewater Exiting UASB Reactors: Concentration Measurement and Methods for Neutralisation2006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Methane exiting upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors (operating at standard conditions) dissolved in the liquid phase constitutes a significant proportion of the total quantity of methane that is evolved in the reactors. This significantly affects the energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the reactors.

    Initially a method for direct measurement of the liquid phase concentration of methane in the wastewater exiting the UASBs at Hammarby Sjöstads Reningsverk pilot plant is developed. Results from the measurements show that the wastewater has a methane concentration of between 2.5x10-5 and 3.8x10-5 [mol fraction], corresponding to about 120 to 180 % of the theoretically predicted saturation concentration given conditions in the UASB headspace.

    Systems are also designed to recover and oxidise the methane from wastewaterexiting UASB reactors in a proposed full-sized local wastewater treatment plant for Hammarby Sjöstad, handling wastewater from 15,000 person equivalents, and with a COD equal to that of wastewater treated at Hammarby Sjöstads Reningsverk pilotplant.

    Dimensioning, costing and performance analysis procedures are developed for two main types of system; packed tower counter-current cascades and bubble column counter-current cascades. For each type of system, two distinct cases are considered: One where the methane concentration in the gas phase exiting the respective cascadesis 0.0125 [mol fraction]. For this case, a regenerative thermal oxidiser (RTO) with high heat exchange efficiency is used to oxidise the methane. Secondly, systems are designed where the methane concentration in the gas phase exiting the respective cascades is 0.28 [mol fraction] up to 0.41 [mol fraction]. For this latter case, no specific final oxidation step is considered.

    It is shown that all systems considered are capable of reducing the quantity of methane released to the atmosphere by at least 97%, compared to the situation where no methane recovery and oxidation system is considered. It is furthermore shown that it is technically and economically feasible to do so and that a high proportion of the energy content of the recovered methane can be utilised.

    Packed tower cascades desorbing to an exiting gas phase methane concentration of 0.0125 [mol fraction] with subsequent oxidation in an RTO are capable of performing the entire process at a total cost of 0.47 [SEK/m3 wastewater] and process energy use of 4.6 [kJel/s] or 127 [kJel/m3 wastewater]. Total cost for equivalent systems desorbing with bubble column cascades are very similar, though process energy use is roughly an order of magnitude greater.

    Combustion of recovered methane at the low exiting gas phase concentrations considered in these systems in the RTO yields an energy output of 47 [kJ thermal/s] or 1.3 [MJthermal/m3wastewater] in the form of flue gas at 340 [oC]. This energy output maybe used for process or space heating purposes.

    Packed tower and bubble column systems for desorption to high exiting gas phase methane concentrations are at least 20% more expensive and have a process energy demand about an order of magnitude greater than the respective low exiting gas phase concentration systems described above. These systems have an advantage over low exiting gas phase methane concentration systems because the high concentration methane output has the possibility to be upgraded to vehicle fuel, increasing the total environmental benefit of the system by using evolved methane as a direct replacement for a fossil fuel.

  • 77. Buccolieri, R.
    et al.
    Sandberg, Mats G.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Sweden .
    Study of the effects of building density and overall shape of a city on pollutant dispersion by combination of wind tunnel experiments and CFD simulations2008Inngår i: Hrvatski Meteoroloski Casopis, ISSN 1330-0083, Vol. 43 PART 2, s. 651-655Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the improvement made in controlling local air pollution, urban areas are undergoing increasing environmental pressures and poor air quality is one of the major concerns. Recently, much attention has focused on the relationship between urban form and sustainability. There are indications that the density and the overall shape of cities can have implications on street level ventilation and the "compact city" is by many regarded as the most sustainable urban form. In this framework, this paper is devoted to the study of flow and pollutant dispersion from a ground level line source at pedestrian level within different urban configurations. The urban-like configurations vary from the scenario of an urban sprawl to the opposite scenario of a compact city. Wind tunnel experiments and CFD simulations are performed to evaluate pollutant concentrations in each of the idealized city structures. The overall aim is that of assessing and clarifying the effect of city density on atmospheric flow patterns and pollutant dispersion.

