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  • 51.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Automatic Probabilistic Enterprise IT Architecture Modeling: a Dynamic Bayesian Networks Approach2016Inngår i: 2016 IEEE 20TH INTERNATIONAL ENTERPRISE DISTRIBUTED OBJECT COMPUTING WORKSHOP (EDOCW), IEEE, 2016, s. 122-129Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise architecture modeling and model maintenance are time-consuming and error-prone activities that are typically performed manually. This position paper presents new and innovative ideas on how to automate the modeling of enterprise architectures. We propose to view the problem of modeling as a probabilistic state estimation problem, which is addressed using Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBN). The proposed approach is described using a motivating example. Sources of machine-readable data about Enterprise Architecture entities are reviewed.

  • 52.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Enterprise Information System Management2007Inngår i: Enterprise Architecture: Models and Analyses for Information Systems Decision Making, Studentlitteratur, 2007, s. 54-71Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 53.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    The Enterprise and Its Information Systems2007Inngår i: Enterprise Architecture: Models and Analyses for Information Systems Decision Making, Studentlitteratur, 2007, s. 37-52Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 54.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Simonsson, Mårten
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Enterprise Architecture at ACME Energy2007Inngår i: Enterprice Architecture: Models and Analyses for Information Systems Decision Making, Studentlitteratur, 2007, s. 293-306Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 55.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Sommestad, Teodor
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
     Introduction2007Inngår i: Enterprise Architecture: Models and Analyses for Information Systems Decision Making, Studentlitteratur, 2007, s. 11--36Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 56.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Närman, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Gustafsson, Pia
    Selecting Enterprise Architecture Models2007Inngår i: Enterprise Architecture: Models and Analyses for Information Systems Decision Making, Studentlitteratur, 2007, s. 213-239Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 57.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Silva, Enrique
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Plazaola, Leonel
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Using Enterprise Architecture for CIO Decision-Making: On the Importance of Theory2004Inngår i: Proceedings of the Second Annual Conference on Systems Engineering Research, 2004Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A company?s Chief Information Officer (CIO) is responsible for the management and evolution of the enterprise information system. An approach suggested as an aid for the CIO?s decision-making process is Enterprise Architecture, based on architectural models of both the enterprise information system and its context. For architectural models to function as decision-making support, this paper argues that they must be amenable to architectural analysis. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of architectural theory in the analysis of architectural models of the enterprise information system. Architectural theory diagrams are proposed as means for presenting and comparing architectural theories as well as for assessing the analytical value of architectural models.

  • 58.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Simonsson, Mårten
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Lilliesköld, Joakim
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Organizing for Enterprise Architcture2007Inngår i: Enterprise Architcture: Models and Analyses for Information Systems Decision Making, Studentlitteratur, 2007, s. 253-268Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 59.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Simonsson, Mårten
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Lilliesköld, Joakim
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Organizing for enterprise architecture2007Inngår i: Enterprise Architcture: Models and Analyses for Information Systems Decision Making, Studentlitteratur, 2007, s. 270-291Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 60.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Simonsson, Mårten
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Schröpfer, Christian
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Setting the IT Organization Goals2007Inngår i: Enterprise Architecture: Models and Analyses for Information Systems Decision Making, Studentlitteratur, 2007, s. 153-212Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 61.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Ullberg, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Assessing Goal Fulfillment2007Inngår i: Enterprise Architecture: Models and Analyses for Information Systems Decision Making, Studentlitteratur, 2007, s. 253-269Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 62.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Gorton, Dan
    Foreseeti, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Time between vulnerability disclosures: A measure of software product vulnerability2016Inngår i: Computers & security (Print), ISSN 0167-4048, E-ISSN 1872-6208, Vol. 62, s. 278-295Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Time between vulnerability disclosure (TBVD) for individual analysts is proposed as a meaningful measure of the likelihood of finding a zero-day vulnerability within a given timeframe. Based on publicly available data, probabilistic estimates of the TBVD of various software products are provided. Sixty-nine thousand six hundred forty-six vulnerabilities from the National Vulnerability Database (NVD) and the SecurityFocus Vulnerability Database were harvested, integrated and categorized according to the analysts responsible for their disclosure as well as by the affected software products. Probability distributions were fitted to the TBVD per analyst and product. Among competing distributions, the Gamma distribution demonstrated the best fit, with the shape parameter, k, similar for most products and analysts, while the scale parameter, 8, differed significantly. For forecasting, autoregressive models of the first order were fitted to the TBVD time series for various products. Evaluation demonstrated that forecasting of TBVD on a per product basis was feasible. Products were also characterized by their relative susceptibility to vulnerabilities with impact on confidentiality, integrity and availability respectively. The differences in TBVD between products is significant, e.g. spanning differences of over 500% among the 20 most common software products in our data. Differences are further accentuated by the differing impact, so that, e.g., the mean working time between disclosure of vulnerabilities with a complete impact on integrity (as defined by the Common Vulnerability Scoring System) for Linux (110 days) exceeds that of Windows 7 (6 days) by over 18 times.

