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  • 51.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för trafikforskning, CTR. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS. Delft Univ Technol, Dept Transport & Planning, 5048, NL-2600 GA Delft, Netherlands.;KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Transport Sci, Teknikringen 10, S-11428 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Systemanalys och ekonomi.
    Reimal, Triin
    Ramboll AB, Krukmakargatan 21, S-10462 Stockholm, Sweden..
    The prospects of fare-free public transport: evidence from Tallinn (vol 44, pg 1083, 2017)2018Inngår i: Transportation, ISSN 0049-4488, E-ISSN 1572-9435, Vol. 45, nr 5, s. 1601-1602Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 52.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Wang, Q.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap.
    Zhao, Y.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap.
    Identification and classification of public transport activity centres in Stockholm using passenger flows data2015Inngår i: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 48, s. 10-22, artikkel-id 1735Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban geography could be characterized by analysing the patterns that describe the flows of people and goods. Measuring urban structures is essential for supporting an evidence-based spatial planning policy. The objective of this study is to examine how the spatial-temporal distribution of public transport passenger flow could be used to reveal urban structure dynamics. A methodology to identify and classify centres based on mobility data was applied to Metropolitan Stockholm in Sweden using multi-modal public transport passenger flows. Stockholm is known for its long-term monocentric planning with a dominant central core and radial public transport system. Strategic nodes along its radial public transport system have been a focus for development of sub-centres. Although the regional planning policy embraces a shift towards a polycentric planning policy, the results indicate that this has not been realized insofar.

  • 53.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    West, Jens
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    A dynamic stochastic model for evaluating congestion and crowding effects in transit systems2016Inngår i: Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, ISSN 0191-2615, E-ISSN 1879-2367, Vol. 89, s. 43-57Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most common motivations for public transport investments is to reduce congestion and increase capacity. Public transport congestion leads to crowding discomfort, denied boardings and lower service reliability. However, transit assignment models and appraisal methodologies usually do not account for the dynamics of public transport congestion and crowding and thus potentially underestimate the related benefits. This study develops a method to capture the benefits of increased capacity by using a dynamic and stochastic transit assignment model. Using an agent-based public transport simulation model, we dynamically model the evolution of network reliability and on-board crowding. The model is embedded in a comprehensive framework for project appraisal.A case study of a metro extension that partially replaces an overloaded bus network in Stockholm demonstrates that congestion effects may account for a substantial share of the expected benefits. A cost-benefit analysis based on a conventional static model will miss more than a third of the benefits. This suggests that failure to represent dynamic congestion effects may substantially underestimate the benefits of projects, especially if they are primarily intended to increase capacity rather than to reduce travel times.

  • 54.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    West, Jens
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. SWECO, Sweden.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Appraisal of increased public transport capacity: The case of a new metro line to Nacka, Sweden2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 55.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Zhang, Chen
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Nissan, Albania
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Empirical evaluation of an on-street parking pricing scheme in the city center2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Parking pricing policies can be used as a policy instrument to steer the parking market and reduce the externalities caused by traffic in general and parking in particular. A more efficient management of parking demand can improve the utilization of the limited parking capacity at high-demand areas. Even though parking policies are often a topic of public debate, there is lack of systematic empirical analysis of various parking measures. This paper proposes a methodology to empirically measure and evaluate the impacts of on-street parking policies. The utilization of on-street parking demand is computed based on transaction data from 70 ticket vending machines which is calibrated using floating car films. Measures of parking utilization such as occupancy and its temporal variation, throughput, parking duration and turnover are compared prior and following the introduction of a new parking scheme in the center of Stockholm, Sweden, in September 2013. The results indicate that the policy led to a reduction in parking occupancy although it did not yield the 85% occupancy level objective. Furthermore, the price increase has contradictory effects on throughput and turnover due to the interaction between parking occupancy and duration. The results also question the transferability of price elasticity. It is thus recommended to consider multiple measures of parking utilization when carrying out policy evaluation. 

