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  • 1.
    Doddapaneni, Venkatesh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Bissal, Ara
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Magnusson, Jesper
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Edin, Hans
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Toprak, Muhammet S.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Gati, Rudolf
    EFFECT OF POLYMER BASED NANOCOMPOSITES ON THE ELECTRICAL ARCS IN AIR2015In: 2015 42ND IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PLASMA SCIENCES (ICOPS), ISSN 0730-9244Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Bissal, Ara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Magnusson, Jesper
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Engdahl, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Electric to Mechanical Energy Conversion of Linear Ultrafast Electromechanical Actuators Based on Stroke Requirements2015In: IEEE transactions on industry applications, ISSN 0093-9994, E-ISSN 1939-9367, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 3059-3067Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The operational efficiency of ultrafast actuators used as drives in high-voltage direct-current breakers is at best 5%. To boost their efficiency, the design of the energizing circuit is crucial. A multiphysics finite-element method model coupled with a SPICE circuit model that is able to predict the performance of the actuator with an accuracy of at least 95% has been developed and verified experimentally. Several variants of prototypes and models have been simulated, built, and tested. It was shown that one of the main problems leading to low efficiencies is the stroke of the drive. However, there is a possibility to increase the efficiency of the electric to mechanical energy conversion process of the studied Thomson coil (TC) and double-sided coil (DSC) to a maximum of 54% and 88%, respectively, if their stroke is minimized. These efficiencies are idealistic, and these were obtained with clamped armature studies. The efficiency of the actuator can be increased at the expense of increasing the complexity and the cost of the contact system by designing a switch with several series-connected contacts that is encapsulated in a medium with a high dielectric strength. Another proposed solution is to design a current pulse with a rise time that is considerably shorter than the mechanical response time of the system. Parametric variations of capacitances and charging voltages show that the TC and the DSC can achieve efficiencies up to 15% and 23%, respectively. Regardless of the chosen method, the DSC has a superior efficiency compared to a TC.

  • 3.
    Bissal, Ara
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Modeling and Verification of Ultra-Fast Electro-Mechanical Actuators for HVDC Breakers2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The continuously increasing demand for clean renewable energy has rekindled interest in multi-terminal high voltage direct current (HVDC) grids. Although such grids have several advantages and a great potential, their materialization has been thwarted due to the absence of HVDC breakers. In comparison with traditional alternating current (AC) breakers, they should operate and interrupt fault currents in a time frame of a few milliseconds. The aim of this thesis is focused on the design of ultra-fast electro-mechanical actuator systems suitable for such HVDC breakers.Initially, holistic multi-physics and hybrid models with different levels of complexity and computation time were developed to simulate the entire switch. These models were validated by laboratory experiments. Following a generalized analysis, in depth investigations involving simulations complemented with experiments were carried out on two of the sub-components of the switch: the ultra-fast actuator and the damper. The actuator efficiency, final speed, peak current, and maximum force were explored for different design data.The results show that models with different levels of complexity should be used to model the entire switch based on the magnitude of the impulsive forces. Deformations in the form of bending or elongation may deteriorate the efficiency of the actuator losing as much as 35%. If that cannot be avoided, then the developed first order hybrid model should be used since it can simulate the behavior of the mechanical switch with a very good accuracy. Otherwise, a model comprising of an electric circuit coupled to an electromagnetic FEM model with a simple mechanics model, is sufficient.It has been shown that using a housing made of magnetic material such as Permedyn, can boost the efficiency of an actuator by as much as 80%. In light of further optimizing the ultra-fast actuator, a robust optimization algorithm was developed and parallelized. In total, 20520 FEM models were computed successfully for a total simulation time of 7 weeks. One output from this optimization was that a capacitance of 2 mF, a charging voltage of 1100 V and 40 turns yields the highest efficiency (15%) if the desired velocity is between 10 m/s and 12 m/s.The performed studies on the passive magnetic damper showed that the Halbach arrangement gives a damping force that is two and a half times larger than oppositely oriented axially magnetized magnets. Furthermore, the 2D optimization model showed that a copper thickness of 1.5 mm and an iron tube that is 2 mm thick is the optimum damper configuration.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Thesis
  • 4.
    Bissal, Ara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering. ABB AB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Jesper
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering. ABB AB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Salinas, Ener
    Engdahl, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Multiphysics modeling and experimental verification of ultra-fast electro-mechanical actuators2015In: International journal of applied electromagnetics and mechanics, ISSN 1383-5416, E-ISSN 1875-8800, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 51-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a multi-physics computational tool has been developed to accurately model and build high performance ultra-fast actuators. The research methodology is based on a finite element method model coupled with a circuit model. Electromagnetic, thermal, mechanical, and algebraic equations are implemented in Comsol Multiphysics and verified with laboratory experiments of a built prototype. A simplified model is preferred as long as its underlying assumptions hold. However, in the presence of large current and force densities, nonlinearities such as deformations may occur. Such phenomena can only be captured by the use of the developed comprehensive multi-physics simulation model. Although this model is computationally demanding, it was shown to have an accuracy of at least 95% when compared with experiments.

