Ändra sökning
Avgränsa sökresultatet
123 51 - 100 av 101
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Träffar per sida
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
Markera
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 51. Gordicho, Vasco
    et al.
    Vicente, Jose L.
    Sousa, Carla A.
    Caputo, Beniamino
    Pombi, Marco
    Dinis, Joao
    Seixas, Goncalo
    Pålsson, Katinka
    KTH.
    Weetman, David
    Rodrigues, Amabelia
    della Torre, Alessandra
    Pinto, Joao
    First report of an exophilic Anopheles arabiensis population in Bissau City, Guinea-Bissau: recent introduction or sampling bias?2014Ingår i: Malaria Journal, ISSN 1475-2875, E-ISSN 1475-2875, Vol. 13, s. 423-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis exhibits greater behavioural and ecological plasticity than the other major vectors of the Anopheles gambiae complex, which presents challenges for major control methods. This study reports for the first time the presence of An. arabiensis in Antula, a suburb of Bissau city, the capital of Guinea Bissau, where high levels of hybridization between Anopheles coluzzii and An. gambiae have been reported. Given that previous surveys in the area, based on indoor collections, did not sample An. arabiensis, the possibility of a recently introduced exophilic population was investigated. Methods: Larval and adult mosquito collections were carried out in Antula at the end of the rainy season of 2010. Anopheles gambiae species composition, determined by rDNA-IGS and SINE200X6.1 markers, was compared with four previously collected samples dating back to 1993. Analysis of ten microsatellites was used to estimate levels of genetic diversity, relatedness and to investigate demographic stability. Results: Anopheles arabiensis comprised 54.0% of larvae and 25.6% of adults collected in 2010, but was absent in all previous collections, a highly unlikely observation by chance if the population was stable. This species had the lowest levels of genetic diversity, highest relatedness and, along with An. gambiae, exhibited evidence of a recent population expansion. Conclusions: Results point to the presence of a previously undetected outdoor population of An. arabiensis in Antula, which appears to have expanded recently, highlighting the importance of complementing indoor-based mosquito collections with sampling methods targeting outdoor adults and immature stages for a more complete assessment of mosquito biodiversity. A change in temporal dynamics in the species complex composition was also detected. Coupled with previous evidence of asymmetric introgression from An. coluzzii to An. gambiae, this suggests that the study area may be subject to ecological changes with a potential impact on both the genetics of these species and on malaria transmission.

  • 52. Grönvall, Erik
    et al.
    Lundberg, Stefan
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Systemsäkerhet och organisation. KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Centra, Centrum för hälsa och byggande, CHB.
    On Challenges Designing the Home as a Place for Care2014Ingår i: Pervasive Health: State-of-the-art and Beyond / [ed] Holzinger, A., et al., Springer Netherlands, 2014, s. 19-45Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, there has been much attention on workplace studies and design for work within the HCI (Human Computer Interaction) and CSCW (Computer Supported Cooperative Work) communities. Those communities have recently shown an increasing interest in healthcare and especially non-professional care settings such as patients’ private homes. When healthcare is moved from clinical settings to private homes, more attention is put on the care receiver, his/her everyday life and private home. In contrast with the hospital, the home however is not designed as a place for care. Moving healthcare activities, including treatment of severe diseases to private homes and other non-clinical settings (e.g. the patient’s workplace or vacation resorts) not prepared for these care activities may have severe consequences. In fact, the relocation of care may challenge, on different levels, the patients, their caregivers and society at large. This chapter presents and discusses seven challenges that the authors argue are important to consider when designing for holistic and sustainable home-based healthcare. Examples of these challenges are: Societal concerns, Complexity of care providers, Heterogeneity of care providers and Installation and maintenance. These challenges include law and legislation related aspects, environmental issues and the feasibility of large-scale deployment of home-care designs. The challenges discussed in this chapter have not been satisfactorily taken into account by the existing homecare designs and HCI research. Our chapter suggests that designers and HCI practitioners must be aware of, and reflect upon how these challenges can affect the value, feasibility and a wider implementation of their homecare designs.

  • 53. Hagerman, I.
    et al.
    Brodin, Lars-Åke
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik. Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset Huddinge, Sweden.
    Dahlström, U. L. F.
    Ekman, I.
    Willenheimer, R.
    Boman, K.
    Diastolisk hjärtsvikt - Symtom och etiologi2007Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 104, nr 34, s. 2345-2347Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
  • 54.
    Hallberg-Borgqvist, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap.
    Some observations on the impact of clothing systems on the concentration of airborne bacteria - Carrying particles during surgery2010Ingår i: 41st R³-Nordic Symposium: Dipoli, Espoo, Finland, May 25-26, 2010, Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus , 2010, nr 266, s. 161-163Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the view of the increasing number of resistant bacteria in hospitals the effect of different operating room clothing systems on air cleanliness during surgery has been discussed. To investigate how clothing systems of cleanroom quality affect the number of airborne bacteria-carrying particles in comparison to ordinary surgical clothing systems, tests have been performed in a test chamber (body-box) and in an operating room during surgery. The results show that as well mechanical ventilation as clothing system have an effect on the concentration of airborne bacteria-carrying particles, where the choice of clothing system can play an important role for the safety of the patient.

  • 55. Halldin, Peter
    et al.
    Fahlstedt, Madelen
    How sensitive are different headform design parameters in oblique helmeted impacts?2018Ingår i: Proceedings of International Research Council on Biomechanics of Injury (IRCOBI) Conference, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 56.
    Hamid Muhammed, Hamed
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Systemsäkerhet och organisation.
    Azar, J. C.
    Automatic characterization of the physiological condition of the carotid artery in 2D ultrasound image sequences using spatiotemporal and spatiospectral 2D maps2014Ingår i: International Journal of Biomedical Imaging, ISSN 1687-4188, E-ISSN 1687-4196, Vol. 2014, artikel-id 876267Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel method for characterizing and visualizing the progression of waves along the walls of the carotid artery is presented. The new approach is noninvasive and able to simultaneously capture the spatial and the temporal propagation of wavy patterns along the walls of the carotid artery in a completely automated manner. Spatiotemporal and spatiospectral 2D maps describing these patterns (in both the spatial and the frequency domains, resp.) were generated and analyzed by visual inspection as well as automatic feature extraction and classification. Three categories of cases were considered: pathological elderly, healthy elderly, and healthy young cases. Automatic differentiation, between cases of these three categories, was achieved with a sensitivity of 97.1% and a specificity of 74.5%. Two features were proposed and computed to measure the homogeneity of the spatiospectral 2D map which presents the spectral characteristics of the carotid artery wall's wavy motion pattern which are related to the physical, mechanical (e.g., elasticity), and physiological properties and conditions along the artery. These results are promising and confirm the potential of the proposed method in providing useful information which can help in revealing the physiological condition of the cardiovascular system.

