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  • 51.
    Briel, Annemarie
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Hydrological Modelling at Road Structures in a Changing Climate and Landuse.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    An increase in the frequency and intensity of storm events is predicted by numerous climate researchers for the north of Europe. Not only this but also landuse change in form of clear-cutting can have an impact on the discharge of rivers and with that on road drainage structures. Extensive societal costs can be the consequences of blockage and underdimensioned structures. Hydrological models are powerful instruments that can be used to assess the future dimension requirements for road drainage structures especially in specifically vulnerable areas. In this thesis the hydrological model MIKE SHE was set up to study the discharge and water level at two pipe bridges and one culvert within the catchment of the river Hakerud in Västra Götaland, Sweden. Three scenarios were considered including a changing climate until 2050 and 2100 and a clear-cut scenario aiming to find out if the current design is sufficient for the future. This model can be used as an example model set-up for similar studies taking the recommendations of the experience gained in this thesis into consideration. For the Swedish Transport Administration further studies on this basis can contribute to decision making on the dimensioning of road drainage structures in the future to ensure a safe and robust infrastructural system.

  • 52. Bring, Arvid
    et al.
    Asokan, Shilpa M.
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Jarsjoe, Jerker
    Levi, Lea
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik. Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys Geog, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pietron, Jan
    Prieto, Carmen
    Rogberg, Peter
    Destouni, Georgia
    Implications of freshwater flux data from the CMIP5 multimodel output across a set of Northern Hemisphere drainage basins2015Inngår i: EARTHS FUTURE, ISSN 2328-4277, Vol. 3, nr 6, s. 206-217Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The multimodel ensemble of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5) synthesizes the latest research in global climate modeling. The freshwater system on land, particularly runoff, has so far been of relatively low priority in global climate models, despite the societal and ecosystem importance of freshwater changes, and the science and policy needs for such model output on drainage basin scales. Here we investigate the implications of CMIP5 multimodel ensemble output data for the freshwater system across a set of drainage basins in the Northern Hemisphere. Results of individual models vary widely, with even ensemble mean results differing greatly from observations and implying unrealistic long-term systematic changes in water storage and level within entire basins. The CMIP5 projections of basin-scale freshwater fluxes differ considerably more from observations and among models for the warm temperate study basins than for the Arctic and cold temperate study basins. In general, the results call for concerted research efforts and model developments for improving the understanding and modeling of the freshwater system and its change drivers. Specifically, more attention to basin-scale water flux analyses should be a priority for climate model development, and an important focus for relevant model-based advice for adaptation to climate change.

  • 53.
    Brown, Nils
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Wang, Lan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Sectoral Energy Report: Synthesis Report - ICT for Energy Efficiency in Buildings and Strategic Environmental Assessment for Smart Grids2013Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 54.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Nath, B.
    Naidu, R.
    Ng, J.
    Guilherme, L. R. G.
    Ma, L. Q.
    Kim, K. -W
    Jean, J. -S
    Arsenic ecotoxicology: The interface between geosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere2013Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 262, s. 883-886Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 55.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Chen, Guangnan
    Yusaf, Talal
    Chen, Shulin
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Energiprocesser.
    Sustainable energy and climate protection solutions in agriculture2014Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 114, nr SI, s. 735-736Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 56.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik. University of Southern Queensland, Australia.
    Ghaffour, Noreddine
    Mahmoudi, Hacene
    Goosen, Mattheus
    Mushtaq, Shahbaz
    Hoinkis, Jan
    Low-cost low-enthalpy geothermal heat for freshwater production: Innovative applications using thermal desalination processes2015Inngår i: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 43, s. 196-206Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The study is dedicated to exploring different types of low-cost low-enthalpy geothermal and their potential integration with conventional thermal-based water desalination and treatment technologies to deliver energy efficient, environmentally friendly solutions for water desalination and treatment, addressing global water crises. Our in-depth investigation through reviews of various low-enthalpy geothermal and conventional thermal-based technologies suggest that the geothermal option is superior to the solar option if low-cost geothermal heat is available because it provides a constant heat source in contrast to solar. Importantly, the stable heat source further allows up-scaling ( >1000 m(3)/day), which is not currently possible with solar. Solar-geothermal hybrid constellations may also be suitable in areas where both sources are available. The review also discovers that the innovative Membrane distillation (MD) process is very promising as it can be used for many different water compositions, salinity and temperature ranges. Either the geothermal water itself can be desalinated/treated or the geothermal heat can be used to heat feed water from other sources using heat exchangers. However, there are only few economic analyses for large-scale MD units and these are based on theoretical models using often ;uncertain assumptions resulting in a large variety of results.

  • 57.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Maity, J. P.
    Nath, B.
    Baba, A.
    Gunduz, O.
    Kulp, T. R.
    Jean, J. -S
    Kar, S.
    Yang, H. -J
    Tseng, Y. -J
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Chen, C. -Y
    Naturally occurring arsenic in terrestrial geothermal systems of western Anatolia, Turkey: Potential role in contamination of freshwater resources2013Inngår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 262, s. 951-959Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic (As) contamination in terrestrial geothermal systems has been identified in many countries worldwide. Concentrations higher than 0.01mg/L are detrimental to human health. We examined potential consequences for As contamination of freshwater resources based on hydrogeochemical investigations of geothermal waters in deep wells and hot springs collected from western Anatolia, Turkey. We analyzed samples for major ions and trace element concentrations. Temperature of geothermal waters in deep wells showed extreme ranges (40 and 230°C), while, temperature of hot spring fluids was up to 90°C. The Piper plot illustrated two dominant water types: Na-HCO3 - type for geothermal waters in deep wells and Ca-HCO3 - type for hot spring fluids. Arsenic concentration ranged from 0.03 to 1.5mg/L. Dominance of reduced As species, i.e., As(III), was observed in our samples. The Eh value ranged between -250 and 119mV, which suggests diverse geochemical conditions. Some of the measured trace elements were found above the World Health Organization guidelines and Turkish national safe drinking water limits. The variation in pH (range: 6.4-9.3) and As in geothermal waters suggest mixing with groundwater. Mixing of geothermal waters is primarily responsible for contamination of freshwater resources and making them unsuitable for drinking or irrigation.

  • 58.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik. University of Southern Queensland, Australia.
    Yusaf, Talal
    Maity, Jyoti Prakash
    Nelson, Emily
    Mamat, Rizalman
    Mahlia, T. M. Indra
    Algae-biomass for fuel, electricity and agriculture2014Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 78, s. 1-3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 59.
    Byström, Gustaf
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Johansson, Maya
    Stockholms Universitet.
    GIS-based methods for sustainable wind power planning2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research motivation

    Renewable energy has great importance in the work to counteract the global climate changes. The Swedish government has seta target that in 2020, 50% of the energy use shall come from renewable energy, and the government has also declared a longterm commitment for Sweden to be independent of fossil fuels. To reach these targets wind power is expected to play a greatpart, and approximately 50 TWh of new wind power is needed to meet this objective, compared to the current annual production of approximately 16 TWh. However, climate change is not the only issue at hand, and there is a risk of conflicts between meetingthe targets for renewable energy and other sustainability objectives, e.g. concerning ecosystem services, such as habitatsupporting biodiversity, recreation and cultural landscapes. Hence to steer towards a sustainable planning of wind power, targets and objectives as well as decision support has to be dealt with systematically, encompassing social, economic, technical and ecological perspectives.

    Objective

    The objective of the project is to develop GIS-based methods that can be used as planning support in sustainable planning of wind power, in cooperation with regional and municipal actors. The method will function as decision support, which will helpplanners and decision makers at local and regional level to systematically handle the different aspects related to wind power localisation.