  • 5.
    Bissal, Ara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering. ABB Corporate Research.
    Salinas, E.
    Magnusson, Jesper
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Engdahl, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    On the design of a linear composite magnetic damper2015In: 2015 IEEE International Magnetics Conference, INTERMAG 2015, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, ultra-fast actuators have become key elements in the development of high voltage direct current (HVDC) breakers for multiterminal grids which represent a huge progress in modern power transmission [1]. After fulfilling their operation these actuators need to be decelerated using controllable forces to avoid deforming vital components incorporated in the system. In this paper, a dedicated damper is proposed based on a magnet array that induces eddy currents in a composite metal tube resulting in an efficient braking response. Several topologies are investigated by simulations and experiments. The theory behind eddy current damping is explained in [2]. The main requirements for such dampers are reliability, robustness, and ease of construction. The expected durability of these kind of dampers is longer than the breaker itself which guarantees extremely good reliability within HVDC systems.

  • 6.
    Bissal, Ara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Salinas, Ener
    Magnusson, Jesper
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Engdahl, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    On the Design of a Linear Composite Magnetic Damper2015In: IEEE transactions on magnetics, ISSN 0018-9464, E-ISSN 1941-0069, Vol. 51, no 11, article id 8003305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-voltage direct current (HVdc) breakers are the key components in the realization of multiterminal HVdc grids. In the presence of fault current, these breakers should be able to deliver impulsive forces to swiftly open the metallic contacts. After the acceleration phase, the moving armature should be decelerated using controllable forces to avoid plastically deforming fragile components integrated in the system. In this paper, finite-element method-based simulation models, complimented with small-scale and large-scale experimental prototypes, were utilized to benchmark different damping topologies. It was found that a Halbach-based configuration can deliver a damping force that is almost two and a half times larger than its sequel. Its sequel, composed of vertically stacked oppositely oriented magnets, is easier to assemble and is also capable of generating a considerable damping force. Finally, it has been shown that both these schemes, inserted in a composite tube, have a potential to be used as dampers in HVdc breakers.

  • 7.
    Magnusson, Jesper
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Bissal, Ara
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Engdahl, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Juan A, Martinez
    Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya.
    Design Aspects of a Medium Voltage Hybrid DC Breaker2014In: 5th IEEE/PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe (ISGT EUROPE) 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With increased demands on energy efficiency and stability, the use of direct current (DC) will have a natural place in the future smart grid. Today DC is mostly used in high voltage, high power transmission over large distances and in low voltage systems where the demands on reliability are high, e.g. data centres. New applications as wind farm collection grids and a desire to replace over-head lines with cables opens possibilities for DC distribution grids in medium voltage.The use of DC grids will require the development of DC breakers to handle fault in the grid. This paper presents the design aspects of a hybrid DC breaker for a medium voltage application. Since the hybrid topology consists of a mechanical switch as well as semiconductor components and metal oxide varistors, the design must handle trade-offs in performance and cost both for each part and also between the different components.