  • 56.
    Cats, Oded
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Zhang, Chen
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Nissan, Albania
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Survey methodology for measuring parking occupancy: Impacts of an on-street parking pricing scheme in an urban center2016Inngår i: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 47, s. 55-63Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Parking pricing policies can be used as a policy instrument to steer the parking market and reduce the externalities caused by traffic in general and parking in particular. A more efficient management of parking demand can improve the utilization of the limited parking capacity in high-demand areas. Even though parking policies are often a topic of public debate, there is lack of systematic empirical analysis of various parking measures. This paper proposes a survey methodology to empirically measure the impacts of on-street parking policies based on automated parking transaction data. Parking performance is computed based on data available from ticket vending machines calibrated using floating car films. The survey method allows comparing parking occupancy including its temporal variations, allowing the analysis of the accumulated utilization pattern. Average and maximum parking occupancy levels, throughput, parking duration and total fare collection are compared prior and following the introduction of a new parking scheme for visitors to Stockholm inner-city, Sweden. The results indicate that the policy fulfilled its objective to increase the ease of finding a vacant parking place in the central areas and even resulted with underutilized parking spaces.

  • 57.
    F. Abenoza, Roberto
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Systemanalys och ekonomi.
    Liu, Chengxi
    VTI.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. TU Delft.
    Octavius Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Systemanalys och ekonomi.
    What is the role of weather, built-environment and accessibility geographical characteristics in influencing travelers’ experience?2018Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the effect of weather, accessibility and built-environment characteristics on overall travel experience as well as the experience with the latest trips. These are factors that are often disregarded in the travel satisfaction literature even though they are believed to largely influence the first mile of the door-to-door trip. This study fills a research gap in investigating all these factors by using, amongst other, a relatively large travel satisfaction survey from years 2009 to 2015 and by focusing on urban and peri-urban geographical contexts, the city and county of Stockholm (Sweden), respectively. The results show that county dwellers living close to a metro station and in well linked-to-all areas report higher overall travel satisfaction evaluations. In addition, precipitation and ground covered with snow have a negative influence on travel satisfaction. Our findings indicate that built-environment characteristics exert a rather weak influence on the travel experience, especially in the peri-urban context. However, some aspects such as living in areas with medium densities, low income and with high safety perceptions around public transport stations are associated with higher satisfaction levels. In turn, areas with single land uses are found to have lower travel satisfactions. These results are important for public transport planners and designers in devising measures to prevent and mitigate the negative outcome of some weather conditions and to conceive better designed transit oriented developments.

  • 58.
    Fadaei, Masoud
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Systemanalys och ekonomi.
    Cats, Oded
    TU Delft, The Netherlands.
    An empirical evaluation of measures to improve bus service reliability: Performance metrics and a case study in Stockholm2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates the effects of implementation of a range of physical and operational measures during a pilot study on the busiest and most frequent trunk bus line in Stockholm, Sweden. Vehicle positioning and passenger counts data were analysed to evaluate the impact of the field experiment. The study has proven that the bus service performance has been improved from both passengers and operator perspectives. These measures resulted with a service that is 7% faster on average yielding a 10% decrease in passenger in-vehicle times. The faster service leads to 8 minutes shorter cycle time which could potentially cut the fleet size by 2 buses. The results demonstrate that improved regularity and less bunching leading to a 25% reduction in passengers’ waiting times due to irregularity. However, no apparent change in dwell times has been observed. We estimate that each passenger saved 2 minutes which is 10% of journey time. These time savings amount to 9 million Swedish Crowns (1.1 million USD) per year for weekday afternoon peak periods only. 

  • 59.
    Fadaei, Masoud
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Evaluating the impacts and benefits of public transport design and operational measures2016Inngår i: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Design and operational measures are designed and implemented to improve public transport performance and level-of-service. In the case of urban bus systems, priority, operational and control measures are aimed to elevate bus services to buses with high level of service (BHLS). Even though there is an explosive growth in design and operational measures implementation and growing research interest in investigating their impact on performance indicators, there is lack of a systematic evaluation of their benefits. We present an evaluation framework and a detail sequence of steps for quantifying the impacts of public transport design and operational measures. The effects of service performance on travel times and costs are assessed by accounting for relations between reliability and waiting times, crowding and perceived travel times, and vehicle scheduling and operational costs. The evaluation integrates the implications of reliability on generalized passenger travel costs and operational costs. We deploy the proposed evaluation framework to a field experiment in Stockholm where a series of measures were implemented on the busiest bus line. The results suggest that the total passenger and operator benefits amount to 36.8 million Swedish crowns on an annual basis. The overall assessment of the impacts of design and operational measures enables the comparison of different implementations, assess their effectiveness, prioritize alternative measures and provide a sound basis for motivating investments.

