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  • 1.
    Armendariz, Mikel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Paridari, Kaveh
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Wallin, Edel
    Vattenfall R&D.
    Comparative Study of Optimal Controller Placement Considering Uncertainty in PV Growth and Distribution Grid Expansion2018In: Electric power systems research, ISSN 0378-7796, E-ISSN 1873-2046, Vol. 155C, p. 48-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distributed generation (DG) and especially grid-connected residential photovoltaic (PV) systems areemerging and high penetration levels of these can have an adverse impact on several low voltage (LV)distribution grids in terms of power quality and reliability. In order to reduce that effect in a cost-effectivemanner, the traditional distribution grid planning process is being reengineered by incorporating the gridcontrol operations and considering the uncertainties e.g., DG power, demand and urban/rural expansionplans. One of the challenges is to determine if the required technology deployment to operate the gridscan provide a better solution in terms of quality and cost than the traditional approach, which is prin-cipally based on cable reinforcement and change of transformers. In addition, if controllers were to bedeployed, it would be important to determine where they should be placed and at what stage of theexpansion planning, especially when the planning is assumed to be non-deterministic.Therefore, following this situation, in this paper we propose an optimal way to deploy and to operateutility’s controllable resources at the distribution grid and additionally we consider the uncertaintiesrelated to PV growth and distribution grid expansion. Thus, we include the non-deterministic multistageperspective to the controller placement problem. Furthermore, we perform a techno-economic analysis ofthe results and we show that an optimal controller placement allows removing the overvoltage problemsarising in the LV grid in a more cost-effective way compared to a typical traditional grid reinforcementapproach.

  • 2.
    Armendariz, Mikel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Johansson, Christian
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Yunta Huete, Angel
    Unión Fenosa Distribución.
    García Lobo, Miguel
    Gas Natural Fenosa Engineering.
    A Method to Design Optimal Communication Architectures in Advanced Metering Infrastructures2017In: IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, ISSN 1751-8687, E-ISSN 1751-8695, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 339-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a method to determine the optimal communication architecture in advance metering infrastructures (AMI). The method starts by indicating suitable groups of meters that share similar characteristics such as distance to the secondary substation and mutual proximity. Then it connects each group of meters to the AMI-Head End through a communication architecture formed by wireless and Power Line Communication (PLC) technologies. The optimality criterion takes into account the Capital Expenditures (CAPEX), Operational Expenditures (OPEX) and the Quality of Service (QoS) in the communication architecture. The method is tested on a LV network based on real utility data provided by EU FP7 DISCERN project partners. These tests show that the method is consistent with planning foresight and can be useful to assist in the AMI communication architecture designing process.

  • 3.
    Armendariz, Mikel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Heleno, Miguel
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
    Cardoso, Gonçalo
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
    Mashayekh, Salman
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
    Stadler, Michael
    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Coordinated Microgrid Investment and Planning Process Considering the System Operator2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 200, p. 132-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, a significant number of distribution systems are facing problems to accommodate more photovoltaic (PV) capacity, namely due to the overvoltages during the daylight periods. This has an impact on the private investments in distributed energy resources (DER), since it occurs exactly when the PV prices are becoming attractive, and the opportunity to an energy transition based on solar technologies is being wasted. In particular, this limitation of the networks is a barrier for larger consumers, such as commercial and public buildings, aiming at investing in PV capacity and start operating as microgrids connected to the MV network. To address this challenge, this paper presents a coordinated approach to the microgrid investment and planning problem, where the system operator and the microgrid owner collaborate to improve the voltage control capabilities of the distribution network, increasing the PV potential. The results prove that this collaboration has the benefit of increasing the value of the microgrid investments while improving the quality of service of the system and it should be considered in the future regulatory framework.