  • 57.
    Hanson, Mats
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Meymi, David
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    Oddsson, L.
    Rockström, Robin
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Maskinkonstruktion (Inst.), Mekatronik.
    An instrument to predict fall risk—project stepwiz2008Ingår i: Journal of Medical Devices, ISSN 1932-6181, E-ISSN 1932-619X, Vol. 2, nr 2, s. 1-1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 58. Hashemi, N.
    et al.
    Samad, B. A.
    Hedman, A.
    Brodin, Lars Åke
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Medicinsk bildteknik.
    Alam, M.
    Feasibility of Myocardial Performance Index for Evaluation of Left Ventricular Function during Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography before and after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting2014Ingår i: Echocardiography, ISSN 0742-2822, E-ISSN 1540-8175, Vol. 31, nr 8, s. 989-995Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Myocardial performance index (MPI) is a measure of combined systolic and diastolic myocardial function. In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) an increase in MPI is consistent with myocardial dysfunction. The objectives of this study were to characterize the changes in MPI after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) at rest and at peak dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE). Methods and Results: Thirty-six patients diagnosed with CAD and accepted for CABG were studied by standard echocardiography and DSE 1 month prior and 3 month after CABG. The MPI was calculated using pulsed-wave tissue Doppler imaging (PW-TDI) of the left ventricular (LV) wall-motion velocity. At baseline, ejection fraction (EF; 42.7 ± 8%) and wall-motion score index (WMSI; 1.1 ± 0.2) were impaired at rest as well as at peak DSE (EF; 49.2 ± 9 and WMSI 1.4 ± 0.2). MPI was prolonged both at rest (0.61 ± 0.13) and at peak DSE (0.78 ± 0.16). After CABG, EF and WMSI did not improve at rest (43.7 ± 8% and 1.1 ± 0.2, respectively). On the other hand, MPI improved substantially both at rest (0.45 ± 0.08; P < 0.001) and at peak DSE (0.56 ± 0.1; P < 0.001). At peak DSE an improvement of EF (54.2 ± 9; P < 0.05) and WMSI (1.1 ± 0.16; P < 0.001) was seen as well. Conclusion: Myocardial performance index shows significant improvement after CABG in patients with CAD both at rest and peak DSE and appears to be a sensitive measure of myocardial function.

  • 59. Hedman, Leif
    et al.
    Fahlstedt, Madelen
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Neuronik.
    Schlickum, Marcus
    Möller, Hans
    von Holst, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Neuronik.
    Felländer-Tsai, Li
    A pilot evaluation of an educational program that offers visualizations of cervical spine injuries: medical students' self-efficacy increases by training2014Ingår i: Informatics for Health and Social Care, ISSN 1753-8157, E-ISSN 1753-8165, Vol. 39, nr 1, s. 33-46Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this pilot study, a new method for visualization through imaging and simulation (VIS-Ed) for teaching diagnosis and treatment of cervical spine trauma was formatively evaluated. The aims were to examine if medical students' self-efficacy would change by training using VIS-Ed, and if so these changes were related to how they evaluated the session, and the user interface (UI) of this program. Using a one-group, pre-post course test design 43 Swedish medical students (4th year, 17 males, 26 females) practiced in groups of three participants. Overall the practice and the UI were considered as positive experiences. They judged VIS-Ed as a good interactive scenario-based educational tool. All students' self-efficacy increased significantly by training (p<0.001). Spearman's rank correlation tests revealed that increased self-efficacy was only associated with: how the session was compared to as expected (p<0.007). Students' self-efficacy increased significantly by training, but replication studies should determine if this training effect is gender-related.

  • 60. Illarionava, Nina B.
    et al.
    Brismar, Hjalmar
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Tillämpad fysik, Cellens fysik. KTH, Centra, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Aperia, Anita
    Gunnarson, Eli
    Role of Na,K-ATPase alpha 1 and alpha 2 Isoforms in the Support of Astrocyte Glutamate Uptake2014Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 6, s. e98469-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Glutamate released during neuronal activity is cleared from the synaptic space via the astrocytic glutamate/Na+ co-transporters. This transport is driven by the transmembrane Na+ gradient mediated by Na,K-ATPase. Astrocytes express two isoforms of the catalytic Na, K-ATPase alpha subunits; the ubiquitously expressed alpha 1 subunit and the alpha 2 subunit that has a more specific expression profile. In the brain alpha 2 is predominantly expressed in astrocytes. The isoforms differ with regard to Na+ affinity, which is lower for alpha 2. The relative roles of the alpha 1 and alpha 2 isoforms in astrocytes are not well understood. Here we present evidence that the presence of the alpha 2 isoform may contribute to a more efficient restoration of glutamate triggered increases in intracellular sodium concentration [Na+](i). Studies were performed on primary astrocytes derived from E17 rat striatum expressing Na, K-ATPase alpha 1 and alpha 2 and the glutamate/Na+ co-transporter GLAST. Selective inhibition of alpha 2 resulted in a modest increase of [Na+](i) accompanied by a disproportionately large decrease in uptake of aspartate, an indicator of glutamate uptake. To compare the capacity of alpha 1 and alpha 2 to handle increases in [Na+](i) triggered by glutamate, primary astrocytes overexpressing either alpha 1 or alpha 2 were used. Exposure to glutamate 200 mM caused a significantly larger increase in [Na+](i) in alpha 1 than in alpha 2 overexpressing cells, and as a consequence restoration of [Na+](i), after glutamate exposure was discontinued, took longer time in alpha 1 than in alpha 2 overexpressing cells. Both alpha 1 and alpha 2 interacted with astrocyte glutamate/Na+ co-transporters via the 1st intracellular loop.

  • 61.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Mark- och vattenteknik (flyttat 20130630).
    Lindeberg, S.
    Norder, S.
    Paleolithic food - A realistic alternative for all?: [5] (multiple letters)2005Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 102, nr 34, s. 2334-2334Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 62.
    Källskog, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Ergonomi.
    Tängerstad, Louise
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Ergonomi.
    Finns det arbetsmiljöfaktorer på Arbetsförmedlingen Kundtjänst som förklarar korttidssjukfrånvaron -en Studie med MTO-perspektiv2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

     

    Bakgrund

    Callcenter- verksamhet har vuxit fram snabbt och utvecklats mycket under de senaste årtionden, både internationellt och i Sverige. Det är en verksamhet som innebär många utmaningar i en ofta komplex arbetsmiljö med höga krav på samverkan inom systemperspektivet Människa - Teknik - Organisation. Arbetsförmedlingen tillhandahåller handläggning per telefon via kundtjänster på sju olika orter i Sverige. Korttidssjukfrånvaron ansågs högre i denna verksamhet än i övriga organisationen och målet var att minska den.

     

    Syfte

    Huvudsyftet med denna uppsats var att undersöka om det fanns arbetsmiljöfaktorer på Arbetsförmedlingen Kundtjänst som förklarade korttidssjukfrånvaron. Detta genom att tillämpa ett MTO- perspektiv (Människa - Teknik - Organisation).

     

    Metod

    För att få svar på vår frågeställning tillämpades metodtriangulering genom kvalitativ och kvantitativ datainsamling. En halvdags observation och 16 semistrukturerade intervjuer utfördes på Arbetsförmedlingens kundtjänst i Södertälje och 76 enkäter utfördes på kundtjänsterna i Södertälje och Söderhamn.

     

    Resultat

    Utifrån resultaten i vår studie gick det inte att se samband mellan fysisk arbetsmiljö, höga krav eller låg kontroll och korttidssjukfrånvaro på grund av arbetet. Det fanns dock en statistiskt signifikant skillnad beträffande vissa frågor om arbetsförhållanden och korttidssjukfrånvaro på grund av arbetet.