  • 60.
    Fadaei, Masoud
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Systemanalys och ekonomi.
    Cats, Oded
    Delft University of Technology, Netherland..
    Evaluating the Performance and Benefits of Bus Priority, Operation and Control Measures2016Inngår i: Proceedings of the 95th Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting, Washington DC., 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Preferential measures are designed and implemented to improve public transport performance and level-of-service. In the case of urban bus systems, priority, operational and control measures are aimed to elevate bus services to buses with high level of service (BHLS). Even though there is an explosive growth in preferential measures implementation and growing research interest in investigating their impact on performance indicators, there is lack of a systematic evaluation of their benefits. We present an evaluation framework and a detail sequence of steps for quantifying the impacts of public transport preferential measures. The effects of service performance on travel times and costs are assessed by accounting for relations between reliability and waiting times, crowding and perceived travel times, and vehicle scheduling and operational costs. The evaluation integrates the implications of reliability on generalized passenger travel costs and operational costs. We deploy the proposed evaluation framework to a field experiment in Stockholm where a series of measures were implemented on the busiest bus line. The results suggest that the total passenger and operator benefits amount to 47 million Swedish crowns on an annual basis. The overall assessment of the impacts of preferential measures enables the comparison of different implementations, assess their effectiveness, prioritize alternative measures and provide a sound basis for motivating investments.

  • 61.
    Fadaei, Masoud
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Cats, Oded
    Delft University of Technology, Netherland.
    Real-Time Bus Departure Time Predictions: Vehicle Trajectory and Countdown Display Analysis2014Inngår i: 2014 IEEE 17th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, s. 2556-2561Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Uncertainty is an important challenge in operating bus systems. Accurate real-time predictions can therefore facilitate adaptive decision making process of both operations and passengers. This scheme should be tractable, fast and reliable to be used in real time applications. This paper presents a hybrid prediction scheme to generate real-time information concerning downstream vehicle trajectories and next bus arrival. The prediction generated by the proposed hybrid scheme integrates three travel time components: schedule, instantaneous and historical data. Genetic algorithm is applied in order to specify the contribution of each data source component to the prediction scheme. The benefits, transferability and estimation form of the proposed scheme were tested by applying it on three trunk bus lines in Stockholm, Sweden. Its performance was compared to a commonly deployed scheme. The results indicate that the proposed scheme reduces significantly the overall mean absolute error for all routes from both operators' and passengers' perspectives.

  • 62.
    Fadaei, Masoud
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Systemanalys och ekonomi.
    Cats, Oded
    Delft University of Technology - TU Delft, Netherlands.
    Rolling Horizon Predictions of Bus Trajectories2014Inngår i: OPT-i 2014 - 1st International Conference on Engineering and Applied Sciences Optimization, Proceedings, 2014, s. 875-886Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bus travel times are subject to inherent and recurrent uncertainties. A real-time prediction scheme regarding how the transit system evolves will potentially facilitate more adaptive operations as well as more adaptive passengers’ decisions. This scheme should be tractable, sufficiently fast and reliable to be used in real time applications. For this purpose, a heuristic hybrid scheme for departure time estimation is proposed in this study. The prediction generated by the proposed hybrid scheme consists of three travel time components: schedule, instantaneous and historical data sources. Genetic algorithm is applied in order to specify the contribution of each data source component to the prediction scheme. The proposed scheme was applied for a trunk bus line in Stockholm, Sweden. In addition, the currently deployed scheme was replicated in order to compare the performance of both schemes. The results suggest that the proposed scheme reduces the overall mean absolute error by almost 20%. Moreover the proposed scheme provides better predictions except for very long term predictions where both schemes yield the same performance. 

  • 63.
    Fadaei, Masoud
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Systemanalys och ekonomi.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. Delft University of Technology, Netherland.
    Bhaskar, Ashish
    Smart Transport Research Centre, School of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Australia.
    A Hybrid Scheme for Real-Time Prediction of Bus TrajectoriesManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The uncertainty associated with public transport services can be partially counteracted by developing real-time models to predict downstream service conditions. In this study, a hybrid approach for predicting bus trajectories by integrating multiple predictors is proposed. The prediction model combines schedule, instantaneous and historical data. The contribution of each predictor as well as values of respective parameters is estimated by minimizing the prediction error using a linear regression based heuristic. The hybrid method was applied to five bus lines in Stockholm, Sweden and Brisbane, Australia. The results indicate that the hybrid method consistently outperforms the timetable and delay conservation prediction method for different line layouts, passenger demands and operation practices. Model validation confirms model transferability and real-time applicability. Generating more accurate predictions can help service users adjust their travel plans and service providers to deploy proactive management and control strategies to mitigate the negative effects of service disturbances.