    Methodology

    The project is performed in collaboration with the County Administrative Board of Västernorrland County, which is the study areafor the project. Initially, a literature study is performed to gain knowledge about earlier research in the field and identify importantfactors to include in the methodology. Workshops are held with the included actors, to gain further understanding of what information is relevant when planning for wind power, and to gain local knowledge about the study area; what issues are at hand,and what factors govern wind power planning in the particular area. During the workshops different scenarios related to theplanning process are also developed. The method will include the development of a number of GIS-models to be used in a multicriteria analysis that can be used for design and evaluation of the different planning scenarios.

    Preliminary results

    The literature study as well as the workshops reveals that the location of wind turbines often can have impact on, and render conflict between, different interests and objectives. Factors of high concern when planning for locating wind turbines in the County of Västernorrland are, besides wind speed and technical considerations; noise impact, visual impact, and impact on certain bird species, reindeer hearding and recreation. In order to handle these factors, multi-criteria decision analysis within a GIS environment can support planning in the face of complex problems, with capabilities to handle multiple and often conflicting objectives, and to find sustainable solutions to decision-making problems.

    Management implications

    The project will result in a General GIS-based Planning Support (GPS) methodology to integrate important sustainability issuesin wind power planning, which can be applied generally in future spatial planning. The project will contribute to a morepredictable planning process, where disparate sustainability targets will be handled in an integrated and systematic way, therebyincreasing the possibility of reaching the targets.

  • 60. Byström, Gustaf
    et al.
    Wretling, Vincent
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Strategic Municipal Energy Planning – Examining Current Practice in Sweden.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Act on Municipal Energy Planning was written in 1977 in a time of energy crisis and requires each municipality to have a plan for rational supply and distribution of energy. With regards to the on-going climate change however, there is a need for energy planning to emphasise on shifting towards an efficient energy system with high share of renewables, and low impacts on the climate and the environment. The legislation is therefore argued to be outdated and is currently under review. This study shows that most municipalities are working with the energy issue, as 71% have adopted a policy document with focus on energy and climate. However, 41% has not adopted an energy plan as referred to in the Act on municipal energy planning. The results show that the energy strategies have a wider focus than what is stated in the legislation, which strengthens the view that the legislation can be regarded as outdated. Energy Strategies however still have an important function at the municipal level, as they can help to integrate energy aspects into spatial planning, as well as function as support for the daily energy and climate work in the choice of strategies and measures. The study further shows that the use of Strategic Environmental Assessment has potential to increase the consideration of environmental quality objectives, especially those that might be impacted from the energy plans, but the use of it has been fairly limited and only conducted in 6% of the energy plans. It is therefore recommended that the Act on Municipal Energy Planning is revised to instead include requirements for municipal energy and climate strategies, and that they are made subject to Strategic Environmental Assessment, thus promoting a transition to a sustainable energy system, where environmental objectives are taken into account and possible conflicts can be addressed early in the planning process.

  • 61.
    Byström, Gustaf
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Wretling, Vincent
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Vattenkraftens ekologiska påverkan på älvar – en jämförande studie.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    EU och Sverige har satt mål kring att öka användningen av förnybara energislag samt mål om att uppnå god kvalitet i sjöar och vattendrag. Vattenkraften är avgörande för att uppnå målet om förnybar energi, men det finns frågor kring vilken effekt vattenkraften kan få för älvars möj-lighet att uppnå målet om god vattenmiljö. Denna studie syftar till att undersöka vilken miljöpåverkan vattenkraft har på älvar, och utvärdera i vilken utsträckning åtta olika älvar i norra Sverige uppnår vattenmiljömå-let. Studien bygger på data från den senaste klassningen av Sveriges vat-tenförekomsters ekologiska och kemiska status, vilken tagits fram av vat-tenmyndigheterna i Sverige och är direkt kopplad till de nationella vattenmiljömålen. Analysen genomförs genom att jämföra statusen i fyra reglerade respektive fyra oreglerade älvar i norra Sverige, och därigenom dra slutsatser om potentiell påverkan från vattenkraft. Resultatet tyder på att vattenkraft verkligen medför negativ påverkan på älvar, och i nuläget försvårar möjligheterna att uppnå vattenmiljömålen, då en tydlig skillnad uppvisas mellan reglerade och oreglerade älvar i hur stor del av älven som uppnår miljökvalitetsnormerna. Dock är det osäkert ifall det kom-mer göras så även i framtiden då definitionen av god ekologisk potential ger utrymme för tolkning, vilket skulle medföra att statusklassningen tappar sitt huvudsakliga syfte.

  • 62.
    Byström, Gustaf
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Wretling, Vincent
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Hållbarhet, utvärdering och styrning.
    Johansson, Maya
    Stockholms Universitet.
    GIS-based methods for sustainable wind power planning2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 63.
    Byström, Gustaf
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Wretling, Vincent
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Johansson, Maya
    Stockholms Universitet.
    GIS-based methods for sustainable wind power planning2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 64. Caceres Choque, Luis Fernando
    et al.
    Ramos Ramos, Oswaldo E.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Valdez Castro, Sulema N.
    Choque Aspiazu, Rigoberto R.
    Choque Mamani, Rocio G.
    Fernandez Alcazar, Samuel G.
    Sracek, Ondra
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Fractionation of heavy metals and assessment of contamination of the sediments of Lake Titicaca2013Inngår i: Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, ISSN 0167-6369, E-ISSN 1573-2959, Vol. 185, nr 12, s. 9979-9994Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical weathering is one of the major geochemical processes that control the mobilization of heavy metals. The present study provides the first report on heavy metal fractionation in sediments (8-156 m) of Lake Titicaca (3,820 m a.s.l.), which is shared by the Republic of Peru and the Plurinational State of Bolivia. Both contents of total Cu, Fe, Ni, Co, Mn, Cd, Pb, and Zn and also the fractionation of these heavy metals associated with four different fractions have been determined following the BCR scheme. The principal component analysis suggests that Co, Ni, and Cd can be attributed to natural sources related to the mineralized geological formations. Moreover, the sources of Cu, Fe, and Mn are effluents and wastes generated from mining activities, while Pb and Zn also suggest that their common source is associated to mining activities. According to the Risk Assessment Code, there is a moderate to high risk related to Zn, Pb, Cd, Mn, Co, and Ni mobilization and/or remobilization from the bottom sediment to the water column. Furthermore, the Geoaccumulation Index and the Enrichment Factor reveal that Zn, Pb, and Cd are enriched in the sediments. The results suggest that the effluents from various traditional mining waste sites in both countries are the main source of heavy metal contamination in the sediments of Lake Titicaca.

  • 65.
    Cantone, Carolina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Modelling sediment connectivity in Swedish catchments and application for flood prediction of roads.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Climate changes are predicted to increase precipitation intensities and occurrence of extreme rainfall events in the near future. Scandinavia has been identified as one of the most sensitive regions in Europe to such changes; therefore, an increase in the risk for flooding, landslides and soil erosion is to be expected also in Sweden. An increase in the occurrence of extreme weather events will impose greater strain on the built environment and major transport infrastructures such as roads and railways.

    This research aimed to identify the risk of flooding at the road-stream intersections, crucial locations where water and debris can accumulate and cause failures of the existing drainage facilities. Two regions in southwest of Sweden affected by an extreme rainfall event in August 2014, were used for calibrating and testing a statistical flood prediction model. A set of Physical Catchment Descriptors (PCDs) including road and catchment characteristics was identified for the modelling. Moreover, a GIS-based topographic Index of Sediment Connectivity (IC) was used as PCD.