     

    Slutsats

    På de flesta frågor kunde sambandet mellan korttidssjukfrånvaro och fysisk och psykosocial arbetsmiljö inte påvisas. Däremot fanns en statistisk signifikans i några frågor gällande arbetsförhållanden i denna studie. Det fanns således flera faktorer i arbetsmiljön som skulle kunna förbättras och därmed individens upplevelse av arbetsmiljön. Detta kanske kunde bidra till minskad korttidssjukfrånvaro. Trots att det fanns vissa frågor som påvisade en signifikant skillnad mellan arbetsförhållanden och korttidssjukfrånvaro var det svårt att dra slutsatser på grund av studiens design samt att underlaget var litet. Interventioner i systemkomponenterna Människa – Teknik - Organisation kan vara av värde för att minska korttidssjukfrånvaron.

     

  • 63.
    Kårebrand, Charlotte
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Ergonomi.
    Grundström, Diana
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Ergonomi.
    Upplevd resiliens i två högriskorganisationer2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 64.
    Larsson, Tore
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Centra, Centrum för hälsa och byggande, CHB.
    Future ways of distributing care and personal services2015Ingår i: The Gerontologist, ISSN 0016-9013, E-ISSN 1758-5341, Vol. 55, s. 171-171Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 65.
    Larsson, Tore J
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Centra, Centrum för hälsa och byggande, CHB.
    The subculture of care and care-related infections: Invited paper to Occupational Risk Prevention Conference 20142014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, 10% of all hospitalised patients acquire a care-related infection; between 25 - 35000 patients annually are severely injured due to medical mistakes and between 3000 and 4000 die from erroneous procedures or acquired infections. In a study of the risk of care-related infections in an institution of special accommodation for the aged, journal data and participant observation showed a low level of infection risk, but the risk levels varied significantly between wards and the understanding of hygiene routines varied between staff. It is suggested that hygiene routines be taught as a technical professional skill for physicians, nurses and nursing aides alike.

  • 66.
    Lindqvist, Eva
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Larsson, Tore J
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Centra, Centrum för hälsa och byggande, CHB.
    Borell, Lena
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Experienced usability of assistive technology for cognitive support with respect to user goals2015Ingår i: NeuroRehabilitation (Reading, MA), ISSN 1053-8135, E-ISSN 1878-6448, Vol. 36, nr 1, s. 135-149Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have shown that Assistive Technology (AT) for cognitive support can support users in everyday activities. However, whether the AT actually supports the user to achieve their individual goals must further be examined. The study objective was to examine the experienced usability of features in AT for cognitive support for users with cognitive impairment. A content analysis was applied on data from interviews and field notes collected during two six-month interventions in which persons with cognitive impairment tested AT for cognitive support. Features, included in the AT support that enhanced the user's sense of control, were identified as promotional for the achievement of user goals, and some features, such as reminders, were more sensitive to the specific user's perceptions and motives. Also, features related to how the AT was maintained and communicated with other technology were very influential. The results show that easily maintained AT that fits in to the context of use increases the user's sense of control of the AT and thereby promotes the goal achievement and usability of the AT. Further, the usability of the AT is very influenced by contextual factors such as the ordinary mobile network, the Internet, and the operators.

  • 67. Liwing, J
    et al.
    Uttervall, K
    Näsman, Per
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Transportvetenskap, Transport- och lokaliseringsanalys. KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centrum för transportstudier, CTS.
    Andreasson, J
    Johansson, P
    Aschan, J
    Nahi, H
    Is Multiple Myeloma a Chronic Disease?2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 68.
    Ljungqvist, Bengt
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Installationsteknik (bytt namn till Installations- och energisystem 2012-03-01).
    Reinmüller, Berit
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Installationsteknik (bytt namn till Installations- och energisystem 2012-03-01).
    Clothing systems used in operating rooms - A question of patient safety2010Ingår i: 41st R³-Nordic Symposium: Dipoli, Espoo, Finland, May 25-26, 2010, Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus , 2010, nr 266, s. 142-147Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Clothing systems used in operating rooms are compared to clothing systems used in food industry and in pharmaceutical manufacturing. For all these industries the control of the concentration of airborne bacteria-carrying particles are of vital importance. The emission of large particles with regard to clothing system quality is commented. Results from the study can be used to calculate expected concentrations of airborne aerobic colony forming units in the operation room when clothing system and number of people in the room are known. The study shows that the commonly used protective clothing systems need to be upgraded in operation rooms where patients, sensitive to infections undergo operations.

  • 69. Masiello, I.
    et al.
    Ramberg, Robert
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Data- och systemvetenskap, DSV.
    Lonka, K.
    Learning in a web-based system in medical education2005Ingår i: Medical teacher, ISSN 0142-159X, E-ISSN 1466-187X, Vol. 27, nr 6, s. 561-563Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    New learning environments such as distance education and computer-aided instruction promise to bring a change in today's learning environments by adjusting the relationship between the learner, the educational content and the organization of education. In this study, we explored whether students' approaches to learning related to their perception of a particular virtual learning environment. Scales of the ASSIST questionnaire were loaded in a two-principal component solution, surface and deep-strategic. We found statistically significant correlations between the approaches to learning and the students' attitudes towards ICT. Early identification of approaches to learning and attitudes towards ICT may prove to be important in order to provide assistance to aid the transition of students with diverse individual characteristics and to the design of new learning environments.

  • 70. Mattsson, Janet
    et al.
    Östlund, Britt
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Teknisk vårdvetenskap.
    Björling, Gunilla
    Williamsson, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Ergonomi.
    Eriksson, Andrea
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Ergonomi.
    Interprofessional Learning for Enhanced Patient Safety: Biomedical Engineering Students and Nursing Students in Joint Learning Activities.2019Ingår i: Journal of Research in Interprofessional Practice and Education, ISSN 1916-7342, E-ISSN 1916-7342, Vol. 9, nr 1Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In the last decade, research has highlighted the importance of interprofessional approaches to education and practice. Collaboration between medical practice and engineering has been identified as particularly relevant to developing accountable models for sustainable healthcare and overcoming increased specialization leading to professional barriers. This study aims to analyze insights and understanding expressed by nursing students and biomedical engineering students following a joint learning activity regarding a medical device used in the hospital setting.

    Method: A qualitative approach deriving from a phenomenological view examined an interprofessional learning activity where the focus was on active integration and knowledge exchange.

    Conclusion: The activity was expressed as a positive opportunity for getting insights into perspectives from other professional groups as well as insights into the importance of a system perspective in patient safety. The learning and insights listed in the evaluations included ideas about how the two professional groups could collaborate in the future.

  • 71. Mazza, E.
    et al.
    Bauer, M.
    Bajka, M.
    Holzapfel, Gerhard A.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Hållfasthetslära (Inst.). Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    Characterizing the mechanical response of soft human tissue for medical applications2007Ingår i: Computational Plasticity - Fundamentals and Applications, COMPLAS IX, 2007, nr PART 1, s. 244-247Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Intra-operative experiments are performed for mechanical characterization of human organs using the so called "aspiration test". Mechanical parameters are determined from the experimental data that are useful for medical simulation as well as for diagnostic purposes. The inverse problem is solved in order to determine the parameter of constitutive equations that account for viscoelastic or viscoplastic tissue response at large deformations. The results of clinical studies with measurements of the mechanical response of human liver and uterine cervix are summarized.