  • 8.
    Bissal, Ara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Magnusson, Jesper
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Engdahl, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Electric to Mechanical Energy Conversion of Linear Ultra-Fast Electro-Mechanical Actuators Based on Stroke Requirements2014In: Electrical Machines (ICEM), 2014 International Conference on, IEEE conference proceedings, 2014, p. -515Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The operational efficiency of ultra fast actuators usedas drives in high voltage direct current breakers are at best5 %. To boost their efficiency, the design of the energizing circuitis crucial. A multi-physics finite element method (FEM) modelcoupled with a SPICE circuit model that is able to predict theperformance of the actuator with an accuracy of at least 95 % hasbeen developed and verified experimentally. Several variants ofprototypes and models have been simulated, built, and tested.It was shown that one of the main problems leading to lowefficiencies is the stroke of the drive. However, there is a possibilityto increase the efficiency of the electric to mechanical energyconversion process of the studied Thomson (TC) and double sidedcoils (DSC) to a maximum of 54 % and 88 % respectively iftheir stroke is minimized. This can be done at the expense ofincreasing the complexity and the cost of the contact system bydesigning a switch with several series connected contacts that isencapsulated in a medium with a high dielectric strength. Anotherproposed solution is to design a current pulse with a rise timethat is considerably shorter than the mechanical response time ofthe system. Parametric variations of capacitances and chargingvoltages show that the TC and the DSC can achieve efficienciesup to 15 % and 23 % respectively. Regardless of the chosenmethod, the DSC has a superior efficiency compared to a TC.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Chen, C
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Bissal, Ara
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Salinas, E
    Numerical modelling and experimental testing of eddy-current dampers2014In: ACTUATOR14, Bremen: MESSE BREMEN , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A contact system driven by a high energetic Thomson actuator requires to be decelerated from full speed down to zero. The forces originated from the interaction between a stationary copper tube and a moving array of magnets combined with plastic separators or ferromagnetic material are used to generate eddy-current damping. Five different configurations of small but strong neodymium magnets and spacers were benchmarked for simple free-fall damping. A comparison between experimental results and simulations (using COMSOL) shows that the most effective damping is reached by two consecutive permanent magnets with opposite magnetization directions, separated by low-carbon content steel concentrators. The proposed damper design is the result of the balance between various parameters such as magnet orientation topology in the array, spacer material and its dimensions, copper tube thickness and the air gap between copper tube and array. Furthermore, the design was scaled up and an actuator-drive system was added to perform more realistic tests, which demonstrated the damping effectiveness on a fast moving armature actuated by a Thomson coil energized by a capacitor bank. The results of these tests validated the numerical model with a good degree of accuracy.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 10.
    Magnusson, Jesper
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering. Universitat Polotècnica de Catalunya.
    Martinez-Velasco, Juan A.
    Bissal, Ara
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Engdahl, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Optimal design of a medium voltage hybrid fault current limiter2014In: 2014 IEEE International Energy Conference, ENERGYCON, IEEE Computer Society, 2014, p. 431-438Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The connection of distributed generation increases the short circuit power which in turn might exceed the ratings of the installed circuit breakers. A solution is to limit the available short circuit power by increasing the grid impedance, but since there is a constant strive for lower losses and higher power transfer capabilities, this is not desired. The application of a fault current limiter (FCL) that can limit the current before the first peak enables a power system with high short circuit power and low short circuit current. This can increase the stability of the grid and reduce the requirements of other equipment. This work presents a simulation model to be used as an aid in the design of a hybrid FCL for a 12 kV AC system. The proposed model combines a transient analysis circuit model with an optimization module to obtain multiple sets of possible design parameters. The design is not straight forward since there is a trade-off between several of the design parameters.

  • 11.
    Mousavi, Seyedali
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Engdahl, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Krings, Andreas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Bissal, Ara
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Novel Method for Measurement of Anhysteretic Magnetization Curves2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Bissal, Ara
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    On the Design of Ultra-fast Electro-Mechanical Actuators2013Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The continuously increasing demand for connecting electric grids with remote renewable energy sources such as wind power and photovoltaic cells has rekindled interest in high voltage direct current (HVDC) multi-terminal networks. Although HVDC networks have numerous benefits, their adoption relies entirely on the availability of HVDC circuit breakers which, compared to traditional alternating current circuit breakers, have to operate in a time frame of milliseconds.

    This thesis deals with the design of ultra-fast electro-mechanical actuators based on the so-called Thomson coil (TC) actuator. The simulation of a (TC) actuator constitutes a multi-physical problem where electromagnetic, thermal, and mechanical aspects must be considered. Moreover, it is complex since all those variables are co-dependent and have to be solved for simultaneously. As a result, a multi-physics simulation model that can predict the behavior and performance of such actuators with a high degree of accuracy was developed.

    Furthermore, other actuator concepts were also investigated and modeled in light of searching for a drive with a superior efficiency. The theory behind the force generation principles of two different types of ultra-fast electromechanical actuators, the TC and the double sided coil (DSC), were compared by the use of static, frequency, and comprehensive transient multi-physics finite element simulation models.

    Although, simulation models serve as a powerful tool for modeling and designing such state of the art actuators, without validation, they are weak and prone to errors since they rely on approximations and simplifications that might not always hold. Therefore, a prototype was built in the laboratory and the model was validated experimentally.

    Finally, it is important to note that the drives in this thesis are intended to actuate metallic contacts. As such, their behavior and performance upon mechanical loading was studied. Furthermore, some scaling techniques were applied to boost their performance and efficiency.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Licentiate thesis
  • 13.
    Magnusson, Jesper
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Bissal, Ara
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Engdahl, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Saers, Robert
    Zhang, Zichi
    Liljestrand, Lars
    On the Use of Metal Oxide Varistors as a Snubber Circuit in Solid-State Breakers2013In: 2013 4th IEEE/PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe, ISGT Europe 2013, IEEE , 2013, p. 6695454-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When solid-state switches are used in DC-breaker topologies, the turn-off operation can cause transient over-voltages that might harm the semiconductor itself. The over-voltage is caused by the combination of the very rapid current decrease of a solid-state switch and an undesired stray inductance in the parallel MOV-branch. The authors have proposed a possible solution where a smaller MOV is connected close to the solid-state switch to limit the over-voltage. This way, the over-voltage protection can be separated from the energy absorption task of the MOV. A small scale test set-up has been used to show that the peak voltage across the breaker is fully determined by the inner MOV. It is also shown that the performance can be increased by changing the U-I-characteristics of the outer MOV by adding several components in parallel.