  • 78. Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Hoinkis, Jan
    Kabay, Nalan
    Jean, Jiin-Shuh
    Litter, Marta I.
    Groundwater arsenic: From genesis to sustainable remediation2010Inngår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 44, nr 19, s. 5511-5511Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 79.
    Butt, Ali Azhar
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Mirzadeh, Iman
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Toller, Susanna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Väg- och banteknik.
    Life Cycle Assessment Framework for Asphalt Pavements: Methods to Calculate and Allocate Energy of Binder and Additives2014Inngår i: The international journal of pavement engineering, ISSN 1029-8436, E-ISSN 1477-268X, Vol. 15, nr 4, s. 290-302Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction, maintenance and disposal of asphalt pavements may lead to considerable environmental impacts, in terms of energy use and emissions during the life of the pavement. In order to enable quantification of the potential environmental impacts due to construction, maintenance and disposal of roads, an open life cycle assessment (LCA) framework for the asphalt pavements is presented in this paper. Emphasis was placed on the calculation and allocation of energy used for binder and additives at the project level. It was concluded from this study that when progressing from LCA to its corresponding life cycle cost, the feedstock energy of the binder becomes highly relevant as the cost of the binder will be reflected in its alternative value as fuel. Regarding additives like wax, a framework for energy allocation was suggested. The suggested project level LCA framework was demonstrated in a limited case study of a Swedish asphalt pavement. It was concluded that the asphalt production and transporting materials were the two most energy-consuming processes, emitting most greenhouse gases depending on the fuel type and electricity mix.

  • 80.
    Cabrol, Philippe
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Suggestion of generic Product Category Rules (PCR) for newbuildings2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This Master Thesis project consists in suggesting generic Product Category Rules (PCR) for newbuildings which will be in line with the requirements of the PCR for building product issued inFebruary 2006 by the Swedish Environmental Management Council. The suggestion for a PCRfor new buildings is meant to provide a structured framework to the real estate professionals fora reliable, comprehensive and verifiable communication of the environmental performance oftheir buildings. Typical examples of possible use of an environmental declaration of a newbuilding would be communication towards authorities, marketing purposes or planningpurposes. This will also allow the authorities to be able to include the environmentalconsiderations inherent to the buildings themselves in the decision-making process for housingdevelopments (in addition to other environmental considerations inherent to the developmentproject such as EIA results for instance).

  • 81. Campana, Pietro Elia
    et al.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    Kim, Moonil
    Liu, Junguo
    Kraxner, Florian
    McCallum, Ian
    Li, Hailong
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Energiprocesser.
    Optimal grassland locations for sustainable photovoltaic water pumping systems in China2015Inngår i: CLEAN, EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE ENERGY FOR A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE, Elsevier, 2015, s. 301-307Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Grassland is of strategic importance for food security of China because of the high number of livestock raised in those areas. Grassland degradation due to climate change and overgrazing is thus regarded as severe environmental and economic threat for a sustainable future development of China. Photovoltaic water pumping (PVWP) systems for irrigation can play an important role for the conservation of grassland areas, halting degradation, improving its productivity and farmers' income and living conditions. The aim of this paper is to identify the technically suitable grassland areas for the implementation of PVWP systems by assessing spatial data on land cover and slope, precipitation, potential evapotranspiration and water stress index. Furthermore, the optimal locations for installing PVWP systems have been assessed using a spatially explicit renewable energy systems optimization model based on the minimization of the cost of the whole supply chain. The results indicate that the PVWP-supported grassland areas show high potential in terms of improving forage productivity to contribute to supplying the local demand. Nevertheless, the optimal areas are highly sensitive to several environmental and economic parameters such as ground water depth, forage water requirements, forage price and CO2 emission costs. These parameters need to be carefully considered in the planning process to meet the forage yield potentials. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 82. Cao, J.
    et al.
    Wang, T.
    Shi, L.
    Mao, Bo
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Geoinformatik (stängd 20110301).
    Architecture and algorithm for web phishing detection2010Inngår i: Journal of Southeast University (English Edition), ISSN 1003-7985, Vol. 26, nr 1, s. 43-47Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A phishing detection system, which comprises client-side filtering plug-in, analysis center and protected sites, is proposed. An image-based similarity detection algorithm is conceived to calculate the similarity of two web pages. The web pages are first converted into images, and then divided into sub-images with iterated dividing and shrinking. After that, the attributes of sub-images including color histograms, gray histograms and size parameters are computed to construct the attributed relational graph (ARG) of each page. In order to match two ARGs, the inner earth mover's distances (EMD) between every two nodes coming from each ARG respectively are first computed, and then the similarity of web pages by the outer EMD between two ARGs is worked out to detect phishing web pages. The experimental results show that the proposed architecture and algorithm has good robustness along with scalability, and can effectively detect phishing.