  • 72.
    Mridha, Mannan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Systemsäkerhet och organisation.
    Erlandsson, Björn-Erik
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Systemsäkerhet och organisation.
    To Increase Access E-Health and Improve Quality of Care for Rural Patients Developing Smart and Affordable Diagnostic Devices2014Ingår i: Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology and Imaging, 2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 73. Muuraiskangas, S.
    et al.
    Merilahti, J.
    Immonen, M.
    Hedman, Anders
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    Hallberg, J.
    Motivational strategy for a cognitive endurance mHealth application2015Ingår i: IISA 2015 - 6th International Conference on Information, Intelligence, Systems and Applications, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, artikel-id 7388089Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dementia has become a prevalent problem with our aging population. Dementia is threat to our independence because our independence relies on our cognitive performance. Cognitive performance declines as the years advance but it can and should be nurtured to keep it at sufficient functional level. Even though mobile technology has potential to be the desired low-cost and effective means to healthy living, it requires the driving force, motivation, to actually get the person to the destination. In this paper we present a motivational strategy for mHealth (mobile health) application for cognitive endurance.

  • 74. Naili, J. E.
    et al.
    Broström, E. W.
    Gutierrez-Farewik, Elena M.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Mekanik. KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Centra, BioMEx.
    Schwartz, M. H.
    The centre of mass trajectory is a sensitive and responsive measure of functional compensations in individuals with knee osteoarthritis performing the five times sit-to-stand test2018Ingår i: Gait & Posture, ISSN 0966-6362, E-ISSN 1879-2219, Vol. 62, s. 140-145Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to evaluate whether the trajectory of the body's Centre of Mass (CoM) is a sensitive and responsive measure of functional compensations in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA) performing the Five Times Sit-to-Stand test (5STS). This prospective study included 21 individuals with OA and 21 age- and gender-matched controls. Motion analysis data was collected while participants performed the 5STS, one month prior and one year after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Pain was evaluated using a visual analogue scale. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to evaluate (1) differences in the area under the curve (AUC) of CoM trajectories, and (2) the effect of number of sit-to-stand cycles on the AUC. Preoperatively, individuals with OA displayed a larger contralateral shift (p = 0.009) and forward displacement of the CoM (p < 0.004) than controls. Postoperatively, CoM trajectories of OA individuals were not statistically different from controls. However, upon comparison of specific cycles, OA individuals displayed a larger forward displacement during the final cycle. Pain was significantly reduced postoperatively (p = 0.001). The CoM trajectory appears to be a sensitive and responsive measure of functional compensations. The increased contralateral shift of the CoM represents a strategy to reduce pain by unloading the affected knee. Postoperatively, when pain was substantially reduced, OA individuals were comparable to controls. The increased forward CoM displacement characterises a strategy to reduce muscular effort by reducing the required knee extension moment. Postoperatively, OA individuals were comparable to controls in all cycles but the last, possibly suggesting residual muscle weakness.

  • 75. Nilseng, Jessica
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Lars L.
    Nungu, Amos
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT). Dar Es Salaam Institute of Technology, Tanzania .
    Bastholm-Rahmner, Pia
    Mazali, Dennis
    Pehrson, Björn
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS, Network Systems Laboratory (NS Lab).
    Eriksen, Jaran
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT). Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    A cross-sectional pilot study assessing needs and attitudes to implementation of Information and Communication Technology for rational use of medicines among healthcare staff in rural Tanzania2014Ingår i: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, ISSN 1472-6947, E-ISSN 1472-6947, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 78-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In resource-poor countries access to essential medicines, suboptimal prescribing and use of medicines are major problems. Health workers lack updated medical information and treatment support. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) could help tackle this. The impact of ICT on health systems in resource-poor countries is likely to be significant and transform the practice of medicine just as in high-income countries. However, research for finding the best way of doing this is needed. We aimed to assess current approaches to and use of ICT among health workers in two rural districts of Tanzania in relation to the current drug distribution practices, drug stock and continuing medical information (CME), as well as assessing the feasibility of using ICT to improve ordering and use of medicines. Methods: This pilot study was conducted in 2010-2011, mapping the drug distribution chain in Tanzania, including problems and barriers. The study was conducted in Bunda and Serengeti districts, both part of the ICT4RD (ICT for rural development) project. Health workers involved in drug procurement and use at 13 health facilities were interviewed on use and knowledge of ICT, and their attitudes to its use in their daily work. They were also shown and interviewed about their thoughts on an android tablet application prototype for drug stock inventory and drug ordering, based on the Tanzanian Medical Stores Department (MSD) current paper forms. Results: The main challenge was a stable supply of essential medicines. Drug supplies were often delayed and incomplete, resulting in stock-outs. All 20 interviewed health workers used mobile phones, 8 of them Smartphones with Internet connection. The Health workers were very positive to the tablet application and saw its potential in reducing drug stock-outs. They also expressed a great need and wish for CME by distance. Conclusion: The tablet application was easily used and appreciated by health workers, and thus has the potential to save time and effort, reduce transportation costs and minimise drug stock-outs. Furthermore, the android tablet could be used to reach out with CME programs to health care workers at remote health facilities, as well as those in towns.

  • 76.
    Nord, Catharina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE).
    Patient sociality in hospital architectural space: a qualitative case study in Namibia.2005Ingår i: World hospitals and health services : the official journal of the International Hospital Federation, ISSN 1029-0540, Vol. 41, nr 2, s. 17-20, 40, 42Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The article presents research on the relationship between admitted patients' social needs and hospital architectural space in an African context. Interaction with relatives and fellow patients is very valuable to the well-being of the patient. The results show inflexible and restrictive spatial conditions that disturb this interaction, for instance, by aggravating the ubiquitous overcrowding and people leaving the ward. One important reason for leaving the ward is to socialise with other people. Relatives, who assist with caring tasks in the ward, stay overnight in a yard in the hospital grounds under uncomfortable and health threatening conditions. The results illustrate how patients' well-being can improve by removing inflexibility and restrictions on space.

  • 77. Näverlo, S.
    et al.
    Carson, D. B.
    Edin-Liljegren, A.
    Ekstedt, Mirjam
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Systemsäkerhet och organisation.
    Patient perceptions of a Virtual Health Room installation in rural Sweden2016Ingår i: Rural and remote health, ISSN 1445-6354, Vol. 16, nr 4, artikel-id 3823Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The Virtual Health Room (VHR) is an ehealth initiative in the village of Slussfors in northern Sweden. Construction of VHRs in other locations is taking place, and the Centre for Rural Medicine in the Västerbotten County Council primary care department has implemented a VHR evaluation framework. This research focuses on evaluation of patient perceptions of the usability of the VHR and its contribution to their health care. Methods: Nineteen of the 25 unique users of the VHR during 2014/15 completed a survey asking about their attitudes to their own health (using the 13-question version of the Patient Activation Measure (PAM)), their demographic attributes, and their satisfaction with their visit to the VHR. Results: Respondents with lower PAM scores were less satisfied with the technical performance of the VHR, but equally likely to think the VHR made a good contribution to access to health care. In contrast, older patients were less likely to value the contribution of the VHR, but no less likely to be satisfied with its technical performance. There were no relationships between level of education and distance travelled and perceptions of the VHR. Conclusions: The research clearly demonstrated the distinction between technical performance of an ehealth initiative and its overall contribution to health care and access. Evaluation frameworks need to consider both aspects of performance. Transferability of these findings to other settings may depend at least in part on the nature of the catchment area for the VHR, with the Slussfors catchment being quite small and the impact of distance on access consequently limited.

