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  • 1.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Model-based Contract and Service for Self-managed Components in Cyber-Physical Systems2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern automotive vehicles represent one category of cyber-physical systems that are inherently safety&time-critical. Future automotive technology will to an increasingly large extent be based on an integration of general purpose components for shortening the innovation loops and enabling efficient product evolution. Nevertheless, the adoption of general purpose solutions in automotive vehicles will not be a trivial task. Currently, while domain-specific frameworks like AUTOSAR and ISO26262 facilitate component-based system development based on well-formulated assumptions and interfaces, challenges remain in the areas of contract synthesis, conformity assessment, and diagnostics when issues like mode behaviors, timing, and failures are of concern.  This talk presents the EAST-ADL modeling framework and discusses an EAST-ADL based approach to system modularity and risk analysis in order to integrate separately developed electronic components into safety-critical automotive systems. Special attention is paid to the synthesis of both component contracts and the associated runtime services for lifecycle and quality management, anomaly treatment according to ISO26262.

  • 2.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Panfilenko, Dmitri Valeri
    DFKI - German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence.
    Khabbazi, Mahmood R.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Sonntag, Daniel
    DFKI - German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence.
    A Model-Based Approach to Qualified Process Automation for Anomaly Detection and Treatment2016In: 21st IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technology & Factory Automation, ETFA 2016, IEEE conference proceedings, 2016, 7733731Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern machineries are becoming complex cyberphysicalsystems with increasingly intelligent support for processautomation. For the dependability and performance, acombination of measures for fault avoidance, robust architecture,and runtime anomaly handling is necessary. These in turn callfor a formalization of knowledge across different system lifecyclestages and a provision of novel methods and tools for qualifiedsystem synthesis and effective risk management. This paperpresents a model-based approach to qualified process automationfor the operation and maintenance of production systems. Thecontribution is centered on the formalizations of a wide range ofsystem concerns, and thereby a consolidation of the rationalebehind the design of run-time process logic in BPMN2.0. Inparticular, the approach allows an integration of formal systemdescriptions, FTA and FEMA based anomaly analysis, andexecutable process models for effective anomaly detection andtreatment. The approach adopts mature modeling methods andtools through EAST-ADL. In this paper, a prototype tool-chainwith MetaEdit+ Domain-Specific Modeling (DSM) Workbench,HiP-HOPS Analysis Tool and Camunda BPM Platform is alsopresented.

  • 3.
    Zhang, Xinhai
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Formulating Customized Specifications for Resource Allocation Problem of Distributed Embedded Systems2016In: 2016 IEEE/ACM INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN (ICCAD), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are plentiful attempts for increasing the efficiency, generality and optimality of the Design Space Exploration (DSE) algorithms for resource allocation problems of distributed embedded systems. Most contemporary approaches formulate DSE as an optimization or SAT problem, based on a set of predefined constraints. In this way, the end users lose the flexibility to guide and customize the exploration based on specifics of their actual problem. Besides, during the design of the DSE algorithms, manual formulation is time consuming and error-prone. To solve these problems, 1) a formal representation is defined for capturing customized architectural constraints based on a combination of propositional logic and Pseudo-Boolean (PB) formulas; 2) A process is designed to automatically translate these architectural constrains into corresponding Integer Linear Programming (ILP) constraints, commonly used for DSE. The translation process is also optimized to create ILP formulation with less introduced variables so as to reduce computation time. The results show that the generated constraints correctly reflect the corresponding specification with decent efficiency.

  • 4.
    Mahmood Reza, Khabbazi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Onori, Mauro (Contributor)
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Production Systems.
    Maffei, Antonio (Contributor)
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Production Systems.
    Chen, De-Jiu (Contributor)
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Module-based Quality System Functionality Evaluation in Production Logistics2016In: Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management, ISSN 2013-8423, E-ISSN 2013-0953, Vol. 9, no 2, 310-329 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This paper addresses a comprehensive modeling and functionality evaluation of amodule-based quality system in production logistics at the highest domain abstract level ofbusiness processes.

    Design/methodology/approach: All domain quality business processes and quality datatransactions are modeled using BPMN and UML tools and standards at the business process anddata modeling. A modular web-based prototype is developed to evaluate the models addressingthe quality information system functionality requirements and modularity in production logisticsthrough data scenarios and data queries.

    Findings: Using the object-oriented technique in design at the highest domain level, theproposed models are subject further development in the lower levels for the implementing case.The models are specifically able to manipulate all quality operations including remedy and controlin a lot-based make-to-order production logistics system as an individual module.

    Practical implications: Due to the specification of system as domain design structure, allproposed BPMs, data models, and the actual database prototype are seen referential if not asolution as a practical “to-be” quality business process re-engineering template. 

    Originality/value: this paper sets out to provide an explanatory approach using differentpractical technique at modeling steps as well as the prototype implementation.

  • 5.
    Jinzhi, Lu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. KTH-Royal Insititute of Technology.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Loiret, Frédéric
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    A Model-driven and Tool-integration Framework for Whole Vehicle Co-simulation Environments2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout the design of automotive vehicle systems, modeling and simulation technologies have been widely used for supporting their conceptualization and evaluation. Due to the increasing complexity of such systems, the overall quality management and design process optimization are becoming more important. This in particular brings the necessity of integrating various domain-specific physical models that are traditionally based on different formalisms and isolated tools. In this paper, we present the initial concepts towards a model-driven tool-integration framework with automated managed simulation services in the system development. We exploit EAST-ADL and some other existing state-of-the-art modeling technologies as the reference frameworks for a formal system description, with the content includingrequirements, design solutions, extra-functional constraints, and verification and validation cases. Given such a formal specification, dedicated co-simulation services will be developed to provide the support for automated configuration and execution of simulation tools.