  • 83.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Gonzalez, A. D.
    Potential contributions of food consumption patterns to climate change2009Inngår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 89, nr 5, s. S1704-S1709Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic warming is caused mainly by emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, with agriculture as a main contributor for the latter 2 gases. Other parts of the food system contribute carbon dioxide emissions that emanate from the use of fossil fuels in transportation, processing, retailing, storage, and preparation. Food items differ substantially when GHG emissions are calculated from farm to table. A recent study of approximate to 20 items sold in Sweden showed a span of 0.4 to 30 kg CO2 equivalents/kg edible product. For protein-rich food, such as legumes, meat, fish, cheese, and eggs, the difference is a factor of 30 with the lowest emissions per kilogram for legumes, poultry, and eggs and the highest for beef, cheese, and pork. Large emissions for ruminants are explained mainly by methane emissions from enteric fermentation. For vegetables and fruits, emissions usually are <= 2.5 kg CO2 equivalents/kg product, even if there is a high degree of processing and substantial transportation. Products transported by plane are an exception because emissions may be as large as for certain meats. Emissions from foods rich in carbohydrates, such as potatoes, pasta, and wheat, are <1.1 kg/kg edible food. We suggest that changes in the diet toward more plant-based foods, toward meat from animals with little enteric fermentation, and toward foods processed in an energy-efficient manner offer an interesting and little explored area for mitigating climate change.

  • 84.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap.
    Visualization of Air Flow, Temperature and Concentration Indoors: Whole-field measuring methods and CFD2006Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermal indoor climate is a complicated combination of a number of physical variables, all of which strongly affect people’s well-being. The indoor climate not only heavily affects people’s health and life quality, but also their productivity and ability to work efficiently.

    One of the reasons why so many problems are associated with indoor climate is that it is more or less invisible; it is hard to understand something that cannot be seen. In particular, the near-zone of supply air diffusers in displacement ventilation is very critical. Complaints about drafts are often associated with this type of ventilation system.

    The main aim of this research is to improve the knowledge of the whole-field techniques used to measure and visualize air temperatures and pollutant concentrations. These methods are explored with respect to applicability and reliability. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been used to predict the velocity and temperature distributions and to improve the current limitations.

    Infrared thermography is an excellent technique for visualization of air temperature and airflow pattern, particular in areas with high temperature gradient, such as close to diffusers. It is applicable to both laboratory and field test environments, such as in industries and workplaces. For quantitative measurements the recorded temperatures must be corrected for radiation heat exchange with the environment, a complicated task since knowledge about the local heat transfer coefficients, view factors and surrounding surfaces are needed to be known with good accuracy.

    Computed tomography together with optical sensing is a promising tool in order to study the dispersion of airborne pollutants in buildings. However, the design of the optical sensing configuration and the reconstruction algorithm has a major influence on the performance of this whole-field measuring technique. A Bayesian approach seems to be a rational choice for reconstruction of pollutant concentration indoors, since it avoids the high noise sensitivity frequently encountered with many other reconstruction methods. A modified Low Third Derivative (LTD) method has been proposed in this work that performs well particular for concentration distributions containing steep gradients and regions with very low concentrations.

    CFD simulation is a powerful tool for visualization of velocities, airflow pattern and temperature distribution in rooms. However, for predictions of the absolute value of the physical variables the CFD model have to be validated against some reference case with high quality experimental data. CFD predictions of air temperatures and velocities close to a complex supply diffuser are very troublesome. The performance of CFD prediction of the airflow close to a complex supply diffuser depends mainly on the accuracy of the diffuser, turbulence and wall treatment modeling.