  • 63.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Iacob, M. E.
    Välja, Margus
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Van Sinderen, M.
    Magnusson, C.
    Ladhe, T.
    Business model risk analysis: Predicting the probability of business network profitability2013Inngår i: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, 2013, s. 118-130Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the design phase of business collaboration, it is desirable to be able to predict the profitability of the business-to-be. Therefore, techniques to assess qualities such as costs, revenues, risks, and profitability have been previously proposed. However, they do not allow the modeler to properly manage uncertainty with respect to the design of the considered business collaboration. In many real collaboration projects today, uncertainty regarding the business' present or future characteristics is so significant that ignoring it becomes problematic. In this paper, we propose an approach based on the Predictive, Probabilistic Architecture Modeling Framework (P2AMF), capable of advanced and probabilistically sound reasoning about profitability risks. The P2AMF-based approach for profitability risk prediction is also based on the e3-value modeling language and on the Object Constraint Language (OCL). The paper introduces the prediction and modeling approach, and a supporting software tool. The use of the approach is illustrated by means of a case.

  • 64.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Iacob, Maria Eugenia
    Välja, Margus
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    van Sinderen, Marten
    Magnusson, Christer
    Ladhe, Tobias
    A method for predicting the probability of business network profitability2014Inngår i: Information Systems and E-Business Management, ISSN 1617-9846, E-ISSN 1617-9854, Vol. 12, nr 4, s. 567-593Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the design phase of business collaboration, it is desirable to be able to predict the profitability of the business-to-be. Therefore, techniques to assess qualities such as costs, revenues, risks, and profitability have been previously proposed. However, they do not allow the modeler to properly manage uncertainty with respect to the design of the considered business collaboration. In many real collaboration projects today, uncertainty regarding the business' present or future characteristics is so significant that ignoring it becomes problematic. In this paper, we propose an approach based on the predictive, probabilistic architecture modeling framework (P2AMF), capable of advanced and probabilistically sound reasoning about profitability risks. The P2AMF-based approach for profitability risk prediction is also based on the e3-value modeling language and on the object constraint language. The paper introduces the prediction and modeling approach, and a supporting software tool. The use of the approach is illustrated by means of a case study originated from the Stockholm Royal Seaport smart city project.

  • 65.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Jacobson, I.
    Goedicke, M.
    Kajko-Mattsson, Mira
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Programvaruteknik och Datorsystem, SCS.
    2nd SEMAT workshop on a general theory of software engineering (GTSE 2013)2013Inngår i: 2013 35th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE), New York: IEEE , 2013, s. 1525-1526Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Most academic disciplines emphasize the importance of their general theories. Examples of well-known general theories include the Big Bang theory, Maxwell's equations, the theory of the cell, the theory of evolution, and the theory of demand and supply. Less known to the wider audience, but established within their respective fields, are theories with names such as the general theory of crime and the theory of marriage. Few general theories of software engineering have, however, been proposed, and none have achieved significant recognition. This workshop, organized by the SEMAT initiative, aims to provide a forum for discussing the concept of a general theory of software engineering. The topics considered include the benefits, the desired qualities, the core components and the form of a such a theory.

  • 66.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Jacobson, IvarGoedicke, MichaelKajko-Mattsson, MiraKTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Programvaruteknik och Datorsystem, SCS.
    GTSE 2013: 2nd SEMAT Workshop on a General Theory of Software Engineering2013Konferanseproceedings (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 67.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Johansson, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Assessment of Business Process Information Security2007Inngår i: International Journal of Business Process Integration and Management, ISSN 1741-8763, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 118-130Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Business processes are increasingly dependent on their supporting information systems. With this dependence comes an increased security risk with respect to the information flowing through the processes. This paper presents a method for assessment of the level of information security within business processes in the form of a percentage number, where a high score indicates good information security and a low score indicates a poor level of information security. The method also provides a numerical estimate of the credibility of the information security score, so that an assessment based on few and uncertain pieces of evidence is associated with low credibility and an assessment based on a large set of trustworthy evidence is associated with high credibility. A common problem with information security assessments is the cost related to collecting the required evidence. The paper proposes an evidence collection strategy designed to minimize the effort spent on gathering assessment data while maintaining the desired credibility of the results. A case study is presented, demonstrating the use of the method.