    The novelty of this study relies on the adaptation of IC for describing sediment connectivity in lowland areas taking into account contribution of soil type, land use and different patterns of precipitation during the event. A weighting factor for IC was calculated by estimating runoff calculated with SCS Curve Number method, assuming a constant value of precipitation for a given time period, corresponding to the critical event. The Digital Elevation Model of the study site was reconditioned at the drainage facilities locations to consider the real flow path in the analysis. These modifications led to highlight the role of rainfall patterns and surface runoff for modelling sediment delivery in lowland areas.

    Moreover, it was observed that integrating IC into the statistic prediction model increased its accuracy and performance. The calibrated model was then validated in another area, located in the central part of Sweden, affected by severe rainfall event in August 2004, in order to verify its robustness even in ungauged catchments.

  • 66. Cema, G.
    et al.
    Wiszniowski, J.
    Zabczyński, S.
    Zabłocka-Godlewska, E.
    Raszka, A.
    Surmacz-Górska, J.
    Płaza, Elzbieta
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Deammonification in an aerobic Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC)2008Inngår i: Int. Workshop Manage. Pollut. Emiss. Landfills Sludge, 2008, s. 211-218Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Leachate from landfills is a highly complex polluted wastewater. Landfill leachate with a high concentration of ammonium nitrogen is generally difficult to treat, efficiently. Furthermore, it can be very expensive when there is lack of an easily biodegradable carbon source. Combination of the nitrification/denitrification with the Anammox process can be a very attractive alternative. For the purpose of this study, a Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC) was used. The main objective of the research was to investigate the performance of the Anammox process that occurs together with heterotrophic denitrification in the same RBC. During the operation period the acclimation of biofilm to the Anammox process was successful at temperature not exceeding 20°C. Apparently, the process was not affected by a high concentration of nitrite up to 100 g NO2-N m-3 Additionally, it was shown that the Stover-Kincannon model could be used for description of the ammonium and nitrite removal rates.

  • 67. Chen, Y.
    et al.
    Hu, R.
    Zhou, C.
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    A permeability evolution model for crystalline rocks subjected to coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical loading2013Inngår i: Chinese Journal of Rock Mechanics and Engineering, ISSN 1000-6915, Vol. 32, nr 11, s. 2185-2195Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An anisotropic damage model was established for fluid-saturated crystalline rocks of low permeability in coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) loading conditions by using the micromechanical approach in the framework of thermodynamics. The proposed damage model accounts for the impacts of some important micromechanisms, such as the interstitial water pressure, normal stiffness recovery induced by compressed microcracks and sliding and shear dilatancy of closed microcracks, on the macromechanical properties of rocks under non-isothermal condition. On this basis, using various homogenization approaches, estimates were presented for the variations in effective permeability of cracked rocks induced by anisotropic damage propagation. The predictive limitations associated with the lower bound estimates for the effective permeability of damaged rocks were discussed; and a rigorous upper bound estimate was then presented to account for the influence of some important microstructural features, such as the connectivity and persistence of microcrack system, on the permeability variation. Existing laboratory tests on granite samples for damage-induced variation in permeability in triaxial condition and for uniaxial mechanical response after high-temperature thermal treatment, together with the in-situ measurements of excavation-induced damage zone and permeability variation in the surrounding rock of the TSX tunnel, were used to validate the proposed models.

  • 68. Chen, Yifeng
    et al.
    Hu, Shaohua
    Wei, Kai
    Hu, Ran
    Zhou, Chuangbing
    Jing, Lanru
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Experimental characterization and micromechanical modeling of damage-induced permeability variation in Beishan granite2014Inngår i: International Journal of Rock Mechanics And Mining Sciences, ISSN 1365-1609, E-ISSN 1873-4545, Vol. 71, s. 64-76Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Triaxial compression tests with measurements of permeability were performed on core granite samples taken at 450-550 m depth from the Beishan area in Gansu Province, a potential site for China's high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal. Corresponding to the distinct features in the stress-strain behaviors, the permeability of the Beishan granite was found to evolve with a clear permeability decrease in the initial microcrack closure region, a constant permeability value in the elastic region and a dramatic permeability increase in the crack growth region. The permeability increases by up to and over two orders of magnitude as deviatoric stress increases up to sample failure; but at a given deviatoric stress, the permeability reduces remarkably with the increase of confining pressure. An empirical upper bound permeability model was presented by relating the mechanisms involved in the microstructure alteration to the permeability change, and the experimental results were well simulated by the proposed model. Combined with field geological characterization and numerical simulation, the implications of the experimental results for China's HLW disposal were discussed.

  • 69. Coucheney, E.
    et al.
    Eckersten, H.
    Hoffmann, H.
    Jansson, Per Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Gaiser, T.
    Ewert, F.
    Lewan, E.
    Key functional soil types explain data aggregation effects on simulated yield, soil carbon, drainage and nitrogen leaching at a regional scale2018Inngår i: Geoderma, ISSN 0016-7061, E-ISSN 1872-6259, Vol. 318, s. 167-181Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of aggregating soil data (DAE) by areal majority of soil mapping units was explored for regional simulations with the soil-vegetation model CoupModel for a region in Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia). DAE were analysed for wheat yield, drainage, soil carbon mineralisation and nitrogen leaching below the root zone. DAE were higher for soil C mineralization and N leaching than for yield and drainage and were strongly related to the presence of specific soils within the study region. These soil types were associated to extreme simulated output variables compared to the mean variable in the region. The spatial aggregation of these key functional soils within sub-regions additionally influenced the DAE. A spatial analysis of their spatial pattern (i.e. their presence/absence, coverage and aggregation) can help in defining the appropriate grid resolution that would minimize the error caused by aggregating soil input data in regional simulations.

  • 70.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    How accurate is predictive modeling of groundwater transport?: A case study of advection, macrodispersion, and diffusive mass transfer at the Forsmark site (Sweden)2013Inngår i: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 49, nr 9, s. 5317-5327Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We study predictive modeling of groundwater transport that accounts for three mechanisms: mean advection, macrodispersion, and mass transfer. A general methodology is presented and applied to a series of nonsorbing tracer tests along multiple pathways on scales ranging from ca. 70 to 300 m, in a highly heterogeneous aquifer at Forsmark (Sweden). The mean water residence time cannot be predicted well using a simple water balance model. Longitudinal macrodispersivity (L) (L) and a mass transfer parameter group (1/root T) are extrapolated from the control tracer experiments, to yield accurate predictions of tracer discharge, once the mean water residence time is constrained. A relatively simple modeling framework based on Fickian macrodispersion and diffusion seems to be adequate for reproducing the tracer discharge in this complex and highly heterogeneous porous media.

  • 71.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Fiori, A.
    Dagan, G.
    Tracer travel and residence time distributions in highly heterogeneous aquifers: Coupled effect of flow variability and mass transfer2016Inngår i: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The driving mechanism of tracer transport in aquifers is groundwater flow which is controlled by the heterogeneity of hydraulic properties. We show how hydrodynamics and mass transfer are coupled in a general analytical manner to derive a physically-based (or process-based) residence time distribution for a given integral scale of the hydraulic conductivity; the result can be applied for a broad class of linear mass transfer processes. The derived tracer residence time distribution is a transfer function with parameters to be inferred from combined field and laboratory measurements. It is scalable relative to the correlation length and applicable for an arbitrary statistical distribution of the hydraulic conductivity. Based on the derived residence time distribution, the coefficient of variation and skewness of residence time are illustrated assuming a log-normal hydraulic conductivity field and first-order mass transfer. We show that for a low Damkohler number the coefficient of variation is more strongly influenced by mass transfer than by heterogeneity, whereas skewness is more strongly influenced by heterogeneity.