  • 85.
    Cema, Grzegorz
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630), VA-teknik, Vatten, Avlopp och Avfall.
    Comparative study on different Anammox systems2009Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The legal requirements for wastewater discharge into environment, especially to zones exposed to eutrophication, lately became stricter. Nowadays wastewater treatment plants have to manage with the new rules and assure better biogenic elements’ removal, in comparison with the past. There are some well-known methods of diminishing concentrations of these compounds, but they are ineffective in case of nitrogen-rich streams, as landfill leachate or reject waters from dewatering of digested sludge. This wastewater disturbs conventional processes of nitrification-denitrification and raise necessity of building bigger tanks. The partial nitritation followed by Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) process appear to be an excellent alternative for traditional nitrification/denitrification. The process was investigated in three different reactors – Membrane Bioreactor (MBR), Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) and Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC). The process was evaluated in two options: as a two-stage process performed in two separate reactors and as a one-stage process. The two-step process, in spite of very low nitrogen removal rates, assured very high nitrogen removal efficiency, exceeding even 90% in case of the MBBR. However, obtained results revealed that the one-step system is a better option than the two-step system, no matter, what kind of nitrogen-rich stream is taken into consideration. Moreover, the one-step process was much less complicated in operation. Performed research confirmed a hypothesis, that the oxygen concentration in the bulk liquid and the nitrite production rate are the limiting factors for the Anammox reaction in a single reactor. In order to make a quick and simple determination of bacteria activity, the Oxygen Uptake Rate (OUR) tests were shown as an excellent tool for evaluation of the current bacteria activity reliably, and without a need of using expensive reagents. It was also shown, that partial nitritation/Anammox process, could be successfully applied at temperatures much lower than the optimum value. Performed Fluorescent in situ Hybridization (FISH) analyses, proved that the Anammox bacteria were mainly responsible for the nitrogen removal process.

  • 86.
    Cema, Grzegorz
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Raszka, Anna
    Silesian University of Technology, Environmental Biotechnology Department.
    Stachurski, Arkadiusz
    Kunda, Katarzyna
    Surmacz-Górska, Joanna
    Silesian University of Technology, Environmental Biotechnology Department.
    Płaza, Elżbieta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    A one-stage system with partial nitritation and Anammox processes in Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC) for treating landfill leachateInngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the major aspects associated with landfilling of solid wastes is related to the discharge of leachate into environment. Leachates with high ammonium nitrogen content are generally difficult to effective treat in conventional biological treatment processes. Therefore, it brings a requirement of developing new processes and technologies. Additionally, treatment procedures must consider small flow rates of leachate. The Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC) is a good example of technology for treatment such wastewaters, because of its excellent shock and toxic loading capabilities, simple process control and low energy requirements. The main objective of the presented research was to investigate a simultaneous partial nitritation/Anammox process in the rotating biological contactor. For this purpose, the lab-scale reactor was fed with real landfill leachate from two municipal landfill sites in Gliwice and Zabrze (Poland). The reactor was highly loaded up to 7 g N m-2d-1 and it was possible to obtain the maximum inorganic nitrogen removal rate of 6.2 g N m-2d-1. Achieved results proved the possibility of efficient inorganic nitrogen removal by means of partial nitritation/ Anammox process in the temperature around 20°C.

  • 87.
    Cha, Yingying
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Tribologi.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.).
    Gustafsson, M.
    Johansson, C.
    On Particulate Emissions from Individual Trains in Tunnel Environments2016Inngår i: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Railway Technology: Research, Development and Maintenance, Dun Eaglais, Kippen Stirlingshire, FK8 3DY, UK: Civil-Comp Press , 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 88.
    Cha, Yingying
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Tribologi.
    Tu, Minghui
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Tribologi.
    Elmgren, Max
    SLB-analys, Environment and Health Administration, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Silvergren, Sanna
    SLB-analys, Environment and Health Administration, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Tribologi.
    Variation of airborne particulate levels in a newly built railway tunnel2018Inngår i: Aerosol and Air Quality Research, ISSN 1680-8584, E-ISSN 2071-1409Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction of a new railway tunnel for commuter trains in Stockholm was completed in 2017. It included two modern stations (Odenplan and Stockholm City) with platform screen doors (PSD) and one old station (Stockholm Södra) without PSDs. This study evaluates the concentrations of airborne particulates for the new stations, focussing on the effects of traffic operation, system age and train movement. For comparison, the other old station in the tunnel and an above-ground railway station (Solna) were also investigated. The new Odenplan platform was clean before its opening for traffic (12 and 2 μg/m3 for average PM10 and PM2.5, respectively). Substantial increases in the PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were observed after it came into service. The average levels of PM10 and PM2.5 increased to 120 and 30 μg/m3 after one week of operation, and increased again to 175 and 35 μg/m3 after 3 months. The train movement factor (traffic frequency and train stop period) was found to have a strong effect on the particle concentrations of coarse sizes (0.3–10 μm). Comparable levels of PM10 and PM2.5 were measured at both the new station and the old station where the traffic frequency was similar. For the other new station, which had half the traffic frequency due to the station design with two separate platforms, the PM10 and PM2.5 levels were substantially lower.