  • 68.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Johansson, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Sommestad, Teodor
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Ullberg, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    A tool for enterprise architecture analysis2007Inngår i: 11TH IEEE INTERNATIONAL ENTERPRISE DISTRIBUTED OBJECT COMPUTING CONFERENCE, PROCEEDINGS, LOS ALAMITOS: IEEE COMPUTER SOC , 2007, s. 142-153Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The discipline of enterprise architecture advocates the use of models to support decision-making on enterprise-wide information system issues. In order to provide such support, enterprise architecture models should be amenable to analyses of various properties, as e.g. the availability, performance, interoperability, modifiability, and information security of the modeled enterprise information systems. This paper presents a software tool for such analyses. The tool guides the user in the generation of enterprise architecture models and subjects these models to analyses resulting in quantitative measures of the chosen quality attribute. The paper describes and exemplifies both the architecture and the usage of the tool.

  • 69.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Nätverk och systemteknik.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Franke, Ulrik
    SICS.
    Can the Common Vulnerability Scoring System be Trusted?: A Bayesian Analysis2018Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, ISSN 1545-5971, E-ISSN 1941-0018, Vol. 15, nr 6, s. 1002-1015, artikkel-id 7797152Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) is the state-of-the art system for assessing software vulnerabilities. However, it has been criticized for lack of validity and practitioner relevance. In this paper, the credibility of the CVSS scoring data found in five leading databases – NVD, X-Force, OSVDB, CERT-VN, and Cisco – is assessed. A Bayesian method is used to infer the most probable true values underlying the imperfect assessments of the databases, thus circumventing the problem that ground truth is not known. It is concluded that with the exception of a few dimensions, the CVSS is quite trustworthy. The databases are relatively consistent, but some are better than others. The expected accuracy of each database for a given dimension can be found by marginalizing confusion matrices. By this measure, NVD is the best and OSVDB is the worst of the assessed databases.

  • 70.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Nätverk och systemteknik.
    Franke, U.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Modeling and analyzing systems-of-systems in the Multi-Attribute Prediction Language (MAPL)2016Inngår i: Proceedings - 4th International Workshop on Software Engineering for Systems-of-Systems, SESoS 2016, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016, s. 1-7Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Multi-Attribute Prediction Language (MAPL), an analysis metamodel for non-functional qualities of systems-ofsystems, is introduced. MAPL features analysis in five nonfunctional areas: service cost, service availability, data accuracy, application coupling, and application size. In addition, MAPL explicitly includes utility modeling to make tradeoffs between the qualities. The paper introduces how each of the five non-functional qualities is modeled and quantitatively analyzed based on the ArchiMate standard for enterprise architecture modeling and the previously published Predictive, Probabilistic Architecture Modeling Framework, building on the well-known UML and OCL formalisms. The main contribution of MAPL lies in combining all five nonfunctional analyses into a single unified framework.

  • 71.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Närman, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Simonsson, Marten
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Enterprise architecture analysis with extended influence diagrams2007Inngår i: Information Systems Frontiers, ISSN 1387-3326, E-ISSN 1572-9419, Vol. 9, nr 2-3, s. 163-180Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The discipline of enterprise architecture advocates the use of models to support decision-making on enterprise-wide information system issues. In order to provide such support, enterprise architecture models should be amenable to analyses of various properties, as e.g. the level of enterprise information security. This paper proposes the use of a formal language to support such analysis. Such a language needs to be able to represent causal relations between, and definitions of, various concepts as well as uncertainty with respect to both concepts and relations. To support decision making properly, the language must also allow the representation of goals and decision alternatives. This paper evaluates a number of languages with respect to these requirements, and selects influence diagrams for further consideration. The influence diagrams are then extended to fully satisfy the requirements. The syntax and semantics of the extended influence diagrams are detailed in the paper, and their use is demonstrated in an example.

  • 72.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Närman, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Simonsson, Mårten
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Extended influence diagrams for enterprise architecture analysis2006Inngår i: 10th IEEE International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference, Proceedings, 2006, s. 3-12Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The discipline of enterprise architecture advocates the use of models to support decision-making on enterprise-wide information system issues. In order to provide such support, enterprise architecture models should be amenable to analyses of various properties, as e.g. the level of enterprise information security. This paper proposes the use of a formal language to support such analysis. Such a language needs to be able to represent causal relations between, and definitions of, various concepts as well as uncertainty with respect to both concepts and relations. To support decision-making properly, the language must also allow the representation of goals and decision alternatives. This paper evaluates a number of languages with respect to these requirements, and selects influence diagrams for further consideration. The influence diagrams are then extended to fully satisfy the requirements. The syntax and semantics of the extended influence diagrams are detailed in the paper, and their use is demonstrated in an example.