  • 72.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Fiori, Aldo
    Dagan, Gedeon
    Solute transport in aquifers of arbitrary variability: A time-domain random walk formulation2014Inngår i: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 50, nr 7, s. 5759-5773Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Solute transport in three-dimensional aquifers, with spatially varying hydraulic conductivity of arbitrary point distribution is investigated. The basis of our study is a multiindicator model (MIM) representation of the heterogeneity, combined with a self-consistent approximation for groundwater flow and particle transport. A time-domain random walk (TDRW) approach is presented for computing the expected mass arrival along the longitudinal transport direction that is simple and honors the hydrodynamics of flow for any variability. Using hydraulic conductivity measurements at the MADE site and the MIM, it is shown that the travel time distribution for large variability, cannot be well reproduced by the common distributions used for modeling hydrological transport, such as the log-normal distribution, or the inverse-Gaussian distribution. The proposed TDRW approach directly relates to the Lagrangian trajectory formulation and is appropriate for applications where occurrence of negative flow velocities is small. These results open new possibilities for modeling solute transport in aquifers of arbitrary variability by the time-domain random walk that can readily account for a wide range of mass transfer reactions.

  • 73.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Gotovac, Hrvoje
    Flow-dependence of matrix diffusion in highly heterogeneous rock fractures2013Inngår i: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 49, nr 11, s. 7587-7597Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Diffusive mass transfer in rock fractures is strongly affected by fluid flow in addition to material properties. The flow-dependence of matrix diffusion is quantified by a random variable ("transport resistance'') denoted as beta [T/L] and computed from the flow field by following advection trajectories. The numerical methodology for simulating fluid flow is mesh-free, using Fup basis functions. A generic statistical model is used for the transmissivity field, featuring three correlation structures: (i) highly connected non-multiGaussian; (ii) poorly connected (or disconnected) non-multi-Gaussian; and (iii) multi-Gaussian. The moments of beta are shown to be linear with distance, irrespective of the structure, after approximately 10 integral scales of ln T. Percentiles of beta are found to be linear with the mean beta when considering all three structures. Taking advantage of this property, a potentially useful relationship is presented between beta percentiles and the fracture mean water residence time that integrates all structures with high variability; it can be used in discrete fracture network simulations where T statistical data on individual fractures are not available.

  • 74.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Gotovac, Hrvoje
    On the upscaling of chemical transport in fractured rock2014Inngår i: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 50, nr 7, s. 5797-5816Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of flow heterogeneity on chemical transport from single to multiple fractures is investigated. The emphasis is on the dynamic nature of the specific surface area (SSA) due to heterogeneity of the flow, relative to a purely geometrical definition. The flow-dependent SSA is interpreted probabilistically, following inert tracer particles along individual fractures. Upscaling to a fracture network is proposed as a time domain random walk based on the statistics of SSA for single fractures. Statistics of SSA are investigated for three correlation structures of transmissivity: multi-Gaussian and two non-multi-Gaussian. The mean of SSA stabilizes after similar to 20 fractures at different values depending on whether the cubic or quadratic hydraulic law is assumed. The results are tested against comprehensive DFN simulations based on site-specific data but also against direct estimates from a wider range of tracer tests. The proposed time domain random walk methodology sets bounds for SSA in a 75% confidence interval as similar to 1800 1/m and 27,000 1/m, with a median of 14,000 1/m; these values capture reasonably well both the DFN simulation and tracer test SSA data. Presented results may be particularly relevant when quantifying uncertainty of reactive transport modeling in fractured rock.

  • 75.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Soltani, Safeyeh
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Vigouroux, Guillaume
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Global sensitivity analysis of groundwater transport2015Inngår i: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 531Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we address the model and parametric sensitivity of groundwater transport using the Lagrangian-Stochastic Advection-Reaction (LaSAR) methodology. The 'attenuation index' is used as a relevant and convenient measure of the coupled transport mechanisms. The coefficients of variation (CV) for seven uncertain parameters are assumed to be between 0.25 and 3.5, the highest value being for the lower bound of the mass transfer coefficient k0. In almost all cases, the uncertainties in the macro-dispersion (CV = 0.35) and in the mass transfer rate k0 (CV = 3.5) are most significant. The global sensitivity analysis using Sobol and derivative-based indices yield consistent rankings on the significance of different models and/or parameter ranges. The results presented here are generic however the proposed methodology can be easily adapted to specific conditions where uncertainty ranges in models and/or parameters can be estimated from field and/or laboratory measurements.

  • 76. Dahlberg, Johan
    et al.
    Moritz, Marcel
    Rosenqvist, Moa
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Jönsson Strandberg, Kristin
    Brokking, Peter
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Berggren, Eva
    Engberg, Tobias
    Södertörnsanalysen (The Sodertorn Analysis)2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 77.
    Dahlin, Martin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Tillgång till rent dricksvatten och drägliga sanitära anläggningar. - En analys av GoAL WaSH.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Brist på rent vatten och bra toalett- och sanitetsanläggningar har allvarliga konsekvenser för människors hälsa. Idag saknar 748 miljoner människor tillgång till rent vatten och kunskap om hygien (World Health Organization & UNICEF, 2014). Problemet är så pass allvarligt att FN gjorde det till ett av sina millenniemål att halvera antalet människor utan tillgång till säkert dricksvatten och grundläggande toaletter till år 2015. På senare tid, först efter att investeringar i teknologi och infrastruktur inte uppnått sin fulla potential, har insatser ökat för att hjälpa länder att koordinera sin vatten- och miljöledning. I takt med att det blir vanligare är det av vikt att kunna utvärdera arbetet och bedöma betydelsen av insatserna (Tropp, 2007). Denna studie har analyserat projektet GoAL WaSH som verkar i länder som ligger efter med att uppnå millenniemålen. Arbetet som GoAL WaSH utför går ut på att implementera reformer och påverka policy, samt införliva vatten- och sanitetfrågan i nationella strategier. Analysen av GoAL WaSH har syftat till att utreda vad GoAL WaSH uträttar och hur prestationen kan bedömas. Målet är att se hur väl projektet bidrar till att uppnå millenniemålen och förbättra situationen för människor utan rent dricksvatten och sanitära anläggningar. För analysen har tillgång till en databas erhållits, innehållande dokument som redovisar vad som har åstadkommits i länderna som GoAL WaSH samarbetar med. Genom att granska innehållet och kategorisera arbete som utförts i samarbetsländerna har analysen åskådliggjort vad som har uträttats. Studien har inte kunna avgöra hur väl GoAL WaSH bidrar till att uppnå millenniemålen, eftersom det har saknats statistik över hur många människor som fått tillgång till rent dricksvatten och sanitära anläggningar till följd av projektet. Däremot avslöjar analysen hur väl projektet lyckas med sin ambition att genomföra reformer. Den visar att den största delen av arbetet involverar förarbete av policy- och lagförslag och att skapa förutsättningar för länderna att bedriva en mer hållbar ledning i vattenfrågor. Om detta förarbete sedan leder till att vatten- och sanitetsfrågan införlivas i nationella strategier och myndigheternas styrning återstår att se. Därför går det endast att vara försiktigt optimistisk över vad som har åstadkommits.