  • 89. Chatterjee, Debashis
    et al.
    Haider, Dipti
    Majumder, Santanu
    Biswas, Ashis
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Nath, Bibhash
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Bhowmick, Subhamoy
    Mukherjee-Goswami, Aishwarya
    Saha, Debasree
    Hazra, Rasmani
    Maity, Palash B.
    Chatterjee, Debankur
    Mukherjee, Abhijit
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Assessment of arsenic exposure from groundwater and rice in Bengal Delta Region, West Bengal, India2010Inngår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 44, nr 19, s. 5803-5812Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic (As) induced identifiable health outcomes are now spreading across Indian subcontinent with continuous discovery of high As concentrations in groundwater. This study deals with groundwater hydrochemistry vis-a-vis As exposure assessment among rural population in Chakdaha block, West Bengal, India. The water quality survey reveals that 96% of the tubewells exceed WHO guideline value (10 mu g/L of As). The groundwaters are generally anoxic (-283 to -22 mV) with circum-neutral pH (6.3 to 7.8). The hydrochemistry is dominated by HCO3- (208 to 440 mg/L), Ca2+ (79 to 178 mg/L) and Mg2+ (17 to 45 mg/L) ions along with high concentrations of As-T (As total, below detection limit to 0.29 mg/L), Fe-T (Fe total, 1.2 to 16 mg/L), and Fe(II) (0.74 to 16 mg/L). The result demonstrates that Fe(II)-Fe(III) cycling is the dominant process for the release of As from aquifer sediments to groundwater (and vice versa), which is mainly controlled by the local biogeochemical conditions. The exposure scenario reveals that the consumption of groundwater and rice are the major pathways of As accumulation in human body, which is explained by the dietary habit of the surveyed population. Finally, regular awareness campaign is essential as part of the management and prevention of health outcomes. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 90.
    Chiu, Justin NingWei
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Heat Transfer Aspects of Using Phase Change Material in Thermal Energy Storage Applications2011Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovative methods for providing sustainable heating and cooling through thermal energy storage (TES) have gained increasing attention as heating and cooling demands in the built environment continue to climb. As energy prices continue to soar and systems reach their maximal capacity, there is an urgent need for alternatives to alleviate peak energy use. TES systems allow decoupling of energy production from energy utilization, both in location and in time. It is shown in this thesis that successful implementation of TES in the built environment alleviates peak energy load and reduces network expansion as well as the marginal energy production cost.

    This thesis analyzes phase change material (PCM) based TES systems in terms of material property characterization, numerical modeling and validation of thermal storage, as well as case specific techno-economic feasibility studies of system integration. The difficulties identified in latent heat TES design, such as heat transfer aspects, subcooling and identification of phase separation, have been analyzed through Temperature-History mapping and TES numerical modeling with experimental validation. This work focuses on the interdependency between resource availability, thermal charge/discharge power and storage capacity. In a situation where resource availability is limited, e.g. when using free cooling, waste heat or off-peak storage, the thermal power and storage capacity are strongly interrelated and should always be considered in unison to reach an acceptable techno-economic solution. Furthermore, when considering TES integration into an existing thermal energy distribution network, three adverse aspects are revealed in the Swedish case study: the single tariff system, the low-return temperature penalty, and the low storage utilization rate. These issues can be overcome through better adapted policies and optimized storage control strategies. Finally, despite the currently unfavorable conditions in the Swedish energy system, it is shown that TES has the potential to mitigate climate change through greenhouse gas emission reduction by displacing fossil-fuel based marginal thermal energy production.

