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  • 551.
    Åberg, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Naturgasen som krishantering: Svensk energipolitik i spåren av energikriserna2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 552.
    Åberg, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Negotiating Neighbours: National and transnational politics of a natural gas pipeline2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 553.
    Åberg, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Negotiating risk: The Swedish – Danish gas deal2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 554.
    Åberg, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Saviour or Villain?: Natural gas and the fear of energy shortage in Sweden 1967-19912013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nord Stream pipeline, inaugurated in 2011, stretches from Russia through the Baltic Sea down to German shores providing Western Europe with one more import route for natural gas from Russia. The decision by the Swedish government to allow this Russian-German pipeline to pass over Swedish sea territory was lively debated and this debate can be said to have highlighted Swedish (mostly negative) attitudes towards its great eastern neighbour as well as toward natural gas as an energy resource. Some have claimed that the reason for Sweden’s negative view of the pipeline project has to do with a lingering Swedish fear of the Russians, a heritage from the Swedish-Russian wars in the 16th and 17th centuries (Savic, 2012). The Swedish relation to both natural gas and to Russia/the Soviet Union, however, is quite a complicated one deserving to be examined more closely.

    During more than 20 years, between 1967 and 1991 Swedish actors tried in different ways to secure a natural gas import contract with the Soviet Union. At that time, the fear was not so much the Russians as the possibility of energy shortage found at the core of much energy policy in the 20th century. Alongside this fear of energy shortage was a fear of entering into a strong energy dependence. Natural gas was one way to counter the energy shortage, but it was also a particularly risky energy source, since the material and organisational structure of a gas pipeline leads to a quite rigid, long term commitment.

    In this context, natural gas was pointed out as both savior and villain, and in my paper I will examine how the actors navigated between these two extremes. Was natural gas as an energy source considered more risky than other sources? Were certain actors considered more dangerous to enter into agreement with than others? How did these attitudes change over time? Exploring the actors’ hopes and fears in regards to natural gas, as well as the contexts that shaped them, might shed a different light on Swedish energy policy in the end of the 20th century as well as on the view of Swedish-Soviet relations.

  • 555.
    Åberg, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    The Dawning of the Cyborg has arrived2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I analyze a biomechanical prosthetic arm and the changing meanings and roles given to this artifact on different arenas. In 2003 Jesse Sullivan became the first man in the world to get a biomechanical arm prosthetic; a robotic arm connected directly to his nerve system and directed by brain impulses in a similar way as an organic arm. In 2005 Claudia Mitchell became the first woman to get the same type of arm. Jesse, Claudia and their arms were widely mediated, and many called them “the world’s first cyborgs”. The cyborg concept in itself dates back to the 1960s, but the idea of a fusion between man and machine has been a recurrent theme in scientific research, engineering and fictional narrative over time. To many observers, Jesse and Claudia seemed to finally embody this fusion.

    The bionic arm is deeply inscribed in earlier narratives of machine-human interaction, but can also be connected to many other contexts. It is a prosthetic, and one of its functions is to restore a body to its “normal” or rehabilitated state. This makes it an interesting ground for analysis regarding what is considered “normality” in regards to bodies and functions. Further, the arm is a product of military research as a help for wounded soldiers, and at the same time inscribed in a context of weapon production and the possibility to make more effective soldiers. All these interests and narratives meet in the research communication around the bionic arm.

    Research on the relation between media and science has underlined that researchers in the media have mixed purposes - to win public acceptance, political support, financial resources, or even personal fame (Weingart, 1998). Medial presence can also be used to create an air of doubt around a technology or a scientific finding (Cf Oreskes & Conway, 2010). It has also been pointed out that the process of legitimitizing new innovations through medial presence has become more complicated with the arrival of the Internet and new social media(Elam, 2004). The case of the bionic arm gives me a possibility to study this process and the actors involved: Engineers, Financiers, Journalists and “the Public.

    My study takes as its departure four different levels of the communication around the bionic arm: Public communication from engineers and researchers, from the military, from daily press and from blogs/commentators. These four types of source material represent different interpretations of what the biomechanical arm is and the actors that communicate around the arm have to relate to already existing images of what the connection between man and machine means as well as inscribe the arm in a history of medical engineering, disability, war, science fiction, gender and everyday life. My questions regard the interplay between these narratives, as well as the practical implementations they cause. Who has the power to decide what a technology “means”? Who gets to speak for a certain technology? And which narratives become important when we interpret new technologies?

  • 556.
    Åberg, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    The Power of vision: Natural Gas fiction and the Decision Making Process2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the energy debate, energy carriers are often perceived as either saviours or villains, but most often as both. Fossil fuels power a large part of our society, but they also pollute and are sometimes extracted at large human costs. Nuclear power is efficient and powerful, but the consequences of using it could be potentially fatal. Ethanol is environmentally friendly, but may have negative societal consequences. The energy issue is a jungle of pros and cons, a jungle in which we have to navigate in order to make decisions about what we want our future to look like. Often, these decisions are informed by future visions in the form of scenarios, prognosis, and forecasts. In this paper, I will look at how politicians, engineers and other Swedish actors have navigated this jungle regarding the issue of natural gas in Sweden. This will lead me into the question of how decision-making regarding energy has been handled from the late 1960s to the 1980s, in a time when the future of our energy systems became more and more of an obsession for politicians and lay people alike.

     

    Although natural gas has never been a major fuel in Sweden, its presence has been steady in the energy debate for over 40 years. Especially during the 1970s and 1980s it was part of the plans to create a more sustainable national energy system. Natural gas was thought to become widely introduced in Sweden, and engineers, economics and civil servants were involved in an endless discussion regarding the pros and cons of the fuel. Further, the late 1960s and early 1970s was a time when future studies was forming itself as a field, and energy scenarios became more commonly used as one of the factors of decision-making. I want to couple these two processes together, and look at how energy scenarios were used by engineers and groups of interest over time when trying to influence politicians and navigate the process of introducing a new, unknown energy carrier into Sweden.

     

    This story raises several important issues. First of all, it can help us understand the role played by forecasts and scenarios in the decision-making process. The relation between visions of the future and our decision-making today is complex, and needs to be thoroughly analyzed and put in a historical perspective. Another issue regards the actors involved. Who used these future scenarios, and to what end?  Did the Swedish engineers and politicians gather around visions of a future natural gas infrastructure, or did they have diverging thoughts regarding what is a desirable development would be? In what way has different future scenarios been used as a power tool in the political decision-making surrounding energy issues?

     

    In my work I draw on literature regarding the relationships between engineers and politicians, and the influence of engineers on policy (Jasanoff, Hecht, Hughes, Micheletti, Sejersted, etc.). I aim to add to this literature by examining the practicalities of how actors try to gain power over the energy issue, using future visions as a tool. In doing this I also hope to contribute to the work done on future studies and energy forecasting (Smil, de Man, Baumgartner & Midttun).

  • 557.
    Åberg, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Tillit på prov: Svensk-danska gasförbindelser2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 558.
    Åberg, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Two Front Negotiations: the Different Politics of a Natural Gas pipeline2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 559.
    Åberg, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science and Technology.
    Witnessing our energy future2012Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Fossil fuels power a large part of our society, but they also pollute and aresometimes extracted at large human costs. Nuclear power is efficient andpowerful, but the consequences of using it could be potentially fatal.Ethanol is described both as environmental saviour and villain. The energyissue is a jungle of pros and cons in which we need to navigate in order tomake decisions about what we want our future to look like. One placewhere different ways to navigate the energy dilemma is often discussed is inscience fiction, (i.e the Day of the Triffids, Moon, the Matrix) and I want toexplore some of these narratives and the way they handle the issue overtime. Science fiction has for the past 100 years been a platform wheresocietal issues have been been brought out to the public, discussed, andinterpreted. But what can we learn from looking at the energy issue from ascience fiction perspective? How can we go further than a mere text/imageanalysis? Are there threads leading from fictional narratives into the “real”world, and what do these threads look like? Can popular culture expressionshelp us decide anything about our future, and in that case, is it possible tofind out how?

  • 560.
    Åberg, Anna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Technology Management and Economics, 412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Fjӕstad, Maja
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Chasing uranium: Securing nuclear fuel on a transnational arena in Sweden 1971–19842019In: The Extractive Industries and Society, ISSN 2214-790X, E-ISSN 2214-7918Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Access to nuclear fuel is a key point for modern nuclear nations. Despite this, the complex processes of the nuclear fuel cycle are seldom discussed in nuclear history. In order to shed light on how actors in the nuclear business have worked to secure access to fuel, this article describes the historical case of uranium import in Sweden, handled by the public-private company SKBF. The risks and challenges brought on by the expansion of the nuclear program in Sweden can be clearly seen in the work of SKBF, and the article gives insight into the complex transnational processes of the nuclear fuel cycle. The article outlines the creation of SKBF as well as its mission and activities during the 1970s, when Sweden tried to navigate the evolving uranium market while dealing with heightening tensions regarding nuclear politics at home. We show how SKBF acted in a constantly shifting national and international arena to secure a rapidly expanding nuclear system and legitimize its actions to the Swedish government. In this process, uranium was perceived in different ways: as national or international, scarce or plentiful, and to varying degrees an economic or political tool.

  • 561.
    Åberg, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Lidström, Susanna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Rising Seas: Facts, Fictions and Aquaria2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rising Seas: Facts, fictions and aquaria While exhibiting ocean environments presents particular practical difficulties to most museums, rising sea levels and other drastic changes in the sea make the ocean an essential part of any exhibit on climate change. This paper will examine how aquaria and other museums interpret and showcase ocean science in their attempts to imagine a warmer future world.To do this, we will look at a few specific cases of representations of the ocean in climate change exhibits. How is the sea represented or showcased? What kinds of artefacts are used? What narratives accompany the representation? Is the ocean presented as an alien environment, or is it shown to be permeated by pollution and other signs of human presence? Is it meaningful to talk about 'the ocean' as one place, or do we need to refer to specific places or habitats, differentiating between shallow seas with coral reefs and familiar species and the less well-known deep oceans, for instance? Based on these case studies, we will attempt a more general discussion and analysis of the role of future visions for imagining what a marine Anthropocene might look like and how they can be exhibited in the context of local and global climate change.

  • 562.
    Öhman, Maj-Britt
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University.
    Thunqvist, Eva-Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Systems Safety and Management.
    Designing Dam Safeties: Perspectives on large scale dams within the intra-actions of technology, nature and human decision making2013In: International Commission of Large Dams, ICOLD, Seattle, 2013: International Symposium, Seattle: ICOLD , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analyzing the intra-actions between the actors involved, this paper presents results from interviews and participatory observations with local authorities, local inhabitants, power companies representatives as well as dam operators. We argue that the Swedish model for dam safety currently is suffering from a major deficiency as the expertise and understanding of the technical constructions remain among the dam owners and that the societal authority in charge of supervising the dam owners work have no capability of achieving the same level of understanding and thus to take informed and relevant decisions. Furthermore we argue that the lack of technical understanding of dams and hydropower outside of the dam sector has become a huge threat to dam safety as state representatives and political decision makers currently allow and even encourage mining exploitation both next to high risk classified hydropower dams and even within existing hydropower reservoirs.

    We argue that the actual challenge to safeguard an increased dam safety is by bridging the gap between the multitude of different actors– engineers/operators, users, political decision makers -   in order to generate new understandings and new methodologies to deal with risk, safety and security. It is necessary to bridge the gaps between the sectors and actors involved, and that this should be done through investment in close collaboration between the dam sector and engineering research on the one hand and social sciences and humanities on the other – to ensure understandings of political decision making as well as of technical artifacts and water flows.

    The geographical focus is on two rivers – the Ume River and the Lule River in the north of Sweden. Both rivers are of major importance for national production of electricity, and the rivers are water suppliers for a large amount of inhabitants.

  • 563.
    Öhman, May-Britt
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology.
    Taming Exotic Beauties: Swedish Hydro Power Constructions in Tanzania in the Era of Development Assistance, 1960s - 1990s2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses the history of a large hydroelectric scheme – the Great Ruaha power project in Tanzania. The objective is to establish why and how this specific scheme came about, and as part of this to identify the key actors involved in the decision-making process, including the ideological contexts within which they acted. Although the Tanzanian actors and the World Bank (IBRD) are discussed, main focus is on the Swedish actors on project level.Kidatu, the first phase of the Great Ruaha power project (constructed between1970-1975), became the first large-scale hydropower station in Tanzania. As such, it paved the way for Tanzanian entrance into the Big Dam Era and significant changes within the Tanzanian landscape. As well as the dry river bed at Kidatu, and the small reservoir that precedes it, the Great Ruaha power project also involved the creation of a huge artificial lake, the Mtera reservoir. The Kidatu hydropower station was the first large undertaking within Swedish bilateral aid, and implied the takeover of control of hydropower construction in Tanzania by Swedish enterprises, replacing the enterprises of the former colonial power. A hydropower plant is a complex technoscientific artefact. The construction of a hydropower plant is preceded by a large number of technological choices, scientific prestudies and estimations of costs and revenues. A hydropower plant is also a complex social creation, and is as such filled with social actors engaged in conflicts, compromises and power structures. The decision to construct Kidatu hydropower station was a result of negotiations and activities within what is called “development assistance”. This brings in yet another dimension, the political one, involving export and import of technology, foreign capital, and foreign influence in decision-making processes, as well as ideas about how to bring development and progress to a people supposed to be living in “poverty and misery”. The study is divided into three main parts. The first part analyses the context of Swedish development assistance in the support to the construction of hydropower plants. This part discusses Swedish state-supported hydropower exploitation of indigenous people’s territory within Sweden’s borders in the 20th century and the background of Swedish development assistance, from the 1950s to the early 1960s. The second part analyses the event of Swedish development assistance entering Tanzania and the Great Ruaha power project, with the main focus being on the period 1965 – 1970. The third part is an analysis of the technoscientific basis for the decisions taken to implement the Great Ruaha hydropower scheme. Main focus is on the period 1969-1974, discussed against the backdrop of precolonial and colonial studies. While focus is on the 1960s and 1970s, in both part two and three events in the 1980s and 1990s are discussed. The study shows that although Sweden was not a colonial power in Tanzania, colonial imagery, and relations to the colonial era, as well as Sweden’s background of internal colonialisation, exerted an influence on the decision-making process and the actors involved in the Great Ruaha power project.The study is mainly based on archival sources, complemented with oral sources from Tanzania and Sweden. Recognizing the complexity of large-scale hydropower and the attempts to control watercourses that large scale hydropower necessitates, in the specific context of decolonisation and development assistance that the decision-making process behind the Great Ruaha hydropower scheme reveals, the analysis of the actors involved is based on feminist and postcolonial perspectives.

  • 564.
    Gärdebo, Johan (Editor)
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Bildens behandling och utvecklingen av digital fjärranalys: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium på Tekniska museet i Stockholm den 14 juni 20172018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a transcript from the witness seminar “Bildens behan-dling och utvecklingen av digital fjärranalys” (Processing the im-age and the development of digital remote sensing), held at the Swedish National Museum of Science and Technology in Stock-holm, June 14, 2017, and was led by Håkan Olsson and Johan Gärdebo. The seminar participants, who were all pioneers from the early Swedish development of digital remote sensing, de-scribed their role in various initiatives and activities for devel-opment of remote sensing related image processing from the 1970s until the late 1990s. During this period, several university groups, government agencies and companies located all over Sweden took interest in remote sensing. The Swedish Defence Research Institute (FOA) developed the first digital image analy-sis system, Piccola, in the early 1970s. Piccola, hosted as a main frame computer at Stockholm’s computer centre QZ, became a central resource for the early development of digital remote sensing in Sweden. During this early period, Professor Gunnar Hoppe at Stockholm University took a leading role for technol-ogy- and method development by chairing the National Remote Sensing Committee, providing a forum for various initiatives to meet, grant funding, and build momentum for concerted efforts. In the end of the 1970s, the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) became the central force for development of the remote sensing infrastructure in Sweden. Piccola was replaced by a more mod-ern interactive image analysis system at SSC, the IAS system. This was part of SSC efforts to make satellite remote sensing operational. Additional parts in this effort included establish-ment of a satellite data receiving station at Esrange and later in the 1980s the establishment of the SSC’s subsidiary Satellitbild AB in Kiruna, which processed SPOT satellite data for the world market. SSC also developed the EBBA series of image analysis systems, attached to a PC, which were used by several Swedish research groups. From the late 1970s and onwards, there were a number of spin-off companies from FOA, most notably Con-text Vision and Teragon, that developed image processing hard-ware and software for uses also beyond that of geographical in-formation. These companies also sold systems to the Swedish Land Survey and SSC. Swedish organisations had a large pres-ence internationally, for example as part of development projects by consultancy firms, which also led to more operational uses of image processing. As computer capacity increased, in particular the introduction of colour graphics on standard computers, im-age processing development moved from special hardware to standard work stations and eventually personal computers and the applications that have become operational, for example in the forest sector, has been integrated with GIS applications in tailor made production-oriented systems.

  • 565. Emanuel, Martin (Editor)
    IRF och den svenska rymdforskningen: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium på Institutet förrymdfysik i Kiruna den 16 november 20172018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The  witness  seminar  “IRF  och  den  svenska  rymdforskning-en” (IRF and Swedish space research) was held at IRF (Insti-tutet  för  rymdfysik,  The  Swedish  Institute  of  Space  Physics)  in  Kiruna  on November 16, 2017,  and  was  led  by  Martin Emanuel  and  Johan  Kärnfelt.  The  seminar  covered  three  themes: key events in the history of the institute; the funding structures  of  Swedish  space-related  research;  and  issues  con-cerning  instrumentation  of  space  physics  experiments.  Vari-ous key events were proposed, ranging from contingencies in the establishment of the institute in 1957 to the institute’s en-gagement  in  ESRO’s  very  first  scientific  satellites,  the  Swe-dish-Soviet research collaborations initiated in the 1970s, and the  Swedish  scientific  satellite  Viking  launched  in  1986.  The  1960s  was  a  difficult  decade  for  Swedish  space-related  re-search,  with  most  national  funding  channelled  through  the  European   Space   Research   Organisation   (ESRO).   Since   ESRO  prioritized  satellite  programmes,  the  institute—as  the  only  Swedish  group  with  experience  of  satellites—fared  well  compared  to  other  research  groups.  The  institute  came  to  dominate  Swedish  space  physics.  In  the  period  1970–1994, the  first  director  of  the  institute  also  chaired  the  scientific committee  of  the  Swedish  research  councils  (Forskningsrådens rymdnämnd)  until  1972,  and  then  of  the  Swedish  National  Space Board (Statens delegation för rymdverksamhet). The issue of potential bias and conflict of interest was discussed. Whereas some  panellists  stressed  the  fair,  smooth  and  non-conflicting nature of the situation, others argued that certain groups felt discriminated.   The   participants   often   mentioned   the   im-portance of having in-house engineering skills at the institute: it  was  cheaper,  made  possible  the  long-term  build-up  of  competence, and allowed for the immediate collaboration be-tween the scientists and the engineers in the design of exper-iments. In contrast, many other groups relied on the technical expertise  of  the  Swedish  Space  Corporation  (SSC; Rymdbo-laget). The relationship between the institute and SSC appears to  have  been  one  of  both  cooperation  and  competition.  Breakthroughs  in  microelectronics  in  particular  had  a  large  impact  on  the  instrumentation  of  scientific  experiments.  In-deed, Soviet interest in Western microelectronics was pointed out by several participants as an important motivation for the Soviets to partake in space research collaboration with the in-stitute; for the institute, the collaboration meant opportunities to launch experiments with Soviet rockets.

  • 566.
    von Heland, Jacob (Cinematographer)
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Ernstson, Henrik (Cinematographer)
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    One Table Two Elephants2018Artistic output (Refereed)
  • 567. Emanuel, Martin (Editor)
    Gärdebo, Johan (Editor)
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Wormbs, Nina (Editor)
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Politiken kring svensk rymdverksamhet: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium på Tekniska museet i Stockholm den 17 januari 20182018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The  witness  seminar  “Politiken  kring  svensk  rymdverksam-het” (Politics relating to Swedish space activities) was held at Tekniska museet on January 17, 2018, and was led by Lennart Nordh,  assisted  by  Johan  Gärdebo.  The  seminar  focused  on  the relationship between Swedish space activities and various forms of politics, from the 1960s until the 2000s. The discus-sants  presented  various  definitions  of  politics,  recurrently  re-turning  to  the  question  whether  or  not  Sweden  ever  had  a  comprehensive space policy or not. According to the partici-pants,  Swedish  space  activities  have  been  linked  to  their  real  or  perceived  contributions  to  other  policy  areas—research, technology,  foreign  policy,  regional  policy,  and  European  in-tegration—but without a clear overriding political vision per-taining  to  space  specifically.  Initiatives  were  characterized  as  “management  by  opportunities,”  which  implies  making  full  use of opportunities arising in- or outside of the space activi-ties.  In  addition  to  this,  policy-makers,  whether  within  the  Swedish  National  Space  Board,  the  Swedish  Space  Corpora-tion, or the Swedish space industry, have called upon allies in other European governments, organizations and industries, as well  as  individuals  within  the  Swedish  establishment  to  exert  pressure  on  the  Swedish  Government  at  critical  moments.  On other occasions foreign pressure was exerted without any proposals  from  Swedish  actors.  It  was  noted  that  regional  support  for  Kiruna  has  been  important  since  Swedish  space  activities began in the 1960s, and the Esrange space range was established.  The  seminar  identified  several  examples  of  how  policy-makers  within  the  Swedish  space  sector  negotiated  with  governmental  officials  to  gain  support  for projects  and  to expand the scope of space activities into other policy areas. Telecommunication,  remote  sensing  and  meteorology  were  discussed as the main areas in which space technology found operational use—although research and geographic surveying was  also  mentioned.  Since  the  1990s,  the  main  changes  have  been  driven  by  the  Swedish  integration  into  the  European  Union,  the  reduced  Swedish  ownership  in  major  industrial companies, and the increased commercialization of space ac-tivities.  The  previously  dominant  state  funding  was  comple-mented by increasing private financing, and new start-ups be-gan   to   compete   with   previously   established   companies.   Meanwhile, the ability of Swedish state actors to influence the future of Swedish space enterprises has diminished.

  • 568. Emanuel, Martin (Editor)
    Gärdebo, Johan
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Saabs omborddatorer och TT&C för rymdverksamhet: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium vid RUAG Space i Göteborg den 2 maj 20172018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The witness seminar “Saabs omborddatorer och TT&C för rymdverksamhet” (Saab’s on board computers and TT&C for space activities) was held at RUAG Space in Gothenburg on May 2, 2017, and was led by Lennart Lübeck, assisted by Mar-tin Emanuel. The seminar focused on how Saab’s (or, more correctly, until 1983, Saab-Scania’s, and from then on Saab Space’s) Gothenburg office embarked on European space-related projects, in particular relating to communication sys-tems, Telemetry, Tracking and Command (TT&C), as well as onboard computers (OBC) for spacecraft. After having failed to win bids on ESRO satellites in the 1960s, Saab joined the MESH consortium in 1967. In the seminar, MESH’s success-ful bid for OTS (Orbital Test Satellite) stands out as an im-portant turning point for the company’s future contracts with ESRO and later ESA. With respect to Saab’s development of onboard computers, it initially relied substantially on collabo-ration with the American company TRW. Building on the learning process from the ESRO-funded development pro-gram for an Engineering Model, Saab, and later RUAG Space, would deliver onboard computers for several genera-tions of the Ariane launching rockets, SPOT-satellites, and many more. Beginning with the Hipparcos satellite, TT&C and the onboard computer were merged into a data handling system. In the process, what had previously been two sepa-rate groups of the company merged into one. With respect to Saab’s motives to engage in space technology in the first place, the main motive appears to have been to maintain and promote the company’s technical expertise, more so than any hopes to be able to set up large-scale manufacturing. The seminar also treated the relationship between Saab’s two branches engaged in space-related activities. Although their organizational belonging shifted over the years, Linköping remained the location of management and formal interna-tional contacts—and also nationally-oriented projects—while the Gothenburg office was home to the projects for the in-ternational market. The OBC group in Gothenburg tried to maintain as much independence as possible vis-à-vis Linkö-ping, although it relied on upper management for negotiating and winning international contracts. Also important to secure European contracts for Saab was the support, at critical mo-ments, of the Swedish delegation to ESRO and ESA, as well as excellent Swedish contacts with CNES.

  • 569.
    Gärdebo, Johan (Editor)
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Svenska bidrag till europeisk radarfjärranalys: Transkript av ett vittnesseminarium på Kungliga Tekniska högskolan i Stockholm den 13 november 20172018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The    witness    seminar    “Svenska bidrag    till    europeisk radarfjärranalys”  (Swedish contributions  to European radar remote   sensing)   was   held   at   KTH   Royal   Institute   of    Technology  on  November  13, 2017,  and  was  led  by  Eva Cronström and Johan Gärdebo. The seminar focused on the development  of   radar  remote  sensing  from  the  1960s  until  the  early  2000s. While  the  US  had  developed  radar  satellites  since the 1960s, the international demonstrations did not take place until the launch of  Seasat in 1978. In Sweden, the major industries  Saab  and  Ericsson had  conducted  seminar-series on    space    technology    since the    1960s.    The    Swedish    government  agencies  have  over  the  years  provided  limited  funding,  primarily  through  the  Swedish  Board  for  Space  Activities, that served to catalyse subsequent initiatives from a number of  groups within academia and the industries. Apart from environmental problems there were several projects th at initially  had  been  funded  by  national  defence  organisations. The  mid-1970s  was  a  period  when  many  of   the  major  organisations  on  radar data began  collaborating.  The  most  prominent  developers  of   radar  remote  sensing  were  the  Swedish  National  Defence  Research  Institute  (FOA),  the  Swedish Space Corporation, Saab and Ericsson. The Swedish Coast    Guardand the    Swedish    Meteorological    and    Hydrological  Institute  were  the  main  users  of   radar data. Experiments  with  airborne  systems  provided  the  embryo  to  subsequent radar data  from  satellites.  While  the  US  Seasat  demonstrated uses   of  radar data,   it   also   made   visiblelimitations  for  European  influence  over  American  systems. The  European  Space  Agency  (ESA)  embarked  in  late  1970son developing its own radar data through the satellites ERS-1, and  -2,  and  later  Envisat.  Since  uses  for  satellite  radar datawere defined  as  experimental,  it  could  be  described  as  “a solution in search of  a problem”. During the 1980s and 1990s, the   Chalmers   University   of    Technology,   along   with   the   above-mentioned groups,  were  central  to  experiments  and  applications   of    European   radar   data,   most   notably   for   monitoring  in  support  of   icebreaking  and  winter  monitoringin   the   Baltic   Sea. These   efforts   also   provided   various opportunities for  Swedish  industry,  gave  Swedish  research  groups a central position in European organisations for radar data,   and   developed   methods   for   ground-truthing   and   understanding  of   what  radar data  contained  and  could  be  used  for.  By  the  1990s,  the  infrastructure  for  receiving  radar data  expanded.  Experiences  from  the  ERS-satellite  had  been  integrated  as  part  of   the  new  Envisat-programme,  as  well  as  in the parallel development for the airborne CARABAS. The research groups began applying for more sources of  funding,which brought them closer to operational users, like the Coast Guard and the forest industry. This later led to new research questions,   for   example   how   to   study   stem   volume   and   biomass  of   forests,  and  subsequently  the  initiation  of   the  European  satellite  programme BIOMASS.  The  development  of  radar data  has seen  initiatives  on  the  ground,  on  airborne  systems,  and  on  satellites  that  all  remain  relevant  at  present.  Since the   time   for   developing   systems   are   very   long,   sometimes more than a decade, many applications often find their use first on airborne systems and later on satellites. With greater openness in data policy since the 1990s, there are also more  commercial  activities  downstream  for  data  uses.  The  Swedish  research  groups’  involvement  in  new  instruments and  applications  has stimulated  industry  directions,  financing by   SAAB   of   academic   positions,   and established   ESA’s   receiving   station   in   Kiruna.   In   sum,   the   efforts   havestrengthened Sweden’s  role  in  political-  and  climate  relateddiscussions regarding use of  radar remote sensing.

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