  • 6.
    Ekstrand, Oskar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Pivén, Patrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Grid Based Predictive Roadmap: Sensor Based Dynamic Creation of Large Scale Digital Road Maps for Look-ahead Applications in Heavy Duty Vehicles2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced vehicle functionality is often based on knowledge about the road ahead of a vehicle. By using data from sensors, already available in modern trucks, a road map can be built and updated while driving. Such a map has the potential of providing knowledge about roads where no prior data are available, adopt to changes in the road network as well as providing information about the road further ahead of the vehicle than what sensors can provide. During the thesis work a gird based method of modelling a road network has been developed with an embedded implementation in mind. The work has been focused on building a map that can be used to make predictions about the upcoming road and its slope. The developed prototype has been evaluated and verified with recorded vehicle data. The result is a system that automatically builds and updates a map and that provides a continuously updated prediction of the road profile ahead of a vehicle. The result indicate that an embedded implementation is possible with a resolution high enough for the application with respect to memory usage. Recommendations for future work are to focus on how the prediction algorithm can be made smarter and more robust to handle more complex intersections as well as to evaluate how the grid based modelling approach is working in other use cases than highways, which is the case investigated in this thesis.

  • 7.
    Nordenmark, Victor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Forsgren, Adam
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Radar-detection based classification of moving objects using machine learning methods2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this MSc thesis, the possibility to classify moving objects based on radar detection data is investigated. The intention is a light-weight, low-level system that relies on cheap hardware and calculations of low complexity. Scania, the company that has commissioned this project, is interested in the usage potential of such a system in autonomous vehicle applications. Specifically, the class information is desired in order to enhance the moving object tracker, a subsystem that represents a crucial skillset of an autonomously driving truck. Objects are classified as belonging to one of four classes: Pedestrian, bicyclist, personal vehicle and truck. The major system input consists of sensor data from a set off our short-range mono-pulse Doppler radars operating at 77 GHz. Using a set of training and validation data gathered and labeled within this project, a classification system based on the machine learning method of Support vector machines is created. Several other supporting software structures are also created and evaluated. In the validation phase, the system is shown to discern well between the four classes. System simulations performed on logged radar data show promising performance also in situations not reflected within the labeled dataset.To further investigate the feasibility of the system, it has been implemented and tested on the prototype test vehicle Astator, and performance has been evaluated with regards to both real-time constraints and classification accuracy. Overall, the system shows promise in the scenarios for which it was intended, both with respect to real-time and classification performance. In more complex scenarios however, sensor noise is increasingly apparent and affects the system performance in a negative way. The noise is extra apparent in heavy traffic and high velocity scenarios.

  • 8.
    Jönsson, Marthina
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Automated regression test of a communication stack2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates possible solutions for testing a communication stack. The communication stack is a part of a communication module at Scania CV AB which is called SCOMM. This module handles diagnostic communication over CAN and shall conform to CAN-related ISO standards. We evaluate these solutions based on three aspects and how the stack is implemented. These three aspects are test coverage, ease of use and integration. Based on these evaluations, a test component has been implemented. We present models, resulting from the evaluation as well as test scripts examples. This test component performs black box testing which raised the question of how to define coverage for something that is hidden. It is hard to devise a decent mathematical model from something that is unknown. Therefore we make further investigations in existing tools that may increase test quality and help in finding reliable coverage metrics. E.g. we investigate learning based testing which allows automated test case generation. One outcome of LBT research is a tool called LBTest. LBTest is the first testing tool combining automata learning methods with model checker based test case generation. So far, research concerning the performance of LBTest, are positive. Therefore, this tool was worth looking into and we tried to answer these two questions. Could this tool improve SCOMMs testing and are there any improvements that would give the tool the right prerequisites, to be more useful? When evaluating the results from LBTest case studies, its ease of use and the system of SCOMM, we made the following conclusion: Yes it may be useful to test the communication stack. With these conclusions, LBTest has a bright future with a lot of areas of use and may be might be a solution for the famous test coverage problem that concerns black box testers.

  • 9.
    Chen, De Jiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Maffei, Antonio
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Production Systems.
    De Sousa Dias Ferreira, João
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Production Systems.
    Akillioglu, Hakan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Production Systems.
    Khabazzi, Mahmood Reza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Zhang, Xinhai
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    A Virtual Environment for the Management and Development of Cyber-Physical Manufacturing Systems2015In: IFAC DCDS15, IFAC Papers Online, 2015, Vol. 48, 29-36 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern machineries are often cyber-physical system-of-systems controlled by intelligent controllersfor collaborative operations on the productions of complex products. To assure theefficiency and effectiveness, a consolidation of concerns across managerial levels, product lifecyclestages, and product lines or families becomes necessary. This calls for a common informationinfrastructure in terms of ontology, models, methods and tools. For industrial manufacturerssubjected to increased cost pressure and market volatility, the availability of such an informationinfrastructure would promote their abilities of making optimized and proactive decisions andthereby their competitiveness and survivability. This paper presents a virtual environment thatconstitutes an information infrastructure for the management and development of evolvableproduction systems (EPS) in manufacturing. It adopts mature modeling frameworks throughEAST-ADL for an effective model-based approach. The contribution is centered on a meta-modelthat offers a common data specification and semantic basis for information management acrossproduct lifecycle, models and tools, both for resource planning and for anomaly treatment. Aprototype tool implementation of this virtual environment for validation is also presented.