  • 91.
    Chiu, Justin NingWei
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Martin, Viktoria
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Kraft- och värmeteknologi.
    Thermal Energy Storage: Climate Change Mitigation Solution?2011Inngår i: International Conference for Sustainable Energy Storage, Belfast, UK: University of Ulster , 2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental well being and technology development are on the verge of collapsing. It has been asserted by IPCC that 30% of fauna and flora will face extinction by mid 21st century in the pursuit of business as usual path with current economic development pace. In order to minimize the anthropogenic related damage to the environment, a maximum level of 450ppm CO2 emission has to be maintained at all cost. Technologies that provide climate change mitigation solution and economic growth are hence the highlight; thermal energy storage (TES) is one among them. Energy storage provides the possibility to shift load from on peak energy demand to off peak thermal and electricity production, this results in lower energy flux in the system and therefore cuts down the marginal thermal and electricity production. This reduction in peak power demand translates to a decrease in marginal power production which, in today’s fossil fuel based economy, often pars with auxiliary and high carbon emitting thermal and electric power plants. This study provides a scenario analysis which quantifies the environmental benefit of TES implementation for the Swedish energy system. In the studied scenario, thermal energy storage will be implemented to the existing energy grid to alleviate peak electric and thermal power demand. The rate of implementation is paired with decrease in technology cost, reproduced from typical Learning Curve Model. The study shows that for the Swedish energy system, the total amount of fossil fuel used in heating of residential and service sectors is 19TWh, while reduction that can be achieved cost effectively with implementation of TES amounts to 2.5TWh. This corresponds to a Green House Gas (GHG) emission reduction of 620kton/year or 13% of total fossil fuel based emissions from heating in residential and service sectors.

     

  • 92. Chowdhury, Rezaul K.
    et al.
    Zaman, Atiq Uz
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö.
    Selection of the optimal alternative: rehabilitation of a regional drainage channel in Bangladesh2009Inngår i: URBAN WATER JOURNAL, ISSN 1573-062X, Vol. 6, nr 5, s. 395-405Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the dynamic inter-relationship between human society and water resources, decision-making is a tricky task in water management sectors. In this study, multi-criteria analysis has been used as a decision support tool for the selection of a sustainable option in a regional channel improvement in Bangladesh. The Malnichara channel flows across the north-eastern divisional city of the country, and is responsible for storm water conveyance to the downstream Surma River. The channel was observed to be at risk due to anthropogenic activities such as encroachment, sewage and solid waste disposal and the filling up of natural depression basins. Using the multi-criteria analysis, three alternatives for channel improvement (sodding natural channel, lined natural channel and concrete box culvert) were evaluated with respect to ten indicators, grouped into four sustainability criteria (technical, economic, environmental and social). Sodding natural channel was found to be the optimal alternative, though the selection was sensitive to social criteria. Such a straightforward tool can efficiently be used to ensure sustainability of the channel through stakeholders' involvement in decision-making.

  • 93. Coroama, Vlad C.
    et al.
    Hilty, Lorenz M.
    Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Assessing Internet energy intensity: A review of methods and results2014Inngår i: Environmental impact assessment review, ISSN 0195-9255, E-ISSN 1873-6432, Vol. 45, s. 63-68Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessing the average energy intensity of Internet transmissions is a complex task that has been a controversial subject of discussion. Estimates published over the last decade diverge by up to four orders of magnitude from 0.0064 kilowatt-hours per gigabyte (kWh/GB) to 136 kWh/GB. This article presents a review of the methodological approaches used so far in such assessments: i) top-down analyses based on estimates of the overall Internet energy consumption and the overall Internet traffic, whereby average energy intensity is calculated by dividing energy by traffic for a given period of time, ii) model-based approaches that model all components needed to sustain an amount of Internet traffic, and iii) bottom-up approaches based on case studies and generalization of the results. Our analysis of the existing studies shows that the large spread of results is mainly caused by two factors: a) the year of reference of the analysis, which has significant influence due to efficiency gains in electronic equipment, and b) whether end devices such as personal computers or servers are included within the system boundary or not. For an overall assessment of the energy needed to perform a specific task involving the Internet, it is necessary to account for the types of end devices needed for the task, while the energy needed for data transmission can be added based on a generic estimate of Internet energy intensity for a given year. Separating the Internet as a data transmission system from the end devices leads to more accurate models and to results that are more informative for decision makers, because end devices and the networking equipment of the Internet usually belong to different spheres of control.

  • 94. Coroama, Vlad C
    et al.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms). KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Hilty, Lorenz M
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Dematerialization Through Electronic Media?2015Inngår i: ICT Innovations for Sustainability, Springer, 2015, s. 405-421Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    While the traditional roles of the computer as a machine for scientific calculations, text editing, and graphic design are still significant, computers are increasingly perceived as means of accessing information and interacting with other people – i.e., as electronic media. The aim of this chapter is to analyze digital electronic media and their effects on environmental sustainability. Two fields of application are addressed: electronic media that may replace or augment traditional print media such as newspapers or magazines, and videoconferencing as a potential substitute for traveling to a face-to-face meeting or conference. In both cases, the environmental costs of the electronic media are compared to those of their conventional counterparts. The examples show that electronic media can represent an energy-efficient alternative to traditional activities such as long-distance travel. But they can also be added on top of existing activities instead of replacing them. In such cases, a net increase in the environmental impact results. The availability of small, energy-efficient devices being used as electronic media does not guarantee dematerialization. The overall resource use and emissions throughout the life cycle of the media product systems and, more importantly, at the macro level of total global production and consumption need to be considered. To achieve the dematerialization potential of new electronic media solutions, their efficiency needs to be combined with sufficiency; thus additional measures are necessary to turn the dematerialization potential of electronic media into environmental relief.