  • 78.
    Dargahi, Bijan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Hydrodynamic and Transport Characterization of theBaltic Sea 2000-20092014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 79.
    Dargahi, Bijan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Vattendragsteknik.
    Kolluru, V.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Multi-layered stratification in the Baltic Sea: Insight from a modeling study with reference to environmental conditions2017Inngår i: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, E-ISSN 2077-1312, Vol. 5, nr 1, artikkel-id 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The hydrodynamic and transport characteristics of the Baltic Sea in the period 2000-2009 were studied using a fully calibrated and validated 3D hydrodynamic model with a horizontal resolution of 4.8 km. This study provided new insight into the type and dynamics of vertical structure in the Baltic Sea, not considered in previous studies. Thermal and salinity stratification are both addressed, with a focus on the structural properties of the layers. The detection of cooler regions (dicothermal) within the layer structure is an important finding. The detailed investigation of thermal stratification for a 10-year period (i.e., 2000-2009) revealed some new features. A multilayered structure that contains several thermocline and dicothermal layers was identified from this study. Statistical analysis of the simulation results made it possible to derive the mean thermal stratification properties, expressed as mean temperatures and the normalized layer thicknesses. The three-layered model proposed by previous investigators appears to be valid only during the winter periods; for other periods, a multi-layered structure with more than five layers has been identified during this investigation. This study provides detailed insight into thermal and salinity stratification in the Baltic Sea during a recent decade that can be used as a basis for diverse environmental assessments. It extends previous studies on stratification in the Baltic Sea regarding both the extent and the nature of stratification.

  • 80.
    Davidsson, Emil
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Persson, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Prediktion av översvämningsrisken vid vägar - En undersökning av två översvämningar i Östersunds kommun 2008.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Pågående klimatförändringar med påföljande ökad nederbörd ger förhöjd risk för översvämningar. Det är därför viktigt att kunna göra förutsägelser för var översvämning riskerar att ske. Förutsättningarna att göra sådana prediktioner med geografiska informationssystem ökar då Sveriges geografi karteras i allt större utsträckning.

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att utföra och analysera en modell för kartering av översvämningsrisk av väg. Det görs genom GIS-analys av geografiska data, baserade på platsspecifika egenskaper i landskapet, för ett område i Östersunds kommun där två vägavsnitt översvämmades 2008. De platsspecifika egenskaperna kvantifieras i s.k. fysikaliska avrinningsområdesegenskaper (FAE). Vidare syftar uppsatsen till att undersöka hur dessa FAE kan kopplas till översvämningsrisk, på vilket sätt vägen inverkat på risken för att översvämning uppstår och hur modellen kan användas i ett allmänt syfte att kartera översvämningsrisk.

    Resultatet visar att det finns en korrelation mellan ett flertal FAE och risken för översvämning. Det kan dock göras gällande från resultatet att dessa inte är så entydiga att det med användning av FAE går att allmänt förutsäga översvämningsrisk och riskkarteringen indikerar inte heller att det förelåg större risk i de områden där översvämning dokumenterades.

    Slutsatsen gällande om det går att applicera den här metoden allmänt för att kartera översvämningsrisk för andra områden är att det i dagsläget är komplicerat och osäkert att göra den här typen av kartering. Med förfinade metoder och noggrannare kartering av geografin kan den här typen av modellering få större träffsäkerhet då sambanden mellan platsspecifika egenskaper i landskapet och översvämningsrisken är vetenskapligt belagd.

  • 81. Dawson, Lucas
    et al.
    Persson, Klas
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik.
    Jarsjö, Jerker
    Impacts of the Water Framework Directive on learning and knowledge practices in a Swedish catchment2018Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, ISSN 0301-4797, Vol. 223, s. 731-742Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Catchments are complex social-ecological systems involving multiple, and often competing, interests. Water governance and management regimes are increasingly embracing pluralistic, participatory, and holistic norms as a means to engage with issues of complexity, uncertainty, and value-conflicts. Integrated, participatory approaches are theoretically linked to improved learning amongst stakeholders across sectors and decision-making that is grounded in shared knowledge, experiences and scientific evidence. However, few studies have empirically examined the impacts of an integrated approach to learning and knowledge practices related to water resources.Here, a Swedish sub-catchment that has adopted such an approach in association with implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) is examined. Interview-based analyses show that WFD implementation has both helped and hindered learning and knowledge practices surrounding both water planning and spatial planning. Whilst communities of practice have developed in the study area, a number of important challenges remain. These include the rigid goal-orientation of the WFD, the fragmentation of knowledge caused by an over-reliance on external consultants, as well as a lack of resources to synthesise information from multiple sources. Present results raise questions regarding the efficacy of the WFD to sufficiently enable the development of learning and knowledge practices capable of handling the complexity, uncertainties and value-conflicts facing catchments in Sweden and elsewhere.

  • 82.
    Ddiba, Daniel Isaac Waya
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Estimating the potential for resource recovery from productive sanitation in urban areas.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    To-date, sanitation has mainly been approached from a public and environmental health perspective and this implies that excreta and other organic waste streams are seen not only as a hazard to quickly get rid of but also as a very costly menace to manage. However, looking at sanitation management from a resource recovery perspective provides an avenue for solutions with multiple co-benefits. Revenues from sanitation end-use products can act as an incentive for improving sanitation infrastructure while also covering part or all of the investment and operation costs for the same. Until now, estimating the potential for resource recovery from sanitation systems and technologies has largely been done on a case by case basis according to project or geography with no standardized universal tools or methodologies being used across the world. This study is aimed at developing a generic model for the rapid estimation of the quantities of various resources that can be recovered from sanitary waste streams in urban areas.

    Key waste streams from sanitation systems in low and middle income countries were identified and their major characterization parameters identified. The mathematical relationships between key waste stream characterization parameters and the potential amounts of resource products derived from treatment were determined and then used to develop the model in MS Excel. The model was then tested with waste stream flow rates and characterization data (for faecal sludge, sewage sludge and organic municipal solid waste) from the city of Kampala with two scenarios; the current collection amounts (390 m3 of faecal sludge, 66 tonnes of sewage sludge and 700 tonnes of organic solid waste) and the potential amounts with increased collection efficiency and coverage (900 m3 of faecal sludge, 282 tonnes of sewage sludge and 2199 tonnes of organic solid waste). The results were shared with Kampala city authorities to obtain feedback.

    The results showed that there is significant potential in utilizing the daily amounts of the three waste streams collected in Kampala. With increased collection coverage and efficiency, they could altogether yield; up to 361,200 Nm3 of biogas per day which could meet the daily energy needs of 824,000 people that are currently met by firewood. Alternatively, the three sources could produce, 752 tonnes of solid combustion fuel per day which could meet the daily energy needs of 1,108,700 people that are currently met by firewood. As a third alternative, the three sources could produce 198 tonnes of Black Soldier Fly prepupae per day which could substitute for 134 tonnes of dry fish per day currently used as animal feed ingredient and up to 909 tonnes of compost fertilizer per day which is enough to substitute two tonnes of urea that is currently used by farmers. The model thus proved to be a simple way to provide decision support by making rapid estimations of the potential for resource recovery in urban areas, without the burden of having to do full scale feasibility studies. It is expected that this model could be a useful complement to the excreta flow diagrams (SFDs) developed within the Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) and hence give a holistic picture of the potential of a closed loop approach to excreta and waste management in cities.

  • 83. de Barros, F. P. J.
    et al.
    Bellin, A.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Dagan, G.
    Fiori, A.
    Aquifer heterogeneity controls on adverse human health effects and the concept of the hazard attenuation factor2016Inngår i: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 52, nr 8, s. 5911-5922Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze the probability distribution of the hazard attenuation factor for a noncarcinogenic reactive compound captured by a well in heterogeneous porous formations. The hazard attenuation factor is defined as the ratio between the hazard index HI at a detection well and at the source. Heterogeneity of the aquifer is represented through the multi-indicator model (a collection of blocks of independent permeability) while flow and transport are solved by the means of the self-consistent approach that is able to deal with any degree of heterogeneity. Due to formation heterogeneity, HI is a random variable and similar for hazard attenuation index. The latter can be fully characterized by its cumulative distribution function (CDF), which in turn can be related to the statistics of the travel time of solute particles, from the source to the detection well. The approach is applied to the case of a solute which undergoes decay and a well with a screen much smaller than the correlation scale of hydraulic conductivity. The results show that the probability of exceeding a given acceptable threshold of the hazard index is significantly affected by the level of heterogeneity comparable to the one observed for the MADE site, and the distance between the source and the well.