  • 64.
    Fadaei Oshyani, Masoud
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Bhaskar, Ashish
    A hybrid scheme for real-time prediction of bus trajectories: Hybrid Scheme for Real-Time Prediction2017Inngår i: Journal of Advanced Transportation, ISSN 0197-6729, E-ISSN 2042-3195, Vol. 50, nr 8, s. 2130-2149Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The uncertainty associated with public transport services can be partially counteracted by developing real-time models to predict downstream service conditions. In this study, a hybrid approach for predicting bus trajectories by integrating multiple predictors is proposed. The prediction model combines schedule, instantaneous and historical data. The contribution of each predictor as well as values of respective parameters is estimated by minimizing the prediction error using a linear regression heuristic.The hybrid method was applied to five bus lines in Stockholm, Sweden and Brisbane, Australia. The results indicate that the hybrid method consistently outperforms the timetable and delay conservation prediction method for different line layouts, passengerdemands and operation practices.Model validation confirms model transferability and real-time applicability. Generating more accurate predictions can helpservice users adjust their travel plans and service providers to deploy proactive management and control strategies to mitigate the negative effects of service disturbances.

  • 65.
    Fernandez Abenoza, Roberto
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Systemanalys och ekonomi.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Susilo, Yusak Octavius
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Systemanalys och ekonomi.
    Travel satisfaction with public transport: Determinants, user classes, regional disparities and their evolution2017Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 95, s. 64-84Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing public transport ridership while providing a service that better caters to individual travelers poses an important goal and challenge for society, particularly public transport authorities and operators. This study identifies and characterizes current and potential users of public transport in Sweden and identifies the most important determinants of travel satisfaction with Public Transport services for each segment of travelers. In addition, it investigates the changes over time of attribute importance among the different segments and the inter-segment geographical variation of overall satisfaction. The analysis is based on a dataset of almost half a million records. Travelers were clustered based on their socio-demographics, travel patterns and accessibility measures to enable the analysis of determinants of satisfaction for different market segments. The cluster analysis results with five segments of Swedish travelers include: (i) inactive travelers; (ii) long distance commuters; (iii) urban motorist commuters; (iv) rural motorist commuters and;(v) students. By contrasting satisfaction with the importance of each quality of service attribute, three key attributes that should be prioritized by stakeholders are identified: customer interface, operation, network and  length  of  trip time. Interestingly, the results suggest an overall similarity in the importance of service attributes among traveler segments. Nevertheless, some noticeable differences could be observed. The quality of service attributes’ importance levels reveal overall changes in appreciations and consumption goals over time. The more frequent public transport user segments are more satisfied across the board and are characterized by a more balanced distribution of attribute importance while rural motorist commuters are markedly dissatisfied with service operation attributes. This work can help authorities to tailor their policies to specific traveler groups.

  • 66. Gentile, Guido
    et al.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. Delft Univ Technol, Netherlands.
    Introduction to the special issue on public transport modelling2017Inngår i: EURO Journal on Transportation and Logistics, ISSN 2192-4376, E-ISSN 2192-4384, Vol. 6, nr 3, s. 219-220Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 67.
    Hlotova, Yevheniia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik. Delft Univ Technol, Dept Transport & Planning, Netherlands.
    Meijer, Sebastiaan
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik. Delft Univ Technol, Fac Technol Policy & Management, Netherlands.
    Measuring Bus Drivers' Occupational Stress Under Changing Working Conditions2014Inngår i: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, nr 2415, s. 13-20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress is an immense problem in modern society; approximately half of all occupational illnesses are directly or indirectly related to stress. The work of a bus driver is typically associated with high stress levels that negatively influence individual well-being as well as workforce management. The current study examined the impact of newly proposed working conditions on bus drivers' occupational stress by monitoring heart rate and by collecting data on mental workload with a questionnaire in operational driving conditions. The main determinants of stress levels were identified through multiple regression analysis. Results indicated that bus drivers experienced considerably lower stress levels under a new control strategy that shifts the performance objective from schedule adherence to service regularity. Higher stress levels were recorded during extreme weather conditions and peak hours and among inexperienced drivers. The measurements were performed with low-cost sports devices that can easily be used by practitioners.