  • 78. Pani, R.
    et al.
    Cinti, M. N.
    Scafè, R.
    Bennati, Paolo
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik.
    Lo Meo, S.
    Preziosi, E.
    Pellegrini, R.
    De Vincentis, G.
    Sacco, D.
    Fabbri, A.
    A study of response of a LuYAP: Ce array with innovative assembling for PET2015Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 795, s. 82-87, artikel-id 57762Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose the characterization of a first array of 10×10 Lutetium Yttrium Orthoaluminate Perovskite (LuYAP:Ce) crystals, 2 mm×2 mm×10 mm pixel size, with an innovative assembling designed to enhance light output, uniformity and detection efficiency. The innovation consists of the use of 0.015 mm thick dielectric coating as inter-pixel light-insulators, manufactured by Crytur (Czech Republic) intended to improve crystal insulation and then light collection. Respect to the traditional treatment with 0.2 mm of white epoxy, a thinner pixel gap enhances packing fraction up to 98% with a consequent improvement of detection efficiency. Spectroscopic characterization of the array was performed by a Hamamatsu R6231 photomultiplier tube. A pixel-by-pixel scanning with a collimated 99mTc radioisotope (140 keV photon energy) highlighted a deviation in pulse height close to 3.5% respect to the overall mean value. Meanwhile, in term of energy resolution a difference between the response of single pixel and the array of about 10% was measured. Results were also supported and validated by Monte Carlo simulations performed with GEANT4. Although the dielectric coating pixel insulator cannot overcome the inherent limitations of LuYAP crystal due to its self-absorption of light (still present), this study demonstrated that the new coating treatment allows better light collection (nearly close to the expected one) with in addition a very good uniformity between different pixels. These results confirm the high potentiality of this coating for any other crystal array suited for imaging application and new expectations for the use of LuYAP for PET systems.

  • 79. Patton, D. A.
    et al.
    McIntosh, A. S.
    Kleiven, Svein
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Neuronik.
    The biomechanical determinants of concussion: Finite element simulations to investigate brain tissue deformations during sporting impacts to the unprotected head2013Ingår i: Journal of Applied Biomechanics, ISSN 1065-8483, E-ISSN 1543-2688, Vol. 29, nr 6, s. 721-730Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Concussion is an injury of specific interest in collision and contact sports, resulting in a need to develop effective preventive strategies. A detailed finite element model of the human head was used to approximate the regional distribution of tissue deformations in the brain by simulating reconstructions of unhelmeted concussion and no-injury head impacts. The results were evaluated using logistic regression analysis and it was found that angular kinematics, in the coronal plane, and maximum principal strains, in all regions of the brain, were significantly associated with concussion. The results suggested that impacts to the temporal region of the head cause coronal rotations, which render injurious strain levels in the brain. Tentative strain tolerance levels of 0.13, 0.15, and 0.26 in the thalamus, corpus callosum, and white matter, respectively, for a 50% likelihood of concussion were determined by logistic regression. The tentative strain tolerance levels compared well with previously reported results from reconstruction studies of American football and single axon, optic nerve, and brain slice culture model studies. The methods used in the current study provide an opportunity to collect unique kinematic data of sporting impacts to the unprotected head, which can be employed in various ways to broaden the understanding of concussion.

  • 80. Patton, Declan A.
    et al.
    McIntosh, Andrew S.
    Kleiven, Svein
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Neuronik.
    The Biomechanical Determinants of Concussion: Finite Element Simulations to Investigate Tissue-Level Predictors of Injury During Sporting Impacts to the Unprotected Head2015Ingår i: Journal of Applied Biomechanics, ISSN 1065-8483, E-ISSN 1543-2688, Vol. 31, nr 4, s. 264-268Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomechanical studies of concussions have progressed from qualitative observations of head impacts to physical and numerical reconstructions, direct impact measurements, and finite element analyses. Supplementary to a previous study, which investigated maximum principal strain, the current study used a detailed finite element head model to simulate unhelmeted concussion and no-injury head impacts and evaluate the effectiveness of various tissue-level brain injury predictors: strain rate, product of strain and strain rate, cumulative strain damage measure, von Mises stress, and intracranial pressure. Von Mises stress was found to be the most effective predictor of concussion. It was also found that the thalamus and corpus callosum were brain regions with strong associations with concussion. Tentative tolerance limits for tissue-level predictors were proposed in an attempt to broaden the understanding of unhelmeted concussions. For the thalamus, tolerance limits were proposed for a 50% likelihood of concussion: 2.24 kPa, 24.0 s(-1), and 2.49 s(-1) for von Mises stress, strain rate, and the product of strain and strain rate, respectively. For the corpus callosum, tolerance limits were proposed for a 50% likelihood of concussion: 3.51 kPa, 25.1 s(-1), and 2.76 s(-1) for von Mises stress, strain rate, and the product of strain and strain rate, respectively.

  • 81.
    Pedersen, Kyrre
    et al.
    Department of Neurosurgery, Karolinska University Hopsital.
    Fahlstedt, Madelen
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Neuronik.
    Jacobsson, Anders
    Department of Epidemiology, National Board of Health and Welfare.
    Kleiven, Svein
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Neuronik.
    von Holst, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Neuronik. Department of Neurosurgery, Karolinska University Hopsital.
    A National Survey of Traumatic Brain Injuries Admitted to Hospital in Sweden from 1987 to 20102015Ingår i: Neuroepidemiology, ISSN 0251-5350, E-ISSN 1423-0208Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 82. Pierce, D. M.
    et al.
    Trobin, W.
    Holzapfel, Gerhard A.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Hållfasthetslära (Inst.). Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    A computational framework for patient-specific analysis of articular cartilage incorporating structural information from DT-MRI2009Ingår i: GAMM Mitteilungen, ISSN 0936-7195, Vol. 32, nr 2, s. 157-177Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate techniques for simulating soft biological tissue deformation are an increasingly valuable tool in many areas of biomechanical analysis and medical image computing. To model the morphology and the material response of human articular cartilage a phenomenological and patient-specific simulation approach incorporating the collagen fibre fabric is proposed. We then demonstrate a unique combination of ultra-high field Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (17.6T DT-MRI) and a novel numerical approach incorporating the empirical data to predict the collagen fibre fabric deformation for an indentation experiment.

  • 83.
    Ren, Wuwei
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik.
    Valastyán, Iván
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik.
    Colarieti-Tosti, Massimiliano
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik.
    Stationary SPECT with multi-layer multiple-pinhole-arrays2012Ingår i: 2012 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference Record (NSS/MIC), IEEE , 2012, s. 2594-2597Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of Multiple Pinhole Arrays (MPA) collimators for developing a Single Photon Emission Computer Tomography (SPECT) system without rotating or moving elements is investigated. A four layer arrangement is proposed and the system performance is evaluated using the simulation toolkit GATE [1]. For a camera with a field of view (FOV) of the order of a human brain (a sphere of radius 100 mm), a sensitivity of 86, 0 cps/MBq and an overall resolution of 5 mm have been estimated, indicating that performances comparable to traditional parallel-hole-collimator cameras can be achieved.