  • 95. Dalemo, Magnus
    et al.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    Jönsson, Håkan
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Miljöstrategisk analys.
    Effects of including nitrogen emissions from soil in environmental systems analysis of waste management strategies1998Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 24, s. 363-381Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental impacts of nitrogen emissions from soil resulting from the use of organic fertilizers, such as manure, are large compared with the corresponding impacts of mineral fertilizers. However, soil emissions are rarely included in systems analysis of waste management strategies. This study examines whether the inclusion of soil emissions can affect the environmental ranking of systems for managing solid biodegradable waste. Waste management scenarios based on incineration, anaerobic digestion and composting, respectively, were compared. The scenarios were analysed using the organic waste research (ORWARE) simulation model. A simplified model for calculating nitrogen availability and emissions was also constructed. Life-cycle analysis methodology was used for choosing system boundaries and evaluating the results. Global warming, acidification and eutrophication were the impact categories considered. The results indicate the vital importance of considering nitrogen emissions from soil when comparing biological waste management systems with other waste management methods, especially with regard to eutrophication effects. Soil emissions are also important when comparing the environmental impacts of anaerobic digestion and composting systems. However, the variation in nitrogen emissions from soil is large and depends on the spreading technique used, climate, drainage and soil texture

  • 96. de Jong, Annelise
    et al.
    Balksjö, Theresea
    Katzeff, Cecilia
    Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Challenges in Energy Awareness: a Swedish case of heating consumption in households2013Inngår i: Proceedings of the 16th Conference of the European Roundtable on Sustainable Consumption and Production (ERSCP) & 7th Conference of the Environmental Management for Sustainable Universities (EMSU), 2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    An efficient and sustainable energy system is an important factor when minimising the environmental impact caused by the cities. We have worked with questions on how to construct a more direct connection between customers-­‐citizens and a provider of district heating for negotiating notions of comfort in relation to heating and hot tap water use. In this paper we present visualisation concepts of such connections and reflect on the outcomes in terms of the type of data needed for sustainability assessment, as well as the methods explored for channelling information on individual consumption and environmental impact between customers and the provider of district heating. We have defined challenges in sustainable design for consumer behaviour change in the case of reducing heat and hot water consumption in individual households: (1) The problematic relation between individual behaviour steering and system level district heating, (2) The complexity of environmental impact as indicator for behaviour change, and (3) Ethical considerations concerning the role of the designer.

  • 97.
    Earon, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Dehkordi, Seyed Emad
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Groundwater Resources Potential in Hard Rock Terrain: A Multivariate Approach2014Inngår i: Ground Water, ISSN 0017-467X, E-ISSN 1745-6584Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater resources are limited and difficult to predict in crystalline bedrock due to heterogeneity and anisotropy in rock fracture systems. Municipal-level governments often lack the resources for traditional hydrogeological tests when planning for sustainable use of water resources. A new methodology for assessing groundwater resources potential (GRP) based on geological and topographical factors using principal component analysis (PCA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was developed and tested. ANOVA results demonstrated statistically significant differences in classed variable groups as well as in classed GRP scores with regard to hydrogeological indicators, such as specific capacity (SC) and transmissivity. Results of PCA were used to govern the weight of the variables used in the prediction maps. GRP scores were able to identify 79% of wells in a verification dataset, which had SC values less than the total dataset median. GRP values showed statistically significant correlations using both parametric (using transformed datasets) and non-parametric methods. The method shows promise for municipal or regional level planning in crystalline terrains with high levels of heterogeneity and anisotropy as a hydrogeologically and statistically based tool to assist in assessing groundwater resources. The methodology is executed in a geographic information systems environment, and uses often readily available data, such as geological maps, feature maps and topography, and thus does not require expensive and time-consuming aquifer tests.

