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  • 801.
    Wennersten, Ronald
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Sustainable Technology2008Inngår i: Handbook of Performability Engineering / [ed] Misra, K. B., Springer , 2008, 1, s. 919-931Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 802.
    Wennersten, Ronald
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Sustainable Urban Wastewater Treatment2006Inngår i: Mayors Asia-Pacific Environmental Summit, 2006Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 803.
    Wennersten, Ronald
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Larsson, Å.
    Loudden: A Controversial Harbour for Petroleum Products in Stockholm2008Inngår i: Conflict Resolution in Coastal Zone Management / [ed] Leal Filho, W, Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Peter Lang Internationaler Verlag der Wissenschaften , 2008Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 804.
    Wennersten, Ronald
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Elgstrand, Kaj
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Industrial Development and Globalization2006Inngår i: OSH & Development: Anthology on Industrial Development, The National Institute for Working Life , 2006Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Association of Occupational and Environmental Health &Development (Ulandsföreningen för arbetarskydd) is a network ofindividuals interested in improvements in occupational and environmentalhealth in developing countries. The Board of the Association came upwith the idea to make a broad anthology on industrial development.Industrial development makes the world go around. While it is creatingresources that increase living standards it is also using resources andcreating problems. The brief articles in this anthology should illustratewhat industrial development is and how it relates to technical componentslike transport, telecommunication and the concept of time. We also hopeto show how industrial development influences and combines with issuesincluding environment, income distribution, culture, human rights,democracy and globalisation. Furthermore, it offers a summary of theways in which individuals are affected by industrial development, e.g.through nutrition, health and accidents.

  • 805.
    Wennersten, Ronald
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Fidler, Jan
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Methods for Risk Assessment within the Framework of Sustainable Development2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 806.
    Wennersten, Ronald
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Fidler, Jan
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Technology, Risk and SD2007Inngår i: International Society for Industrial Ecology Conference, ISIE, 2007, s. 202-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 807.
    Wennersten, Ronald
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Fidler, Jan
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Spitsyna, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Nanotechnology: A New Technological Revolution in 21st Century2008Inngår i: Handbook of Performability Engineering / [ed] Misra, K. B., Springer , 2008, 1, s. 943-952Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 808.
    Wennersten, Ronald
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    The Relation of Industrial Ecology versus Natural Ecosystems and the Fundamental Principles of Industrial Ecology in Anthropogenic Systems2005Inngår i: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of the International Society for Industrial Ecology, Stockholm, Sweden: Industrial Ecology, KTH , 2005Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 809.
    Wennersten, Ronald
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Gu, Zhenhong
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    The Practice of Energy Efficient City Development in the South Area of Hexi New City District, Nanjing, China2009Inngår i: In the 13th International Passive House conference, 2009Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 810.
    Wennersten, Ronald
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Larsson, Å
    Exploatering av Loudden för bebyggelse: En utredning om vad vi vet om riskerna kopplade till förorenad mark2007Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 811.
    Wennersten, Ronald
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Spitsyna, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Potential for Renewable Energy in Turkey2009Inngår i: Renewable Energy in Turkey and Selected European Countries / [ed] Leal Filho, W., Kuchta, K., Mannke, F., Haker, K., Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2009, 1Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 812.
    Wennersten, Ronald
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Spitsyna, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Renewable Energy in Turkey and Selected European Countries2009Inngår i: Renewable Energy in Turkey and Selected European Countries, Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Peter Lang Publishing , 2009, s. 13-62Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 813.
    Wennersten, Ronald
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Spitsyna, Anna
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Renewable Energy Policy in Turkey, Germany and Sweden2009Inngår i: Renewable Energy in Turkey and Selected European Countries / [ed] Leal Filho, W., Kuchta, K., Mannke, F., Haker, K., Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2009, 1Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 814.
    Werner, Inga Britt
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Simulation of social processes: a new tool in housing research2005Inngår i: Methodologies in Housing Research / [ed] Vestbro, D-U; Hurol, Y ; Wilkinson, N, The Urban International Press , 2005, s. 258-271Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 815.
    Wessman, Markus
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Musselodling: en alternativ reningsmetod för kväveutsläpp i Östersjön2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Eutrofiering är ett stort problem för Östersjön där den största tillförseln av näringsämnen kommer som diffusa utsläpp. I Östersjön leder eutrofieringen till ökad tillväxt och algblomningar. Den ökade tillväxten leder även till grumling av vattnet vilket försvårar för makroalger, samt till bottendöd då stora mängder organiskt material faller ner på botten och måste brytas ned med syreförbrukning och svavelbildning som konsekvens.

    På västkusten, utanför Långevik vattenreningsverk, bedrivs musselodling i syfte att renavattnet från kväve. Det är ett alternativ till utbyggnad av kvävereduktionssteget i reningsverket.

    Syftet med den här rapporten är att undersöka om det är möjligt att genom musselodling minska kvävebelastningen i Östersjön. Den tittar på praktiska och ekonomiska effekterrörande odling och avsättning av musslorna.

    Analysen visar att de metoder och material som används på Västkusten skulle kunna användas i Östersjön. De största skillnaderna är att musslorna, på grund av den låga salthalten i Östersjön, växer långsammare och blir mindre. Detta leder till att det jämfört med Västkusten kommer att krävas en större odlingsareal. Eftersom musslorna blir så små kommer det inte att gå att sälja dem till humankonsumtion. Det går dock bra att göra antingen djurfoder eller gödningsmedel av dem. Av dessa två alternativ är djurfoder det mest intressanta.

    Slutsatsen blir att det visserligen finns åtskilliga praktiska frågor att hantera, men musselodling som metod för kväverening fungerar även i Östersjön.