  • 73.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Närman, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Simonsson, Mårten
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Extended Influence Diagrams for System Quality Analysis2007Inngår i: Journal of Software, ISSN 1796-217X, Vol. 2, nr 3, s. 30-42Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Making major changes in enterprise information systems, such as large IT-investments, often have a significant impact on business operations. Moreover, when deliberating which IT-changes to make, the consequences of choosing a certain scenario may be difficult to grasp. One way to ascertain the quality of IT investment decisions is through the use of methods from decision theory. This paper proposes the use of one such method to facilitate IT-investment decision making, viz. extended influence diagrams. An extended influence diagram is a tool able to completely describe and analyse a decision situation. The applicability of extended influence diagrams is demonstrated at the end of the paper by using an extended influence diagram in combination with the ISO/IEC 9126 software quality characteristics and metrics as means to assist a decision maker in a decision regarding an IT-investment.

  • 74.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Närman, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Simonsson, Mårten
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    System Quality Analysis with Extended Influence Diagrams2007Inngår i: CSMR 2007 Workshop and Special Session papers, 2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Making major changes in enterprise information systems, such as large IT-investments, often have a significant impact on business operations. Moreover, when deliberating which IT-changes to make, the consequences of choosing a certain scenario may be difficult to grasp. One way to ascertain the quality of IT-investment decisions is through the use of methods from decision theory. This paper proposes the use of one such method to facilitate IT-investment decision making, viz. extended influence diagrams. An extended influence diagram is a tool able to completely desccribe and analyse a decision situation. The applicability of extended influence diagrams is demonstrated at the end of the paper by using an extended influence diagram in combination with the ISO/IEC 9126 software quality metrics as means to assist a decision maker in a decision regarding an IT-investment.

  • 75.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Formalizing analysis of enterprise architecture2007Inngår i: Enterprise Interoperability: New Challenges and Approaches, GODALMING: SPRINGER-VERLAG LONDON LTD , 2007, s. 35-44Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 76.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Ralph, Paul
    Goedicke, Michael
    Ng, Pan Wei
    Klaas Jan, Stol
    Smolander, Kari
    Exman, Iaakov
    Perry, Dewaynee
    Report on the Second SEMAT Workshop on General Theory of Software Engineering: GTSE 20132013Inngår i: Software Engineering Notes: an Informal Newsletter of The Specia, ISSN 0163-5948, E-ISSN 1943-5843Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Software engineering needs a general theory, i.e., a theory thatapplies across the field and unifies existing empirical and theoreticalwork. General theories are common in other domains, suchas physics. While many software engineering theories exist, nogeneral theory of software engineering is evident. Consequently,this report reviews the emerging consensus on a general theory insoftware engineering from the Second SEMAT General Theory ofSoftware Engineering workshop co-located with the InternationalConference on Software Engineering in 2013. Participants agreedthat a general theory is possible and needed, should explain andpredict software engineering phenomena at multiple levels, includingsocial processes and technical artifacts, should synthesize existingtheories from software engineering and reference disciplines,should be developed iteratively, should avoid common misconceptionsand atheoretical concepts, and should respect the complexityof software engineering phenomena. However, several disputes remain,including concerns regarding ontology, epistemology, levelof formality, and how exactly to proceed with formulating a generaltheory.

  • 77.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Ullberg, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Buschle, Markus
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Franke, Ulrik
    FOI - Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Shahzad, Khurram
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    An architecture modeling framework for probabilistic prediction2014Inngår i: Information Systems and E-Business Management, ISSN 1617-9846, E-ISSN 1617-9854, Vol. 12, nr 4, s. 595-622Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the design phase of business and IT system development, it is desirable to predict the properties of the system-to-be. A number of formalisms to assess qualities such as performance, reliability and security have therefore previously been proposed. However, existing prediction systems do not allow the modeler to express uncertainty with respect to the design of the considered system. Yet, in contemporary business, the high rate of change in the environment leads to uncertainties about present and future characteristics of the system, so significant that ignoring them becomes problematic. In this paper, we propose a formalism, the Predictive, Probabilistic Architecture Modeling Framework (P(2)AMF), capable of advanced and probabilistically sound reasoning about business and IT architecture models, given in the form of Unified Modeling Language class and object diagrams. The proposed formalism is based on the Object Constraint Language (OCL). To OCL, P(2)AMF adds a probabilistic inference mechanism. The paper introduces P(2)AMF, describes its use for system property prediction and assessment and proposes an algorithm for probabilistic inference.