  • 98.
    Eggestrand, Hanna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Pedagogical approaches for RE:Source2018Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 99. Ehsani, A. H.
    et al.
    Quiel, Friedrich
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Miljö- och resursinformation.
    Efficiency of Landsat ETM plus Thermal Band for Land Cover Classification of the Biosphere Reserve "Eastern Carpathians" (Central Europe) Using SMAP and ML Algorithms2010Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research, ISSN 1735-6865, E-ISSN 2008-2304, Vol. 4, nr 4, s. 741-750Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two different methods of Bayesian segmentation algorithm were used with different band combinations. Sequential Maximum a Posteriori (SMAP) is a Bayesian image segmentation algorithm which unlike the traditional Maximum likelihood (ML) classification attempts to improve accuracy by taking contextual information into account, rather than classifying pixels separately. Landsat 7 ETM+ data with Path/Row 18626, dated 30 September 2000 for a mountainous terrain at the Polish - Ukrainian border is acquired. In order to study the role of thermal band with these methods, two data sets with and without the thermal band were used. Nine band combinations including ETM+ and Principal Component (PC) data were selected based on the highest value of Optimum Index Factor (OIF). Using visual and digital analysis, field observation data and auxiliary map data like CORINE land cover, 14 land cover classes are identified. Spectral signatures were derived for every land cover. Spectral signatures as well as feature space analysis were used for detailed analysis of efficiency of the reflective and thermal bands. The result shows that SMAP as the superior method can improve Kappa values compared with ML algorithm for all band combinations with on average 17%. Using all 7 bands both SMAP and ML classifications algorithm achieved the highest Kappa accuracy of 80.37% and 64.36% respectively. Eliminating the thermal band decreased the Kappa values by about 8% for both algorithms. The band combination including PC1, 2, 3, and 4 (PCA calculated for all 7 bands) produced the same Kappa as bands 3, 4, 5 and 6. The Kappa value for band combination 3, 4, 5 and 6 was also about 4% higher than using 6 bands without the thermal band for both algorithms. Contextual classification algorithm like SMAP can significantly improve classification results. The thermal band bears complementary information to other spectral bands and despite the lower spatial resolution improves classification accuracy.

  • 100.
    Ehsani, Amir Houshang
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap.
    Artificial neural networks: applications in morphometric and landscape features analysis2007Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis a semi-automatic method is developed to analyze morphometric features and landscape elements based on Self Organizing Map (SOM) as a unsupervised Artificial Neural Network algorithm. Analysis and parameterization of topography into simple and homogenous land elements (landform) can play an important role as basic information in planning processes and environmental modeling. Landforms and land cover are the main components of landscapes. Landscapes are dynamic systems that involve interrelation between physical characteristics (such as landform, soil) and anthropogenic processes (such as land use).

    In morphometry (as general term of geomorphometry) - the qualitative and quantitative measurement of topography - morphometric parameters are calculated such as profile curvature and longitudinal curvature. They are then used in morphometric analysis to identify morphometric features like plane, channel, ridge, peak or pit.

    In February 2000 the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), collected data over 80% of the Earth's land surface, to derive a consistent digital elevation model (DEM) for allland areas between 60 degrees N and 56 degrees S latitude. This DEM with about 90 m grid spacing was used to generate morphometric parameters of first order (slope) and second order (minimum curvature, maximum curvatures and cross-sectional curvature) by fitting a bivariate quadratic surface. These surface curvatures are strongly related to landform features and geomorphological processes.

    The thesis starts with an overall introduction and literature review. Then two methods for morphometric analysis are compared: morphometric parameterization and feature extraction proposed by Wood (1996a), calculated with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software and our method implemented with Self Organizing Map (SOM) as an nsupervised artificial neural networks paradigm.

    Finally in our method for landscape element analysis morphometric parameters and remotely sensed spectral data are combined. The emphasis is on morphologically homogeneous landscape elements characterized by similar slope and curvature conditions. SOM is used to reduce large multidimensional data sets to one output layer consisting of 20 map units. These map units are interpreted in terms of morphometric features, slope and land cover to identify and characterize landscape elements or geoecological units

    Both studies have demonstrated valuable methods for extraction of land information that can be used in geomorphologic applications and geoecosystem modeling. These methods allow important savings in field work and can be used as alternative to labor intensive manual methods. But results may depend on scale and quality of the DEM and the topographic situation; caution should be used in interpretation. Evaluation of these methods in other areas with different morphometric conditions and with multi-scale DEM remains to be done.

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