  • 816.
    Wiberg, Andreas
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi (flyttat 20130630).
    Undersökning och utvärdering av klottersanerings- och fasadrenoveringsverksamhet i Stockholms stad1999Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    På avloppsreningsverk produceras stora mängder slam varje år (71400 ton 1997 vid SV:s treanläggningar, Henriksdal (H), Bromma (B) och Loudden (L)). För att sluta kretsloppet är deten strävan från samhällets och SV:s sida att använda så mycket som möjligt av slammet somgödsel till mark. En återförsel av näring i så stor utsträckning som möjligt är målet. Stöd fördetta resonemang finns i ett regeringsbeslut. Genom att det i avloppsvattnet finns miljöfarligaämnen, till exempel tungmetaller, som genom reningsprocessen koncentreras i slammet, gårdet ibland inte att använda slammet som gödsel. Därför har SV sedan länge bedrivit ettlångsiktigt förebyggande arbete i syfte att kartlägga de källor till miljöfarliga ämnen somfinns i samhället och försöka eliminera dessa. Flera verksamheter studeras, till exempelindustrier, tandvårds- och bilvårdsanläggningar. I det här examensarbetet har uppgiften varitatt titta på verksamheterna fasadrenovering och klottersanering, vilka ej tidigare undersökts.

    Genom att prata med firmor som sysslar med dessa verksamheter och åka med ut och titta närarbetet utförs har de här möjliga källorna kartlagts. Dessutom har prover tagits på tvättvattenför att få en uppfattning om hur stor andel av inkommande föroreningar till reningsverken(H+B+L) fasadrenovering och klottersanering står för. I följande tabell redovisas vad dessaprover gett för resultat. Medianvärdet för alla provtagningar har använts.

    Enligt tabellen kan konstateras att andelen per parameter är liten. Den största andelen är0,14% för bly från fasadrenovering. Det finns dock enstaka prover som visat på betydligthögre andelar. Vid ett tillfälle fanns en sådan mängd bly från en fasadrenovering att 250sådana renoveringsobjekt under ett år skulle bidra med drygt 7% av inkommande mängd blytill SV:s reningsverk (H+B+L). Det visar på att det finns stor anledning att införa regler förutförande i samband med dessa verksamheter. Idag gäller bara den allmänna miljö-,kemikalie- och arbetsmiljölagstiftningen. Eftersom det trots allt finns, vilket kan ses i tabellenovan, miljöfarliga ämnen i tvättvattnet kan lokala negativa effekter på miljön uppstå. Därförhar flera olika uppsamlings- och reningsmetoder för tvättvatten studerats. Försök har gjorts attutvärdera dessa genom att ta prover. Inga säkra slutsatser har dock kunnat dras om dessametoders funktion eller effektivitet.

  • 817.
    Wiik, Marianne
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Sahlin, Mikaela
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Life Cycle Assessment: Life cycle assessment of a high speed centrifugal separator2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective is to perform a life cycle assessment (LCA) on a hot milk high-speed centrifugal separator (HMRPX 918-HGV-74C, product number 881275 01 01. The purpose of a life cycle assessment (LCA) is to provide a picture of a product’s total environmental impact during its lifecycle.

    The study is carried out according to ISO 14 040, i.e. all methods, data and assumptions are accounted for in order to make an external review possible. An LCA could provide the basis for an Environmental Product Declaration (EPD).

    The LCA clearly shows that the main environmental impact of the separator is caused by CIP and electricity used during operation. The major part of the impact from the CIP chemicals is due to the energy needed for their manufacture. Fossil fuels account for most of the impact for both operation and manufacture of chemicals. Therefore customers should be encouraged to use environmentally friendly electricity and chemicals, such as renewable energy sources and sodium hydroxide made with membrane technology. It is also important to use as little as possible of cleaning agents and make sure that waste is treated properly.

  • 818.
    Wikman, Sofia
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Secondary victimization of professionals accused of white-collar crime2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The social-constructionist line of criminology has accelerated since 1963 when Howard Becker argued that those who draw the lines between acceptable and unacceptable behaviour perhaps are more interesting than those who cross them. “Deviance is created by society, not a quality of the act the person commits, but rather a consequence of the application by others of rules and sanctions to an ‘‘offender’’. From this position, culpability arises out of our ways of seeing and describing acts. For all acts, including those seen as unwanted, there are dozens of possible alternatives. The criminal prosecution of professional mistake is seen as growing problem in a number of safety-critical domains such as healthcare and finance, as it may seriously threaten safety initiatives in these fields. But at the same time, secondary victimization of professionals accused of crime also meet obstacles related to victimology, as well as the epistemological propensities in criminology.

  • 819.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Violence risk assessments and ethics in three Swedish government agencies2014Inngår i: Eurocrim 2014, 14th Annual Conference of the ESC, Prague, 10–13 September, 2014: Criminology of Europe: Inspiration by Diversity. Book of Abstracts, Prague: European Society of Criminology , 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Swedish Work Environment Act, the responsibility for ensuring a safe work environment is placed with the employer. This project aims at studying three state agencies in the light of this responsibility. The three authorities - the Social Insurance Agency, the Migration Board and the National Board of Institutional Care has in common that their clients’ personal welfare is affected by the decisions made by these authorities. The common occurrence of negative decisions in these authorities is a known risk factor for producing violence aimed at the public officials. The project is aimed at providing a deeper understanding of how the knowledge that forms the base for the risk-assessment of violence in these authorities is gathered.

    Three studies will be performed, each analyzing different source: 1) Guidelines 2) Interviews with employees responsible for safety issues in the authorities 3) Incident reports or occurrence investigations. Questions are directed towards understanding the production of knowledge about violence. What assumptions about violence are visible? What occurrence of violence do the authorities have to handle? What factors are causing the problems of violence? Can the roots of violence be trace to the inside or the outside of the authority? What activities will be risk-assessed (or not)? When do the rights of the clients and employees collide? How can harms be avoided?

