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  • 1.
    Heuvelmans, Matthijs
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    A Modular Medium Voltage IGCT Gate Driver Supply2018In: IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018, p. 311-318, article id 8433613Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a novel concept for use as a medium voltage IGCT gate driver supply. The concept makes use of an integrated magnetic structure to transmit orthogonal signals for power and control, and a multiple output LCC converter built around it. The concept is modular and fault tolerant. It can convert the dc bus voltage in an IGCT-based system into multiple independently isolated outputs, where normally two converter systems are used. This contributes to efficiency and cost effectiveness. In addition to introducing the concept, a number of design parameters are optimized for a number of cases and simulations are performed, demonstrating its potential. Targeted applications are IGCT-based modular multilevel converters.

  • 2.
    Heuvelmans, Matthijs
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Cost-effective Cells for High-power Modular Multilevel Converters2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The modular multilevel converter (MMC) topology was introduced in 2003and has since been receiving considerable attention from industry and academia.Notable benefits compared to two- or three-level voltage source convertersare its scalability, low switching losses, low output filter requirementsand ease of adding redundancy combined with fail-safe operation. There area number of disadvantages, such as the use of large bus capacitors and complexityof control. However, with currently predominant switch technology forhigh power levels, which are bipolar silicon devices, the benefits outweigh thedisadvantages. The use of integrated gate commutated thyristors (IGCTs) inan MMC is an attractive option compared to using IGBTs due to their robustnessand low conduction losses. Switching losses are of lesser importance,but not negligible.The objectives of this work are to contribute to a reduction in equipmentcost and to a decrease power loss in HVDC and STATCOM installations.The approach to achieve those objectives is by using the auxiliary resonantcommutated pole topology in IGCT-based MMC. In case thyristors are usedas auxiliary switches, the total amount of needed hardware does not differsignificantly from a hard-switched solution which needs a di/dt reactor and asnubber. The reduced switching losses in the main switches (IGCTs) lead toan efficiency increase, but also to the possibility of using higher-voltage devicesthat would otherwise be impracticable. This in turn can lead to a reduction inhardware cost due to a lower number of cells and lower conduction losses. Inaddition, the improved switching conditions allow for an increase in turn-offcurrent capability. Practical aspects that are also treated in this work are theuse of snubber circuits for the auxiliary switch, and the behaviour under ashoot-through. The latter aspect is essential for practical use in high-powerMMCs. In this work a fault-tolerant soft-switching cell is presented, whichallows for a current limiting series inductance between the main switches andthe dc-bus capacitor without causing a problematic voltage overshoot.

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  • 3.
    Heuvelmans, Matthijs
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    A High-Frequency Semi Co-Axial Transformer With High Insulation Voltage2017In: 2017 19th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE'17 ECCE EUROPE), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The author is grateful to the Swegrids program and its participants for making this work possible and also wants to thank Staffan Norrga and Hans-Peter Nee for their reviewing efforts and constructive feedback. Last but no least the author wants to thank Patrick Janus for his help with the high voltage insulation testing.

  • 4.
    Heuvelmans, Matthijs
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Snubber Circuits for an Auxiliary Resonant Commutated Pole Converter with Auxiliary Thyristors2017In: 2017 19th European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications (EPE'17 ECCE EUROPE), IEEE , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, four different snubber solutions for an Auxiliary Resonant Commutated Pole (ARCP) converter with an auxiliary thyristor are evaluated. The first two solutions are an RC snubber and a variation thereoff where the RC snubber losses are reduced by employing diodes for limiting the voltage overshoot. Two other concepts are a novel lossless dV/dt clamp snubber circuit and a low-loss RC snubber circuit, which has good fault tolerance and improved efficiency. This solution is implemented using SiC Merged P-i-N Schottky (MPS) diodes, which enables a cost-effective implementation with a high surge current capability on a small total chip area. Measurement results confirm that the snubbers limit the voltage overshoot and that the efficiency of the proposed low-loss RC snubber circuit is a substantial improvement over a conventional RC snubber.