  • 78.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Ullberg, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Buschle, Markus
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Shahzad, Khurram
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    P2AMF: Predictive, probabilistic architecture modeling framework2013Inngår i: Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, 2013, s. 104-117Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the design phase of business and software system development, it is desirable to predict the properties of the system-to-be. Existing prediction systems do, however, not allow the modeler to express uncertainty with respect to the design of the considered system. In this paper, we propose a formalism, the Predictive, Probabilistic Architecture Modeling Framework (P 2AMF), capable of advanced and probabilistically sound reasoning about architecture models given in the form of UML class and object diagrams. The proposed formalism is based on the Object Constraint Language (OCL). To OCL, P2AMF adds a probabilistic inference mechanism. The paper introduces P2AMF, describes its use for system property prediction and assessment, and proposes an algorithm for probabilistic inference.

  • 79.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Vernotte, Alexandre
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    pwnPr3d: an Attack Graph Driven Probabilistic Threat Modeling Approach2016Inngår i: Availability, Reliability and Security (ARES), 2016 11th International Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we introduce pwnPr3d, a probabilistic threat modeling approach for automatic attack graph generation based on network modeling. The aim is to provide stakeholders in organizations with a holistic approach that both provides high-level overview and technical details. Unlike many other threat modeling and attack graph approaches that rely heavily on manual work and security expertise, our language comes with built-in security analysis capabilities. pwnPr3d generates probability distributions over the time to compromise assets.

  • 80.
    Johnson, Pontus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Vernotte, Alexandre
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Gorton, Dan
    Foreseeti AB, Sweden.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Quantitative Information Security Risk Estimation using Probabilistic Attack Graphs2016Inngår i: RISK: International Workshop on Risk Assessment and Risk-driven Testing: 4th International Workshop, RISK 2016, Held in Conjunction with ICTSS 2016, Graz, Austria, October 18, 2016, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, 2016, Vol. 10224, s. 37-52Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes an approach, called pwnPr3d, for quantitatively estimating information security risk in ICT systems. Unlike many other risk analysis approaches that rely heavily on manual work and security expertise, this approach comes with built-in security risk analysis capabilities. pwnPr3d combines a network architecture modeling language and a probabilistic inference engine to automatically generate an attack graph, making it possible to identify threats along with the likelihood of these threats exploiting a vulnerability. After defining the value of information assets to their organization with regards to confidentiality, integrity and availability breaches, pwnPr3d allows users to automatically quantify information security risk over time, depending on the possible progression of the attacker. As a result, pwnPr3d provides stakeholders in organizations with a holistic approach that both allows high-level overview and technical details.

  • 81.
    Källgren, Adrian
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Ullberg, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    A Method for Constructing a Company Specific Enterprise Architecture Model Framework2009Inngår i: 10th ACIS Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing, SNPD 2009: In conjunction with IWEA 2009 and WEACR 2009, LOS ALAMITOS: IEEE COMPUTER SOC , 2009, s. 346-351Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Good IT decision making is a highly desirable property that can be furthered by the use of enterprise architecture, an approach to IT management using diagrammatic models. In order to support decision making, the models must contain only relevant information since creation of enterprise architecture models often is a demanding task. This paper suggests a method for constructing an enterprise architecture model framework where enterprises in need of architecture and rational decision making are designated. The paper also describes the outcome of the method at a case for a Swedish utility company, Vattenfall AB.

  • 82.
    Lagerström, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Ullberg, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    A method for creating entreprise architecture metamodels: applied to systems modifiability2009Inngår i: International Journal of Computer Science and Applications, ISSN 0972-9038, E-ISSN 0972-9038, Vol. 6, nr 5, s. 89-120Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise architecture models can be used in order to increase the general understanding of enterprise systems and specifically to perform various kinds of analysis. It is generally understood that such modeling encompasses general scientific issues, but the monetary aspects of the modeling of software systems and their environment are not equally well acknowledged. Even more so, creating a good metamodel for enterprise software systems analysis is an important but challenging task. The present paper describes a method for creating metamodels for such analysis. The enterprise architecture models are formalized using probabilistic relational models, which enables the combination of regular entityrelationship modeling aspects with means to perform enterprise architecture analysis. The proposed method for creating metamodels is general, however this paper presents the method by creating a metamodel for systems modifiability, i.e. the cost of making changes to enterprise-wide systems. The method and the method outcome, i.e. the metamodel, is validated based on survey and workshop data and the applicability of the metamodel is illustrated with an instantiated architectural model based on a software change project at a large Nordic software and hardware vendor.