  • 820.
    Wikman, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Workplace violence in victim surveys.: Same questions but different answers2014Inngår i: The Stockholm Criminology Symposium 2014: Program & Abstracts, The Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention (Brå) , 2014, s. 166-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An analysis based on a comparison of three Swedish victim surveys examines violence at work on the basis of the questions on exposure to threats and violence. The questions that are included are very similar in all three of surveys: Statistics Sweden’s surveys of The Swedish population’s living conditions (ULF), Swedish Work Environment Authority’s survey The Work environment and Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention’s survey The Swedish Crime Survey (NTU). However the prevalence’s are very different. How can this be explained?

  • 821.
    Wikman, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Gallo, Carina
    Berkeley SF, USA).
    Lundgren, Moa
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    From Kungälv to Sandy Hook: Strategies to prevent violence in schools in Sweden and the USA2015Inngår i: The Stockholm Criminology Symposium 2015: Program & Abstracts, The National Council for Crime Prevention, Sweden , 2015, s. 72-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Policies to prevent school violence in Sweden and in the United States are different, yet alike. In the US, school violence seems to be a growing problem but in Sweden it is decreasing. Not only have the US had substantially more school shootings; they have also implemented more preventive measures to combat school violence. This paper examines how school violence is handled in Sweden and the United States. The study is based on qualitative content analysis of educational steering documents and interviews with middle and high school principals. Both in Sweden and the US, a crime perspective (that students increasingly are subjected to zero tolerance policies that are used primarily to punish, repress and exclude them), dominates how violence are treated and handled in schools. In the US students are increasingly subjected to a “crime complex” where harsh disciplinary practices by security staff increasingly replace normative functions teachers once provided both in and outside of the classroom. One obvious difference between the two countries is the emergence of a great number of federal and state laws in the US, such as the Gun-Free Schools Act of 1994. Schools in the US are also increasingly turning towards alternative methods like restorative justice as a mean for creating safer schools and social equity. One main point of the paper is also that the key to violence prevention might be found in a comparison of how normalized masculinity is operating in everyday dynamics, rather than differences in policies.

  • 822.
    Wikman, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi.
    Gallo, Carina
    Lund University.
    Lundgren, Moa
    Gothenburg University.
    Preventing school violence: Comparing policies in Sweden (Gothenburg) and US (Oakland)2015Inngår i: Association for Women in Psychology 2015 National Conference: Feminism and Restorative Justice, Association for Women in Psychology , 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on content analysis of steering documents and interviews with principals in primary schools, this paper examines measures to prevent violence in Sweden and US. In comparison, US has implemented more preventive measures, from federal and state laws to restorative justice but is still struggling with much higher levels of violence.

  • 823.
    Wikman, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Filosofi. Stockholm University.
    Gallo, Carina
    University of California, Berkeley, USA.
    Lundgren, Moa
    Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Preventing school violence in Sweden and the US. What can we learn from Kungälv and Sandy Hook?2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Policies to prevent school violence in Sweden and in the United States are different, yet alike. In the US, school violence seems to be a growing problem but in Sweden it is decreasing. Not only has the US had substantially more school shootings; they have also implemented more preventive measures to combat school violence. This paper examines how school violence is handled in Sweden and the United States. The study is based on qualitative content analysis of educational steering documents and interviews with middle school and high school principals. Both in Sweden and the US, a crime perspective (where students are increasingly subjected to zero tolerance policies that are used primarily to punish, repress and exclude them), dominates how violence is treated and handled in schools. In the US students are increasingly subjected to a “crime complex” where harsh disciplinary practices by security staff increasingly replace normative functions teachers once provided both in and outside of the classroom. One obvious difference between the two countries is the emergence of a great number of federal and state laws in the US, such as the Gun-Free Schools Act of 1994. Schools in the US are also increasingly turning towards alternative methods like restorative justice as a mean for creating safer schools and social equity. One main point of the paper is also that the key to violence prevention might be found in a comparison of how normalized masculinity is operating in everyday dynamics, rather than differences in policies.

  • 824.
    Wikström, Martina
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik.
    Delårsrapport av Elbilsupphandlingen januari – juni 20122012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 825.
    Wikström, Martina
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik.
    Elbilsupphandlingens demonstrationsfas: Utvärdering av Elbilsupphandlingens demonstrationsflotta samt förslag på fortsatt utvärderingsplan2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 826.
    Wikström, Martina
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik.
    Sunnerstedt, Eva
    Experiences from the operation of 50 electric vehicles during one year in Sweden2012Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 827.
    Wängdahl, Malin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Miljöstrategisk analys (fms).
    Resiliensanalys för trygg dricksvattenförsörjning: Problemidentifiering av stadsbyggnadsprojektet Ulleråker i Uppsala2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete består av en resiliensanalys av ett stadbyggnadsprojekt i området Ulleråker, straxsöder om Uppsalas stadskärna. Resiliensanalysen kan bidra med perspektiv till planeringen för att säkraUppsalas dricksvattenförsörjning då stadsbyggnadsprojektet, enligt programförslaget, är planerat attligga på känsliga delar av Uppsalas grundvattentäkt och därför riskerar att förorena grundvattnet.Området Ulleråker ligger inom zon för vattenskyddsområde.

    Resiliensanalysen har tidigare inte använts i stor utsträckning för planeringkontexten och metoden hardelvis kritiserats för brister i praktisk användbarhet. Examensarbetet ämnar därför till att fylla håletmellan teori och praktik och därför testa metoden på ett praktiskt planeringsfall (Ulleråker) och ommöjligt föreslå förbättringar för dess användbarhet. Dessutom ska examensarbetet bidra till denpraktiska fallstudien för Ulleråker där Sweco och Uppsala kommun får nya perspektiv kring vilkaaspekter som är relevant att inkludera i planeringen.