  • 68.
    Jenelius, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    The Value of New Cross-Radial Links for Public Transport Network Robustness2014Inngår i: Vulnerability, Uncertainty, and Risk: Quantification, Mitigation, and Management - Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Vulnerability and Risk Analysis and Management, ICVRAM 2014 and the 6th International Symposium on Uncertainty Modeling and Analysis, ISUMA 2014, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2014, s. 638-647Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of new links to network topology could potentially contribute to greater capability to withstand system breakdowns. This paper analyzes the value of adding new cross-radial links for public transport network robustness. The value is evaluated in terms of passenger welfare under disruptions. Using a model that considers passengers' dynamic travel choices, stochastic traffic conditions, timetables and capacity constraints, a new light rail transit line in Stockholm, Sweden is evaluated. The results show that: (1) the cross-radial link reduces the impacts of disruptions of critical links; and (2) the total value of robustness is positive and significantly offsets the loss in welfare caused by disruption of the cross-radial link itself. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  • 69.
    Jenelius, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    The value of new public transport links for network robustness and redundancy2015Inngår i: Transportmetrica A: Transport Science, ISSN 2324-9935, Vol. 11, nr 9, s. 819-835Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A common argument for introducing new links or services to transport networks is that they will contribute to greater capability to withstand system breakdowns. This paper presents a methodology for assessing the value of new links for public transport network robustness, considering disruptions of other lines and links as well as the new links themselves. The value is evaluated in terms of passenger welfare under disruptions and can be compared to traditional welfare benefits and investment costs. Distinction is made between the value of robustness, defined as the change in welfare during disruption compared to the baseline network, and the value of redundancy, defined as the change in welfare losses due to disruption. The paper introduces the total values of robustness and redundancy by considering a full space of scenarios and their respective frequencies. Using a model that considers passengers' dynamic travel choices, stochastic traffic conditions, timetables and capacity constraints, results are more nuanced than analyses based only on network topology and other static attributes. A new cross-radial light rail transit line in Stockholm, Sweden, is evaluated. The new link increases welfare levels under all scenarios and has a positive value of robustness. However, disruption costs increase under some scenarios and the value of redundancy is negative. In general, the value of redundancy depends on the new link's role as complement or substitute and passengers' ability to utilise spare capacity during short-term unexpected disruptions.

  • 70. Laskaris, Georgios
    et al.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap.
    Rinaldi, Marco
    Viti, Francesco
    Multiline holding based control for lines merging to a shared transit corridor2019Inngår i: Transportmetrica B: Transport Dynamics, ISSN 2168-0566, Vol. 7, nr 1, s. 1062-1095Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In transit corridors, multiple lines share a sequence of consecutive stops to provide higher joint frequency in higher demand areas. A key challenge is to coordinate the transition from single line to joint operation. A holding control strategy aimed at minimizing passenger travel times is introduced for lines merging into a shared corridor, accounting for the coordination of vehicle arrivals from the merging lines as well as the regularity of each line. The criterion is tested using an artificial network and a real-world network to analyze the impact of demand distribution and compare cooperative versus single line control. We illustrate how the real-time strategy yields overall passenger gains, depending on the composition of different user groups. Results are assessed based on operation and passenger performance indicators and show that coordination is achieved. When combined with joint control in the common part, the proposed approach achieves consistent network-wide travel time benefits.

  • 71. Laskaris, Giorgos
    et al.
    Cats, Oded
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Viti, Francesco
    A real-time holding decision rule accounting for passenger travel cost2016Inngår i: 2016 IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSC), IEEE conference proceedings, 2016, s. 2410-2415Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Holding has been extensively investigated as a strategy to mitigate the inherently stochastic nature of public transport operations. Holding focuses on either regulating vehicle headways using a rule-based approach or minimizing passenger travel cost by employing optimization models. This paper introduces a holding decision rule that explicitly addresses passenger travel cost. The decision to hold relies on the passenger demand distribution along the line. The passenger cost holding rule is tested using simulation for a high frequency bus line in Stockholm, Sweden and is compared with a no-control scheme and the currently used headway-based strategy. The results indicate that the new decision rule results in relatively minor reductions of passenger cost compared to the currently adopted strategy, and that it allocates the greatest share of holding time at the beginning of the route.