  • 10.
    Zhang, Xinhai
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Chen, De-Jiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Design-Space Reduction for Architectural Optimization of Automotive Embedded Systems2015In: High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC), 2015 IEEE 7th International Symposium on Cyberspace Safety and Security (CSS), 2015 IEEE 12th International Conferen on Embedded Software and Systems (ICESS), 2015 IEEE 17th International Conference on, IEEE Computer Society, 2015, , 7 p.1103-1109 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A key decision for the synthesis of automotiveembedded systems is the allocation of application softwarecomponents to ECUs. Design Space Exploration (DSE) supportsthe decision by automatically characterizing and evaluating alarge number of possible design alternatives, and thereby suggestingthe optimal ones. A primary challenge for applying DSEmethods to support this decision is to reduce the computationtime of the DSE process while maintaining the generality andoptimality. This paper exploits legacy system architectures andthe AUTOSAR standard to preemptively reduce the design space,because both artifacts limit the flexibility of certain designvariables. A new DES formulation incorporating the constraintsof the legacy system architectures and the AUTOSAR standardis proposed in this paper. Computation result shows a largereduction of the computation time comparing to traditionalmodeling and formulations. The scalability of our method is alsoanalyzed by testing it on a set of random problem instances.

  • 11.
    Lu, Jinzhi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics. Shenyang Engineer Design and Research Institute, China.
    Chen, De-Jiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Wang, Jiqiang
    Li, Wentao
    An Investigation of Model-Based Design Framework for Aero-Engine Control Systems2015In: Proceedings of the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Systems Conference, Springer, 2015, Vol. 359, 625-638 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout the design of aero-engine control systems, modeling and simulation technologies have been widely used for supporting the conceptualization and evaluation. Due to the increasing complexity of such systems, the overall quality management and process optimization are becoming more important. This in particular brings the necessity of integrating various domain physical models that are traditionally based on different formalisms and isolated tools. In this paper, we present the initial concepts towards a model-based design framework for automated management of simulation services in the development of aero-engine control systems. We exploit EAST-ADL and some other existing state-of-the-art modeling technologies as the reference frameworks for a formal system description, with the content ranging from requirements, to design solutions and extra-functional constraints, and to verification and validation cases, etc. Given such a formal specification of system V&V (Verification and Validation) cases, dedicated co-simulation services will be developed to provide the support for automated configuration and execution of simulation tools. For quality management, the co-simulation services themselves will be specified and managed by models in SysML.

  • 12. Tavakoli Kolagari, Ramin
    et al.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Lanusse, Agnes
    Librino, Renato
    Lönn, Henrik
    Mahmud, Nidhal
    Mraidha, Chokri
    Reiser, Mark-Oliver
    Torchiaro, Sandra
    Tucci-Piergiovanni, Sara
    Wägemann, Tobias
    Yakymets, Nataliya
    Model-Based Analysis and Engineering of Automotive Architectures with EAST-ADL: Revisited2015In: International Journal of Conceptual Structures and Smart Applications (IJCSSA), ISSN 2166-7292, Vol. 3, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern cars have turned into complex high-technology products, subject to strict safety and timing requirements, in a short time span. This evolution has translated into development processes that are not as efficient, flexible and agile as they could or should be. This paper presents the main aspects and capabilities of a rich model-based design framework, founded on EAST-ADL. EAST-ADL is an architecture description language specific to the automotive domain and complemented by a methodology compliant with the functional safety standard for the automotive domain ISO26262. The language and the methodology are used to develop an information model in the sense of a conceptual model, providing the engineer the basis for specifying the various aspects of the system. Inconsistencies, redundancies, and partly even missing system description aspects can be found automaticlally by advanced analyses and optimization capabilities to effectively improve development processes of modern cars.

  • 13.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Östberg, Kenneth
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Brezhniev, Eugene
    National Aerospace University KhAI, Kharkiv, Centre for Safety Infrastructure Oriented Research and Analysis, Ukraine.
    Kharchenko, Vyacheslav
    National Aerospace University KhAI, Kharkiv, Centre for Safety Infrastructure Oriented Research and Analysis, Ukraine.
    Towards an Ontology-Based Approach to Safety Management in Cooperative Intelligent Transportation Systems2015In: Theory and Engineering of Complex Systems and Dependability: Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Dependability and Complex Systems DepCoS-RELCOMEX, June 29 – July 3 2015, Brunów, Poland / [ed] Zamojski, W., Mazurkiewicz, J., Sugier, J., Walkowiak, T., Kacprzyk, J., Springer, 2015, Vol. 365, 107-115 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The expected increase in transports of people and goods across Europe will aggravate the problems related to traffic congestion, accidents and pollution. As new road infrastructure alone would not solve such problems, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) has been considered as new initiatives. Due to the complexity of behaviors, novel methods and tools for the requirements engineering, correct-by-construction design, dependability, product variability and lifecycle management become also necessary. This chapter presents an ontology-based approach to safety management in Cooperative ITS (C-ITS), primarily in an automotive context. This approach is supposed to lay the way for all aspects of ITS safety management, from simulation and design, over run-time risk assessment and diagnostics. It provides the support for ontology driven ITS development and its formal information model. Results of approach validation in CarMaker are also given in this Chapter. The approach is a result of research activities made in the framework of Swedish research initiative, referred to as SARMITS (Systematic Approach to Risk Management in ITS Context).

  • 14.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Meinke, Karl
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Östberg, Kenneth
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Baumann, Christoph
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    A Knowledge-in-the-Loop Approach to Integrated Safety&Security for Cooperative System-of-Systems2015In: IEEE Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Computing and Information Systems, IEEE , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A system-of-systems (SoS) is inherently open inconfiguration and evolutionary in lifecycle. For the nextgeneration of cooperative cyber-physical system-of-systems,safety and security constitute two key issues of public concernthat affect the deployment and acceptance. In engineering, theopenness and evolutionary nature also entail radical paradigmshifts. This paper presents one novel approach to thedevelopment of qualified cyber-physical system-of-systems, withCooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS) as one target.The approach, referred to as knowledge-in-the-loop, aims toallow a synergy of well-managed lifecycles, formal qualityassurance, and smart system features. One research goal is toenable an evolutionary development with continuous andtraceable flows of system rationale from design-time to postdeploymenttime and back, supporting automated knowledgeinference and enrichment. Another research goal is to develop aformal approach to risk-aware dynamic treatment of safety andsecurity as a whole in the context of system-of-systems. Key basetechnologies include: (1) EAST-ADL for the consolidation ofsystem-wide concerns and for the creation of an ontology foradvanced run-time decisions, (2) Learning Based-Testing for runtimeand post-deployment model inference, safety monitoringand testing, (3) Provable Isolation for run-time attack detectionand enforcement of security in real-time operating systems.

  • 15.
    Zhang, Xinhai
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Towards Design Space Exploration through EAST-ADL and AUTOSAR Modeling Frameworks2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Septavera, Sharvia
    et al.
    University of Hull.
    Papadopoulos, Yiannis
    University of Hull.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Walker, Martin
    University of Hull.
    Yuan, Wenjing
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Lönn, Henrik
    Enhancing the EAST-ADL Error Model with HiP-HOPS Semantics2014In: Athens Journal of Technology & Engineering, ISSN 2241-8237, Vol. 1, no 2, 119-136 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    EAST-ADL is a domain-specific modelling language for the engineering of automotive embedded systems. The language has abstractions that enable engineers to capture a variety of information about design in the course of the lifecycle — from requirements to detailed design of hardware and software architectures. The specification of the EAST-ADL language includes an error model extension which documents language structures that allow potential failures of design elements to be specified locally. The effects of these failures are then later assessed in the context of the architecture design. To provide this type of useful assessment, a language and a specification are not enough; a compiler-like tool that can read and operate on a system specification together with its error model is needed. In this paper we integrate the error model of EAST-ADL with the precise semantics of HiP-HOPS — a state-of-the-art tool that enables dependability analysis and optimization of design models. We present the integration concept between EAST-ADL structure and HiP-HOPS error propagation logic and its transformation into the HiP-HOPS model. Source and destination models are represented using the corresponding XML formats. The connection of these two models at tool level enables practical EAST-ADL designs of embedded automotive systems to be analysed in terms of dependability, i.e. safety, reliability and availability. In addition, the information encoded in the error model can be re-used across different contexts of application with the associated benefits for cost reduction, simplification, and rationalisation of dependability assessments in complex engineering designs.

  • 17.
    Tucci-Piergiovanni, Sara
    et al.
    CEA List , Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique Saclay.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Mraidha, Chokri
    CEA List , Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique Saclay.
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Trucks Technology AB.
    Mahmud, Nidhal
    University of Hull.
    Reiser, Mark-Oliver
    Technical University of Berlin.
    Tavakoli Kolagari, Ramin
    Nuremberg Institute of Technology G. S. Ohm, Germany.
    Yakymets, Nataliya
    CEA List , Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique Saclay.
    Librino, Renato
    4S s.r.l., Italy.
    Torchiaro, Sandra
    Centro Ricerche Fiat S.C.p.A..
    Model-Based Analysis andEngineering of AutomotiveArchitectures with EAST-ADL2014In: Handbook of Research on Embedded Systems Design / [ed] Alessandra Bagnato, Leandro Soares Indrusiak, Imran Rafiq Quadri, Matteo Rossi, Hershey PA, USA: IGI Global, 2014, 242-282 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern cars have turned into complex high-technology products, subject to strict safety and timingrequirements, in a short time span. This evolution has translated into development processes that arenot as efficient, flexible, and agile as they could or should be. Model-based design offers many potentialsolutions to this problem. This chapter presents the main aspects and capabilities of a rich model-baseddesign framework, founded on EAST-ADL, and developed during the MAENAD project. EAST-ADL is anarchitecture description language specific to the automotive domain and complemented by a methodologycompliant with the ISO26262 standard. The language and the methodology set the stage for a high-levelof automation and integration of advanced analyses and optimization capabilities to effectively improvedevelopment processes of modern cars.

  • 18.
    Zhang, Xinhai
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Persson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Mokhtari, Behrooz
    KTH.
    Einarson, A.
    Linder, H.
    Westman, Jonas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Experience on applying software architecture recovery to automotive embedded systems2014In: 2014 Software Evolution Week - IEEE Conference on Software Maintenance, Reengineering, and Reverse Engineering, CSMR-WCRE 2014 - Proceedings, IEEE Computer Society, 2014, 379-382 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance and potential advantages with a comprehensive product architecture description are well described in the literature. However, developing such a description takes additional resources, and it is difficult to maintain consistency with evolving implementations. This paper presents an approach and industrial experience which is based on architecture recovery from source code at truck manufacturer Scania CV AB. The extracted representation of the architecture is presented in several views and verified on CAN signal level. Lessons learned are discussed.

  • 19.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Asplund, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Kenneth, Östberg
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    A Systematic approach to Risk Management in ITS Context: Challenges and Research Issues2014In: Radioelectronic and Computer Systems, 2014, No 5 ( 69 ), Ukraine, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) with autonomic functions that are cyber-physical in nature is of rapidly increasing importance for traffic efficiency and safety. Current engineering approaches to such functions often rely on worst-case assumptions, originally used for safety engineering, due to the difficulty and cost involved in precisely modeling and analyzing the system boundaries and emergent behaviors in a highly dynamic configuration of system-of-systems. This can lead to the loss of many of the benefits in regard to traffic efficiency, but also to conditions where the transport system as a whole is prone to unacceptable high risks. We envisage a systematic approach to the development of autonomous functions in ITS resting on the basis of a formal modeling framework. This paper presents our vision for achieving such a goal on the basis of EAST-ADL, which is an ISO26262 compatible architecture modeling language and methodology for the development and management of automotive Electrics & Electronics systems. Especially, this paper elaborates on some key challenges and outlines related research issues to be regarded in a Swedish research initiative, referred to as SARMITS (Systematic Approach to Risk Management in ITS Context).

  • 20.
    Persson, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Loiret, Frédéric
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Westman, Jonas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Chen, De-Jiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Multi-Viewed Components2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report, we present a concept for generic multi-viewed component models based on modular  and (de)composable viewpoints.   By decomposing systems not only along component but also viewpoint borders, a family of multi-viewed component models is proposed. Semantic relations between the viewpoints are modeled in order to be able to ensure e.g. consistency between separate but semantically partly  overlapping views.  We also characterize different types of relations between viewpoints in order to see how the choice of viewpoints in the component model influences the complexity of multi-viewed components. Finally we provide an example and describe how the concepts presented can be applied in practice.

     

  • 21.
    Persson, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Bonnet, Stéphane
    Mitschke, Andreas
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Laurent, Odile
    Chen, De-Jiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Shawky, Marcus
    A Multi-Viewpoint Architecture Exploration Methodology for Embedded Systems2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Architecture exploration is increasingly important as a design approach for embeddedsystems. In this paper, we present an architecture exploration methodology especiallysuited for multi-viewpoint systems, based on 8 different key tasks: preparation, baselinedesign, design variability modeling, selection of search space, architecture analysis, tradeoffanalysis & design, and documentation. The methodology is exemplified and validatedthrough a concrete aerospace case study.

  • 22.
    Walker, Martin
    et al.
    University of Hull.
    Reiser, Mark-Oliver
    Technical University of Berlin.
    Tucci-Piergiovanni, Sara
    CEA List , Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique Saclay.
    Papadopoulos, Yiannis
    University of Hull.
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Mraidha, Chokri
    CEA List , Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique Saclay.
    Parker, David
    University of Hull.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Servat, David
    CEA List , Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique Saclay.
    Automatic Optimisation of System Architectures using EAST-ADL2013In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, Vol. 86, no 10, 2467-2487 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many challenges which face designers of complex system architectures, particularly safety-critical or real-time systems. The introduction of architecture description languages (ADLs) has helped to meet these challenges by consolidating information about a system and providing a platform for modelling and analysis capabilities. However, managing this wealth of information can still be problematic, and evaluation of potential design decisions is still often performed manually. Automatic architectural optimisation can be used to assist this decision process, enabling designers to rapidly explore many different options and evaluate them according to specific criteria. In this paper, we present a multi-objective optimisation approach based on EAST-ADL, an ADL in the automotive domain, with the goal of combining the advantages of ADLs and architectural optimisation. The approach is designed to be extensible and leverages the capabilities of EAST-ADL to provide support for evaluation according to different factors, including dependability, timing/performance, and cost. The technique is applied to an illustrative example system featuring both hardware and software perspectives, demonstrating the potential benefits of this concept to the design of embedded system architectures.

  • 23.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Feng, Lei
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology.
    Naseer Qureshi, Tahir
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology.
    Hagl, Frank
    Continental Automotive DE.
    An architectural approach to the analysis, verification and validation of software intensive embedded systems2013In: Computing, ISSN 0010-485X, E-ISSN 1436-5057, Vol. 95, no 8, 649-688 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    EAST-ADL is a domain specific Architecture Description Language (ADL) for safety-critical and software-intensive embedded systems. The language allows a formalized and traceable description of a wide range of engineering concerns throughout the entire lifecycle of system development. This makes it possible to fully utilize the leverage of state-of-the-art methods and tools for the development of correct-by-construction system functions and components in a seamless and cost efficient way. This paper focuses on the recent advancement of EAST-ADL in supporting an architecture-centric analysis, verification&validation of complex behaviors for the purposes of requirements engineering, application design, and safety engineering. The approach is architecture centric because all behavior descriptions are formalized and connected to a set of standardized design artifacts sitting at multiple levels of abstractions. We present the language design to support this, the theoretical underpinning and tool implementation. To show the capability of EAST-ADL, we also introduce an algorithm and its implementation for transforming the EAST-ADL behavior models to SPIN models for logic model checking. Exploiting mature state-of-the-art technologies from computer science, electronic engineering, and other related domains for a model-based incremental system development, the contribution enables the developers of embedded systems and software to maintain various engineering concerns coherently using EAST-ADL.

  • 24.
    Behere, Sagar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    A reference architecture for cooperative driving2013In: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 59, no 10: Part C, 1095-1112 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative driving systems enable vehicles to adapt their motion to the surrounding traffic situation by utilizing information communicated by other vehicles and infrastructure in the vicinity. How should these systems be designed and integrated into the modern automobile? What are the needed functions, key architectural elements and their relationships? We created a reference architecture that systematically answers these questions and validated it in real world usage scenarios. Key findings concern required services and enabling them via the architecture. We present the reference architecture and discuss how it can influence the design and implementation of such features in automotive systems.

  • 25.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Mahmud, Nidhal
    University of Hull, United Kingdom.
    Walker, Martin
    University of Hull, United Kingdom.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB, Sweden.
    Papadopoulos, Yiannis
    University of Hull, United Kingdom.
    Systems Modeling with EAST-ADL for Fault Tree Analysis through HiP-HOPS2013In: IFAC Proceedings Volumes: (IFAC-PapersOnline), 2013, Vol. 4, 91-96 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    EAST-ADL is a domain-specific modeling framework with methodology and language supportfor the engineering of automotive embedded systems. In regard to functional safety, it aims toprovide the maximum possible support for ISO 26262 so that all safety related information can beconsolidated seamlessly in a common system model together with the requirements specification.This paper describes the EAST-ADL support for the modeling of plausible error behaviors as anorthogonal system view. We introduce in particular an integration of such EAST-ADL modelswith the HiP-HOPS method for automated temporal fault tree analysis.

  • 26.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Trucks Technology.
    Tolvanen, Juha-Pekka
    MetaCase.
    Advances in Automotive System Modeling: EAST-ADL2013In: EETimes Europe Automotive, 222902939Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Persson, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Bonnet, Stéphane
    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.
    Chen, De-Jiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Zverlov, Sergey
    KTH/TU München.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Laurent, Odile
    AIRBUS Operations SAS.
    Mitschke, Andreas
    EADS Deutschland GmbH.
    Shawky, Marcus
    Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique.
    Architecture Exploration2013In: CESAR: Cost-efficient Methods and Processes for Safety-relevant Embedded Systems, Springer, 2013, 145-178 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, we will explain and concretise the concept of architecture exploration as an approach to architecture design of distributed embedded safety-critical systems. Architecture design involves the mapping of behaviour to structure, or functions to components. Alternative behaviours, structures and mappings are possible, and it is the subject of the architecture design to make a well-informed choice about which alternative(s) are preferable. Architecture design can be seen as an iterative process, as illustrated by Fig. 4.1

  • 28.
    Lau, Kung-Kiu
    et al.
    The University of Manchester.
    Pantel, Marc
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Persson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Tran, Cuong
    The University of Manchester.
    Component-Based Development2013In: CESAR: Cost-efficiation Methods and Processes for Safety-relevant Embedded Systems / [ed] Ajitha Rajan, Thomas Wahl, Springer, 2013, 179-212 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, we focus on the use of component-based development (CDB) in Cesar. First, we introduce what we mean by components and how they fit into the product lifecycle. Then, we report on the two major technological innovations of the project: the X-MAN and HRC frameworks.

  • 29.
    Blom, Hans
    et al.
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Hagl, Frank
    Continental Automotive DE.
    Papadopoulos, Yiannis
    University of Hull.
    Reiser, Mark-Oliver
    Technical University of Berlin.
    Sjöstedt, Carl-Johan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Tagliabo, Fulvio
    Centro Ricerche Fiat S.C.p.A..
    Torchiaro, Sandra
    Centro Ricerche Fiat S.C.p.A..
    Tucci-Piergiovanni, Sara
    CEA List , Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique Saclay.
    Tavakoli Kolagari, Ramin
    Nuremberg Institute of Technology.
    EAST-ADL: An Architecture Description Language for Automotive Software-Intensive Systems2013In: Embedded Computing Systems: Applications, Optimization, and Advanced Design / [ed] M. Khalgui, O. Mosbahi, & A. Valentini, Hershey: Information Science Reference, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    EAST-ADL is an Architecture Description Language (ADL) initially defined in several European-funded research projects and subsequently refined and aligned with the more recent AUTOSAR automotive standard. It provides a comprehensive approach for defining automotive electronic systems through an information model that captures engineering information in a standardized form. Aspects covered include vehicle features, requirements, analysis functions, software and hardware components, and communication. The representation of the system’s implementation is not defined in EAST-ADL itself but by AUTOSAR. However, traceability is supported from EAST-ADL’s lower abstraction levels to the implementation level elements in AUTOSAR. In this chapter, the authors describe EAST-ADL in detail, show how it relates to AUTOSAR as well as other significant automotive standards, and present current research work on using EAST-ADL in the context of fully-electric vehicles, the functional safety standard ISO 26262, and for multi-objective optimization.

  • 30.
    Persson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    A Formalized Approach to Multi-View Components for Embedded Systems: Applied to Tool Integration, Run-Time Adaptivity and Architecture Exploration2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Development of embedded systems poses an increasing challenge fordevelopers largely due to increasing complexity. Several factors contribute tothe complexity challenge:

    • the number of extra-functional properties applying to embedded systems,such as resource usage, timing effects, safety.

    • the functionality of embedded systems, to a larger extent than for othersoftware, involves engineers from multiple different disciplines, such asmechanical, control, software, safety, systems and electrical engineers.Themulti-disciplinarity causes the development environments to consistof separate data, models and tools.

    Several engineering paradigms to handle this complexity increase havebeen suggested, including methodologies focused on architecture, models andcomponents. In systems engineering, a long-standing approach has been todescribe the system in several views, each according to a certain viewpoint.By doing so, a divide-and-conquer strategy is applied to system concerns.Unfortunately, it is hard to always find completely independent concerns:there is always some semantic overlap between the different views. Modelbaseddesign (MBD) deals with building sound abstractions that can representa system under design and be used for analysis. Component-based design(CBD) focuses on how to build reusable component models with well-definedcomposition models.

    In this thesis, a concept of formalized multi-viewed component models (MVCM) is proposed, which integrates the three above mentioned paradigms.Principles and guidelines for MV CMs are developed. One of the main challengesfor the proposition is to provide MV CMs that produce composabilityboth along component boundaries and viewpoint boundaries. To accomplishthis, the relations between viewpoints need to be explicitly taken into account.Further, the semantic relations between these viewpoints need to be explicitlymodeled in order to efficiently ensure that the views are kept consistent. Asa main contribution, this thesis presents the formalization of the conceptsneeded to build such component models. A proper formalization of multiviewedconcerns provides several opportunities. Given suitable tool support, itwill be feasible to automate architecture analysis and architecture exploration.

    The thesis includes a number of case studies that provide insight andfeedback to the problem formulation and validating the results. The casestudies include a resource-aware reconfigurable middleware, a design of anarchitecture exploration methodology, and a windshield wiper system.

  • 31.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    EAST-ADL: An Architecture-centric Approach to the Design, Analysis, Verification and Validation of Complex Embedded Systems2012In: Architecture-Driven Semantic Analysis of Embedded Systems, Dagstuhl Reports, Vol. 2, Issue 7 / [ed] Feiler, Peter ; Hugues, Jérôme ; Sokolsky, Oleg, Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik, Dagstuhl Publishing, Germany, 2012, 34-34 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    EAST-ADL is a domain specific Architecture Description Language (ADL) for safety-criticaland software-intensive embedded systems. The language enables a formalized and traceabledescription of a wide range of engineering concerns throughout the entire lifecycle of systems.This makes it possible to fully utilize the leverage of state-of-the-art methods and tools forthe development of correct-by-construction system functions and components in a seamlessand cost efficient way.This talk focuses on the recent advances of EAST-ADL in supporting the description,analysis, verification&validation of complex embedded systems for the purposes of require-ments engineering, application design, and safety engineering. The approach is architecturecentric as all behavior descriptions are formalized and connected to a set of standardizeddesign artifacts existing at multiple levels of abstraction. This talk presents the languagedesign, its theoretical underpinning and tool implementation. From a bigger perspective, thecontribution makes it possible for embedded system and software developers to maintainvarious engineering concerns coherently, while exploiting mature state-of-the-art technologiesfrom computer science and other related domains for a model-based design.

  • 32.
    Qureshi, Tahir Naseer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    A timed automata-based method to analyze EAST-ADL timing constraint specifications2012In: Modelling Foundations And Applications, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, Vol. 7349 LNCS, 303-318 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing development complexity of automotive embedded systems has led to industrial needs of improved information management, early verification and validation of a system etc. EAST-ADL; an automotive-specific architectural description language provides a structured model-based approach for information management throughout the development process. A method to formally analyze consistency of EAST-ADL based timing constraint specifications using timed-automata is presented. A mapping scheme providing a basis for automated model-transformations between EAST-ADL and timed-automata is the main contribution. The method is demonstrated with a case study of a brake-by-wire system. Guidelines for extending the mapping framework are also provided.

  • 33.
    Qureshi, Tahir Naseer
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Enhancing Model-Based Development of Embedded Systems: Modeling, Simulation and Model-Transformation in an Auotmotive Context2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased usage of embedded computer systems in products like automobiles has not only introduced new innovations, additional safety and comfort but also increased the product and development complexity. Several model-based development (MBD) approaches have been proposed to support the management of such complexity. The thesis is aimed towards an integrated environment for MBD of automotive embedded systems. The envisioned environment features model exchange, and choice of modeling techniques, formalisms and tools in an efficient manner.

    The first contribution is an integration of EAST-ADL, an automotive specific ADL with a timed automata (TA) formalism for verifying embedded systems. The focus is mainly on EAST-ADL’s Timing Model (TM) and Behavior Description Annex (BDA). The TM is used for specifying a system’s timing related constraints such as delays and precedence. The BDA not only provides support for modeling behavior using a common formalism but also combines different behavior types for expressing logic, execution and error. The results are a) a formal interpretation of the TM through its transformation to TA, and b) an algorithm for transforming BDA to TA. While the former enables checking consistency between the artifacts of a TM the latter can be used for a holistic behavioral analysis.

    In the second contribution, different possibilities to realize EAST-ADL models by AUTOSAR software architecture (a standard for developing automotive embedded software) are studied. The main result is an enhanced mapping scheme between EAST-ADL and AUTOSAR. The findings can serve as guidelines for realizing configurations in EAST-ADL as AUTOSAR parameters.

    The third contribution addresses advanced embedded system features by evaluating the TM and TA for dynamic configuration mechanisms and studying Stateflow and SimEvents as alternatives for simulating architectural specifications based on EAST-ADL’s BDA. The results include a) an account of possibilities and issues related to the TM and TA integration studied in this thesis for dynamic configuration mechanisms, b) a comparison of Stateflow and SimEvents in terms of both underlying modeling formalisms and as tools and c) a discussion on possible future opportunities and issues for integrating EAST-ADL, SimEvents, Stateflow and timed automata for the envisioned integrated development environment.

    The work is supported by several case studies including a brake-by-wire system, an emergency braking system, a position and a fuel control system, an automatic drive train, and a dynamic reconfiguration scenario related to the relocation of a software component from a failed processing unit to a working one in a microprocessor-based distributed system.