    Metoden följer Resilience Alliance praktikerns handbok ”Assessing Resilience in Social-EcologicalSystems: Workbook for Practitioners”, vilken används för att analysera systemet utifrån handbokensfem steg, inkluderat vägledande frågor. Det första steget fokuserade på att definiera systemgränser samtidentifiera huvudproblem. Det andra steget handlade om systemdynamik i form av den adaptiva cykelnoch önskvärda eller icke önskvärda systemlägen. Det tredje steget fokuserade på tvärvetenskapligasamverkansprocesser mellan andra system på högre och lägre nivåer. Det fjärde steget handlade omaktörssamverkan. Slutligen, i det femte steget, sammanfattades analysen och adaptiva lösningar försystemet diskuteras vilka kan användas för att bygga ett resilient system. Analysen avstadsbyggnadsprojektet Ulleråker gjordes utifrån tillgängligt underlag från planprocessen samtintervjuer av nyckelpersoner, och fokuserade på riskerna för grundvattentäkten och ytvattnet i Fyrisån.

    Slutsatserna från resiliensanalysen är att metoden är svår att använda i en komplex planeringkontextutifrån handbokens utformning och fokus på mindre komplexa system. Även om det finns vissabegränsningar i analysmetodens praktiska användbarhet finns det faktorer som kan bidra tillplaneringskontexten, t.ex. ett ökat systemtänkande (Ulleråker som system), risktänk kringtröskeleffekter (irreversibel förorening av grundvattentäkten) samt längre tidsperspektiv (framtidaosäkerheter). Modellen ball-in-the-basin med systemlägen är relevant för att förstå ett systems önskade,oönskade eller irreversibla förändring liksom den adaptiva cykeln för att systemet ständigt utvecklas.Dessutom är en viktig poäng med de tvärvetenskapliga interaktionerna att kunskapen från systemetsminne bör utnyttjas i större grad. Finns redan kunskapen inom kommunen bör det social-ekologiskasystemet mycket snabbare kunna återhämta sig och återgå till ett fungerande dricksvattensystem (högresystemnivå). Resiliensanalysen har också identifierat och diskuterat strategiska åtgärder, som skullekunna skapa ett mer resilient Ulleråker, bland annat i form av att öka samverkansprocesserna(governance) och att initiera förändring.

    Avslutningsvis är de viktigaste slutsatserna kopplade till de tre pelarna: Social-ekologiska system(systemtänk), komplexa adaptiva system (risker för tröskeleffekter och att utvecklingen inte alltså skerlinjärt och förutsägbar utan inkluderar stora osäkerheter) samt utveckling över skalor av tid och rum(långa tidsperspektiv, men också olika geografiska skalor). Eftersom det utifrån handbokens utformningkrävs kunskap kring resiliens från analysören och dessutom mycket tid och resurser som det sällan finnsgott om i planeringsprocessen bör dessa tre pelare, tillsammans med anpassningsbarhet,omställningsbarhet och specifik samt generell resiliens, implementeras i traditionell planering.

  • 828.
    Wörlén, Cecilia
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Co-precipitation/Adsorption of Boron for Treatment of Produced Water at the Arroyo Grande Oil Field, California2008Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this Master’s thesis project is to develop a method for boron precipitation inproduced waters from the Arroyo Grande oil field outside San Luis Obispo in centralCalifornia. The current oil recovery is a closed system that pumps up to 1,500 barrelsoil/day. A new system is proposed to increase oil production three times andsimultaneously dewater half of the water in the oil formation during the time span of tenyears, which amounts to 55,000 barrels/day. The water will be treated and used forirrigation or discharged into a stream. The water contains high levels of boron (7-8mg/L), which will be removed with chemical precipitation/adsorption. The full treatmentsystem will include, besides precipitation, lime softening, walnut shell filter, strong-acidcation exchange, microfiltration, and reverse osmosis.

    All experiments were conducted at site-similar conditions, i.e. at water temperatures of70 ºC. Titrations were conducted with NaOH-solution and slaked lime (Ca(OH)2) toestablish the amount needed to increase the pH to levels needed in the precipitationexperiments.

    Softening to remove divalent ions (Ca2+ and Mg2+) and silica will be needed to protectcoming steps in the treatment, with the possible removal of some boron. The amount oflime, added as slaked lime, needed was determined experimentally to 500 mg/L. Limesoftening calculations were in good agreement with experimental results. Up to 20 %boron was removed by adding large amounts of lime, up to 2700 mg/L.

    The experiments were conducted varying the amount of magnesia (0-30 g/L), pH (9.7-11), and reaction temperature (50-90 °C), showing that 90 % boron can be removed whenadding 30 g/L magnesia, on the other hand, little or no boron was removed for additionslower than 5 g/L MgO. Increase in temperature and lowering pH was advantageous to theboron removal. The silica removal was strongly promoted by an increase in temperature.Magnesia was added to synthetic water, at low and high temperatures (50 and 80 °C), atlow and high pH, with sodium hydroxide and lime, confirming previous results.Magnesium chloride was added to the produced water, and compared to samples ofmagnesia with the same molar concentrations; magnesium chloride was more efficient atlow concentrations and less efficient at high concentrations, removing 31 % when adding5 g/L, and 11 % when adding 25 g/L.

    When studying the adsorption onto alumina, the amount was varied between 0 and 35 g/Land the pH was varied between 7 and 10.4. The boron removal increased, with theincreasing alumina, removing 38 % when adding 35 mg/L. Changing the pH did notimprove or worsen the removal.These results are important for determining a suitable boron removal process in thewastewater treatment plant at the Arroyo Grande oil field, though more studies must beconducted to reach optimum and realistic results.

  • 829.
    Xu, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Sun, Qie
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Wennersten, Ronald
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    An Analysis of China's Carbon Dioxide Mitigation Target2014Inngår i: Sustainable Development, ISSN 0968-0802, E-ISSN 1099-1719, Vol. 22, nr 2, s. 113-121Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Chinese government has announced a national mitigation target towards sustainable development of reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per unit GDP (CO2/GDP) by 40-45% by 2020 compared with the 2005 level. This paper analyses China's CO2 strategic mitigation target and suggests possible ways to reduce CO2/GDP. The mitigation target of reducing CO2 intensity in terms of GDP is ambitious and would greatly reduce CO2 emissions compared with business as usual (BAU) in China. However, it would not prevent an increase in absolute CO2 emissions and therefore a more ambitious target, e.g. a larger reduction goal for CO2/GDP, is still needed. Promoting energy structure by more ambitious economic instruments to increase the proportion of renewable energy and replace coal consumption with oil and gas, and improving energy efficiency by applied advanced technologies, are both necessary measures. Special attention should be given to improving technologies in the manufacturing sector owing to its high energy consumption and low energy use efficiency.

