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  • 1.
    Jain, Rishabh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Farjah, Amin
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Ciftci, Baris
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Zanuso, Giovanni
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Model-Based Design and System on Chip Implementation of DTC and PWM Techniques2022In: 2022 IEEE Delhi Section Conference, DELCON 2022, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) , 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the implementation procedure of three Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) techniques and a closed-loop motor control method using a model-based design approach. The implemented PWM techniques are the Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM), Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM), and Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width Modulation (SHEPWM), whereas the closed-loop motor control method is the Direct Torque Control (DTC). These techniques are implemented using a ZedBoard development board which contains a System on a Chip (SoC) Xilinx Zynq-7000. The procedure of implementing these techniques on the ZedBoard and required considerations are discussed. The model-based design approach facilitates rapid implementation without prior knowledge of HDL and ARM programming, which makes it advantageous for students and research work. To verify the integrity of the implemented designs, the ZedBoard is used to control an induction machine (IM), and the results are presented. 

  • 2.
    Ciftci, Baris
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Gross, James
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Information Science and Engineering.
    Augustin, Tim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Wang, Xiongfei
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Wireless Communication in Modular Multilevel Converters and Electromagnetic Interference Characterization2022In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, p. 38189-38201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wireless control of modular multilevel converter (MMC) submodules was recently proposed. The success of the control depends on specialized control methods suitable for wireless communication and a properly designed wireless communication network in the MMC valve hall while aiming for low latency and high reliability. The wireless communication in the hall can be affected by the electromagnetic interference (EMI) of MMC submodules, voltage and current transients. In this article, firstly, a wireless communication network based on 5G New Radio is designed for an example full-scale MMC valve hall. After that, the radiated EMI characteristics of the MMC submodules with different voltage and current ratings and two dc circuit breakers are measured. The effects of EMI on wireless communication in the multi-GHz frequency band are tested. The interference from the components is confined below 500 MHz, and the wireless communication with 5825 MHz center frequency is not affected by the interference.

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  • 3.
    Ciftci, Baris
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Wireless Control of Modular Multilevel Converter Submodules2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The modular multilevel converter (MMC) has extensively been used in high-voltage, high-power applications such as high-voltage dc transmission systems and flexible alternating current transmission systems. The control of MMC submodules is conventionally realized using wired communication systems. However, MMCs in high-power applications consist of up to thousands of submodules. Significant issues arise with the wired communication systems in the MMC valve halls of these applications, including considerable workforce and time requirements for the cable deployment.

    The main objective of this thesis is to propose a wireless control method for MMC submodules. Wireless communication has fundamental differences from wired communication regarding latency and reliability. Since the control of submodules is a time-critical process, the MMC internal control and modulation methods used with wired communication systems are not directly applicable to wireless communication systems.

    A wireless control method is proposed for the MMC submodules. The proposal is based on the distributed control of MMCs, where the control and modulation tasks are shared between a central controller and the submodule controllers. The fundamental data to transmit wirelessly is the insertion indices for each of the MMC arms and the synchronization signal for the modulation carriers generated in the submodules. The amount and the cycle time of the time-critical wireless data are in the range of tens of bytes and hundreds of microseconds and are independent of the total number of submodules. The proposal is experimentally verified on a laboratory-scale MMC.

    The original proposal is enhanced against the communication errors such that the submodules suffering from the errors can continue their modulation smoothly and uninterruptedly. If continuing the modulation is not feasible in case of very long-lasting communication errors, the submodules switch to a safe operation mode to avoid faults in the MMC. Moreover, wireless control of submodules with ac-side faults is analyzed. The MMC rides through the ac-side faults even with a complete loss of communication before or after the fault instant.

    A wireless communication network based on 5G New Radio is designed theoretically for an example full-scale MMC valve hall according to the proposed wireless control method. It is evaluated that the latency and reliability of the proposed communication solution can correspond to the proposed wireless control method requirements. Finally, the electromagnetic interference from the MMC submodules is measured as below 500 MHz, which does not affect a wireless communication held in the multi-GHz range.

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  • 4.
    Ciftci, Baris
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Harnefors, Lennart
    ABB Corporate Research.
    Wang, Xiongfei
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Gross, James
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Information Science and Engineering.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Wireless Control of Modular Multilevel Converter Submodules With Communication Errors2022In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 69, no 11, p. 11644-11653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless control of modular multilevel converter (MMC) submodules can benefit from different points of view, such as lower converter cost and shorter installation time. In return for the advantages, the stochastic performance of wireless communication networks necessitates an advanced converter control system immune to the losses and delays of the wirelessly transmitted data. This paper proposes an advancement to the distributed control of MMCs to utilize in wireless submodule control. Using the proposed method, the operation of the MMC continues smoothly and uninterruptedly during wireless communication errors. The previously proposed submodule wireless control concept relies on implementing the modulation and individual submodule-capacitor-voltage control in the submodules using the insertion indices transmitted from a central controller. This paper takes the concept as a basis and introduces to synthesize the indices autonomously in the submodules during the communication errors. This new approach allows the MMC continue its operation when one, some, or all submodules suffer from communication errors for a limited time. The proposal is validated experimentally on a laboratory-scale MMC.

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  • 5.
    Asoodar, Mohsen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Ciftci, Baris
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Mohanaveeramani, Aravind
    Hitachi-ABB Power Grids, Västeras, 72212, Sweden.
    Nahalparvari, Mehrdad
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    A Measurement-Based Method for Characterizing Parasitic Inductances in Power Electronic Circuits2021In: 2021 23rd European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, EPE 2021 ECCE Europe, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new method of measuring parasitic inductances in various elements of power electronic circuits. The proposed solution features a low-cost design while providing accurate measurement results in a predefined range of stray inductances. The solution utilizes a unique parallel resonance circuit for extracting stray inductances in various circuits. Structural challenges as well as the analysis for the choice of circuit parameters are addressed in this study. Both simulation and experimental results are presented to exhibit the efficacy of the solution. Moreover, important design constraints that can affect the end results are explained and considered in the proposed experimental setup.

  • 6.
    Ciftci, Baris
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Harnefors, Lennart
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Wang, Xiongfei
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Gross, James
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Information Science and Engineering.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Wireless control of modular multilevel converter autonomous submodules: 23rd European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications2021In: Proceedings 23rd European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2021, , p. 10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wireless control of modular multilevel converter (MMC) submodules might offer advantages for MMCs with a high number of submodules. However, the control system should tolerate the stochastic nature of the wireless communication, continue the operation flawlessly or, at least, avoid overcurrents, overvoltages, and component failures. The previously proposed control methods enabled to control the submodules wirelessly with consecutive communication errors up to hundreds of control cycles. The submodule control method in this paper facilitates the MMC to safely overcome communication errors that last longer and when the MMC experiences significant electrical disturbances during the errors. The submodules are proposed to operate autonomously by implementing a replica of the central controller in the submodules and drive the replicas based on the local variables and the previously received data. The simulation and experimental results verify the proposed control method.

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  • 7.
    Ciftci, Baris
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Schiessl, Sebastian
    U Blox Athens SA, Maroussi 15125, Greece..
    Gross, James
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Information Science and Engineering.
    Harnefors, Lennart
    ABB Corp Res, S-72178 Västerås, Sweden..
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Wireless Control of Modular Multilevel Converter Submodules2021In: IEEE transactions on power electronics, ISSN 0885-8993, E-ISSN 1941-0107, Vol. 36, no 7, p. 8439-8453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless control of modular multilevel converter (MMC) submodules offers several potential benefits to exploit, such as decreased converter costs and ease in converter installation. However, wireless control comes with several challenging engineering requirements. The control methods used with wired communication networks are not directly applicable to the wireless control due to the latency and reliability differences of wired and wireless networks. This article reviews the existing control architectures of MMCs and proposes a control and communication method for wireless submodule control. Also, a synchronization method for pulsewidth modulation carriers is proposed suitable for wireless control. The imperfections of wireless communication, such as higher latency and packet losses compared to wired communication, are analyzed for the operation of MMCs. The latency is fixed with a proper controller and wireless network design. The converter is rendered immune to the packet losses by decreasing the closed-loop control bandwidth. The functionality of the proposal is verified, for the first time, experimentally on a laboratory-scale MMC using a simple wireless network. It is shown that wireless control of MMC submodules with the proposed approach can perform comparably to the wired control.

  • 8.
    Ciftci, Baris
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Harnefors, Lennart
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Wang, Xiongfei
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Gross, James
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Information Science and Engineering.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Wireless control of modular multilevel converter submodules under ac-side faults2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless control of modular multilevel converter (MMC) submodules has been offered recently with potentially lower cost and higher availability advantages for the converter station. In this paper, the wireless control of MMC submodules under ac-side faults is investigated. The central controller of the MMC is equipped for the unbalanced grid conditions. Local current controllers in the submodules are operated autonomously in case of loss of wireless communication during the fault. A set of simulations with single line-to-ground, line-to-line, and three-phase-to-ground faults reveal that the MMC rides through the faults in all the cases with the expected communication conditions or when the communication is lost before or after the fault instant.

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  • 9.
    Jacobs, Keijo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Heinig, Stefanie
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Ciftci, Baris
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Low Loss Submodule Cluster for Modular Multilevel Converters Suitable for Implementation with SiC MOSFETs2019In: Proceedings IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition 2019, IEEE, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a novel submodule cluster topologyfor modular multilevel converters is proposed. The cluster iscomposed of an arbitrary amount of submodule segments. Dependingon the amount of capacitors in the cluster, the converterconduction losses can be reduced significantly. The topologyenables electronic protection against explosion, thus, reducingthe requirements for submodule bypass equipment. Implicationsfor the converter operation and functionality are investigated anda wireless control scheme is proposed.

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  • 10.
    Ciftci, Baris
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Gross, James
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Information Science and Engineering.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Simple Distributed Control for Modular Multilevel Converters2019In: 2019 21st European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, EPE 2019 ECCE Europe, Brussels: European Power Electronics and Drives Association, 2019, , p. 10article id 8915488Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The central control of MMC becomes demanding in computation power and communication bandwidth as the number of submodules increase. Distributed control methods can overcome these bottlenecks. In this paper, a simple distributed control method together with synchronization of modulation carriers in the submodules is presented. The proposal is implemented on a lab-scale MMC with asynchronous-serial communication on a star network between the central and local controllers. It is shown that the proposed control method works satisfactorily in the steady state. The method can be applied as is to MMCs with any number of submodules per arm.

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    fulltext
  • 11.
    Ciftci, Baris
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Gross, James
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Information Science and Engineering.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Kildehöj, Lars
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Information Science and Engineering.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    A Proposal for Wireless Control of Submodules in Modular Multilevel Converters2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The modular multilevel converter is one of the most preferred converters for high-power conversion applications. Wireless control of the submodules can contribute to its evolution by lowering the material and labor costs of cabling and by increasing the availability of the converter. However, wireless control leads to many challenges for the control and modulation of the converter as well as for proper low-latency high-reliability communication. This paper investigates the tolerable asynchronism between phase-shifted carriers used in modulation from a wireless control point of view and proposes a control method along with communication protocol for wireless control. The functionality of the proposed method is validated by computer simulations in steady state.

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  • 12.
    Ciftci, Baris
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Gross, James
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Information Science and Engineering.
    Augustin, Tim
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Wang, Xiongfei
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Norrga, Staffan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Nee, Hans-Peter
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Electrical Engineering, Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Wireless Communication in Modular Multilevel Converters and Electromagnetic Interference CharacterizationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The wireless control of modular multilevel converter (MMC) submodules was recently proposed. The success of the control depends on specialized control methods suitable for wireless communication and a properly designed wireless communication network in the MMC valve hall while aiming for low latency and high reliability. The wireless communication in the hall can be affected by the electromagnetic interference (EMI) of MMC submodules, voltage and current transients. In this article, firstly, a wireless communication network based on 5G New Radio is designed for an example full-scale MMC valve hall. After that, radiated EMI characteristics of MMC submodules with different voltage and current ratings and two dc circuit breakers are measured. The effects of EMI on wireless communication in the multi-GHz frequency band are tested. The interference from the components is confined below 500 MHz, and the wireless communication with 5825 MHz center frequency is not affected by the interference.

1 - 12 of 12
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