  • 72.
    Leffler, David
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Burghout, Wilco
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Simulation of fixed versus on-demand station-based feeder operationsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivated by lower predicted operational costs, and opportunities for efficient real-time control, automated, centrally coordinated vehicles have in many studies shown great potential as a shared resource within public transit. One particular use case that has grown in popularity over recent years is the application of smaller, automated shuttles as an on-demand feeder to mass transit solution. To investigate differences in fixed versus on-demand operational policies, this paper discusses the operational design and analysis of an automated feeder solution. To this end, a simulation model of demand-responsive transit is developed and incorporated into the transit simulation model BusMezzo. An estimation of operational cost reductions with vehicle automation motivates the case study of two fleets that are deemed comparable with respect to service capacity and operational cost per hour. Results from simulation studies of varying levels of demand indicate that the on-demand policy reduces average total passenger travel times and, for the larger fleet, lowers average vehicle-kilometers traveled per passenger relative fixed service operations. Without achieving a competitive reduction in waiting times, however, on-demand coordination often underperforms with respect to level-of-service and reliability when compared with fixed service operations. When there is slack in fixed service capacity, the performance of the on-demand service outperforms the fixed service with respect to both level-of-service and vehicle utilization only for the lowest demand level tested and the smaller fleet. Average total system costs under on-demand operations improve, however, for the lowest demand levels and the larger fleet due to a reduction in vehicle-kilometers traveled relative a fixed service. When fixed service capacity is exceeded it is found that on-demand coordination outperforms fixed operations with respect to average level-of-service, vehicle-kilometers traveled, and total system costs. Furthermore, when planned service capacity is exceeded, it is found that total passenger waiting time is more equally distributed under on-demand operations relative to fixed.

  • 73.
    Nassir, Neema
    et al.
    The University of Queensland.
    Hickman, Mark
    The University of Queensland.
    Tajtehranifard, Hasti
    Queensland University of Technology.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Fadaei, Masoud
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Exploring train passengers’ arrival rate using smart card data2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of public transport, passengers’ arrivals at a station can indicate their perception of the transit system’s reliability, as well as the extent to which they consult timetables in journey planning. Moreover, the arrival rate is an essential element in determining passenger waiting time at astation, which itself is a critical component of the level of service in public transit journeys.Despite the significance of the passenger arrival rate, researchers often make simplistic assumptions about passenger arrivals in the majority of the literature. In high frequency routes, for instance, passengers are usually assumed to arrive uniformly at the stops without consulting the timetable; in low frequency routes, the arrivals are usually assumed to be mainly concentrated around the scheduled departure times. These assumptions can be validated with on-site manual data collection, but these can be costly and intractable to apply to network-level studies.Consequently, the primary objective of this paper is to develop a more comprehensive methodology forcapturing passengers’ arrival distributions, using the numerous boarding records available from transit smart card data. To serve this purpose, boarding data from a selected set of train stations are extracted from the smart card dataset of Southeast Queensland in Australia. This study analyses how passenger arrival patterns vary as a function of service frequencies. It is hypothesized that there is a threshold where a random arrival regime gradually transforms into a timetable coordination arrival pattern. Furthermore,this threshold is a random variable that varies in the population and results with mixed regimes for intermediate ranges of headways. The dataset includes services with headways ranging from 5 to 60 minutes and hence facilitates this analysis. Furthermore, sinceno real-time information is available to passengers in Southeast Queensland, it is assumed that passengers only consult fixed timetables to arrive at stops. Therefore, the passenger arrival rate is assumed to be a function of the given headway.

  • 74.
    Peftitsi, Soumela
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för trafikforskning, CTR. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Determinants of passengers' metro car choice revealed through automated data sources: A Stockholm case studyInngår i: Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a methodology based on multiple automated data sources for evaluating the effects of station layout, arriving traveler flows, and platform and on-board crowding on the distribution of boarding passengers between individual cars of metro trains. The methodology is applied to a case study for a sequence of stations in the Stockholm metro network. While train car loads at the analyzed stations are generally skewed towards the leading cars, results indicate that a crowded front car of the arriving train is associated with increasing boarding shares of the middle car. Moreover, higher platform crowding is found to have a positive effect on the boarding share of the middle cars. These findings suggest that passengers opt for less crowded train cars in crowded situations, trading-off walking and in-vehicle crowding while waiting and riding. We find that the boarding car distribution is also affected by the locations of platform access points and the distribution of entering traveler flows. These insights may be used by transit planners and operators to increase the understanding of how passengers behave under varying crowding conditions, identify the factors that affect travelers' choice of metro car and eventually reduce experienced on-board crowding and increase the capacity utilization of the trains through investments in infrastructure or operational interventions.