  • 830.
    Xuan, Yang
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Evaluation of energy performance and cost of different energy saving solutions in residential buildings of China2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This report reviewed Chinese building energy and related codes, directives and guidelines and compared them with Swedish ones. It also provides general information on residential buildings in China (area, height, layout, etc.) and describes building envelope insulation status and market there (window, exterior walls and roof) and energy related characteristics (heating, heating fee system, cooling and ventilation).

    This report is targeted towards governmental organizations in Wuhai city in Inner Mongolia of China since this thesis is project (Sino-Swe project) based research and Wuhai city is the place where the project is being carried out. A one week trip to Wuhai city was done during the research time and information concerning aspects such as market, energy saving status and residents’ attitudes were collected through interviews, organized meetings and on-site investigation.

    Data collected from national level and Wuhai city are combined to support simulation of energyperformance of a model building in Wuhai. Two tools are employed to calculate energyconsumption. One is Dest, developed by Institute of Building Environment and Building Services,Tsinghua University, Beijing, China and has been used in various prestige large structures such as State Grand Theatre. The second one is Standardized Method, proposed by Heating, ventilation and air conditioning design code. It is a traditional and simple energy calculation method and can be realized by Excel. Nowadays, instead of directly using it, its calculation concepts and steps are integrated into different commercial calculation softwares but in a more complex way.

    Different envelope types, heating methods, ventilation systems are evaluated and building energy consumption for heating and corresponding initial investment and operation cost are calculated. Then life cycle cost methodology is applied to compare different alternatives and those alternatives, according to their payback time, are located into different categories. From the calculation the following figure is obtained and suggestions are made.

  • 831. Yang, Guoliang
    et al.
    Ahlgren, Per
    KTH, Skolan för teknikvetenskaplig kommunikation och lärande (ECE), Avdelningen för bibliotek, språk och ARC, Publiceringens infrastruktur.
    Yang, Liying
    Rousseau, Ronald
    Ding, Jielan
    Using multi-level frontiers in DEA models to grade countries/territories2016Inngår i: Journal of Informetrics, ISSN 1751-1577, E-ISSN 1875-5879, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 238-253Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several investigations to and approaches for categorizing academic journals/institutions/countries into different grades have been published in the past. To the best of our knowledge, most existing grading methods use either a weighted sum of quantitative indicators (including the case of one properly defined quantitative indicator) or quantified peer review results. Performance measurement is an important issue of concern for science and technology (S&T) management. In this paper we address this issue, leading to multi-level frontiers resulting from data envelopment analysis (DEA) models to grade selected countries/territories. We use research funding and researchers as input indicators, and take papers, citations and patents as output indicators. Our research results show that using DEA frontiers we can unite countries/territories by different grades. These grades reflect the corresponding countries' levels of performance with respect to multiple inputs and outputs. Furthermore, we use papers, citations and patents as single output (with research funding and researchers as inputs), respectively, to show country/territory grade changes. In order to increase the insight in this approach, we also incorporate a simple value judgment (that the number of citations is more important than the number of papers) as prior information into the DEA models to study the resulting changes of these Countries/Territories' performance grades.

  • 832.
    Yang, Qirui
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Impacts on sustainable development of two CDM projects: A comparison using AHP method2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays the mitigation of climate change and the reduction of greenhouse gases are one of the priorities in the international affairs. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is one of the products generated according to this request. For China, CDM brings advanced technologies in terms of energy saving and emission reduction, and driving forces for sustainable development, hereby the development of CDM projects is in full swing in China so far. However, it is not easy to decide which type of CDM projects is suitable for a certain city or region, which project contributes more to sustainable development compared with others, when it comes to several alternatives. In this case, decision-makers require a tool to help make a rational decision. As one of the approaches of assisting in making decisions, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) is able to provide assistance for decision-makers to compare the contribution of discrepant CDM projects to sustainable development. Moreover, a case study is taken between two typical CDM projects: HFC23 decomposition project and small-scale hydropower project, so as to check if AHP is useable. The result of the case study

    indicates that HFC23 decomposition project contributes more than small-scale hydropower plant project to sustainable development, which is not in line with China’s CDM development trend for these two projects (NCCCC, 2005), due to the different represented interests of the study group and the real decision-makers. Nevertheless, the result is rational and valid since there is nothing wrong with the AHP method and its application. In addition, in order to improve the effect of assisting in decision making, AHP was tried to be improved in three respects: impairing subjectiveness, avoiding rank reversal and improving accuracy. Even though for AHP itself, DEA/AHP approach could successfully eliminate the subjectiveness, however when it comes to this very case: compare CDM projects in terms of contribution to sustainable development in China, it cannot play an effective role. Moreover, PCA/AHP method cannot eliminate the subjectiveness at the root either. The framework method provides a possibility in theory to increase objectiveness. Two expects provided a feasible way to avoid rank reversal in their article, and the two pathways of improving results accuracy mentioned in this thesis are considered inappropriate in this case. On the other side, concerning AHP application, how to covert realistic issues to AHP structure, how to get desirable initial information, and how to avoid limitation generated by considerable criteria, sub-criteria and alternatives are considered as the difficulties which should be paid attention. In future, AHP could be applied frequently and effectively concerning providing assistance in making decisions in China, if the stakeholders as many as possible are involved in decision-making process.