  • 84.
    Dehkordi, S. Emad
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Groundwater resources in coastal hard rock terrains: Geostatistical and GIS approach2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 poäng / 120 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Stockholm archipelago is a combination of coastal and young glaciated conditions on hard rock geology with almost no primary porosity and very limited secondary porosity. Therefore the aquifer is both of limited capacity and exposed to salinity problem. In this context importance of fractures and soil cover is magnified.

    Lineaments are representatives of fractures in remote sensing. Fracture mapping in study area proves close correspondence between orientation of fractures and nearly located lineaments. Especially in this type of terrain, lineaments normally occur together with many other interesting hydrogeological features such as topographic attributes, soil, and vegetation; however, still each of these factors has its own effect on the groundwater situation.

    Through employment of geostatistical analysis and a modified variant of the RV (Risk Variable) method, called the PV (Probability Value) method, different attributes are rated by importance. The results show, soil cover is the most influencing factor then rock type and distance from lineaments; other factors are classified after them. It is discovered that the center of lineaments may not be the most suitable site to extract water because of being clogged by fills. This is particularly the case for shear fractures in which clay can be internally formed due to friction.

    Based on the statistical results a model is made in GIS environment in order to create hydrogeological maps. Such maps, after validation, can be used for any other area with similar properties even with missing or very limited data from boreholes. These maps definitively are only probability maps projecting areas with higher and lower prospect of aquifer potential and cannot guarantee high capacity in every borehole drilled in designated areas due to high heterogeneity of fractured rock system.

    Analysis of chemical data from wells proves a correlation between fracture orientations and topography with salinization and groundwater flow. Groundwater flow in the surroundings seems to be essential for feeding the aquifer as most of the wells with increased salt content have also low capacities.

  • 85.
    Dehkordi, Seyed Emad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik. University of Western Ontario, Canada.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Schincariol, Robert A.
    Effect of groundwater flow in vertical and horizontal fractures on borehole heat exchanger temperatures2015Inngår i: Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, ISSN 1435-9529, E-ISSN 1435-9537, Vol. 74, nr 2, s. 479-491Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Vertical closed loop systems, also known as borehole heat exchangers (BHEs), are a popular way of extracting the ground source heat energy. Primary factors affecting the performance of BHEs are the thermal and hydrogeological properties of the subsurface. Groundwater flow is known to potentially influence heat transport and system performance. The effect of groundwater movement is more commonly studied under homogeneous conditions. However, in heterogeneous fractured rocks, BHEs are more common than horizontal or open loops due to lack of sufficient soil layers and productive aquifers. The finite-element modelling shows that fractures can play an important role in BHE functioning. Especially, vertical open fractures (≥1 mm) near the borehole (≤10 m) can have a considerable impact. Although increase in fracture aperture continuously affects the subsurface and BHE temperatures, the increase in its effect progressively lessens. Depending on the distance and aperture, one major fracture influencing the BHE operation performance can be identified; yet a larger number of fractures may govern heat transport (thermal plume outline) and thermal recovery. Individually, horizontal fractures may have less influence than vertical fractures. However, as the density of horizontal fractures increases, their impact can be major, exceeding that of fracture aperture. In particular, we propose that measurements of rock thermal properties be combined with fracture mapping, to better analyse the thermal response testing results and integrate the configuration of fractures in design and layout of the BHE(s). This is particularly valid for (vertical) fractures not intersecting with the borehole.

  • 86.
    Dehkordi, Seyed Emad
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Schincariol, Robert A.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Impact of Groundwater Flow and Energy Load on Multiple Borehole Heat Exchangers2014Inngår i: Ground Water, ISSN 0017-467X, E-ISSN 1745-6584Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of array configuration, that is, number, layout, and spacing, on the performance of multiple borehole heat exchangers (BHEs) is generally known under the assumption of fully conductive transport. The effect of groundwater flow on BHE performance is also well established, but most commonly for single BHEs. In multiple-BHE systems the effect of groundwater advection can be more complicated due to the induced thermal interference between the boreholes. To ascertain the influence of groundwater flow and borehole arrangement, this study investigates single- and multi-BHE systems of various configurations. Moreover, the influence of energy load balance is also examined. The results from corresponding cases with and without groundwater flow as well as balanced and unbalanced energy loads are cross-compared. The groundwater flux value, 10−7 m/s, is chosen based on the findings of previous studies on groundwater flow interaction with BHEs and thermal response tests. It is observed that multi-BHE systems with balanced loads are less sensitive to array configuration attributes and groundwater flow, in the long-term. Conversely, multi-BHE systems with unbalanced loads are influenced by borehole array configuration as well as groundwater flow; these effects become more pronounced with time, unlike when the load is balanced. Groundwater flow has more influence on stabilizing loop temperatures, compared to array characteristics. Although borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) systems have a balanced energy load function, preliminary investigation on their efficiency shows a negative impact by groundwater which is due to their dependency on high temperature gradients between the boreholes and surroundings.

  • 87.
    Deshmukh, Rupali
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Managing water for sustainable Agriculture: The case of Ralegan Siddhi in India.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Water is essential element for human survival but unstainable development practices and short term economic benefits are responsible for water scarcity in many areas around the world. Climate change is aggravating the risk with distribution and water availability. Agriculture is a sector highly dependent on water. The livelihood of a vast population in the world depends on not only agriculture, but also forestry, wetlands and fisheries and land use which, in turn, are strongly influenced by water based ecosystems that depend on monsoon rains. India is a global agricultural powerhouse. It is the world’s largest producer of milk, pulses, and spices as well as the largest area under wheat, rice and cotton. But increasing water scarcity in India is affecting agricultural sector, hence affecting socio- economic conditions of poor Indian farmers. In some pockets of the country, attempts have been made during the last few decades to manage the scarce water resources more efficiently and govern them more wisely, so that agriculture as the main economic backbone of the local communities can be sustainably supported. Ralegan Siddhi is one such outstanding case where the rainwater harvested through local interventions has enabled sustainable development of the entire community. The village stands out as an oasis in the desert. The aim of the study is to understand how water has been governed in Ralegan Siddhi to enable sustainable agriculture and hence sustainable development of the community. Ultimately, the study is foreseen to help improve the farmers’ situation in water scarce areas in India and elsewhere by sharing this study report based on Ralegan Siddhi’s water governance practices with other researchers as well as concerned agencies and actors.

  • 88.
    Doncel Fuentes, Pablo
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Towards Sustainable Use of Groundwater Resources: Aquifer 23, La Mancha-Spain.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    La Mancha Plain lies in the core of Spain and partially stretches over the Guadiana River Upper Basin (UGB), is one of the most arid regions of the Iberian Peninsula, indeed “La Mancha” in Arabic means “the dry”, and also houses a vast Aquifer that has supported the related numerous marshlands and hydro-ecosystems in harmony with the human development till the 1970s, when the “Agrarian Green Revolution” commenced.

    Land reclamation over River and lagoon beds joined to the irrigation implementation of more than 150.000 Ha have badly bled the water resources to the maximum usable limit, lowering the phreatic table down to 60 meters, provoking a serious ecological damage for the 25.000 Ha of wetlands highly dependent on shallow phreatic levels.