  • 84. Rodríguez, J. F.
    et al.
    Ruiz, C.
    Doblaré, M.
    Holzapfel, Gerhard A.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Hållfasthetslära (Inst.).
    Mechanical stresses in abdominal aortic aneurysm. Material anisotropy a parametric study2007Ingår i: Computational Plasticity - Fundamentals and Applications, COMPLAS IX, 2007, nr PART 1, s. 248-252Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomechanical studies suggest that one determinant of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture is related to the stress in the wall. To date, stress analysis conducted on AAA is mainly driven by isotropic tissue models. However, recent biaxial tensile tests performed on AAA tissue samples demonstrate the anisotropic nature of this tissue. The purpose of this work is to study the influence of geometry and material anisotropy on the magnitude and distribution of the peak wall stress in AAAs. Three-dimensional computer models of symmetric and asymmetric AAAs were generated. A five parameter exponential type structural strain-energy function was used to model the anisotropic behavior of the AAA tissue. The anisotropy is determined by the orientation of the collagen fibers (one parameter of the model). The results suggest that shorter aneurysms are more critical when asymmetries are present. They show a strong influence of the material anisotropy on the magnitude and distribution of the peak stress.

  • 85.
    Rudén, Christina
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Re: Am J Ind Med 44 : 204-213, 2003. Response to the letter to the editor from Vickie L. Wells (ACGIH)2005Ingår i: American Journal of Industrial Medicine, ISSN 0271-3586, E-ISSN 1097-0274, Vol. 47, nr 5, s. 464-466Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 86.
    Ruotsalainen, Henri
    et al.
    Department of Physics, University of Kuopio.
    Boman, Eeva
    Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital.
    Miettinen, Kaisa
    Helsinki School of Economics.
    Hämäläinen, Jari
    University of Kuopio, Department of Physics.
    Interactive Multiobjective Optimization for IMRT2006Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, interactive multiobjective optimization for radiotherapy treatmentplanning is studied. The aim of radiotherapy is to destroy a tumor without caus-ing damage to healthy tissue and treatment planning is used to achieve an optimaldose distribution. In intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), the intensity of theincoming radiation flux can be modulated using some aperture such as a multi-leaf collimator. Radiotherapy goals are conflicting and it is impossible to satisfyall the targets simultaneously. Therefore, an interactive multiobjective optimizationmethod for IMRT is used. With this method, the best compromise can be foundfor all the conflicting targets. Results of numerical studies indicate that in this waya radiotherapy expert, called as a decision maker, can conveniently utilize one’sknowledge and expertize and direct the solution process interactively and itera-tively in order to find the best feasible radiotherapy treatment plan. This approachdecreases the number of uninteresting solutions computed and the best solution canbe selected in a case specific way by using the decision maker’s expertize.

  • 87.
    Ruotsalainen, Henri
    et al.
    Department of Physics, University of Kuopio.
    Boman, Eeva
    Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital.
    Miettinen, Kaisa
    Dept. of Mathematical Information Technology, University of Jyväskylä.
    Tervo, Jouko
    Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Kuopio.
    Nonlinear Interactive Multiobjective Optimization Method for Radiotherapy Treatment Planning with Boltzmann Transport Equation2009Ingår i: Contemporary Engineering Sciences, ISSN 1313-6569, E-ISSN 1314-7641, Vol. 2, nr 9, s. 391-422Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a nonlinear interactive multiobjective opti-mization method for radiotherapy treatment planning using the Boltz-mann transport equation (BTE) in dose calculation. In radiotherapy,the goals are to destroy a tumor with radiation without causing damageto healthy tissue. These goals are conflicting, i.e. when one target is op-timized the other will suffer, and the solution is a compromise betweenthem. Our interactive approach is capable of handling multiple andstrongly conflicting objectives in a convenient way, and thus the weak-nesses of widely used optimization techniques in the field (e.g. definingweights and trial and error planning) can be avoided. In this paper,we use a parameterization technique to make the dose calculation faster in the BTE model. With our approach, the number of solutions to becalculated is rather small but still informative, planning times can beshortened and plan quality improved by finding only feasible solutionsand advantageous trade-offs. Importantly, we used the radiotherapyexpert’s knowledge to direct the solution process. To demonstrate theadvantages, we compare the results with those of the commonly usedpenalty function method.

  • 88.
    Sadrizadeh, Sasan
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Strömnings- och klimatteknik.
    Tammelin, A.
    Nielsen, P. V.
    Holmberg, Sture
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Byggvetenskap, Strömnings- och klimatteknik.
    Does a mobile laminar airflow screen reduce bacterial contamination in the operating room?: A numerical study using computational fluid dynamics technique2014Ingår i: Patient Safety in Surgery, ISSN 1754-9493, E-ISSN 1754-9493, Vol. 8, nr 1, artikel-id 27Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Air-borne bacteria in the operating room (OR) may contaminate the surgical wound, either by direct sedimentation from the air or indirectly, by contaminated sterile instruments. Reduced air contamination can be achieved with an efficient ventilation system. The current study assesses the additive effect of a mobile laminar airflow (MLAF) unit on the microbiological air quality in an OR supplied with turbulent-mixing air ventilation.Methods: A recently designed OR in NKS (Nya Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm, Sweden) was the physical model for this study. Simulation was made with MLAF units adjacent to the operating table and the instrument tables, in addition to conventional turbulent-mixing ventilation. The evaluation used numerical calculation by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Sedimentation rates (CFU/m2/h) were calculated above the operating table and two instrument tables, and in the periphery of the OR. Bacterial air contamination (CFU/m3) was simulated above the surgical and instrument tables with and without the MLAF unit.Results: The counts of airborne and sedimenting, bacteria-carrying particles downstream of the surgical team were reduced to an acceptable level for orthopedic/implant surgery when the MLAF units were added to conventional OR ventilation. No significant differences in mean sedimentation rates were found in the periphery of the OR.Conclusions: The MLAF screen unit can be a suitable option when the main OR ventilation system is unable to reduce the level of microbial contamination to an acceptable level for orthopedic implant surgery. However, MLAF effect is limited to an area within 1 m from the screen. Increasing air velocity from the MLAF above 0.4 m/s does not increase the impact area.

  • 89.
    Sandalov, Igor
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskap (SCI), Teoretisk fysik, Kondenserade materiens teori.
    Padyukov, L.
    Genetic Vectors Approach in a Study of Fine Structure of Interaction Between Risk Haplotype of HTR2A and HLA-DRB1 Shared Epitope Alleles in Rheumatoid Arthritis2013Ingår i: Between the Lines of Genetic Code: Genetic Interactions in Understanding Disease and Complex Phenotypes, Elsevier, 2013, s. 151-174Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce new quantitative characteristics of the population using an analogy to the system of multi-spin molecules: the disease fields, which may depend on interactions, and the susceptibility to disease as derivative of genetic vector's (GV's) frequency of cases with respect to these fields. The genetic vector's approach (GVA) is applied to statistical analysis of the interaction of two SNP haplotype of HTR2A and shared epitope (SE) alleles in relation to development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The analysis is performed for two independent cohorts, EIRA and NARAC, and based on the evaluation of double- and triple genotype-genotype versus SE alleles correlations. The Gibbs-like parametrization of GV frequencies makes analysis transparent and easy interpretable. We find that the main contribution into association to RA comes from GVs containing double SE. GVA may resolve an opposite role in risk/protection from different pairs of genetic variations and reveal an association to RA whereas the univariate analysis does not show significant association.