  • 4.
    Armendáriz, Mikel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Cost-effective Communication and Control Architectures for Active Low Voltage Grids2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The monitoring and control of low voltage distribution grids has historically been disregarded due to the unidirectional flow of power. However, nowadays the massive integration of distributed energy resources into distribution grids, such as solar photovoltaics, distributed storage, electric vehicles and demand response programs, presents some challenges. For instance, the unidirectional top-down power flow is being replaced by power flows in any direction: top-down and bottom-up. This paradigm shift adds extra regulatory, economic, and technical complexity for the Distribution System Operators (DSO). Thus to overcome the possible operational constraints, thermal limits, or voltage problems in the grid, an update of the existing electricity infrastructures is required. In response to this new situation, this thesis investigates the cost-effective communication and control architectures that are required for active low voltage grid monitoring and control applications, considering the regulatory constraints and the efficient utilization of the assets from a DSO’s perspective. The solutions include: i) optimal sensor placement configuration to perform low voltage state estimation, ii) optimal metering infrastructure designs for active low voltage monitoring applications, iii) coordinated control strategies to allow the integration of microgrid-like structures into the distribution grids, iv) optimal placement of actuators for operating the control strategies, v) a multiagent-based control solution for self-healing and feeder reconfiguration applications, and vi) a framework model and simulations to assess the reliability of the ICT infrastructure that enables the monitoring and control applications. As concluding remark, since the deployment of technology at low voltage grids is restricted to assets owned by the DSO, the operability of the grid is limited. This condition makes it so that the required communication and control enhancement solutions shall prioritize cost-effectiveness over comprehensiveness and complexity. Thus, the results from the presented studies show that it is essential to perform thorough cost-benefit analyses of the potential improvement solutions for each grid, because this will allow deploying the right technology only at the necessary locations.

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  • 5.
    Armendariz, Mikel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Gonzalez, Rodrigo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    Korman, Matus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems. KTH - Royal Institute of Technology.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems. KTH - Royal Institute of Technology.
    Method for Reliability Analysis of Distribution Grid Communications Using PRMs-Monte Carlo Methods2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a method to perform reliability analysis of communication systems for distribution grids. The method uses probabilistic relational models to indicate the probabilistic dependencies between the components that form the communication system and it is implemented by Monte Carlo methods. This method can be used for performing reliability predictions of simulated communication systems and for evaluating the reliability of real systems. The paper contains a case study in which the proposed method is applied to evaluate the reliability of the communication systems that are required for monitoring the network components at low voltage levels using the smart metering infrastructure. This case study is taken fromthe EU FP7 DISCERN project. Finally, the results are presented in a quantitative way, showing the individual reliability of each component and the combined reliability of the entire system.

  • 6.
    Armendariz, Mikel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Babazadeh, Davood
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Brodén, Daniel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Strategies to improve the voltage quality in active low-voltage distribution networks using DSO's assets2017In: IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, ISSN 1751-8687, E-ISSN 1751-8695, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 73-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses the problem of voltage variations in active low-voltage distribution networks caused by distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation. Three strategies based on model predictive control (MPC) are introduced to flatten the voltage profile in a cost-optimal way. The compared strategies are the business as usual approach that manipulates a controllable on-load tap changer at the primary substation, the problematic feeder control strategy (CS) that adds an additional degree of freedom by controlling the critical secondary substations (SSs), and finally the compensation strategy, which controls the primary substation and compensates the non-critical SSs. A sensitivity analysis on the CSs has been conducted comparing the voltage variation reduction and the asset utilization with regard to the accuracy of the prediction models and the forecasted disturbance data. The results show that better (and more costly) characterisation of these parameters only provide a marginal improvement in the reduction of the voltage variations due to the restriction caused by the heavy tap change penalisation. Moreover, the tested case-study shows that the problematic feeder CS outperforms the compensation strategy in terms of larger voltage variation reduction for similar asset utilisation.