    Recently, Nature granted the wettest period ever registered in the area (2009-2012) which caused an incredible natural replenishment of that Aquifer deficit. However, even though several costly plans and policies have been undertaken, it is still pending to effectively control the extractions, to manage the Aquifer within a portion allowing a certain continuous upwelling to enliven the Guadiana River real spring, and also, to adjust the essential agriculture sector to the environmental conditions and carrying capacity of the system.

  • 89.
    Dong, Mengni
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Chloride transport in a small catchment of the Norrström basin.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    On a catchment scale, chloride (Cl-) leached from forest soil due to dry deposition and interaction between vegetation and soil could attribute to the Cl- mass balance. The availability of Cl- data from monitoring works enables the assessment of net ecosystem budgets of Cl-, which compares Cl- amount from wet deposition to that in stream export. Some studies have shown that Cl- imbalances could occur in some catchments and one of such catchments with negative budget is Kringlan. The Kringlan catchment is a sub-basin located on the western boundary of Norrström basin and for this project, a southern sub-catchment with a size of 54.5 km2 within Kringlan catchment was chosen to be studied. To fulfill the Cl- budget, one possible internal source of Cl- leached from forest soil was added and tested. Moreover, a field trip to the study site was performed and soil samples were taken back for leaching test analysis. The evaluation of Cl- transport through the catchment requires the water flow and MIKE SHE was selected as the tool for flow simulation in an integrated manner. Lastly, the Particle Tracking (PT) module helped to analyze the Cl- transport through saturated zone in a time span of 100 years for a simplified scenario. Results show that the calibrated chloride concentration to groundwater leached from forest soil (-1 m to -5 m below the ground) was 200 mg/l. A total chloride leaching amount from forest subsurface was calculated as 4287 tons during calibration stage of 5 years. However, only 265 tons of chloride for 5 years could be transported out from the catchment for the calibration period, which corresponds to a leaching flux rate of 1.3g/m2/yr. It was found that the flow discharge rather than the Cl- concentration dominated the Cl- transport loads at the outlet, both in variation and magnitude. For future studies, some other possible internal sources, e.g., mineral weathering, road salting and etc. need to be researched.

  • 90.
    Duan, Yuxin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Saltwater intrusion and agriculture: a comparative study between the Netherlands and China.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Saltwater intrusion, which can be facilitated by natural conditions, human activities and climate change, is a big threat to mankind from social-economic, environmental and ecological perspective. Agriculture, the largest consumer of water, is identified as both contributor and most vulnerable sector to saltwater intrusion, especially in coastal low-lying areas, with the increasing demands and competition of water owing to economic bloom, population growth and climate fluctuations. Sustainable water resource management is urgently needed owing to its essential in solving this issue. Hence this study is to deliver the understanding of linkage between saltwater ingress and agriculture and seek appropriate water resource management strategies in coastal low-lying areas to address saltwater intrusion and reduce its impacts on agriculture.

     

    This study conducts a comparative case study between Texel, the Netherlands and Shouguang, China to specify the linkages between saltwater intrusion and agriculture with local features. The reasons, impacts and associated mitigations and/or adaptations of the issue, together with the legislation of each region have been investigated and compared.

     

    The results show that for combating the saltwater intrusion and reducing the losses from agriculture, both study areas have adapted specific approaches. Among them similar approaches, despite different legislations and policies, such as developing alternative water resource (treated wastewater and rainwater) and saline agriculture are implemented by both of the regions. Through the comparison, each can learn the lessons from the other. The integrated water legislation together with its effective implementation, the strong involvements of different stakeholders and ecological approach to post-treat effluent of Texel can no doubt inspire Shouguang. While the highlights of counteract measures taken by Shouguang such separating rainwater from wastewater during collection and treatment, water diversion and development of special market to achieve high profit for saline products can obviously inspire Texel as well.

     

    The analysis and comparison between these two case studies can reflect the general problems regarding to water management on saltwater intrusion and agriculture in all the regions that suffer from this problem. Hence, it is concluded that 1) integrated water legislation and management (with climate change considered and integrated as well) are the foundations, while water conservation should be core idea that always kept in mind; 2) strong involvements of different stakeholders and necessary supervision systems can guarantee the effectiveness of implementation; 3) all actions should be based on both technical knowledge and local-cultural knowledge; 4) self-sufficient approaches should be promoted at micro level to reduce the dependency on external water intrusion; 5) economic means should be carefully combined with environmental and ecological ways as well to achieve the goal of development of sustainability; 6) monitoring systems are of great significance.

  • 91.
    Earon, Robert
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Water supply in hard rock coastal regions: The effect of heterogeneity and kinematic porosity2014Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Water resources in hard rock terrain are difficult to characterize due to heterogeneity and anisotropy in the fracture network, low porosities and limited recharge volumes available during the summer season. Three methods were developed and evaluated in order to assist in water supply planning. A groundwater resources potential index was estimated using multivariate statistics, where physical and geological variables were classified using Analysis of Variance and Fisher's Least Significant Difference tests according to their effect on hydraulic properties. Principal component analysis was used to assign weights to the different classed variables. Classes and weights were used to produce an index referred to as groundwater resources potential (GRP), which correlated significantly with well data. Nearly 80% of the wells with less than median specific capacity values also had GRP values at those locations of zero or lower. Non-stationary variance was observed in specific capacity sub-samples taken from the Geological Survey of Sweden's well archive, despite homogeneous geology and topography. Spatial statistical analyses showed that spatial correlations were weak in well archive samples, implying that regional approximations based on sparse point data are highly error prone. Kinematic porosity estimated using superficial fracture measurements correlated significantly with well archive data. However, low correlation coefficients indicated that well data is likely not a suitable method for predicting water supply characteristics. This approach is an efficient method which shows promise in preliminary estimations of groundwater storage in heterogenic terrains. A groundwater balance model which describes seasonal groundwater storage changes was created in order to better approximate the groundwater situation often found in Swedish urbanized and semi-urbanized hard rock terrains. The model was based on a water budget approach at the pixel scale, and allows for approximation of well extraction which is not uniformly distributed in space. The model showed that in specific regions groundwater extraction may lead to severe decreases in groundwater level, where these impacts may not otherwise be expected. Dry season modelling with 10% increased evapotranspiration showed that in several areas groundwater reservoir depletion may be influenced by more than 50%.

  • 92.
    Earon, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Dehkordi, Seyed Emad
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Groundwater Resources Potential in Hard Rock Terrain: A Multivariate Approach2014Inngår i: Ground Water, ISSN 0017-467X, E-ISSN 1745-6584Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater resources are limited and difficult to predict in crystalline bedrock due to heterogeneity and anisotropy in rock fracture systems. Municipal-level governments often lack the resources for traditional hydrogeological tests when planning for sustainable use of water resources. A new methodology for assessing groundwater resources potential (GRP) based on geological and topographical factors using principal component analysis (PCA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was developed and tested. ANOVA results demonstrated statistically significant differences in classed variable groups as well as in classed GRP scores with regard to hydrogeological indicators, such as specific capacity (SC) and transmissivity. Results of PCA were used to govern the weight of the variables used in the prediction maps. GRP scores were able to identify 79% of wells in a verification dataset, which had SC values less than the total dataset median. GRP values showed statistically significant correlations using both parametric (using transformed datasets) and non-parametric methods. The method shows promise for municipal or regional level planning in crystalline terrains with high levels of heterogeneity and anisotropy as a hydrogeologically and statistically based tool to assist in assessing groundwater resources. The methodology is executed in a geographic information systems environment, and uses often readily available data, such as geological maps, feature maps and topography, and thus does not require expensive and time-consuming aquifer tests.