  • 75.
    Peftitsi, Soumela
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering.
    Jenelius, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Transportplanering. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för trafikforskning, CTR. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Evaluating crowding in individual train cars using a dynamic transit assignment modelInngår i: Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Crowding is one of the major issues of public transport systems and has many negative effects for both users and operators. Passengers can be highly unevenly distributed between individual cars of a train even when the total passenger load exceeds the practical capacity.

    Transit assignment models (TAM) are widely used for describing and evaluating crowding in the vehicle. However, these models usually do not capture how passengers are distributed across the vehicle. To this end, this study introduced to an agent-based simulation model the capability to analyze the effective capacity utilization of the train, by considering passengers' distribution among individual train cars.

    The developed model is validated and applied to a case study for the Stockholm metro network, evaluating three scenarios. The findings suggest that an increase in peak hour demand leads to a more even passenger distribution among individual cars upon train departure from the most crowded stops, where passengers' choices are less flexible. The closure of the most popular entrance point at Danderyds sjukhus stop, where passenger distribution is highly skewed, is found to lead to lower crowding unevenness at the specific stop but also upon departure from the downstream stops.

  • 76.
    Rubensson, Isak
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Systemanalys och ekonomi. Trafikförvaltningen, Region Stockholm.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för trafikforskning, CTR.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för trafikforskning, CTR.
    Fair accessibility – operationalizing the distributional effects of policy interventionsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A fair distribution of public transport benefits is a commonly stated goal of agencies and operators of public transport. However, it is less complicated and costly to provide accessibility in some parts of cities and their surroundings than in other parts. Densely populated areas, and areas close to city- and regional centers, therefore often have higher public transport accessibility than remote or sparsely populated areas. However, in traditional studies of public transport equity, these economic realities are seldom considered, making the statements on system equity vague and difficult to operationalize. In this study, we propose a definition of accessibility equity where the system goal is to provide residents with equal accessibility for equally dense and central home areas.  For the Stockholm County, we show that accessibility may seem to be distributed horizontally inequitable and vertically regressive. However, once controlling for how dense and close to the city center residents live, while still being horizontally inequitable the distribution of accessibility in Stockholm County is found progressive, i.e. benefiting those with lower incomes. In our case scenario, the introduction of skip-stop train operations shifts our constructed accessibility measure towards a more horizontally inequitable and vertically progressive state. We conclude that our proposed method can serve as a potent way for public transport agencies to measure and concretize equity goals and evaluate policy changes.

  • 77.
    Rubensson, Isak
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Systemanalys och ekonomi. Trafikförvaltningen, Region Stockholm.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för trafikforskning, CTR.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för trafikforskning, CTR.
    Is Flat Fare Fair? Equity Impact of Fare Scheme ChangeManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    When Public Transport Administrations propose changes in fare schemes or increased fares, they are often met with concerns regarding the proposed fare schemes fairness. Implicit in these concerns is an understanding of relations governing land use and public transport, impacting equity. In this paper, we use socio-economic statistics of census areas in conjunction with public transport travel data from a transport forecast model to assess the geographical and distributional fairness of alternative fare schemes: flat, zone-based and distance-based. We discuss our result in relation to both the scientific literature and the known “truths” in the public debate. The method is applied to the Case study of Stockholm public transport. We find that high-income travelers benefit from all three fare schemes considered but, in contrast to much of the literature, least by flat fares. A strong distance-dependent fare could be horizontally equitable but has poor vertical equity.

  • 78.
    Susilo, Yusak
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Diana, Marco
    Hrin, Gabriela Rodica
    Woodcock, Andree
    Implementing a Behavioural Pilot Survey for the Stage-Based Study of the Whole Journey Traveler Experience2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The European project, METPEX, aims to develop and validate an evaluation tool for the whole journey experience that takes into consideration the point of view of the passenger. The traveller experience is a broader concept compared to the standard notion of the ‘trip’ or one journey, as it embraces pre-trip information acquisition process and ends when the traveller arrives at the final destination. The focus on the whole journey experience thus represents the first distinguishing characteristic of our data collection effort. An additional feature is the inclusion of questions tailored to special user groups within a survey designed for the general public. The third innovating aspect is related to the collection of self-related information (attitudes, perceptions etc.) at the stage- rather than at the trip-level. The fourth innovation is the use of the same variables across five different instruments (face to face interviews, on line questionnaire, web app, game and focus groups).