  • 5.
    Heuvelmans, Matthijs
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Modéer, Tomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Jonsson, Tomas
    Power Semiconductors for Voltage Source Converters in HVDC and STATCOM Applications2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With a steady increase in electricity consumption in both developed and developing regions combined with demand for sustainable energy infrastructure, trends towards more renewable energy sources and more open electricity markets are becoming more prominent. High Voltage DC (HVDC) connections and Static Synchronous Compensators (STATCOM) are two technologies that play a part in fulfilling this increasing demand. HVDC is beneficial in cases where production and consumption are geographically separated or for sub-sea cable transmissions. STATCOM helps to increase the capacity of AC transmission in addition to enhancing ac-grid voltage quality. A key component in both HVDC and STATCOM converters are the semiconductor switching devices. Switching devices have a fundamental impact on performance levels that can be obtained in terms of efficiency, reliability and functionality. This paper serves two purposes. The first is to give a historical overview of switching devices employed in HVDC transmission systems and STATCOMs. This starts with the use of mercury arc valves some 100 years ago and it continues with the semiconductor switching devices that are currently being employed in HVDC and STATCOM applications. A second purpose of this paper is to indicate developments in switching technology that are of interest for HVDC and STATCOM. In order to do this in a structured manner, the technologies are compared in terms of efficiency, reliability and functionality. Developments that are discussed in this paper are the emergence of Silicon Carbide (SiC) devices and the improvement of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) and Integrated Gate Commutated Thyristor (IGCT) devices in silicon. Currently, applications are based on silicon based thyristors or IGBT technology. Line commutated converters based on thyristors are cost-effective and efficient; however, due to lack of controlled turn-off capability, functionality is limited. Using voltage source converter technology with semiconductors having turn-off capability, such as the IGBT, increased functionality is obtained. The IGCT, a gate controlled thyristor with turn-off capability, has lower conduction losses compared to an IGBT with the same active area. In case a modular multilevel converter is used, the switching frequency of the individual switches can be reduced for the same performance. This leads to a shift towards the importance of having low conduction losses as opposed to low switching losses. A further shift can be achieved by using soft-switching techniques. Regarding SiC devices, different maturity is reached for unipolar and bipolar devices. Unipolar devices in SiC have been marketed successfully at low voltages (≤ 1700V). An example is SiC Schottky diodes for power factor correctors. For the voltages typically applied in HVDC and STATCOM, the drift region resistance would impose serious limitations on efficiency (if high current densities are used). Bipolar devices such as SiC IGBTs and IGCTs have been demonstrated in laboratory setups and results have been published; however, reliable operation is currently impeded due to the propagation of crystal lattice defects which causes rapid degradation of such devices.

  • 6.
    Heuvelmans, Matthijs
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Modelling of Solar Irradiation on PV Cells and Panels2014In: 14th International Symposium Topical Problems in the Field of Electrical and Power Engineering & Doctoral School of Energy and Geotehcnology II, 2014, p. 142-149Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, two methods for modelling solar irradiation are demonstrated, and verified by test results. The work is aimed at producing in-plane irradiation values that can serve as input for a photovoltaic (PV) module model. The aim is limited to grid-connected applications. The usefulness of the work lies in the fact that it can support making planning decisions without requiring detailed knowledge from the user, for example an installer of small-scale photovoltaic systems.

    Of the two methods, one relies on replicating the stochastic properties of the underlying process and the other method is aimed at creating a daily average irradiation profile. When used with a polycrystalline PV module model, bothmethods show good test results and similar accuracy. It is therefore suggested to use the method using average values, since it is simpler compared to the other method. It is accurate enough to be applied in a software tool.

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  • 7.
    Heuvelmans, Matthijs
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Modéer, Tomas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Soft-Switching Cells for High-Power Converters2014In: Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2014 - 40th Annual Conference of the IEEE, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, p. 1806-1812Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the use of the Auxiliary Reso-nant Commutated Pole (ARCP) converter topology for the cellsof a Modular Multilevel Converter. The workings of the ARCPtopology are explained as well as the calculation method usedto compare the efficiency to a conventional solution. Comparisonis done for an HVDC as well as for a STATCOM application.In both cases, use of the ARCP topology can lead to significantreductions in switching losses. The implications of these findingsare dealt with as well. These include a higher possible switchingfrequency and a higher practically feasible cell voltage.

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