  • 7.
    Armendariz, Mikel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Babazadeh, Davood
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Barchiesi, Michele
    Department of Electrical, Electronic and Inf. Engineering University of Bologna.
    A Method to Place Meters in Active Low Voltage Distribution Networks using BPSO Algorithm2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a method to be used by a DSOto optimally place sensors at MV/LV substation and some lowvoltage cable distribution cabinets. This method aims to improvethe estimation of the grid states at low voltage distributionnetworks. This method formulates a multi-objective optimizationproblem to determine the optimal meter placementconfiguration. This formulation minimizes the low voltage stateestimation error and the cost associated to a particular meterdeployment configuration. The method uses Binary ParticleSwarm Optimization (BPSO) to solve the optimization problemand it has been tested on a network based on the Cigré LVbenchmark grid. The simulation results show that the methodcan be applied to both situations where smart metermeasurements are available and situations where they are not. Inthe latter situation the measurements are replaced by pseudomeasurements,which represent meter readings by using smartmeter historical data and prediction models.

  • 8.
    Babazadeh, Davood
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Tonti, Alessio
    Dept. of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering University of Bologna , Italy.
    Armendariz, Mikel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Borghetti, Alberto
    Dept. of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering University of Bologna , Italy.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nucci, Carlo Alberto
    Dept. of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering University of Bologna , Italy.
    Two-stage Network Processor for an Independent HVDC Grid Supervisory Control2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a two-stage network processorfor the supervisory control of multi-terminal HVDC grid thatconnects different AC areas. The proposed network processorprocesses the DC substation topology locally in the first stageand analyzes the HVDC grid connectivity at the supervisorycontroller. The processor uses the k-means clustering methodto detect the islands in HVDC grid and prepares requiredinformation to carry out the converter control mode assignation.The performance of the method has been tested for an isladingscenario in a 7-terminal HVDC grid using a real-time cosimulationplatform. The output of network processor helps thecontrol application at the supervisory level to make decisionsbased on the control modes of the available converters in theislands. This two-stage architecture has been compared with thecentralized architecture in terms of computational complexity.

  • 9.
    Armendariz, Mikel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Brodén, Daniel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Honeth, Nicholas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    A Method to Identify Exposed Nodes in Low Voltage Distribution Grids with High PV Penetration2015In: IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting 2015, Denver, CO. July 26-30, 2015. / [ed] IEEE, IEEE Press, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of introducing distributed energyresources at the low voltage side of the distribution grid iscurrently raising new challenges for utilities. In particular, thehigh penetration of photovoltaic panels (PVs) in radial grids isincreasing the active power losses in the branches and thevoltage level at some of the nodes. Principally nodes next to PVarray installations. This paper presents a methodology based ondesign of experiments (DOE) to detect such exposed nodes andbranches, together with the identification of the main scenariosthat cause such problems, characterized by: season, type of day,solar radiation and outdoor temperature levels. Themethodology is simulated on a LV network based on the Cigrebenchmark Grid with real utility data. The exposed nodes areclassified for each feeder from most to least problematic andshowed (as expected) sensitivity to seasonality (summertime),characterized by high solar radiation and outdoor temperatures.

  • 10.
    Armendariz, Mikel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Saleem, Arshad
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Brugeron, Mathieu
    Grenoble INP.
    Facilitating Distribution Grid Network Simulation Through Automated Common Information Model Data Conversion2015In: IEEE PowerTech Conference 2015, Eindhoven (Netherlands), 29 June - 2 July 2015 / [ed] IEEE, IEEE , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In R&D projects as well as in development work,simulations of grid configurations and control methods are acommon tool for assessing different technical options. At thesame time, these simulations are often limited by difficulties indata exchange, simply due to the fact that systems are notcompatible and data format in operational systems is not alignedwith data in simulation and analysis tools. To this extent a toolhas been developed that allows large scale import of real-worldgrid data using CIM XML to state of the art simulation toolsbased on MATLAB. The tool is used in a large FP7 projectinvolving leading European DSOs.