  • 83.
    Lagerström, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Probabilistic Metamodel Merging2008Inngår i: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 2008, s. 25-28Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 84.
    Lagerström, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Using architectural models to predict the maintainability of enterprise systems2008Inngår i: CSMR 2008: 12TH EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON SOFTWARE MAINTENANCE AND REENGINEERING - DEVELOPING EVOLVABLE SYSTEMS, LOS ALAMITOS: IEEE COMPUTER SOC , 2008, s. 248-252Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern software systems are highly interconnected and have been under constant change for many years. IT decision makers find it difficult to predict and plan change projects due to the complexity of the enterprise systems. Thus, a large proportion of projects with the purpose of changing a software system environment fail, i.e. they tend to take longer time and cost more than expected This paper suggests enterprise architecture as an approach to model software systems and their environment. An enterprise architecture metamodel for maintainability modeling and analysis is presented. IT decision makers can use this metamodel in order to make cost predictions and do risk analysis for their change projects.

  • 85.
    Lagerström, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Architecture analysis of enterprise systems modifiability - A metamodel for software change cost estimation2010Inngår i: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 18, nr 4, s. 437-468Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise architecture models can be used in order to increase the general understanding of enterprise systems and specifically to perform various kinds of analysis. The present paper proposes a metamodel for enterprise systems modifiability analysis, i.e. assessing the cost of making changes to enterprise-wide systems. The enterprise architecture metamodel is formalized using probabilistic relational models, which enables the combination of regular entity-relationship modeling aspects with means to perform enterprise architecture analysis. The content of the presented metamodel is validated based on survey and workshop data and its estimation capability is tested with data from 21 software change projects. To illustrate the applicability of the metamodel an instantiated architectural model based on a software change project conducted at a large Nordic transportation company is detailed.

  • 86.
    Lagerström, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Nätverk och systemteknik.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Nätverk och systemteknik.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Nätverk och systemteknik.
    Automatic Design of Secure Enterprise Architecture2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2017 IEEE 21st International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference Workshops and Demonstrations (EDOCW 2017) / [ed] Halle, S Dijkman, R Lapalme, J, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, s. 65-70Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Architecture models mainly have three functions; 1) document, 2) analyze, and 3) improve the system under consideration. All three functions have suffered from being time-consuming and expensive, mainly due to being manual processes in need of hard to find expertise. Recent work has however automated both the data collection and the analysis. In order for enterprise architecture modeling to finally become free of manual labor the design function also needs to be automated. In this position paper we propose the Automatic Designer. A solution that employs machine learning techniques to realize the design of (near) optimal architecture solutions. This particular implementation is focused on security analysis, but could easily be extended to other topics.

  • 87.
    Lagerström, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Nätverk och systemteknik.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Search-Based Design of Large Software Systems-of-Systems2015Inngår i: Proceedings - 3rd International Workshop on Software Engineering for Systems-of-Systems, SESoS 2015, IEEE , 2015, s. 44-47Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This work in progress paper presents the foundation for an Automatic Designer of large software systems-of-systems. The core formalism for the Automatic Designer is UML. The Automatic Designer extends UML with a fitness function, which uses analysis of non-functional requirements, utility theory, and stakeholder requirements, as the basis for its design suggestions. This extension logic is formalized using an OCL-based Predictive, Probabilistic Architecture Modeling Framework (called P2AMF). A set of manipulation operators is used on the UML model in order to modify it. Then, from a component library (with OTS products), new components will be introduced to the design. Using operators, a search algorithm will look for an optimal solution.

  • 88.
    Lagerström, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Höök, David
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    An Enterprise Architecture Management Pattern for Software Change Project Cost Analysis2009Inngår i: Patterns in Enterprise Architecture Management (PEAM2009) workshop, 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 89.
    Lagerström, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Höök, David
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Architecture analysis of enterprise systems modifiability - Models, analysis, and validation2010Inngår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 83, nr 8, s. 1387-1403Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Enterprise architecture (EA) models can be used in order to increase the general understanding of enterprise systems and to perform various kinds of analysis. This paper presents instantiated architectural models based on a metamodel for enterprise systems modifiability analysis, i.e. for assessing the cost of making changes to enterprise-wide systems. The instantiated architectural models detailed are based on 21 software change projects conducted at four large Nordic companies. Probabilistic relational models (PRMs) are used for formalizing the EA analysis approach. PRMs enable the combination of regular entity-relationship modeling aspects with means to perform enterprise architecture analysis under uncertainty. The modifiability metamodel employed in the analysis is validated with survey and workshop data (in total 110 experts were surveyed) and with the data collected in the 21 software change projects. Validation indicates that the modifiability metamodel contains the appropriate set of elements. It also indicates that the metamodel produces estimates within a 75% accuracy in 87% of the time and has a mean accuracy of 88% (when considering projects of 2000 man-hours or more).

  • 90.
    Lagerström, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Höök, David
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    König, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Software Change Project Cost Estimation - A Bayesian Network and a Method for Expert Elicitation2009Inngår i: Third International Workshop on Software Quality and Maintainability (SQM), 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 91.
    Lagerström, Robert
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Närman, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Extended influence diagram generation2007Inngår i: Enterprise Interoperability II: New Challenges and Approaches, GODALMING: SPRINGER-VERLAG LONDON LTD , 2007, s. 599-602Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 92. Lambert, Quentin
    et al.
    Bazatolle, Thibaut
    Ullberg, Johan
    van Sinderen, Marten
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Business models for an aggregator2012Inngår i: Information Management & Computer Security, ISSN 0968-5227, E-ISSN 1758-5805Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 93.
    Lindstrom, Åsa
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Johansson, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Reglerteknik.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Simonsson, Mårten
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    A survey on CIO concerns - do enterprise architecture frameworks support them?2006Inngår i: Information Systems Frontiers, ISSN 1387-3326, E-ISSN 1572-9419, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 81-90Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The challenge of IT management is today considerable. In industry, the organizational role of the Chief Information Officer (CIO) has been promoted as the owner of these challenges. In spite of a general acceptance of the problems associated with the responsibilities of the CIO, very little academic research has been conducted on the issues and constraints of this role. In order to address these shortcomings, this article presents the results of a survey in which Swedish CIOs have prioritized their most important concerns. In academia, a response to the IT system management challenges has presented itself in the discipline of Enterprise Architecture. The article argues that the CIO role is the primary stakeholder of Enterprise Architecture, so his/her need for decision support should guide Enterprise Architecture research and framework development. Therefore, the article presents a brief review over how well two existing Enterprise Architecture frameworks address the surveyed concerns of the CIO. Results from the survey indicate that the three highest prioritized concerns of CIOs are to decrease the cost related to the business organization, to improve the quality of the interplay between the IT organization and the business organization and to provide new computer-aided support to the business organization. The comparison between the CIOs' prioritization and the foci of the frameworks shows some discrepancies. The largest disharmony lies in the lack of decision support for issues related to the IT organization. Furthermore, support for explicitly estimating and managing costs is lacking within the frameworks.

  • 94.
    Narman, Pia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Gingnell, Liv
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Elkraftteknik.
    Using enterprise architecture to analyse how organisational structure impact motivation and learning2016Inngår i: Enterprise Information Systems, ISSN 1751-7575, E-ISSN 1751-7583, Vol. 10, nr 5, s. 523-562Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When technology, environment, or strategies change, organisations need to adjust their structures accordingly. These structural changes do not always enhance the organisational performance as intended partly because organisational developers do not understand the consequences of structural changes in performance. This article presents a model-based analysis framework for quantitative analysis of the effect of organisational structure on organisation performance in terms of employee motivation and learning. The model is based on Mintzberg's work on organisational structure. The quantitative analysis is formalised using the Object Constraint Language (OCL) and the Unified Modelling Language (UML) and implemented in an enterprise architecture tool.

  • 95.
    Nordstrom, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Närman, Per
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Modelling and evaluating non-functional aspects of integrated protection and control systems2008Inngår i: Int. Conf. Large High Voltage Electr. Syst., CIGRE, 2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The later years of development within information and communication technologies (ICT) have enabled power system control to make greater use of new types of sensors, communication systems, and distributed computer platforms. Traditionally centralized SCADA/EMS solutions with local protection systems are merging into integrated protection and control systems utilizing for example wide area measurements. In such control system architectures, functionality needed for control and protection of the power system can be located at any platform within the distributed ICT platform. An example of this development is the use of autonomous systems and intelligent agents for power system control and operation. Another development is loosely coupled system architectures built on Service Oriented Architectures. Although these ICT based control technologies appear to offer possibilities of improved power system operation and control, they of course cannot be implemented if the overall security and safety requirements on the power system cannot be met. An obvious concern to raise regarding implementation of such systems for power system control and operation is the non-functional aspects of the systems in terms of their performance, dependability, interoperability and level of information security and how these effect the stability and safety of the power system. To address this challenge, we present a framework for modeling and evaluation of integrated protection and control systems that includes a wide range of non-functional aspects and offers support for decision making in design of such systems. The method is based on modeling concepts developed within the area of Enterprise Architecture and the use of a formalism termed Extended Influence Diagrams (EID). The EIDs are used to represent the relation between the attributes that constitute the non-functional aspects in question. The factors represented in the EIDs are all theoretically grounded and empirically established within the research community. The representation of the factors in EIDs further allows the evaluation of their inter-dependence using Bayesian logic. Based on the factors and their relation as described in the EID, modeling semantics for control system components that include these attributes are defined. By creating models of the intended system using these semantics, an engineer can evaluate the effect on the non-functional aspects under study from the design decisions taken.