  • 833.
    Yaramenka, Katsiaryna
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    The benefits of preventing waste generation within small- and medium-size enterprises: “Rubber Company” – the pattern of successful practice2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 834.
    Yu, Dong
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Landfill Leachate Treatment Case Study, SRV Atervinning, Sweden2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    SRV återvinning AB is a joint-stock waste company located in the south of Stockholm. Since the first operation, three landfills have been practiced successively. The landfill generates about 200,000 to 250,000 cubic meters of leachate per year. An on-site leachate treatment plant consists of sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and constructed wetland was build for Landfill III. The research was to find out:

    - the capacity and efficiency of the existing on-site leachate treatment plant;

    - to analyse the costs and environmental benefits of different alternatives; and

    - using the above results, to assess and suggest supplementary methods to treat total landfill leachate concerning the site-specific conditions.

    This thesis contains a literature review of leachate production and composition as well as leachate treatment technologies. The technologies are described, evaluated or compared. The contents of this thesis divided into 11 chapters. Various calculations and assumptions that have been developed for effective controlling and treating leachate from landfills.

    Chapter 1 is devoted to basic facts of the leachate problems at SRV återvinning AB. Chapter 2 presented the methodologies that have been set up for solutions and suggestions. Chapter 3 provides a general background of the generation and compositions of waste leachate. A general overview of leachate treatment methods and systems is presented in Chapter 4. Costs of different leachate treatment methods is also exhibited. Chapter 5 provides a detailed current situation review of SRV återvinning AB on landfilling site, leachate quality and quantity and the existing treatment plant. Chapter 6 showed the previous application experience from other treatment plant. The calculation and comparison procedure for the capacity and efficiency of the plant at the landfill is presented in Chapter 7. Different alternatives to solve the leachate problem concerning the site-specification are proposed in Chapter 8. Their applicability, effectiveness are analyzed. Chapter 9 provides detailed discussion of alternatives and calculation procedure. After the conclusion of the thesis, recommendations for the further work are presented.

    This thesis will provide SRV återvinning AB different alternatives to solve leachate problems. Finally, considering the site-specification, economic perspective and environmental benefits, applying reverse osmosis after SBR as final step; the combination of aerated lagoon, sand filter and soil infiltration are proposed. Furthermore, the control of leachate production is also taken into account. Eventually, recommendations for the further work were presented.

  • 835.
    Zabaleta, Amaia
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Sustainability Indicators for Municipal Solid Waste Treatment Case study: The City of Stockholm: landfill vs. incineration2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability Indicators (SIs) have been used with many different purposes, but never before inside a Waste Management Planning (WMP) process. In this report, a list of indicators has been designed so that the sustainability of a Waste Treatment Technique (WTT) for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in a specific situation is evaluated. The creation of this list is the consequence of a deep information seeking process on SIs, on MSW’s treatment techniques and of the use, as a base, of the indicators created by the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations. In order to assess the usefulness of the list designed, The City of Stockholm has been chosen. A satisfactory result has been obtained: the SIs selected for this specific use, give a suitable picture and enough information of the studied situation. However, additional applications (in other contexts) are necessary for a more complete validation and for improving the weakest points.

  • 836.
    Zang, Kristina
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Analys av miljöaspekter för en planerad svensk fabrik i Kina2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A Swedish company, company F, will establish a new factory in China. Company F is adivision within Company F. The factory in China will manufacture wire products. Thepurpose of this final thesis is to analyse which legal and practical measures the company hasto undertake during the process of localization to get approval from the Chineseenvironmental legislation.An analysis of the influencing factors on the environment from the production in theconstruction in Sweden was carried through. A material-balance was analysed according tothe flowchart of the production. Since China is still considered a developing country, it is alsostill a lot different from Sweden, but it is changing rapidly. Most of the environmental lawsthat were studied are parts of the legal framework, which means that no exact limits ordetailed guidelines are given. The company brings its cutting-edge technology, which still isnew and unknown to the industrial park in China. Therefore it is too early to decide whethercompany F complies with the local jurisdiction in China. The company will make a thoroughreport on its future production to EPA, the Environmental Protection Agency, when theyapply for a license for the factory. In the report they can describe the production in Swedenand compare it to its possible production in China. By presenting the demands andrequirements of the EPA in Sweden given to company F by regard to its Swedish business, itcan help the EPA in China getting a better idea about the production and to what extentdischarge and contamination from the factory will affect the environment. To be able to planfor the long run and make the production meet the environmental standards in China, thefactory must use Swedish standards from the beginning.Two industrial parks in China were visited, one in Suzhou and the other in Wuxi. From anenvironmental perspective, both of the locations are good options for company F since bothare high-qualitative industrial parks that already exist. Suzhou is closer to Shanghai and hasits own Customs, which will benefit the company. There are companies, approved by theindustrial park and the EPA, that take care of waste. They collect the waste from the factory,and send some parts to a recycling factory. After the process of recycling, it is once againdelivered to the factories to produce e.g. new paper- or plastic-products. The rest of the toxicwaste is sent to other places for storage, disposal and destruction. Some toxic waste collectedfrom the factory undergoes a special process.When company F establishes its factory in China they should pay extra attention to whichlocation to choose and also which material of construction to use in order to avoid the hazardof fire. The lay-out must be thoroughly planned – e.g. where the fire exits should be. It isimperative that education about processing and environment be given continuously. Theinformation must reach the staff on all levels. The company must improve the technique allthe time, and look for the best possible technique available. Discharge in air or water must bemeasured regularly, according to the standards of the local authorities. The inspections of theplant must also take place regularly.

  • 837.
    Zapico Lamela, Jorge Luis
    et al.
    Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Centra, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Centra, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Turpeinen, Marko
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Medieteknik och grafisk produktion, Media.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Climate persuasive services: changing behavior towards low carbon lifestyle2009Inngår i: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Persuasive Technology: April 26-29, 2009, Claremont, California, New York: ACM Press, 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    ICT has reshaped our society, and with the current accelerating development of technology, and its wider distribution throughout the globe, they will continue doing so even more. These changes in society are important for sustainability. They affect the physical way the society and the environment interact, but they also affect the way people think, learn and behave.