  • 11.
    Eriksson, Markus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Armendariz, Mikel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Vasilenko, Oleg
    Ericsson Innovations Russia.
    Saleem, Arshad
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Multiagent-Based Distribution AutomationSolution for Self-Healing Grids2015In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 2620-2628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multiagent-based distribution automationsolution is proposed to be used in the distribution of selfhealinggrids to solve the service restoration part of theFault Location, Isolation and Service Restoration (FLISR)task. The solution reduces the grid topology to an undirectedweighted graph and executes a distributed implementationof Prim’s minimum spanning tree algorithm tosolve the problem. The solution is compliant with state-ofthe-art standards within smart grids, including but not limitedto IEC61850. To test the performance of the algorithm,a testbed is assembled consisting of a physical dc gridmodel and several Arduino microcontrollers and RaspberryPi computers. The test results show that the proposedalgorithm can handle complex FLISR scenarios.

  • 12.
    Armendariz, Mikel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Chenine, Moustafa
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Al-Hammouri, Ahmad
    Jordan University of Science and Technology.
    A co-simulation platform for medium/low voltage monitoring and control applications2014In: 2014 IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference, ISGT 2014, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, p. 6816369-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing demand for electricity and the penetration of renewable energy resources into the electrical grid are triggering the electric power system to undergo changes and complex modifications at high, medium and low voltage levels. There are large and complex projects such as Smart Grid Gotland to deploy solutions to address such challenges. However, there are several scenarios that could be more practical to be first studied via simulations. As such, the purpose of this paper is to propose and develop a co-simulation platform that allows performing real-time monitoring and control tests and simulations for MV/LV grids. This platform combines both electrical, and information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure simulations. It consists of a real-time power system simulator (Opal-RT) connected to a communication network simulator (OPNET) through an automatic meter reading interface that is based on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) and low cost devices such as Raspberry Pi and Arduino boards. The platform allows the analysis of realistic MV/LV grids and communication networks, and will facilitate the simulation and comparison of low voltage control strategies for real-time test scenarios that could be more complicated to test otherwise in real-life due to cost and complexity aspects , i.e., high power losses on the low voltage grid.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Accepted version
  • 13.
    Wu, Yiming
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Saleem, Arshad
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Zhu, Kun
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Honeth, Nicholas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Armendariz, Mikel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Industrial Information and Control Systems.
    Perspectives on Peer-to-Peer Data Delivery Architectures for Next Generation Power Systems2013In: Smart Grid Management, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction of new Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and aggregation of equipment bring in new perspectives in terms of the increasing number of data users. It also brings new data delivery requirements which are difficult to be met by the legacy systems. Off-the-shelf standards and communication technologies are the enablers to push current data delivery solutions to a new level. At this level this new data delivery system can fulfill Quality of Service (QoS) requirements of next generation power system. This paper proposes a comprehensive architecture of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) based overlay-control data delivery system covering all levels of data delivery. The core technology of such an architecture lays on the Intelligent Substation Gateway (ISG), which is employed to provide data delivery service to meet the QoS requirements. Proposed data delivery system brings advantages as autonomy, flexibility, scalability, and efficient to the power system.

  • 14.
    Brodén, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Armendariz, Mikel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Nordström, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems. KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Electrical Systems. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Anticipating Overrides of Schedulable Space Heating Systems in Detached Houses for Demand ResponseIn: Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we propose and evaluate two cases of a model predictive scheduling approach to anticipate overrides of schedulable electric space heating systems in detached houses. We assume a demand-response set-up where the space heating systems of a population of heterogeneous detached houses are scheduled over a finite horizon with the objective of having their aggregated space heating load follow a desired load profile. We envision that the desired load profile provides hourly to sub-hourly ancillary services to electricity market actors and define schedule overrides as the interruption of demand response following a violation of the indoor temperature comfort in a house. We use a model to represent the indoor temperature change in detached houses on minute resolution which considers, among other variables, weather- and individual behavioral-related heat gains and losses in the building. The model predictive scheduling approach is evaluated on a use-case consisting of a balance responsible player looking to minimize its daily expected power imbalances on the intraday market. The scheduling is performed on 100 detached houses participating in demand-response for two predictive cases and a non-predictive case for comparison. The predictive cases differ in the level of information known about thebuilding attributes of the population. Simulations are performed for 90 consecutive days corresponding to a Swedish winter period where results indicate power imbalance reductions of up to 30% and notable differences between predictive cases.

1 - 14 of 14
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