  • 14.
    Bissal, Ara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Magnusson, Jesper
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Engdahl, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Optimal Energizing Source Design for Ultra-Fast Actuators2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the key enabling technologies for multi-terminal HVDCgrids is the existence of a breaker that can operate withina few milliseconds. A lot of research has been done to builddifferent ultra-fast drives to actuate the electric contacts ofthese breakers. What they all have in common is an operationalefficiency of at best 5 %. Capacitor banks are discharged throughspirally shaped flat coils to generate ultra-fast repulsive forces. Tooptimize the efficiency of the drive, the design of the energizingcircuit is crucial. The aim of this paper is to optimize theenergizing source and provide a deep explanation of the effectof the chosen capacitance and charging voltage for two actuatorconcepts, the Thomson coil (TC) and the double sided coil (DSC)for different stroke requirements. An experimentally validatedmulti-physics finite element method (FEM) simulation model is applied.

  • 15.
    Bissal, Ara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Magnusson, Jesper
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Engdahl, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Comparison of two Ultra-fast actuator concepts2012In: IEEE transactions on magnetics, ISSN 0018-9464, E-ISSN 1941-0069, Vol. 48, no 11, p. 3315-3318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, two different types of ultra-fast electromechanical actuators are compared using a multi-physical finite element simulation model that has been experimentally validated. They are equipped with a single-sided Thomson coil (TC) and a double-sided drive coil (DSC), respectively. The former consists of a spirally-wound flat coil with a copper armature on top, while the latter consists of two mirrored spiral coils that are connected in series. Initially, the geometry and construction of each of the actuating schemes are discussed. Subsequently, the theory behind the two force generation principles are described. Furthermore, the current, magnetic flux densities, accelerations, and induced stresses are analyzed. Moreover, mechanical loadability simulations are performed to study the impact on the requirements of the charging unit, the sensitivity of the parameters, and evaluate the degree of influence on the performance of both drives. Finally, it is confirmed that although the DSC is mechanically more complex, it has a greater efficiency than that of the TC.

  • 16.
    Bissal, Ara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Magnusson, Jesper
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Engdahl, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Salinas, Ener
    ABB AB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Loadability and scaling aspects of Thomson based ultra-fast actuators2012In: Actuator 2012, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, an ultra-fast single-sided Thomson based actuator is studied. The actuator is comprised of a flat spiral-shaped coil with a conductive armature in its proximity. This armature is mechanically loaded with a uniform mass distribution over its cross section. The energizing source consists of a capacitor bank that is discharged through the actuator coil resulting in a high magnetic pressure within fractions of a millisecond. The coil is dimensioned to withstand the temperature rise.

    An experimentally validated multi-physical finite element model is used to perform simulations by varying the mechanical load to explore the performance of the actuator topology. The obtained currents, induced forces, stresses, and accelerations of the armature are then analyzed in an attempt to develop scaling techniques that can predict for example velocity and efficiency. Finally, the results of the scaling techniques are presented and compared to each other.

  • 17.
    Bissal, Ara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Magnusson, Jesper
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Salinas, Ener
    ABB AB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Engdahl, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electromagnetic Engineering.
    Eriksson, Anders
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Structural Mechanics.
    On the Design of Ultra-Fast Electromechanical Actuators: A Comprehensive Multi-Physical Simulation Model2012In: Sixth International Conference on Electromagnetic Field Problems and Applications (ICEF), 2012, IEEE conference proceedings, 2012, p. 1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a simulation of an ultra-fast electromechanical drive was performed by using a two-dimensional axi-symmetric multi-physical finite element model. The aim of this paper is to primarily show that the following model can be used to simulate and design those actuators with good accuracy, secondly, to study the behavior and sensitivity of the system and thirdly, to demonstrate the potential of the model for industrial applications. The simulation model is coupled to a circuit and solves for the electro-magnetic, thermal, and mechanical dynamics utilizing a moving mesh. The actuator under study is composed of a spiral-shaped coil and a disk-shaped 3mm thick copper armature on top. Two numerical studies of such an actuator powered by 2640 J capacitor banks were performed. It is shown that forces up to 38 kN can be achieved in the range of 200 μs. To add credibility, a benchmark prototype was built to validate this experimentally with the use of a high speed camera and image motion analysis.

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