  • 96. Nurcan, S.
    et al.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Datavetenskap, Nätverk och systemteknik.
    Message from the EDOC 2018 program chairs2018Inngår i: 22nd IEEE International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference, EDOC 2018, artikkel-id 8536137Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 97.
    Närman, Per
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Buschle, Markus
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    König, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Hybrid Probabilistic Relational Models for System Quality Analysis2010Inngår i: Proceedings - IEEE International Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Workshop, EDOC, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2010, s. 57-66Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The formalism Probabilistic Relational Models (PRM) couples discrete Bayesian Networks with a modeling formalism similar to UML class diagrams and has been used for architecture analysis previously. PRMs are well-suited to perform architecture analysis with respect to system qualities since they support both modeling and analysis at the same time. A particular strength of PRMs is the ability to perform meaningful analysis of domains where there is a high level of uncertainty, as is often the case when performing system quality analysis. However, the use of discrete Bayesian networks in PRMs complicates the analysis of continuous phenomena. The main contribution of this paper is the Hybrid Probabilistic Relational Models (HPRM) formalism which extends PRMs to enable continuous analysis thus extending the applicability for architecture analysis and especially for trade-off analysis of system qualities. HPRMs use hybrid Bayesian networks which allow combinations of discrete and continuous variables. In addition to presenting the HPRM formalism, the paper contains an example which details the use of HPRMs for architecture trade-off analysis.

  • 98.
    Närman, Per
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Holm, Hannes
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Höök, David
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Honeth, Nicholas
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Using enterprise architecture and technology adoption models to predict application usage2012Inngår i: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 85, nr 8, s. 1953-1967Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Application usage is an important parameter to consider in application portfolio management. This paper presents an enterprise architecture analysis framework which can be used to assess application usage. The framework, in the form of an architecture metamodel, incorporates variables from the previously published Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and the Task-Technology Fit (TTF) model. The paper describes how the metamodel has been tailored for a specific domain, viz, industry maintenance management. The metamodel was tested in the maintenance management domain through a survey with 55 respondents at five companies. Data collected in the survey showed that the domain-specific metamodel is able to explain variations in maintenance management application usage. Integrating the TAM and TTF variables with an architecture metamodel allows architects to reuse research results smoothly, thereby aiding them in producing good application portfolio decision-support.

  • 99.
    Närman, Per
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Holm, Hannes
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    König, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Data accuracy assessment using enterprise architecture2011Inngår i: Enterprise Information Systems, ISSN 1751-7575, E-ISSN 1751-7583, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 37-58Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Errors in business processes result in poor data accuracy. This article proposes an architecture analysis method which utilises ArchiMate and the Probabilistic Relational Model formalism to model and analyse data accuracy. Since the resources available for architecture analysis are usually quite scarce, the method advocates interviews as the primary data collection technique. A case study demonstrates that the method yields correct data accuracy estimates and is more resource-efficient than a competing sampling-based data accuracy estimation method.

  • 100.
    Närman, Per
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Johnson, Pontus
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Ekstedt, Mathias
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    König, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för elektro- och systemteknik (EES), Industriella informations- och styrsystem.
    Enterprise Architecture Analysis for Data Accuracy Assessments2009Inngår i: 2009 IEEE INTERNATIONAL ENTERPRISE DISTRIBUTED OBJECT COMPUTING CONFERENCE, Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE COMPUTER SOC , 2009, s. 24-33Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Poor data in information systems impede the quality of decision-making in many modern organizations. Manual business process activities and application services are never executed flawlessly which results in steadily deteriorating data accuracy, the further away from the source the data gets, the poorer its accuracy becomes. This paper proposes an architecture analysis method based on Bayesian Networks to assess data accuracy deterioration in a quantitative manner. The method is model-based and uses the ArchiMate language to model business processes and the way in which data objects are transformed by various operations. A case study at a Swedish utility demonstrates the approach.

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