  • 90. Skedung, L.
    et al.
    El Rawadi, C.
    Arvidsson, M.
    Farcet, C.
    Luengo, G. S.
    Breton, L.
    Rutland, Mark W.
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mechanisms of tactile sensory deterioration amongst the elderly2018Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, nr 1, artikel-id 5303Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is known that roughness-smoothness, hardness-softness, stickiness-slipperiness and warm-cold are predominant perceptual dimensions in macro-, micro- and nano- texture perception. However, it is not clear to what extent active tactile texture discrimination remains intact with age. The general decrease in tactile ability induces physical and emotional dysfunction in elderly, and has increasing significance for an aging population. We report a method to quantify tactile acuity based on blinded active exploration of systematically varying micro-textured surfaces and a same-different paradigm. It reveals that elderly participants show significantly reduced fine texture discrimination ability. The elderly group also displays statistically lower finger friction coefficient, moisture and elasticity, suggesting a link. However, a subpopulation of the elderly retains discrimination ability irrespective of cutaneous condition and this can be related to a higher density of somatosensory receptors on the finger pads. Skin tribology is thus not the primary reason for decline of tactile discrimination with age. The remediation of cutaneous properties through rehydration, however leads to a significantly improved tactile acuity. This indicates unambiguously that neurological tactile loss can be temporarily compensated by restoring the cutaneous contact mechanics. Such mechanical restoration of tactile ability has the potential to increase the quality of life in elderly.

  • 91. Sotres, J.
    et al.
    Pettersson, Torbjörn
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Lindh, L.
    Arnebrant, T.
    NanoWear of Salivary Films vs. Substratum Wettability2012Ingår i: Journal of Dental Research, ISSN 0022-0345, E-ISSN 1544-0591, Vol. 91, nr 10, s. 973-978Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The pellicle serves as a multifunctional protective layer, providing, e.g., lubrication and remineralization and also acting as a diffusion barrier. In addition, since the formation of the pellicle precedes the adhesion of micro-organisms, it is also important as a conditioning film. We present a novel approach to study the influence of the water wettability of solid surfaces on the strength of adsorbed salivary films. It is based on studying the wear resistance of the films with an atomic force microscope operated in the friction force spectroscopy mode. This methodology provides the strength of the films in terms of the forces needed for breaking and removing them. Our results indicate that these forces are highly dependent on the water wettability of the underlying substrata, decreasing with increasing hydrophobicity. Thus, this study provides valuable information for the design of materials exposed in the oral cavity, i.e., materials that will minimize plaque formation and be easy to clean.

  • 92. Sramkova, Hana
    et al.
    Granqvist, Svante
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Naturvetenskap och biomedicin, Grundläggande naturvetenskap. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Herbst, Christian T.
    Svec, Jan G.
    The softest sound levels of the human voice in normal subjects2015Ingår i: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 137, nr 1, s. 407-418Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate measurement of the softest sound levels of phonation presents technical and methodological challenges. This study aimed at (1) reliably obtaining normative data on sustained softest sound levels for the vowel [a:] at comfortable pitch; (2) comparing the results for different frequency and time weighting methods; and (3) refining the Union of European Phoniatricians' recommendation on allowed background noise levels for scientific and equipment manufacturers' purposes. Eighty healthy untrained participants (40 females, 40 males) were investigated in quiet rooms using a head-mounted microphone and a sound level meter at 30 cm distance. The one-second-equivalent sound levels were more stable and more representative for evaluating the softest sustained phonations than the fast-time-weighted levels. At 30 cm, these levels were in the range of 48-61 dB(C)/41-53 dB(A) for females and 49-64 dB(C)/35-53 dB(A) for males (5% to 95% quantile range). These ranges may serve as reference data in evaluating vocal normality. In order to reach a signal-to-noise ratio of at least 10 dB for more than 95% of the normal population, the background noise should be below 25 dB(A) and 38 dB(C), respectively, for the softest phonation measurements at 30 cm distance. For the A-weighting, this is 15 dB lower than the previously recommended value.

  • 93.
    Stenberg, Una
    et al.
    Oslo University Hospital, Norway.
    Ruland, Cornelia
    Oslo University Hospital, Norway; University of Oslo, Norway.
    Olsson, Mariann
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Ekstedt, Mirjam
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH). Oslo University Hospital, Norway.
    To Live Close to a Person With Cancer-Experiences of Family Caregivers2012Ingår i: Social work in health care, ISSN 0098-1389, E-ISSN 1541-034X, Vol. 51, nr 10, s. 909-926Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to obtain a deeper understanding of the experiences of Family Caregivers (FC) living close to a patient with cancer. This article reports on the findings from individual interviews with 15 FCs of patients with cancer. The interview transcripts were analyzed using qualitative hermeneutic analysis. This study revealed that living close to a cancer patient over the course of his or her illness affected many aspects of FCs lives in significant ways. Their experiences can be summarized with two major themes: (1) living in an ever changing life world and (2) balancing between conflicting interests and dilemmas. This study contributed to deeper insights into FC's experiences than previously reported in the literature.

  • 94.
    Sundberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Talöverföring och musikakustik.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Talöverföring och musikakustik.
    Perkins, William H
    University of Southern California.
    Gramming, Patricia
    Malmö General Hospital.
    Long-time average spectrum analysis of phonatory effects of noise and filtered auditory feedback1988Ingår i: Journal of Phonetics, ISSN 0095-4470, E-ISSN 1095-8576, Vol. 16, s. 203-219Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 95.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Talöverföring och musikakustik.
    Perceptual evaluations of voice scatter in unison choir sounds.1993Ingår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 129-135Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The preferences of experiences listerners for pitch and formant frequency dispersion in unison choir sounds were explored using synthesized stimuli. Two types of dispersion were investigated: (a) pitch scatter, which arises when voices in an ensemble exhibit small differences in mean fundamental frequency, and (b) spectral smear, defined as such dispersion of formants 3 to 5 as arises from differences in vocal tract length. Each stimulus represented a choir section of five bass, tenor, alto, or soprano voices, producing the vowel [u], [a], or [ae]. Subjects chose one dispersion level out of six available, selecting the "maximum tolerable" in a first run and the "preferred" in a second run. The listeners were very different in their tolerance for dispersion. Typical scatter choices were 14 cent standard deviation for "tolerable" and 0 or 5 cent for "preferred." The smear choices were less consistent; the standard deviations were 12 and 7%, respectively. In all modes of assessment, the largest dispersion was chosen for the vowel [u] on a bass tone. There was a vowel effect on the smear choices. The effects of voice category were not significant.

  • 96.
    Tängerstad, Louise
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Ergonomi.
    Källskog, Maria
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Ergonomi.
    Finns det arbetsmiljöfaktorer på Arbetsförmedlingen Kundtjänst som förklarar korttidssjukfrånvaron? - En studie med MTO-perspektiv2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund

    Callcenter- verksamhet har vuxit fram snabbt och utvecklats mycket under de senaste årtionden, både internationellt och i Sverige. Det är en verksamhet som innebär många utmaningar i en ofta komplex arbetsmiljö med höga krav på samverkan inom systemperspektivet Människa - Teknik - Organisation. Arbetsförmedlingen tillhandahåller handläggning per telefon via kundtjänster på sju olika orter i Sverige. Korttidssjukfrånvaron ansågs högre i denna verksamhet än i övriga organisationen och målet var att minska den.