     

    A pilot survey has been implemented to help identify what kind of information should be collected to sufficiently characterize the different phases of the traveller experience. Five categories of variables that were expected to influence overall travellers’ evaluations were identified and tested: individual attributes, contextual variables, attitudes, travel experience and satisfaction aspects. Administering the pilot survey resulted in a total of 554 interviews in eight different cities across Europe. The experience that was gained from the pilot survey implementation was supplemented by consultation of 45 different stakeholders that reviewed the tool. Potentialities and shortcomings that emerged from these assessment activities are discussed.

  • 79.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Trafik och logistik. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Exploring key determinants of travel satisfaction for multi-modal trips by different traveler groups2014Inngår i: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 67, s. 366-380Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a primary dataset from an experimental survey in eight European cities, this study identified the key determinants of satisfaction with individual trip stages as well as overall journey experience for different travel modes and traveler groups. Multivariate statistical analyses were used to examine the relationships between overall satisfaction and travel experience variables, trip complexity, subjective well-being indices, travel-related attitudes as well as individual- and trip-specific attributes. The results indicate that for certain traveler groups, such as women, young and low-income or unemployed travelers, there are distinctive determinants of satisfaction with trip stages for various travel modes. The results also indicate that satisfaction with the primary trip stage is strongly linked to overall trip satisfaction, while satisfaction levels with access and egress trip stages are strongly related to satisfaction with the primary trip stage. Past experience, traveler expectations and attitudes, and the emotional state of travelers are also significant explanatory variables for travel satisfaction. The results indicate that when an individual consciously chooses a particular travel mode, they will report a higher level of satisfaction with that chosen mode. Notwithstanding, while past experience highly influences an individual's current travel satisfaction, the more they travel with the current mode, the less satisfied they are with their choice. The results of this study highlight the importance of gaining a better understanding of the interaction between instrumental variables and non-instrumental variables at different trip stages and the influence on user preferences, satisfaction and decision-making processes.

  • 80.
    West, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. SWECO, Sweden.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Individual and Synergetic Effects of Transit Service Improvement Strategies: Simulation and Validation2017Inngår i: Journal of transportation engineering, ISSN 0733-947X, E-ISSN 1943-5436, Vol. 143, nr 6, artikkel-id 04017061Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of transit service improvements such as bus lanes, allowing boarding through all doors, and headway-based holding control requires detailed simulation capabilities. However, because the usage of models advanced enough to simultaneously analyze physical and operational measures has been limited, their validity has hitherto remained low. This paper assesses the implementation of several bus service improvement measures in a simulation model. The paper analyzes the effect of isolated and combinations of measures, and validates the model using field experiment data. The model predicted travel time improvements accurately (1–2% difference), while overestimating some of the headway variability effects. The three tested measures exercised negative synergy effects, with their combined effect being smaller than the sum of their marginal contributions, except for headway-based holding, which exercised positive synergy effects with the two other measures.

  • 81.
    West, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. SWECO, Sweden.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Modelling transit user adaptation and learningManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 82. Woodcock, A.
    et al.
    Berkeley, N.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys.
    Hrin, G. R.
    O'Reilly, O.
    Markucevičiute, I.
    Pimentel, T.
    Measuring quality across the whole journey2014Inngår i: Contemporary Ergonomics and Human Factors 2014: Proceedings of the international conference on Ergonomics & Human Factors 2014, Southampton, UK, 7-10 April 2014, Taylor & Francis, 2014, s. 316-323Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many countries are looking to public transport to alleviate problems of congestion and pollution and increase sustainability. In order to develop a large modal shift in traveller behaviour, transport providers and planners need to deliver a high quality passenger experience. This paper firstly introduces the EU funded METPEX project, the aim of which is to develop a Pan European tool to measure the quality of the whole journey experience, and secondly discusses the results of stakeholder interviews in the UK, which show where such a tool might fill gaps in existing knowledge of passenger behaviour and mobility requirements.

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