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  • 701. Zhaunerchyk, V.
    et al.
    Geppert, W. D.
    Larsson, M.
    Thomas, R. D.
    Bahati, E.
    Bannister, M. E.
    Fogle, M. R.
    Vane, C. R.
    Österdahl, Fabian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Three-body breakup in the dissociative recombination of the covalent triatomic molecular ion O-3(+)2007In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 98, no 22, p. 223201-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the first observation of almost exclusive three-body breakup in the dissociative recombination of a covalent triatomic molecular ion O-3(+). The three-body channel, constituting about 94% of the total reactivity, has been investigated in detail. The atomic fragments are formed in only the first two electronic states, P-3 and D-1, while formation in the S-1 state has not been observed. The breakup predominantly proceeds through dissociative states with linear geometry.

  • 702. Zhong, Z. H.
    et al.
    Tang, R. X.
    Zhou, M.
    Deng, X. H.
    Pang, Y.
    Paterson, W. R.
    Giles, B. L.
    Burch, J. L.
    Tobert, R. B.
    Ergun, R. E.
    Khotyaintsev, Y. V.
    Lindqvist, Per-Arne
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Space and Plasma Physics.
    Evidence for Secondary Flux Rope Generated by the Electron Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability in a Magnetic Reconnection Diffusion Region2018In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 120, no 7, article id 075101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Secondary flux ropes are suggested to play important roles in energy dissipation and particle acceleration during magnetic reconnection. However, their generation mechanism is not fully understood. In this Letter, we present the first direct evidence that a secondary flux rope was generated due to the evolution of an electron vortex, which was driven by the electron Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in an ion diffusion region as observed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission. The subion scale (less than the ion inertial length) flux rope was embedded within the electron vortex, which contained a secondary electron diffusion region at the trailing edge of the flux rope. We propose that intense electron shear flow produced by reconnection generated the electron Kelvin-Helmholtz vortex, which induced a secondary reconnection in the exhaust of the primary X line and then led to the formation of the flux rope. This result strongly suggests that secondary electron Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is important for reconnection dynamics.

  • 703. Zhou, M.
    et al.
    Berchem, J.
    Walker, R. J.
    El-Alaoui, M.
    Deng, X.
    Cazzola, E.
    Lapenta, G.
    Goldstein, M. L.
    Paterson, W. R.
    Pang, Y.
    Ergun, R. E.
    Lavraud, B.
    Liang, H.
    Russell, C. T.
    Strangeway, R. J.
    Zhao, C.
    Giles, B. L.
    Pollock, C. J.
    Lindqvist, Per-Arne
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, Alfvén Laboratory Centre for Space and Fusion Plasma Physics. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Marklund, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, Alfvén Laboratory Centre for Space and Fusion Plasma Physics. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Wilder, F. D.
    Khotyaintsev, Y. V.
    Torbert, R. B.
    Burch, J. L.
    Coalescence of Macroscopic Flux Ropes at the Subsolar Magnetopause: Magnetospheric Multiscale Observations2017In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 119, no 5, article id 055101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report unambiguous in situ observation of the coalescence of macroscopic flux ropes by the magnetospheric multiscale (MMS) mission. Two coalescing flux ropes with sizes of similar to 1 R-E were identified at the subsolar magnetopause by the occurrence of an asymmetric quadrupolar signature in the normal component of the magnetic field measured by the MMS spacecraft. An electron diffusion region (EDR) with a width of four local electron inertial lengths was embedded within the merging current sheet. The EDR was characterized by an intense parallel electric field, significant energy dissipation, and suprathermal electrons. Although the electrons were organized by a large guide field, the small observed electron pressure nongyrotropy may be sufficient to support a significant fraction of the parallel electric field within the EDR. Since the flux ropes are observed in the exhaust region, we suggest that secondary EDRs are formed further downstream of the primary reconnection line between the magnetosheath and magnetospheric fields.

  • 704.
    Zhu, Lailai
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre. Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Lab Fluid Mech & Instabil, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.;Princeton Univ, Dept Mech & Aerosp Engn, Princeton, NJ 08540 USA.
    Gallaire, Francois
    Ecole Polytech Fed Lausanne, Lab Fluid Mech & Instabil, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Bifurcation Dynamics of a Particle-Encapsulating Droplet in Shear Flow2017In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 119, no 6, article id 064502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand the behavior of composite fluid particles such as nucleated cells and double emulsions in flow, we study a finite-size particle encapsulated in a deforming droplet under shear flow as a model system. In addition to its concentric particle-droplet configuration, we numerically explore other eccentric and time-periodic equilibrium solutions, which emerge spontaneously via supercritical pitchfork and Hopf bifurcations. We present the loci of these solutions around the codimension-two point. We adopt a dynamic system approach to model and characterize the coupled behavior of the two bifurcations. By exploring the flow fields and hydrodynamic forces in detail, we identify the role of hydrodynamic particle-droplet interaction which gives rise to these bifurcations.

  • 705.
    Zumalacarregui, Miguel
    et al.
    KTH, Centres, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics NORDITA. Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, LBNL, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States; Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay CEA, CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette, 91191, France.
    Seljak, U.
    Limits on Stellar-Mass Compact Objects as Dark Matter from Gravitational Lensing of Type Ia Supernovae2018In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 121, no 14, article id 141101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nature of dark matter (DM) remains unknown despite very precise knowledge of its abundance in the Universe. An alternative to new elementary particles postulates DM as made of macroscopic compact halo objects (MACHO) such as black holes formed in the very early Universe. Stellar-mass primordial black holes (PBHs) are subject to less robust constraints than other mass ranges and might be connected to gravitational-wave signals detected by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO). New methods are therefore necessary to constrain the viability of compact objects as a DM candidate. Here we report bounds on the abundance of compact objects from gravitational lensing of type Ia supernovae (SNe). Current SNe data sets constrain compact objects to represent less than 35.2% (Joint Lightcurve Analysis) and 37.2% (Union 2.1) of the total matter content in the Universe, at 95% confidence level. The results are valid for masses larger than ∼0.01 M (solar masses), limited by the size SNe relative to the lens Einstein radius. We demonstrate the mass range of the constraints by computing magnification probabilities for realistic SNe sizes and different values of the PBH mass. Our bounds are sensitive to the total abundance of compact objects with M0.01 M and complementary to other observational tests. These results are robust against cosmological parameters, outlier rejection, correlated noise, and selection bias. PBHs and other MACHOs are therefore ruled out as the dominant form of DM for objects associated to LIGO gravitational wave detections. These bounds constrain early-Universe models that predict stellar-mass PBH production and strengthen the case for lighter forms of DM, including new elementary particles.

  • 706.
    Zyuzin, Alexander
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Garaud, Julien
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Babaev, Egor
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Nematic Skyrmions in Odd-Parity Superconductors2017In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 119, no 16, article id 167001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study topological excitations in two-component nematic superconductors, with a particular focus on CuxBi2Se3 as a candidate material. We find that the lowest-energy topological excitations are coreless vortices: a bound state of two spatially separated half-quantum vortices. These objects are nematic Skyrmions, since they are characterized by an additional topological charge. The inter-Skyrmion forces are dipolar in this model, i.e., attractive for certain relative orientations of the Skyrmions, hence forming multi-Skyrmion bound states.

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