     

    Syfte

    Huvudsyftet med denna uppsats var att undersöka om det fanns arbetsmiljöfaktorer på Arbetsförmedlingen Kundtjänst som förklarade korttidssjukfrånvaron. Detta genom att tillämpa ett MTO- perspektiv (Människa - Teknik - Organisation).

     

    Metod

    För att få svar på vår frågeställning tillämpades metodtriangulering genom kvalitativ och kvantitativ datainsamling. En halvdags observation och 16 semistrukturerade intervjuer utfördes på Arbetsförmedlingens kundtjänst i Södertälje och 76 enkäter utfördes på kundtjänsterna i Södertälje och Söderhamn.

     

    Resultat

    Utifrån resultaten i vår studie gick det inte att se samband mellan fysisk arbetsmiljö, höga krav eller låg kontroll och korttidssjukfrånvaro på grund av arbetet. Det fanns dock en statistiskt signifikant skillnad beträffande vissa frågor om arbetsförhållanden och korttidssjukfrånvaro på grund av arbetet.

     

    Slutsats

    På de flesta frågor kunde sambandet mellan korttidssjukfrånvaro och fysisk och psykosocial arbetsmiljö inte påvisas. Däremot fanns en statistisk signifikans i några frågor gällande arbetsförhållanden i denna studie. Det fanns således flera faktorer i arbetsmiljön som skulle kunna förbättras och därmed individens upplevelse av arbetsmiljön. Detta kanske kunde bidra till minskad korttidssjukfrånvaro. Trots att det fanns vissa frågor som påvisade en signifikant skillnad mellan arbetsförhållanden och korttidssjukfrånvaro var det svårt att dra slutsatser på grund av studiens design samt att underlaget var litet. Interventioner i systemkomponenterna Människa – Teknik - Organisation kan vara av värde för att minska korttidssjukfrånvaron.

     

  • 97.
    von Holst, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik, Neuronik. Section of Neurosurgery, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Li, Xiaogai
    KTH, Skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa (CBH), Medicinteknik och hälsosystem, Neuronik.
    Higher impact energy in traumatic brain injury interferes with noncovalent and covalent bonds resulting in cytotoxic brain tissue edema as measured with computational simulation2015Ingår i: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940, Vol. 157, nr 4, s. 639-648Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cytotoxic brain tissue edema is a complicated secondary consequence of ischemic injury following cerebral diseases such as traumatic brain injury and stroke. To some extent the pathophysiological mechanisms are known, but far from completely. In this study, a hypothesis is proposed in which protein unfolding and perturbation of nucleotide structures participate in the development of cytotoxic edema following traumatic brain injury (TBI). An advanced computational simulation model of the human head was used to simulate TBI. The consequences of kinetic energy transfer following an external dynamic impact were analyzed including the intracranial pressure (ICP), strain level, and their potential influences on the noncovalent and covalent bonds in folded protein structures. The result shows that although most of the transferred kinetic energy is absorbed in the skin and three bone layers, there is a substantial amount of energy reaching the gray and white matter. The kinetic energy from an external dynamic impact has the theoretical potential to interfere not only with noncovalent but also covalent bonds when high enough. The induced mechanical strain and pressure may further interfere with the proteins, which accumulate water molecules into the interior of the hydrophobic structures of unfolded proteins. Simultaneously, the noncovalent energy-rich bonds in nucleotide adenosine-triphosphates may be perturbed as well. Based on the analysis of the numerical simulation data, the kinetic energy from an external dynamic impact has the theoretical potential to interfere not only with noncovalent, but also with covalent bonds when high enough. The subsequent attraction of increased water molecules into the unfolded protein structures and disruption of adenosine-triphosphate bonds could to some extent explain the etiology to cytotoxic edema.

  • 98.
    Wiik, Richard
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Hälso- och systemvetenskap, Ergonomi.
    Stöd av kommunikation inom distansguidning av ERCP: Applicering av ett MTO-perspektiv tillsammans med ett tjänstedesignsverktyg2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 40 poäng / 60 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    ERCP är ett komplicerat invärtes kirurgisk ingrepp som genomförs med hjälp av endoskopi. ERCP-avdelningen vid Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset tog tidigare ofta emot patienter från ERCP-avdelningen på Visby på grund av operationens förväntade svårighet. Nu har de istället sedan en tid tillbaka givit distansguidning under pågående operationen till ERCP i Visby. Distansguidningen skapar ett virtuellt team som ger nya mänskliga, tekniska och organisatoriska utmaningar.

    Syftet med denna studie var tvåfaldigt: det ena att fördjupa kunskapen i hur ett MTO-perspektiv tillsammans med ett tjänstedesignsverktyg kunde appliceras på det specifika fallet, det andra var att svara på hur utvalda faktorer som är kritiska för fysiskt åtskilda teams stöddes och hämmades i den valda fallstudien.

    En observation- och intervjustudie med hjälp av tjänstedesignsverktyget Blueprint utfördes med involverade personer för distansguidningen med efterföljande tematiskt analys av transkriberad data. Utfallet av analys belyser tekniska svårigheter och ett lärlingssystem mellan kirurgerna utanför distansguidningens av ERCP organisatoriska kontroll som är viktig för det virtuella teamets personliga relationer, tillit och kultur. En diskussion förs ur ett mänskligt, tekniskt och organisatoriskt perspektiv.

    Kombinationen av MTO och tjänstedesign fungerade för denna fallstudie och kan vara en kraftfull kombination. Dock anses studiens utförande kunna optimeras för att bättre integrera de två och utnyttja tjänstedesignsverktyget Blueprint ytterligare. Lärdomar i hur detta kan göras i framtida studier beskrivs.

  • 99. Willenheimer, R.
    et al.
    Brodin, Lars-Åke
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Medicinsk teknik. Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset Huddinge, Sweden.
    Boman, K.
    Hagerman, I.
    Dahlström, U. L. F.
    Definition av diastolisk hjärtsvikt2007Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 104, nr 34, s. 2333-2337Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 100. Wood, M.
    et al.
    Garbett, A.
    Morrissey, K.
    Hopkins, P.
    Balaam, Madeline
    KTH.
    "Protection on that erection?": Discourses of accountability & compromising participation in digital sexual health2018Ingår i: CHI '18 Proceedings of the 2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses sexual health workers' 'talk' around their introduction of a digital platform to enhance a regionally managed condom distribution scheme for young people. In examining the discursive resources workers used in framing the sexual health service, their service users and digital technology, we argue that problematic ideologies around young people and sexuality were exercised and reproduced. Workers positioned themselves as the gatekeepers of young people's sexual health, who were in turn constructed as 'mischievous' and 'misguided', with technology having a corruptive role over what was considered to be 'healthy' and 'normal' sexual relationships. We suggest our findings indicate severe challenges in developing community-commissioned platforms alongside service providers, and questions how plausible user participation can be in attempting to conduct collaborative, participatory and engaged work in this context.

123 51 - 100 av 101
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf