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  • 5151.
    Zhu, Weizhen
    et al.
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Westman, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. Chalmers, Sweden.
    Theliander, Hans
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. Chalmers, Sweden.
    Lignin separation from kraft black liquor by combined ultrafiltration and precipitation: a study of solubility of lignin with different molecular properties2016In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 270-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignin from wood is by far the largest source of bio-based aromatic raw material. Today a vast amount of lignin is processes and incinerated in kraft pulp mills around the world. One possible option to utilize the energy surplus in a modern kraft pulp mill is to extract lignin from black liquor. Precipitation of lignin is one important step in an extraction process. This study investigates how the molecular size and functional groups of lignin influenced the precipitation yield. Cross-flow filtration was applied to fractionate lignin with different molecular weights from a black liquor, precipitation studies was made on the different fractions. The precipitated lignin was characterized by GPC, HPAEC-PAD and NMR analysis. The results show that it was possible to obtain a more homogenous lignin by fractionation using cross-flow filtration. It was found that the molecular properties of kraft lignin, i.e. molecular weight and functional groups, influenced the yield of lignin precipitation: at the same precipitation condition, lignin fraction with higher molecular weight has higher precipitation yield. Lignin fraction with lower molecular weight contains less amount of carbohydrates and methoxyl groups but higher amount of phenolic groups.

  • 5152. Zhu, Z.
    et al.
    Höglund, Lars
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Larsson, H.
    Reed, R. C.
    Isolation of optimal compositions of single crystal superalloys by mapping of a material's genome2015In: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 90, p. 330-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The multicomponent composition space pertinent to the single crystal nickel-based superalloys is mapped and searched, using computational modelling. A resolution of 0.1 wt.% for the alloying elements is assumed, consistent with manufacturing practice. Databases are constructed of alloy compositions which are predicted to be of promising microstructural architecture: e.g. equal fractions of the γ and γ′ phases. These may be regarded as maps - one might term them genomes - of this class of structural alloy. By combining the databases with additional composition-dependent property models, it is demonstrated that compositions can be identified which - subject to the accuracy and limitations of the sub-models - are likely to prove optimal, e.g. on the basis of their creep resistance, density and cost. The methods circumvent the need for the traditional empirically-driven approaches to alloy design.

  • 5153. Zimmermann, Kristian
    et al.
    Zenkert, Dan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Siemetzki, M.
    Testing and analysis of ultra thick composites2010In: Composites Part B: Engineering, ISSN 1359-8368, E-ISSN 1879-1069, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 326-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the development of a composite main landing gear fitting in carbon fiber reinforced plastics the behavior and performance of Ultra Thick Laminate components is investigated. Material thicknesses exceeds 60 mm. For the purpose of validation a test program is arranged using T-cross sections subjected to multiple load cases. The components are manufactured entirely with non crimped fabrics (NCF) using an adapted open mould manufacturing process. In addition to these T-Sections large full scale subcomponents of the entire fitting are manufactured and tested. As main topic of this paper standard FE methods are investigated and validated for thick structures using the generated test results. Due to the presence of transverse shear and normal stresses a 3D modeling approach is chosen. Transverse shear and normal stresses are indentified as main failure cause and failure is mainly initiated in the curved regions. Solid composite brick elements offer an efficient way to model thick structures. These are incapable of calculating accurate shear stresses on a ply level; usable results are however achieved by discretisation of the component with multiple elements over thickness. In addition stress gradients in the failure region are small; stress variations on a ply level are minimal. Out of plane material properties are not available and initial assumptions are made. Material correction factors (degradation) are introduced and discussed.

  • 5154.
    Zimmermann, Uwe
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Domeij, Martin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Hallén, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Comparison between implanted and epitaxial pin-diodes on 4H-silicon carbide2004In: SILICON CARBIDE AND RELATED MATERIALS 2003, PRTS 1 AND 2 / [ed] Madar, R; Camassel, J, ZURICH-UETIKON: TRANS TECH PUBLICATIONS LTD , 2004, Vol. 457-460, p. 1037-1040Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Two sets of pin-diodes with epitaxially grown anode regions and implanted anode regions, respectively, were processed on the same low-doped n-type epitaxial layer. The designed breakdown voltage for the epitaxial layer was 5 kV with punch-through at about 2 kV. The almost ideal forward voltage drop of less than 3.5 V at current densities of 100 A cm(-2) of the epitaxial diodes indicates high-level carrier injection into the low-doped epitaxial layer, which is also supported by the results of reverse recovery measurements. At current densities above 10 A cm(-2) the forward voltage drop of the implanted pin-diodes is significantly higher than that of the epitaxial diodes.

  • 5155. Zinkevich, M.
    et al.
    Aldinger, F.
    Sundman, Bo
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    The Ringberg workshop 2005 on thermodynamic modeling and first-principles calculations2007In: Calphad, ISSN 0364-5916, E-ISSN 1873-2984, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 2-3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 5156. Zuazo, I.
    et al.
    Hallstedt, B.
    Lindahl, Bonnie
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Computational Thermodynamics.
    Selleby, Malin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Computational Thermodynamics.
    Soler, M.
    Etienne, A.
    Perlade, A.
    Hasenpouth, D.
    Massardier-Jourdan, V.
    Cazottes, S.
    Kleber, X.
    Low-Density Steels: Complex Metallurgy for Automotive Applications2014In: JOM: The Member Journal of TMS, ISSN 1047-4838, E-ISSN 1543-1851, Vol. 66, no 9, p. 1747-1758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current aim in the development of third-generation steels for lightweighting automotive applications is to increase strength keeping at least the same formability as current steel concepts. In this philosophy, an optimal concept would be one that brings, in addition, a lower density. For this purpose, low-density steels have been designed with important aluminum additions obtaining density reductions of 8-10% or higher in comparison with low-carbon steels. At the levels required for lightweighting, aluminum introduces complex phenomena in steels. Here, some of the effects of aluminum in phase stability, CALPHAD-type modeling, and microstructure development are described, the latter in relation with mechanical properties. Finally, the potential of two families of lightweight steels for automotive applications is assessed by comparison with a steel currently present in automotive structures.

  • 5157.
    Zukauskas, Andrius
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    QPM Devices in KTA and RKTP2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though KTiOPO4 (KTP) is considered to be one of the best nonlinear materials for quasi phase matched (QPM) frequency conversion in the visible and the near-infrared spectral regions, its use is often limited by poor material homogeneity, high ionic conductivity, a considerable linear absorption and photochromatic damage. On the other hand, the improved material homogeneity and the lower ionic conductivity of bulk Rb-doped KTP (RKTP) make this material an ideal alternative for fabrication of fine-pitch QPM gratings, while the arsenate isomorph KTiOAsO4 (KTA) promises a better performance in the green spectral region and adds the advantage of a wider transparency window in the infrared. Unfortunately, the available studies on these materials are limited and unable to answer the question whether RKTP and KTA are feasible alternatives to KTP in terms of periodic poling and optical performance. The optical performance of the QPM devices depends on the periodic poling quality, therefore, a detailed comprehension of domain-grating formation in the KTP isomorphs is highly desired. The goals of this thesis were to gain a better understanding of the periodic poling process in the KTP isomorphs, in order to study the specifics of ferroelectric domain engineering in KTA and RKTP, and to evaluate the optical performance of these isomorphs. Fine-pitch periodically poled structures were engineered both in KTA and RKTP crystals. It was demonstrated that QPM gratings with excellent quality and with periods as short as 8.49 μm can be fabricated in KTA crystals. Comparative transmission studies have shown that periodically poled KTA (PPKTA) crystals can be superior to KTP for QPM second harmonic generation in the visible spectral region due to lower linear absorption. It was also demonstrated that RKTP is a superior alternative to KTP for high-quality QPM grating fabrication. A consistent room-temperature periodic poling of 5 mm thick RKTP crystals with a period of 38.86 μm has been achieved. The obtained large aperture periodically poled RKTP (PPRKTP) crystals showed an outstanding QPM grating uniformity and excellent optical performance in optical parametric oscillator (OPO) applications. Moreover, it was shown that RKTP is less susceptible to blue-induced infrared absorption than KTP. Finally, a novel and a relatively simple method for self-assembling quasi-periodic sub-μm scale ferroelectric domain structure in RKTP crystals has been presented. It was shown that, after treatment in aqueous KOH/KNO3 solution, periodic poling of RKTP with planar electrodes resulted in one-dimensional ferroelectric domain structure with an average periodicity of 650±200 nm, extending over the whole 1 mm thick crystal. Such self-assembled structures in RKTP were used to demonstrate 5th order non-collinear QPM backward second harmonic generation.

  • 5158.
    Zukauskas, Andrius
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Pasiskevicius, Valdas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Canalias, Carlota
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Bulk Self-assembled Ferroelectric Domain Structures in RKTP2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5159.
    Zukauskas, Andrius
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Pasiskevicius, Valdas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Canalias, Carlota
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Quasi-periodic self-assembled sub-micrometer ferroelectric bulk domain gratings in Rb-doped KTiOPO42013In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 103, no 25, p. 252905-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a simple technique for fabricating quasi-periodic bulk sub-μm ferroelectric domain gratings in Rb-doped KTiOPO4 (RKTP) based on self-organized ferroelectric domain formation. One-dimensional ferroelectric domain structures, with an average periodicity of 650 ± 200 nm and extending throughout 1 mm thick crystals, are obtained by etching and subsequent electric field poling using planar electrodes. The sub-μm structures in RKTP were used to demonstrate 5th order non-collinear quasi-phase matched backward second harmonic generation.

  • 5160.
    Zukauskas, Andrius
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Pasiskevicius, Valdas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Laurell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Canalias, Carlota
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Safinas, Maratas
    Ekspla Ltd..
    Michailovas, Andrejus
    Ekspla Ltd..
    High-Performance Periodically Poled Rb-doped KTP For Frequency Conversion In Blue/Green Region2010In: Conference digest, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5161.
    Zukauskas, Andrius
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Strömqvist, Gustav
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Pasiskevicius, Valdas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Laurell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Fokine, Michael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Canalias, Carlota
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Fabrication of submicrometer quasi-phase-matched devices in KTP and RKTP [Invited]2011In: Optical Materials Express, ISSN 2159-3930, Vol. 1, no 7, p. 1319-1325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We review the techniques used for fabrication of bulk submicrometer ferroelectric domain gratings in KTiOPO4 (KTP) and demonstrate that bulk Rb-doped KTiOPO4 (RKTP) is an excellent candidate for implementation of dense domain gratings. Compared to KTP, RKTP presents predominant domain propagation along the polar c-direction, substantially reduced lateral domain broadening, and higher poling yield. As a result we obtain homogeneous sub-μm periodic poling of RKTP with a period of 690 nm in 1 mm thick samples.

  • 5162.
    Zukauskas, Andrius
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Thilmann, Nicky
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Pasiskevicius, Valdas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Laurell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Canalias, Carlota
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    5 mm thick periodically poled Rb-doped KTP for high energy optical parametric frequency conversion2011In: Optical Materials Express, ISSN 2159-3930, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 201-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A 5 mm thick periodically poled bulk Rb-doped KTiOPO4 (KTP) crystal with a period of 38.86 μm was fabricated by electric field poling. Chemical etching and optical evaluation show a high quality of the periodic ferroelectric domain structure through the whole crystal aperture. The fabricated quasi-phase matching (QPM) device was used in an optical parametric oscillator pumped at 1064 nm with 12 ns pulses at 100 Hz repetition rate to generate 60 mJ parametric radiation with a conversion efficiency of 50%.

  • 5163.
    Zukauskas, Andrius
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Thilmann, Nicky
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Pasiskevicius, Valdas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Laurell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Canalias, Carlota
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    5 mm Thick Periodically Poled Rb:KTiOPO4 for High Power Optical Frequency Conversion2011In: Advanced Solid State Photonics 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A periodically poled bulk Rb-doped KTiOPO 4crystal with 5 mm aperture was fabricated at room temperature. The ferroelectric domain structure is shown to be homogeneous across the whole aperture with a deffof 11 pm/V.

  • 5164.
    Zukauskas, Andrius
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Thilmann, Nicky
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Pasiskevicius, Valdas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Laurell, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Canalias, Carlota
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Periodically Poled KTiOAsO4 For Mid-Infrared Light Generation2010In: Advanced Solid-State Photonics 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A periodically poled KTiOAsO4crystal was fabricated at room temperature. The poled crystal shows a deffof 10.1 pm/V and gives a parametric conversion efficiency of 45%.

  • 5165.
    Zurauskaite, Laura
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    Hellström, Per-Erik
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Electronics, Integrated devices and circuits.
    The impact of atomic layer depositions on high quality Ge/GeO2 interfaces fabricated by rapid thermal annealing in O-2 ambient2017In: 2017 IEEE Electron Devices Technology and Manufacturing Conference, EDTM 2017 - Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 164-166, article id 7947553Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work demonstrates high quality Ge/GeO2 interfaces fabricated by O-2 RTA that are degraded by a good quality SiO2 layer deposited by ALD. However, neither O-3 and H2O precursors commonly used during subsequent high-k ALDs nor Si precursor AP-LTO-330 do not degrade the interface. Thus Dit increase after SiO2 deposition is likely due to intermixing. Therefore, the effect of subsequent ALDs on the interface quality has to be considered while designing Ge-based gate stacks.

  • 5166.
    Zurauskaite, Laura
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics.
    Jones, L.
    Dhanak, V. R.
    Mitrovic, I. Z.
    Hellström, Per-Erik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics.
    Östling, Mikael
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electronics.
    Investigation of Tm2Oj as a gate dielectric for Ge MOS devices2018In: ECS Transactions, Electrochemical Society, 2018, Vol. 86, no 7, p. 67-73Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work atomic layer deposited TnOj has been investigated as a high-k dielectric for Ge-based gate stacks. It is shown that when Tm203 is deposited on high-quality Ge/Ge02 gates, the interface state density of the gate stack is degraded. A series of post-deposition anneals are studied in order to improve the interface state density of Ge/GeO/TmjOs gates, and it is demonstrated that a rapid thermal anneal in O2 ambient can effectively reduce the interface state density to below 5-10" cmeV1 without increasing the equivalent oxide thickness. Fixed charge density in Ge/GeOx/Tm20j gates has also been investigated, and it is shown that while O2 post-deposition anneal improves the interface state density, the fixed charge density is degraded.

  • 5167. Zurauskiene, N.
    et al.
    Asmontas, S.S.
    Dargys, A.
    Kundrotas, J.
    Janssen, G.
    Goovaerts, E.
    Marcinkevicius, Saulius
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Microelectronics and Information Technology, IMIT.
    Koenraad, P.M.
    Wolter, J.H.
    Leon, R.
    Semiconductor nanostructures for infrared applications2004In: Functional Nanomaterials For Optoelectronics And Other Applications / [ed] Lojkowski, W; Blizzard, JR, Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2004, Vol. 99-100, p. 99-108Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The results of time-resolved photo luminescence (TRPL) and optically detected microwave resonance (ODMR) spectroscopy investigations of semiconductor quantum dots and quantum wells are presented. The ODMR spectra of InAs/GaAs QDs were detected via modulation of the total intensity of the QDs emission induced by 95 GHz microwave excitation and the exciton fine structure was studied. Very long life times (up to 10 ns) of photoexcited carriers were observed in this system using TRPL at low temperatures and excitation intensities promising higher responsitivity of such QDs for infrared photodetector development. The effects of proton and alpha particles irradiation on carrier dynamics were investigated on different InGaAs/GaAs, InAlAs/AlGaAs and GaAs/AlGaAs QD and QW systems. The results showed that carrier lifetimes in QDs are much less affected by proton irradiation than that in QWs. A strong influence of irradiation on PL intensity was observed in multiple QWs after high-energy alpha particles irradiation.

  • 5168. Åberg, J.
    et al.
    Vynnycky, M.
    Fredriksson, Hasse
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    Heat-flux measurements of industrial on-site continuous copper casting and their use as boundary conditions for numerical simulations2009In: Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals, ISSN 0019-493X, Vol. 62, no 4-5, p. 443-446Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An embedded sensor, designed for rapid and accurate response times and using wireless data transmission, has been developed for the on-site measurement of temperatures in industrial continuous casting moulds. The sensor has been used to measure the temperature at several points in the mould during production in a Southwire copper casting process. The measured data has been used to calculate the temperature gradient in the mould to estimate the heat flux through it; this is then used as a boundary condition for numerical simulations of solidification. For these, we employ a method that tracks the solidification front explicitly; this has an advantage over fixed-grid methods in simulations for materials having a short solidification interval, since the release of latent heat at the solidification front can be resolved without resorting to a very fine mesh. The special considerations required for setting the initial condition for the numerical scheme and the time taken for the superheated melt to form a solid shell are also discussed.

  • 5169.
    Åberg, Jonas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    On the Experimental Determination of Damping of Metals and Calculation of Thermal Stresses in Solidifying Shells2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores experimentally and theoretically two different aspects of the properties and behaviour of metals: their ability to damp noise and their susceptibility to crack when solidifying.

    The first part concerns intrinsic material damping, and is motivated by increased demands from society for reductions in noise emissions. It is a material’s inherent ability to reduce its vibration level, and hence noise emission, and transform its kinetic energy into a temperature increase. To design new materials with increased intrinsic material damping, we need to be able to measure it. In this thesis, different methods for measurement of the intrinsic damping have been considered: one using Fourier analysis has been experimentally evaluated, and another using a specimen in uniaxial tension to measure the phase-lag between stress and strain has been improved. Finally, after discarding these methods, a new method has been developed. The new method measures the damping properties during compression using differential calorimetry. A specimen is subjected to a cyclic uniaxial stress to give a prescribed energy input. The difference in temperature between a specimen under stress and a non-stressed reference sample is measured. The experiments are performed in an insulated vacuum container to reduce convective losses. The rate of temperature change, together with the energy input, is used as a measure of the intrinsic material damping in the specimen. The results show a difference in intrinsic material damping, and the way in which it is influenced by the internal structure is discussed.

    The second part of the thesis examines hot cracks in solidifying shells. Most metals have a brittle region starting in the two-phase temperature range during solidification and for some alloys this region extends as far as hundreds of degrees below the solidus temperature. To calculate the risk of hot cracking, one needs, besides knowledge of the solidifying material’s ability to withstand stress, knowledge of the casting process to be able to calculate the thermal history of the solidification, and from this calculate the stress. In this work, experimental methods to measure and evaluate the energy transfer from the solidifying melt have been developed. The evaluated data has been used as a boundary condition to numerically calculate the solidification process and the evolving stress in the solidifying shell. A solidification model has been implemented using a fixed-domain methodology in a commercial finite element code, Comsol Multiphysics. A new solidification model using an arbitrary Lagrange Eulerian (ALE) formulation has also been implemented to solve the solidification problem for pure metals. This new model explicitly tracks the movement of the liquid/solid interface and is much more effective than the first model.

  • 5170.
    Åberg, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    Fredriksson, Hasse
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    An On-site Industrial Experimental Heat Flux Study during Solidification of Pure Copper in the Southwire Process2007In: T INDIAN I METALS, ISSN 0972-2815, Vol. 60, no 2-3, p. 191-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To study the production of pure copper and copper alloys in the Southwire process the temperature in the mould has been measured on-site in the production process in a number of positions. To increase the accuracy and robustness of measurements a new type of thermocouple based temperature sensor has been developed and tested. The test system includes wireless transmission of measured data from the moving mould. The results from the measurements are then used to calculate the energy transfer rate from the solidifying shell as a function of time. An initial in-situ measurement campaign has been performed and the results are very promising.

  • 5171.
    Åberg, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Vynnycky, Michael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Fredriksson, Hasse
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Nassar, Hani
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Bergström, Thomas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    An on-site experimental heat flux study and its interpretation in a FEMLAB finite element simulation of continuous casting of copper in the South-Wire process2005In: Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals, ISSN 0019-493X, Vol. 58, no 4, p. 509-515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The South-Wire process, a development of the Properzi process, to continuously cast copper has been studied both experimentally and by finite element computer simulation. The experimental work has been performed on site to get temperature data as a function of time at several locations within the mould. These experimental data have been used to evaluate boundary conditions for the heat transfer from the strand-mould interface and through the mould. A simulation model of the casting process has been developed in the program FEMLAB. In this program temperature varying material data and time varying boundary conditions have been used. The simulation model has been verified by comparing with an analytical solution, and then applied to the real physical process.

  • 5172.
    Åberg, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Materials Processing.
    Widell, Björn
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Casting of Metals.
    Uniaxial material damping measurements using a fiber optic lattice: a discussion of its performance envelope2004In: Experimental mechanics, ISSN 0014-4851, E-ISSN 1741-2765, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 33-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Damping is the internal transfer of kinetic energy to other forms of energy. Today, most methods use either bending or torsional vibration to measure damping. This means that the strain field in the specimen is nonhomogeneous. If the damping of the tested material is linear, strain-independent, the values acquired with these traditional methods will be equal to the intrinsic material damping of the material. If, however, the damping is strain-dependent, nonlinear, the measured value will be an average of the damping of the specimen, and not equal to its intrinsic material damping. To address this problem, a method is required to experimentally determine the damping in uniaxial tension in order to produce the same strain level in all parts of the test specimen and hence obtain a measurement of the intrinsic material damping. Using such a method, it is possible to view the material damping as the phase angle between the stress and the strain in a harmonic oscillation. In this paper, a method is suggested for measuring this phase shift in uniaxial tension to determine the material damping properties. It uses a tensile test machine, an optical fiber Bragg grating technique and a lock-in amplifier. Measurements with the phase shift technique have been suggested previously, but its performance envelope has been overestimated. In this paper, the performance envelope is discussed and restricted. It is shown that the envelope depends on the specimen length, loss factor and test frequency. An optical strain measurement method is also believed to help avoid many electrical measurement problems seen with the originally proposed method.

  • 5173.
    Åberg, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    Widell, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    Larsson, Petra
    Investigation of the Damping in Twelve Metallic Plates Using Frequency Response2006Report (Other academic)
  • 5174.
    Ågren, John
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Diffusion in multicomponent phases2008In: The SGTE Casebook: Thermodynamics At Work, Elsevier, 2008, 2, p. 347-350Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5175.
    Ågren, John
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Multicomponent diffusion in compound steel2008In: The SGTE Casebook: Thermodynamics At Work, Elsevier Ltd , 2008, 2, p. 386-391Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5176.
    Ågren, John
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Thermodynamics and Diffusion Coupling in Alloys-Application-Driven Science2012In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 43A, no 10, p. 3453-3461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As emphasized by Stokes (1997), the common assumption of a linear progression from basic research (science), via applied research, to technological innovations (engineering) should be questioned. In fact, society would gain much by supporting long-term research that stems from practical problems and has usefulness as a key word. Such research may be fundamental, and often, it cannot be distinguished from "basic" research if it were not for its different motivation. The development of the Calphad method and the more recent development of accompanying kinetic approaches for diffusion serve as excellent examples and are the themes of this symposium. The drivers are, e.g., the development of new materials, processes, and lifetime predictions. Many challenges of the utmost practical importance require long-term fundamental research. This presentation will address some of them, e.g., the effect of various ordering phenomena on activation barriers, and the strength and practical importance of correlation effects.

  • 5177.
    Ågren, John
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Thermodynamics of phase transformations in steels2012In: Phase Transformations in Steels, Elsevier, 2012, Vol. 1, p. 56-93Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The basics of thermodynamics are reviewed with special attention to phase transformations. The distinction between internal and external variables is emphasized and the general equilibrium conditions are derived from the combined first and second law. The concepts of entropy production and driving force as well as stability are discussed. The calculation of thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria is considered and the Calphad method is briefly reviewed, including modeling of substitutional and interstitial disorder. The thermodynamic bases of phase diagrams are examined, and finally, the effect of interfaces, fluctuations and thermodynamics of nucleation are reviewed.

  • 5178.
    Ågren, John
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Brechet, YvesHutchinson, ChristopherPhilibert, JeanPurdy, Gary
    Thermodyanmics and phase transformations: The selected works of Mats Hillert2006Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 5179.
    Ågren, John
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Gray, George T. (Rusty), III
    Los Alamos Natl Lab, Los Alamos, NM USA..
    Hwang, Jennie S.
    H Technol Grp, Cleveland, OH USA..
    Matlock, David K.
    Colorado Sch Mines, Golden, CO 80401 USA..
    TODAY'S TECHNOLOGY TRENDS: SHAPING THE FUTURE OF ADVANCED MATERIALS2018In: Advanced Materials and Processes, ISSN 0882-7958, E-ISSN 2161-9425, Vol. 176, no 5, p. 14-17Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5180.
    Ågren, John
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Physical Metallurgy.
    Schmid-Fetzer, Rainer
    True Phase Diagrams2014In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 45A, no 11, p. 4766-4769Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the use of today's computer softwares, phase diagrams can readily be plotted with a wide choice of variables on the axes. Hillert defined a true phase diagram as a diagram where each point uniquely defines the stable phases. He also showed that not all choices of axis variables give true phase diagrams. In this note we will demonstrate that although the rules stated by Hillert are necessary they are not sufficient to have true phase diagrams.

  • 5181.
    Åhman, Andreas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Undersökning av bindningsmekanismer vid pressning av metallaminat: Investigation of bondning mechanisms at the pressing of metal laminates2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Increased understanding of the mechanisms that operate in conjunction with the welding of metal surfaces may help to improve existing manufacturing processes, and to enable new products and combinations of materials. The purpose of the project has therefore been to acquire a deeper understanding of what is happening in the bond for steel and for the factors that form the basis for a bond to develop between metals in the production of laminates by pressing. The merge has been done by pressing and the surfaces after the experiments have been studied in detail in the scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and with interferenceprofilometry in Wyko, to provide a greater understanding of the mechanisms that influence the bonding in the interface between metals.

     

    The project was limited to contain the materials Docol 1000, HyTens 1200, Aluminum AA3003 and a commercial steel. The parameters varied in the experiments to study their influence closer are temperature, pressure, heat treatment and pretreatment. This has been implemented by pressing with varying temperature and pressure. The materials have been pressed at room temperature or heated in an oven at 300 or 600 degrees and pressed immediately after the levying. Pretreatment was done by cleaning in acetone followed by either brushing or sandblasting alternatively no pretreatment have been done at all.

    The result was that the increased pressure and increased temperature increases the chance of joining by pressing. Pressing at slightly elevated temperature (about 100-250 degrees, depending on the material) makes bonding possible for metals which are not joined together at room temperature. Pretreatment by sandblasting gives a rougher and more riddled surface than brushing. At the cracking in the oxide layer at the pressing, wells new clean metal into between the oxides to the surface. When the new material reaches the surface, a joint can be made with the opposite clean material. The clean metal that wells up, then flows in a pattern which presses down the oxide in the material, away from the surface. This is done so more clean material can come to the surface and a finer binding can be obtained.

  • 5182.
    Åkerlind, Kristina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Jefimova, Zenja
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Possible reasons for flaking appearance during cold rolling on an austenitic stainless steel2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The research describes possible reasons why the flaking tendency during cold rolling can vary between different austenitic stainless steels. The flaking phenomenon was observed after a rolling process in Granlund Tools AB’s roll reducing mill “KOR-8”. A literature review was conducted with the purpose of finding a connection between rolling process, austenitic stainless steels and flaking. The laboratory work aimed at revealing possible differences between the flaked material and materials that is known to be cold rolled with high surface finish in the particular machine. In order to come to a conclusion regarding the flaking appearance, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Vickers hardness test and light optical microscopy (LOM) were performed. The literature review along with the laboratory results made it possible to determine the two major factors affecting the flaking behavior. Two independent analyses revealed what came to be the most important discovery in this study. LOM showed the appearance of a thick oxide scale on the surface of the flaked steel which was further confirmed by SEM-Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy that indicated the existence of oxides on the steel’s surface. These observations along with the knowledge that oxide scales grow only during high-temperature processing led to the conclusion that the steel is not appropriate for the cold rolling process due to the earlier steel manufacturing.

  • 5183.
    Åkermo, Malin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Thermoforming of closed cell polymer foam and its residual compressive mechanical properties2008In: 8th International Conference on Sandwich Structures, FEUP edições (Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto Edicoes), 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5184.
    Åkermo, Malin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Larberg, Ylva
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Sjölander, Jens
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Hallnader, Per
    Saab.
    Influence of interply friction on the forming of stacked prepreg2013In: Proceedings of 19th International Conference on Composite Materials (ICCM19), Curran Associates, Inc., 2013, p. 919-928Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5185.
    Åkesson, Krister
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Floc behaviour in a twin-wire blade pressure pulse2004Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 5186.
    Ånmark, Niclas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    A calorimetric analysis and solid-solubility examination of aluminium alloys containing low-melting-point elements2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of liquid films is a widely known problem in aluminium heat exchanger materials. The phenomenon results in decreased brazeability along with severely deteriorated mechanical properties which might cause assembly collapse. In addition, low-melting-point elements like tin, bismuth and lead are thought to promote grain boundary sliding which is the main deformation mechanism during brazing. Their melting characteristics are not adequately reported in literature. It is therefore of great importance to examine the behaviour of these elements.The main objectives with this work is melting range determination of fin heat exchanger materials, melting detection of low-melting-point elements and calculation of tin, bismuth and lead solid-solubility in aluminium. This work does also involve distribution analysis of such elements in aluminium matrix after heat treatment.These investigations require development of a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique that is applicable for analysis of aluminium fin heat exchanger material containing low-melting-point elements on ppm level. Optimization of the technique includes parameter control; like heating rate, sample mass, reproducibility and choice of crucible material. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (LA-ICP-MS) is additionally used in order to analyse solid solubility and distribution of low-melting-point elements in aluminium after heat treatment.The developed DSC technique shows a sensitivity limit in the range of 260-600 ppm. It means that it is not possible to detect melting of phases within and below that range. Solid solubility of tin was calculated for the three heat treatment temperatures, 400°C, 500°C and 625°C. Same procedure was applied on bismuth and lead. However, calculated values did not agree with Thermo-Calc. The distribution analysis indicate an exudation of trace elements i.e. diffusion toward surface during heat treatment.In conclusion, more knowledge regarding liquid films in aluminium fin heat exchanger material was obtained. Future work should be to further optimize the DSC technique for trace element analysis for concentrations below 100 ppm. The LA-ICP-MS technique is likely to improve experimentally unverified binary phase diagrams like Al-Bi, Al-Pb and Al-Sn phase diagrams. It can also be used to study exudation behaviour of liquid films.

  • 5187.
    Ånmark, Niclas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Inclusion Characteristics and Their Link to Tool wear in Metal Cutting of Clean Steels Suitable for Automotive Applications2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis covers some aspects of hard part turning of carburised steels using a poly‑crystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) cutting tool during fine machining. The emphasis is on the influence of the steel cleanliness and the characteristics of non‑metallic inclusions in the workpiece on the active wear mechanisms of the cutting tool. Four carburising steel grades suitable for automotive applications were included, including one that was Ca‑treated.

    A superior tool life was obtained when turning the Ca-treated steel. The superior machinability is associated with the deposition of lubricating (Mn,Ca)S and (CaO)x-Al2O3-S slag layers, which are formed on the rake face of the cutting tool during machining. Moreover, the transfer of work material to the rake face crater is characteristic in hard part turning of clean steels. It can be because of the lack of sulfides that protect the cutting edge when turning machinability treated steels. This corresponds to the more pronounced crater wear caused by the low‑sulfur steels than that of the steels with higher sulfur contents. It was also concluded that the composition of the non‑metallic inclusions in the Ca‑treated steel is a more important factor than the inclusion number and size, in hard part turning using a PCBN cutting tool. Also, a 3D analysis after electrolytic extraction was found to give a more precise characterisation of non‑metallic inclusions than the conventional 2D analysis by SEM‑EDS. In turn, better correlations to machinability and mechanical properties can be obtained. Hence, the use of this technique is beneficial for future material development.

    Finally, the challenge for future metallurgy is to manufacture high‑performance steels with improved combined properties of mechanical strength and machinability.

  • 5188.
    Ånmark, Niclas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Steel characteristics and their link to chip breaking and tool wear in metal cutting2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The vision of this thesis is to study how it is possible to obtain optimised workpieces during metal cutting processes in industry. Specifically, the work is aimed to increase the understanding between the steel characteristics and their link to the chip breaking and tool wear during metal cutting. The emphasis is on the influence of the cleanliness and the characteristics of non-metallic inclusions in the workpiece on the machinability of carburising steel grades. The machinability of a case hardening steel is improved by a M-treatment (additions of Ca). Also, the improved machinability of the M-steels offers an attractive potential to save money which makes it possible to reduce the tooling costs with up to 50%. The improved machinability of Ca-treated steels is correlated to the formation of lubricating slag layers consisting of Ca-enriched sulfide inclusions and oxy-sulfide inclusions, which are formed on the rake face during the machining operation. It is proposed that the formations of slag layers from the workpiece constituents are essential to minimise the chemical degradation of the tool edge due to a contact with the chip. During this process, sulfur minimises the material transfer from the chip flow, whilst Ca-treated impurities have a stabilising effect on the protective deposits made of slag layers.

    Since there is a remaining industrial need to increase the production rate, whilst maintaining a high quality of the finished parts, the future production will continue to require extreme demands on the quality of workpieces. If the emphasis is focused on the workpiece, it should be possible to obtain a robust manufacturing process. Therefore, the challenge for future steel metallurgists is to develop high performance grades with optimised combined properties.

  • 5189.
    Ånmark, Niclas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    The influence of microstructure and non-metallic inclusions on the machinability of clean steelsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focused on the evaluation of the machinability of different carburising steel grades by using a cemented carbide cutting tool during semi finishing of steel. The effect of the steel composition, microstructure and inclusion characteristics on the cutting tool wear in the soft part turning was evaluated for a reference steel R (0.028% S, 0.0009% O), a clean C steel (0.003% S, 0.0005% O), and an UC ultra clean steel (0.002% S, 0.0004% O). An improved cutting tool life of about 10-25% was obtained when machining the reference steel R. The favorable machining performance of this steel was attributed to its higher content of non-metallic inclusions, larger grain size and lower micro hardness than that of the clean steels.

  • 5190.
    Ånmark, Niclas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Björk, Thomas
    Swerea KIMAB, Kista.
    Steel characteristics and their link to tool wear in hard part turning of transmission componentsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes the influence of the steel characteristics of Ca-treated carburising steel grades during hard part turning of synchronising rings in gearbox production. The main focus was on the chemical composition of the non-metallic inclusions in the evaluated workpieces and their effect on the PCBN tool wear. In addition, a Ca-treated carburising steel grade was compared to a standard steel grade.

    Machining tests were performed at the transmission machining site at Scania in order to evaluate the PCBN cutting tool life as defined by the generated surface roughness during actual production. The progression of flank and crater wear was evaluated by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) and a secondary electron (SE) detector.

    The Ca-treated steel showed a more than doubled tool life than that of the standard steel grade. The superior machinability was linked to the formation of a Ca-enriched slag barrier composed of (Mn,Ca)S and (Ca,Al)(O,S). It is believed that the stability of the protective deposits is essential to minimise diffusion-induced chemical wear of the PCBN tool. Furthermore, the improved machinability corresponds to a reduced tooling cost of 50% during an industrial production of transmission components at the site of Scania. Therefore, to implement the M-steel on a wider range of components would lead to a significantly reduced manufacturing cost per produced component. However, the capability of Ca-treated steels through the complete production route must be further investigated in order to allow for a large scale introduction of Ca-treated steels in the production.

  • 5191.
    Ånmark, Niclas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Björk, Thomas
    Swerea KIMAB.
    Ganea, Anna
    Sandvik Coromant.
    Ölund, Patrik
    Ovako Hofors.
    Hogmark, Sture
    Uppsala Unniversitet.
    Karasev, Andrey
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär Göran
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    The effect of inclusion composition on tool wear in hard part turning using PCBN cutting tools2015In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 334, p. 13-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work reports on hard part turning of carburizing steels using a PCBN cutting tool in fine machining. Emphasis is on the link between composition of the inclusions in work material and wear mechanisms of the cutting tool. A Ca-treated machinability improved 20NiCrMo steel was included together with three other carburizing steels with different inclusion characteristics.

    Machining tests were conducted to examine cutting tool life and its balance between excessive flank wear or crater wear. The wear mechanisms were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) and a secondary electron (SE) detector.

    The longest tool life was obtained when cutting the Ca-treated steel. The improved machinability is linked to the deposition of complex (Mn,Ca)S and (Ca,Al)(O,S) protective slag layers that form on the rake face of the cutting tool during machining. Cutting in this steel also resulted in a typical ridge formation in the tool edge crater. Transfer of workpiece material to the rake face crater is characteristic in hard part turning of steel with high cleanliness. This is suggested to be related to the lack of the sulphides that lubricate conventional machinability treated steels, and that the crater wear of low-sulphur steel is more pronounced than for steels with higher sulphur content.

  • 5192.
    Ånmark, Niclas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Björk, Thomas
    Swerea KIMAB.
    Karasev, Andrey
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär Göran
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Effect of Different Inclusions on Mechanical Properties and Machinability of 20NiCrMo Carburizing Steels2015In: The 6th International Congress on the Science and Technology of Steelmaking (ICS2015), Beijing: The Chinese Society for Metals , 2015, p. 805-808Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In modern steelmaking, carburizing steels are often used for production of automotive components with elevated levels of toughness and fatigue strength. This study is focused on the link between the characteristics of non-metallic inclusions in the steel and the machinability of the given steel grades. For this purpose, inclusion characteristics (such as composition, number, size, morphology etc.) in steel samples were determined by common two-dimensional (2D) observations of inclusions on polished metal surface of samples as well as by three-dimensional (3D) investigations of inclusions after electrolytic extraction from steel samples. The inclusion characteristics were investigated in the three types of 20NiCrMo carburizing steel grades: Steel A ‑ reference steel (410ppm S) having a common level of mechanical properties and machinability, Steel B ‑ steel grade (having 340ppm S) with an improved machinability due to the Ca-treatment and modification of MnS inclusions and Steel C ‑ clean steel grade (40ppm S) having a small amount of inclusions and a higher fatigue strength. It was found that the number of inclusions in Steel B is smaller than that in Steel A and that the inclusion composition is different. At the same time, the estimated machinability (tool life) of the Ca‑treated steel was superior to that of the reference steel. However, the significant decrease of the number of inclusions in the clean steel (Steel C) resulted in a lower machinability in comparison to the reference steel grade.

  • 5193.
    Ånmark, Niclas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy. Swerea KIMAB, Sweden.
    Karasev, Andrey
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär Göran
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    The Effect of Different Non-Metallic Inclusions on the Machinability of Steel2015In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 751-783Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Considerable research has been conducted over recent decades on the role of non-metallic inclusions and their link to the machinability of different steels. The present work reviews the mechanisms of steel fractures during different mechanical machining operations and the behavior of various non-metallic inclusions in a cutting zone. More specifically, the effects of composition, size, number and morphology of inclusions on machinability factors (such as cutting tool wear, power consumption, etc.) are discussed and summarized. Finally, some methods for modification of non-metallic inclusions in the liquid steel are considered to obtain a desired balance between mechanical properties and machinability of various steel grades.

  • 5194.
    Ånmark, Niclas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Lovquist, Simon
    Vosough, Manouchehr
    Bjork, Thomas
    The Effect of Cleanliness and Micro Hardness on the Machinability of Carburizing Steel Grades Suitable for Automotive Applications2016In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 87, no 4, p. 403-412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work reports on soft part turning of carburizing steels using cemented carbide (CC) cutting tools. The emphasis is on the influence of the cleanliness and micro hardness on the machinability of carburizing steel grades. A reference steel grade is included in this study together with a clean steel and an ultra-clean steel. Machining tests are conducted to examine the cutting tool life, the balance between the excessive flank or crater wear and the chip formation. The wear mechanisms are examined by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with a back-scatter (BS) detector. It is possible to differentiate between the machinability of the clean steel grades, having only a minor difference in the sulfur and oxygen contents. Furthermore, the longest tool life is obtained when machining the reference steel. The superior machinability of the reference steel R is linked to its high content of sulfur. It is believed that MnS inclusions act as stress raisers in the primary shear zone. Hence, this will improve the chip formation process.

  • 5195. Århammar, C.
    et al.
    Endrino, J. L.
    Ramzan, M.
    Horwat, D.
    Blomqvist, Andreas
    Rubensson, J. -E
    Andersson, J.
    Ahuja, Rajeev
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Material Physics.
    Probing temperature-induced ordering in supersaturated Ti-1 (-) xAlxN coatings by electronic structure2014In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 242, p. 207-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ordering of supersaturated cubic titanium aluminum nitride (c-Ti0.35Al0.65N) coatings is probed from room temperature up to and above the point of spinodal decomposition, using Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine-structure (NEXAFS) and first principles calculations. The measured and calculated nitrogen (N) K spectra suggest that unoccupied N p states hybridize with Ti d states. When temperature is raised the N p-Ti d overlap decreases, whereas hybridization between N p and Al p tends to increase. The observed spectral changes with temperature together with calculations of defect heat of formation suggest a depletion of N in the surroundings of Ti in c-Ai(1) (-) xAlxN and/or in the formed c-TiN.

  • 5196.
    Århammar, Cecilia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Material Physics.
    Moysés Araújo, C.
    Ahuja, Rajeev
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Material Physics.
    Energetics of Al doping and intrinsic defects in monoclinic and cubic zirconia: First-principles calculations2009In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 80, no 11, p. 115208-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    First-principles theory within the supercell approach has been employed to investigate Al doping and intrinsic defects in monoclinic and cubic zirconia. The effect of oxygen chemical potential and Fermi level on the formation energy and on the defect concentration have been taken into account. The formation of oxygen vacancies is found to be energetically more favorable in the cubic than in the monoclinic phase under the same oxygen chemical potential and Fermi energy. In both phases, substitutional Al decays from neutral charge state into the charge state -1, with the transition energy just above to the top of the valence band. Our findings indicate that by confining the Fermi energy to the region between the middle of the band gap and the bottom of the conduction band, high Al solubility could be achieved, although formation of Al is likely followed by the formation of interstitial oxygen. Furthermore, the concentration of Al with charge state -1 along with the equilibrium Fermi energy have been calculated in a self-consistent procedure. Here, the possible compensating defects with the relevant charge states have been considered. The obtained concentrations of Al and oxygen vacancies follow the experimental trend but underestimates experimental data. When the formation of defect clusters, composed by two substitutional Al and one oxygen vacancy, are considered, good quantitative agreement with experimental values of both Al and oxygen vacancy concentration is achieved. The results suggest that defect clusters will be formed as a result of Al doping in cubic phase of ZrO2, whereas the concentration of defect clusters is negligible in the monoclinic phase, both in accordance with experiment.

  • 5197.
    Århammar, Cecilia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Material Physics.
    Moysés Araújo, C.
    Ahuja, Rajeev
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Material Physics.
    Structure and electronic properties of Al-doped zirconia polymorphs from first principlesManuscript (Other academic)
  • 5198.
    Århammar, Cecilia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Material Physics.
    Silvearv, F.
    Norgren, Susanne
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Ahuja, Rajeev
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Material Physics.
    A theoretical study of point defects incorporated into CVD-grown α-aluminaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The energetics and electronic structure of a number of defects; C, Cl, H and S in alpha-Al2O3 is investigated. These species are present in the gas phase during the Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) and little is known of their solubility in alpha-Al2O3. It is found that not only the hydrogen interstitial, which is already wellknown for its dual action as a donor and acceptor defect will be amphotheric, but also the carbon and sulfur interstitial may gain both negative and positive charge states. However, at the CVD equilibrium conditions, charge compensation between the different defects will most likely not take place. For this a non equilibrium method such as Plasma Enhanced CVD or Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) is needed.

  • 5199.
    Åslund, Johan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Release rates and environmental impact of zinc-nickel coatings in the automotive industry2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At present the automotive industry is due to an EU directive, replacing hexavalent chrome on vehicles. This is an extensive job as hexavalent chrome is used all over the vehicle and to large extent on fasteners (screws, nuts, rivets etc.). Chrome (VI) is used as a passivating layer on mainly zinc-iron. When replacing the hexavalent chrome with a chrome (VI) free product, the passivating properties are reduced. One of the alternatives is to replace the zinc-iron coating with a zinc-nickel coating. This coating shows great promise from the corrosion resistance point of view. Zinc-nickel is a cathodically protecting coating, and will in principle dissolve to protect the substrate from corrosion. It is therefore important to understand how, and at what rates nickel is released from zinc-nickel coatings when exposed to a chloride-rich automotive environment. The potential environmental impact of nickel needs to be evaluated before Scania can introduce this alternative as corrosion protection. Tests by Scania have previously shown that contact allergy is not an issue for zinc-nickel coatings with Cr (III) passivation.

    Nickel release rates corresponding to 0,12 mg m-2yr-1 for zinc-15 % nickel coatings at a pH of 4,2 were determined from an accelerated corrosion test. Based on these values, less than 1 kg of nickel per year would be released from the Scania rolling stock if Scania were to introduce zinc-nickel coatings preferably on fasteners. This value is low compared to other sources of nickel release. In order to evaluate the toxicity of the released nickel, information about the chemical speciation, i.e. chemical forms, is needed.

    Total or dissolved metal are not good predictors of ecotoxicity of metals. Chemical speciation and bioavailability must be incorporated in toxicity testing. Total or dissolved metal may be used as a worst case approximation.

  • 5200.
    Åslund, Peter
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    On Suction Box Dewatering Mechanisms2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    In previous studies on suction box dewatering, three mechanisms were identified that determine the dry content of a web, viz. web compression, displacement of water by air and rewetting. In the present work, the relative importance of the three mechanisms was investigated through direct measurement of the web deformation, the dry content changes during and after the suction pulse, the air flow through the fibre network and the saturation of the web after the suction pulse. Suction pressure, suction time and rewetting time were varied. The experiments were done with chemical and mechanical pulp webs of various grammages.

    It was found that a large web deformation took place during the suction pulse, particularly at its beginning. Compression dewatering was found to be the most dominant dewatering mechanism. Displacement dewatering started after most of the web compression had occurred. Its contribution to the increase in dry content was most pronounced for higher suction pressures, longer suction times and for chemical pulp webs.

    A surprisingly large expansion of the web was observed immediately after the suction pulse. This expansion was the effect of rewetting. This rewetting strongly reduced the dry content of the web if the web had not been immediately separated from the forming fabric at the end of the suction pulse. Under the conditions studied, the decrease in dry content amounted to the order of 3 to 6 %. Rewetting was smaller for longer suction times and higher suction pressures. A considerable air flow through the web occurred under these conditions. This air flow apparently moved water from the forming fabric into the suction box, thus making less water available for rewetting. Rewetting for mechanical pulp webs was more pronounced and took place faster than for chemical pulps.

    The use of a membrane on top of the web during suction box dewatering proved to be advantageous for reducing the air flow through the web. However, under the conditions investigated, the dry content could not be improved. Although the web compression was increased when using a membrane, especially at a higher suction pressure, rewetting after the suction pulse had an even larger negative impact on the dry content, which, as a result, was lower.

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