  • 93.
    Earon, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Hydraulic heteroscedasticity and its impacton kinematic porosity in Swedish coastal terrains2012Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 94.
    Egeskog, Andrea
    et al.
    Chalmers University, Energy and Environment.
    Barretto, Alberto
    Brazilian Bio-ethanol Science and Technology Laboratory(CTBE).
    Berndes, Göran
    Chalmers University, Energy and Environment.
    Freitas, Flavio L. M.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Holmén, Magnus
    echnology Management and Economics and connected to Center for Business Innovation.
    Sparovek, G.
    Torén, Johan
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Actions and opinions of Brazilian farmers who shift to sugarcane: an interview-based assessment with discussion of implications for land-use change2016Inngår i: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 57, s. 594-604Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sugarcane ethanol systems can deliver large greenhouse gas emissions savings if emissions associated with land-use change are kept low. This qualitative study documents and analyzes actions and opinions among Brazilian farmers who shift to sugarcane production. Semi-structured interviews were held with 28 actors associated with sugarcane production in three different regions: one traditional sugarcane region and two regions where sugarcane is currently expanding. Most farmers considered sugarcane a land diversification option with relatively low economic risk, although higher risk than their previous land use. Beef production was considered a low-risk option, but less profitable than sugarcane. In conjunction with converting part of their land to sugarcane, most farmers maintained and further intensified their previous agricultural activity, often beef production. Several farmers invested in expanded production in other regions with relatively low land prices. Very few farmers in the expansion regions shifted all their land from the former, less profitable, use to sugarcane. Very few farmers in this study had deforested any land in connection with changes made when shifting to sugarcane. The respondents understand "environmental friendliness" as compliance with the relevant legislation, especially the Brazilian Forest Act, which is also a requirement for delivering sugarcane to the mills. Indirect land-use change is not a concern for the interviewed farmers, and conversion of forests and other native vegetation into sugarcane plantations is uncontroversial if legal. We derive hypotheses regarding farmers' actions and opinions from our results. These hypotheses aim to contribute to better understanding of what takes place in conjunction with expansion of sugarcane and can, when tested further, be of use in developing, e.g., policies for iLUC-free biofuel production.

  • 95.
    Elmi Moamed, Abdullahi
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Comparing Africa’s Shared River Basins – The Limpopo, Orange, Juba and Shabelle Basins2014Inngår i: Universal Journal of Geoscience, ISSN 2331-9615, Vol. 2, nr 7, s. 200-211Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper compares the Limpopo and Orange Rivers in Southern African Development Community (SADC), and the Juba and Shabelle Rivers in the Horn of Africa (HoA), which all are internationally shared basins. The aim is to identify differences and similarities between the river basins in the two regions in order to increase our knowledge and understanding of the issue of shared rivers. Relevant data were mainly collected and methods applied include document and literature review, text analysis, interviews with key professional persons during several study visits to the regions. Both the physical geography and the sectoral water uses of the rivers were presented and analyzed. Climatic similarities stand out when comparing the basins, as they are characterized by unevenly distributed rainfall patterns with great seasonal and annual variations, and the regions are water scarce. In both regions, the population is increasing, while the available water resource is decreasing. In all of the four basins, the regions are facing inevitable crisis of water scarcity. The river basins differ however primarily in terms of physical development of rivers’ water resources. The rivers in SADC have been developed for varieties of uses while the rivers in HoA are under-developed and under-utilized. The SADC rivers have established joint institutions for cross-border river cooperation while the HoA rivers have never had any type of river cooperation. Since the rivers have almost similar climatic and physical conditions, the legitimate research question in the future could be: what caused the differences in resource development and cooperation?

  • 96.
    Elmi Mohamed, Abdullahi
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Joint Development and Cooperation in International Water Resources2013Inngår i: International Waters in Southern Africa / [ed] Nakayama, Mikayasu, United Nations University Press, 2013, s. 209-248Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 97.
    Elmi Mohamed, Abdullahi
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Managing Shared Basins in the Horn of Africa: Ethiopian Projects on the Juba and Shabelle Rivers and Downstream Effects in Somalia2013Inngår i: Natural Resources and Conservation, ISSN 2331-6365, Vol. 1, nr 2, s. 35-49Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 98.
    Elmi Mohamed, Abdullahi
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Managing shared river basins in the Horn of Africa: Ethiopian planned water projects on the Juba and Shabelle Rivers and effects on downstream uses in Somalia2013Inngår i: Wit Transactions on Ecology and The Environment, ISSN 1746-448X, E-ISSN 1743-3541, Vol. 172, s. 139-151Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Juba and Shabelle Rivers in the Horn of Africa are shared by Ethiopia, Kenya and Somalia. Most of the rivers' runoff originates from the Ethiopian Highlands. Before entering into the Indian Ocean, the rivers pass through a semidesert area and cross area of border dispute. The rivers are in a war-scarce, warravaged and contentious region. The paper examines the physical and developmental aspects of the two rivers, and analyses resulting trans-boundary river management issues. Methodology used is document and literature reviews, interviews with key persons and other relevant organizations. River master plans and other relevant documents describing policies as well as existing and planned uses were reviewed. The two rivers supply support important economic areas in southern Somalia. As an outcome from their master plans of the river basins, Ethiopia is now planning to build several large dams for hydropower generation and large scale irrigation schemes. No notifications were given to downstream Somalia, which will be the most affected downstream riparian of the projects. These unilateral major water development projects will have substantial adverse impacts on Somalia, as there are no agreements between the nations on sharing river waters. The sum of the existing uses in Somalia and planned ones in Ethiopia will exceed available water resources in the rivers. Potential disputes over the shared rivers are therefore likely to rise. Turning this risk of conflict into a sustainable peace and development in the region, the paper presents existing and potential opportunities for cooperation over the shared water resources for mutually sharing benefits.

  • 99.
    Elmi Mohamed, Abdullahi
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Sharing Water in Africa: Comparative Analysis of the Limpopo and Orange-Senqu River Basins in SADC and the Juba and Shabelle River Basins in the Horn of Africa2014Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    As water resources management becomes increasingly critical and many countries in the arid and semi-arid regions are increasingly forced to consider the possibilities of utilizing the water that is available in international rivers. Thus, the concerns relating to the use of international waters in shared rivers are becoming more important. The increasing competition over shared waters may have to lead either to more joint management and cooperation or to conflicts between basin countries.

    The purpose of the thesis work has been to analyze management of shared waters in international river basins with case studies from the Limpopo and the Orange River Basins in Southern African Development Community (SADC) region and the Juba and Shabelle River Basins in the Horn of Africa (HoA) region, focusing on river cooperation. The methodology employed was a comparative case study analysis through literature review, document analysis, interviews, focus groups and study visits.

    While similarities in climatic conditions and population growth stand out when comparing the basins in the two regions, the rivers differ primarily in terms of physical development of the water resources and institutional building for cross-border river cooperation. The Limpopo and Orange-Senqu river basins in the SADC region became reason for cooperation and catalyst of regional integration while the Juba and Shabelle river basins in the HoA has the potential to lead its riparian to conflict. The river basins in SADC established and operationalized functional system of river cooperation with both bilateral and multilateral basin-wide frameworks.The analysis concludes that management of water resources in internationally shared river basins is effectively affected by issues other than water. Sharing benefits from the shared waters in international rivers require basin-wide river cooperation. There are variety sets of factors that are of great importance for initiating, establishing and operationalizing river basin cooperation.

  • 100.
    Elmi Mohamed, Abdullahi
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Mark- och vattenteknik.
    Transboundary Water Management in the Limpopo and the Orange-Senqu River Basins of SADC: Bilateral Cooperation in Multilateral FrameworkManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
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