    We suggest that the persuasive power of ICT can be oriented towards climate change. For this purpose we define the concept of "climate persuasive services" as ICT applications that change personal attitudes regarding climate change and/or change behavior towards reducing greenhouse gases emissions. We consider mobile phones, pervasive sensors and social media as three key technological drivers for the development of climate persuasion applications.

    We have analyzed the use of persuasion principles in existing web and mobile applications forming three clusters: tracking carbon footprints, sharing goals and making green behavior easier. Based on this analysis, we suggest a more planned use of persuasive principles, and propose six different opportunities for improvement.

  • 838.
    Zetterlund, Hanna
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Samhällsplanering och miljö, Urbana och regionala studier.
    Rätten att gå till kungs: En genealogisk studie av besvärsrättens funktion och framtid i stadsplaneringens Sverige2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The primary aim of this paper is to broaden the perspective on third party rights of appeal in Swedish municipal planning and to study the underlying ideals that have formed the legislation in the Planning and Building Act. Currently the legislation is undergoing several changes and with the present housing crises in several Swedish cities the pressure to streamline the process is hard. Third party rights of appeals are viewed upon as time consuming obstacles, which both hinders the expansion in housing and economic growth. Several propositions on how to improve the legislation have been evaluated over the years, the most important proposal being the removal of the county administration board as the first of three instances for planning appeals. The research questions seeks to address the overall aim by using a genealogical lens to study the history of the right to appeal municipal development plans, and compare this to the parallel debate on the subject as well as the contemporary discussion. The bulk of material has been gathered through interviews with experts connected to the subject, and the study of official governmental investigations as well as newspaper articles. The theoretical part about planning ideals draws heavily on the work of Geriant Ellis on Ireland and his critics of the economic interests that form the debate there. The conclusions gathered from the study paints an image that differs from the one presented in the media of increasing problems with the Swedish appealing system. Instead it questions the proposed changes and their possible effect on the principals on legal security, citizen participation and democracy in the planning process. The percentage of appeald plans has been relatively consistent throughout the years since around the millenium, regardless of political majority, changes in legislation or economic fluctuations. The most noticable change, but surprisingly the least discussed; is the shift from appeals belonging to the political sphere of representative democracy, to the judicial sphere. This change has not been followed by any ideological discussions, and seemingly came out of necessity due to bureaucracy and the European convention. This change however, has not been communicated to the public; leading to that credence to the system as such has been left deminished. Swedish planning is at its core a political and value loaded issue, therefore making it a question of right or wrong by changing the system of appeal to a question of pure judicial nature should have raised a bigger ideological discussion. Especially before changing the system again towards being even more law oriented

  • 839. Zhou, Joseph Xu
    et al.
    Aliyu, M. D. S.
    Aurell, Erik
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Beräkningsbiologi, CB.
    Huang, Sui
    Quasi-potential landscape in complex multi-stable systems2012Inngår i: Journal of the Royal Society Interface, ISSN 1742-5689, E-ISSN 1742-5662, Vol. 9, nr 77, s. 3539-3553Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The developmental dynamics of multicellular organisms is a process that takes place in a multi-stable system in which each attractor state represents a cell type, and attractor transitions correspond to cell differentiation paths. This new understanding has revived the idea of a quasi-potential landscape, first proposed by Waddington as a metaphor. To describe development, one is interested in the 'relative stabilities' of N attractors (N > 2). Existing theories of state transition between local minima on some potential landscape deal with the exit part in the transition between two attractors in pair-attractor systems but do not offer the notion of a global potential function that relates more than two attractors to each other. Several ad hoc methods have been used in systems biology to compute a landscape in non-gradient systems, such as gene regulatory networks. Here we present an overview of currently available methods, discuss their limitations and propose a new decomposition of vector fields that permits the computation of a quasi-potential function that is equivalent to the Freidlin-Wentzell potential but is not limited to two attractors. Several examples of decomposition are given, and the significance of such a quasi-potential function is discussed.

  • 840.
    Åberg, Anna
    et al.
    Chalmers.
    Höffken, Johanna
    Eindhoven University of Technology.
    Lidström, Susanna
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö.
    Looking for Perspectives!: EU Energy Policy in Context2018Inngår i: Advancing Energy Policy: Lessons on the Integration of Social Sciences and Humanities / [ed] Chris Foulds and Rosie Robison, Palgrave Macmillan, 2018Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Transitioning to less carbon-intensive energy systems involves making difficult choices and priorities. This chapter imagines three individuals who are affected in different ways by EU energy policy. Their fictional stories illustrate that energy policies are embedded in social, historical and cultural practices and need to take a broader perspective than either technological fixes or a narrowly defined goal of low or zero carbon emissions to be fair and effective. We argue that this is often not reflected in the EU's energy policy frameworks, and use the Energy Roadmap 2050 to demonstrate our point. Contrary to the impression given by the roadmap, a narrow technocratic empirical basis for a policy isnot enough to define and solve an energy problem. Energy issues are soci-etal problems and need to be addressed as such.

  • 841.
    Åstrand, Maria
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi.
    Studier av metoder som kan reducera utsläpp av vattenburet fosfor från Korsnäsverken2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande examensarbete på 20 högskolepoäng har utförts i samarbete mellan Korsnäs ABoch Kungliga tekniska högskolan. Arbetets syfte var att:Utifrån kunskaper om fosforströmmarna, i Korsnäsverkets externa vattenreningssystem,föreslå lämpliga vägar att reducera utsläppen av vattenburet fosfor till recipienten.

    Pappersbruket Korsnäsverken är lokaliserat strax utanför Gävle och ägs av Korsnäs AB somär en del av Kinnevik AB. Detta pappersbruk har Östersjön som recipient där fosfor är det begränsade tillväxtämnet. Då Korsnäsverken släpper ut fosfor bidrar de därmed till Östersjönspågående eutrofieringen. För att klara miljödomstolens satta utredningsvillkor, angående fosforreducering i Östersjön, måste Korsnäsverken halvera sina fosforutsläpp.Under detta arbete inriktades de utförda laborationerna mot kemisk fällning, som reduceringsmetod. De övriga beskrivna reduceringsmetoderna har undersökts genom litteraturstudier. Genom tidigare arbeten har de vattenburna fosforutsläppen lokaliserats tillvissa avloppsvattenströmmar inom Korsnäsverkens externa rening. De strömmar med mestfosfor härstammar från blekeriet, renseriet och fiberförande linjen i tillverkningsprocessen.Detta examensarbete koncentrerades på de två punkter, med högst koncentration av fosfor,som möjliga fällningspunkter. Dessa var Blekeribassängen (AVB) ochSlutsedimenteringsbassängen (Sed.zon). Arbetsmomenten under arbetet delades upp i sjudelar som byggde på respektive tidigare moments resultat:

    1. Verifierande analyser

    2. Metoduppläggningsförsök

    3. Systemscreeningsförsök

    4. Optimeringsförsök

    5. Sammanfattning av resultat

    6. Kostnads- och konsekvensanalys

    7. Jämförelse av resultat med dagens utsläpp, BAT och krav

    De tre första momenten var tillsammans förberedande för det fjärde där laborationsförsök gjordes med de fällningskemikalier som gett högst reducering under tidigare försök. Underdet fjärde momentet testades dessutom sedimenteringstidens påverkan vid användning avendast polymer i Sed.zon. Laborationsmomentens resultat kunde sedan användas för att utföramoment 6. De beräknade kostnaderna och konsekvenserna sammanställdes i tabell 1.

  • 842. Åström, Tomas
    et al.
    Brown, Neil
    Wain, Martin
    Nielsen, Kalle
    Potau, Xavier
    Arnold, Erik
    Filosofi och historia, KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Filosofi och teknikhistoria, Historiska studier av teknik, vetenskap och miljö.
    How can the EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation increase the economic and societal impact of RDI funding in Finland?2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 843.
    Ödlund, Kim
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi (flyttat 20130630).
    Grönt bränsle i Västerås kommun2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete behandlar vilken effekt det skulle få om Västerås kommun ändrade sittsätt att producera energi, för att förhoppningsvis kunna minska utsläpp av ämnen som bidrartill försurning, övergödning och växthuseffekten. En jämförelse mellan två alternativ utförs12 år framåt i tiden. Anledningen till detta är att Målbild Västerås (en vision för Västeråsstad) gäller för detta år. Det första alternativet, det så kallade nollalternativet, visar hurutsläppen ser ut om kraftvärmeverket fortsätter att producera el- och värmeenergi genomkol- och oljeeldning, som sker i nuläget. Det andra alternativet, det så kallade gröna bränslet,beskriver hur utsläppen skulle se ut om kraftvärmeverket blandar in lokalt odlad energigrödai form av salix. Utsläpp som har behandlats i denna rapport har begränsats till kväve - ochkoldioxidutsläpp.

    Vid odling av Salix kan skörd inte ske varje år, utan vart 3-5 år beroende påtillväxtförhållanden. Därför redovisas resultat vid skörd vart 3:e år som såväl vid skörd vart5:e år. För att bättre kunna jämföra de två alternativen har spannmålsodling inkluderats inollalternativet med lika många hektar som har krävts vid salixodlingen.

    Det kan tydligt konstateras i arbetet att stora miljövinster vad gäller utsläpp av NOx ochkoldioxid kan göras genom en inblandning av salix. Koldioxidutsläppen reduceras med merän 100 gånger vid en sådan åtgärd. Utsläppen av NOx ligger mellan 4-6 gånger lägre vidinblandning av salix än vid nollalternativet. I alla uträkningar finns dock en viss osäkerhetmed varierande storlek. Denna osäkerhet gör att en viss försiktighet bör användas innan mandrar alltför stora slutsatser från minskningen av NOx utsläppen. Om man tittar på utsläppenendast inom Västerås kommun så sänks utsläppen vid båda alternativen, men fortfarandeuppvisar salixalternativet klart lägre utsläppssiffror än nollalternativet.

  • 844.
    Öster, Anne-Marie
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Computer-based speech therapy using visual feedback with focus on children with profound hearing impairments2006Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents work in the area of computer-based speech therapy using different types of visual feedback to replace the auditory feedback channel. The study includes diagnostic assessment methods prior to therapy, type of therapy design, and type of visual feedback for different users during different stages of therapy for increasing the efficiency. The thesis focuses on individual computer-based speech therapy (CBST) for profoundly hearing-impaired children as well as for computer-assisted pronunciation training (CAPT) for teaching and training the prosody of a second language. Children who are born with a profound hearing loss have no acoustic speech target to imi¬tate and compare their own production with. Therefore, they develop no spontaneous speech but have to learn speech through vision, tactile sensation and, if possible, residual hear¬ing. They have to rely on the limited visibility of phonetic features in learning oral speech and on orosensory-motor control in maintaining speech movements. These children constitute a heterogeneous group needing an individualized speech therapy. This is because their possibilities to communicate with speech depend not only on the amount of hearing, as measured by pure-tone audiometry, but also on the quality of the hearing sensa¬tion and the use the children through training are able to make of their functional hearing for speech. Adult second language learners, on the other hand, have difficulties in perceiving the phonetics and prosody of a second language through audition, not because of a hearing loss but because they are not able to hear new sound contrasts because of interference with their native language. The thesis presents an overview of reports made concerning speech communication and profound hearing impairment such as studies about residual hearing for speech processing, effects of speech input limitations on speech production, interaction between individual deviations and speech intelligibility, and speech assessment methods of phonetic realizations of phonological systems. Finally, through several clinical evaluation studies of three Swedish computer-based therapy systems, concerning functionality, efficiency, types of visual feedback, therapy design, and practical usability for different users, important recommendations are specified for future developments.

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