  • 34.
    Armengaud, Eric
    et al.
    Virtual Vehicle Competence Center, Austria.
    Zoier, Markus
    Virtual Vehicle Competence Center, Austria.
    Baumgart, Andreas
    OFFIS E. V., Germany.
    Biehl, Matthias
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Chen, De Jiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Griessnig, Gerhard
    AVL List GmbH, Austria; Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    Hein, Christian
    Fraunhofer FOKUS, Germany.
    Ritter, Tom
    Fraunhofer FOKUS, Germany.
    Tavakoli-Kolagari, Ramin
    Volvo Technology Corporation, Sweden.
    Model-based Toolchain for the Efficient Development of Safety-Relevant Automotive Embedded Systems2011In: SAE Technical Paper: Paper Number: 2011-01-0056, Society of Automotive Engineers, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced functionalities unthinkable a few decades ago are now being introduced into automotive vehicles through embedded systems for reasons like emission control, vehicle connectivity, safety and cooperative behaviors. As the development often involves stakeholders from different engineering disciplines and organizations, the complexity due to shared requirements, interdependencies of data, functions, and resources, as well as tight constraints in regards to timing, safety, and resource efficiency makes the system integration, quality control and assurance, reuse and change management increasingly more difficult. This calls for a more rigorous approach to the development of automotive embedded systems and components. This paper describes the CESAR reference technology platform (RTP) that supports the formalization of various engineering concerns in the development of safety-relevant embedded systems and thereby a model-based integration of various tools and methods to form seamless environments or toolchains for the development of such systems.

  • 35.
    Qureshi, Tahir Naseer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Chen, De-Jiu
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    From EAST-ADL to AUTOSAR Architecture2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing complexity of embedded systems has led to a multitude of efforts in the direction of component and model-based development. The use of formalized (or semi-formal) system descriptions enable (early) analysis and synthesis, reuse and also support structured information management. Several challenges however face industrial adoption. One of the challenges is the gap between models describing system requirements, functions and architecture at a higher level of abstraction (such as SysML), withrespect to software/hardware architecture description languages (such as the AADL and the means forsystem description provided by AUTOSAR). The presented work addresses the gap between EAST-ADL and AUTOSAR. EAST-ADL is an architecture description language which provides an extension and profiling of SysML dedicated to automotive embedded systems. AUTOSAR provides means to describesoftware and hardware based architectures.

    The contributions include a mapping between different concepts in the two languages along with possible variation points, identification of both existing and required tool features and methodological aspects by considering a specific tool chain. A discussion on the possible decision support is also a part of the outcomes of the presented work. Two case studies, i.e. a position control and a fuel control system, havebeen used to support the work, and a third case study of a brake-by-wire system has been used to validate the results. The findings provide a basis for automated refinement of EAST-ADL based architecture models to AUTOSAR configurations.

  • 36.
    Tagliabo, Fulvio
    et al.
    Centro Ricerche Fiat S.C.p.A..
    Torchiaro, Sandra
    Centro Ricerche Fiat S.C.p.A..
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Johansson, Rolf
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Papadopoulos, Yiannis
    University of Hull.
    Walker, Martin
    University of Hull.
    Sandberg, Anders
    Mecel AB.
    Modelling Support for the Automotive Functional Safety Standard2011In: Monographs of System Dependability: Problems of Dependability and Modelling / [ed] J. Mazurkiewicz el al., Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Wroclawskiej , 2011, 1Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Qureshi, Tahir Naseer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Chen, De-Jiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Persson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Towards the Integration of EAST-ADL and UPPAAL for FormalVerification of EAST-ADL Timing Constraint Specification2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    EAST-ADL is an architecture description language developed for specifications of automotive embedded systems at multiple abstraction levels. Based on the best practices in model-based system development (MBD), it provides necessary artifacts for integrating and managing various concerns in an entire system lifecycle. Requirements engineering, safety engineering and the assignments of nonfunctional constraints are few examples of the concerns supported by EAST-ADL. This paper presents an effort to investigate the support for a formal verification of the execution timing constraints declared in EAST-ADL  using the UPPAAL model checker. The results include a transformation scheme and a prototype transformation employing MQL (Model Query Language). Two case studies, of an emergency braking system and a brake-by-wire system, are used to support the work.

  • 38.
    Qureshi, Tahir Naseer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Pessson, Magnus
    Chen, De-Jiu
    Sjöstedt, Carl-Johan
    Towards Harmonizing MultipleArchitecture Description Languages for Real-Time Embedded Systems2011In: Real-Time in Sweden (RTiS), 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing complexity of real-time embedded systems requires appropriate methods and techniques to support the development including the specification and analysis of different architectural aspects. A large number of architectural description languages (ADL) have been proposed with varying focus and application domains. There is a need for harmonization of these ADLs. This can be from develoloping and  understanding of how they differ or could be synergistically combined for increasing the overall development efficiency and fulfilling the ever increasing functional and non-functional requirements on a system. This paper addresses this issue and focuses on four different ADLs: EAST-ADL, AUTOSAR, AADL and Rubus[MT1] . In this work we compare these ADLs, identify possible usage scenarios involving more than one ADL and discuss some of the underlying challenges. A representative industrial case study of a brake-by-wire system is used to support the work.

     

  • 39.
    Tagliabo, Fulvio
    et al.
    Centro Ricerche Fiat S.C.p.A..
    Torchiaro, Sandra
    Centro Ricerche Fiat S.C.p.A..
    Johansson, Rolf
    Mentor Graphics Corp..
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Walker, Martin
    University of Hull.
    Papadopoulos, Yiannis
    University of Hull.
    Sandberg, Anders
    Mecel AB.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Dedicated Modeling Support for the Automotive Functional Safety Standard2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Qureshi, Tahir Naseer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    From EAST-ADL to AUTOSAR Software Architecture: A Mapping Scheme2011In: 5th European Conference on Software Architecture, ECSA 2011: Software Architecture / [ed] Ivica Crnkovic, Volker Gruhn and Matthias Book, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, 328-335 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the gap between models describing system requirements, functions and architecture at a higher level of abstraction (such as SysML models), with respect to software/hardware architecture description (such as the AADL models) as the means to improve the development process or embedded systems. The EAST-ADL and AUTOSAR are the two focused architecture description formalisms in the presented work. While EAST-ADL is an architecture description language providing an extension and profiling of SysML dedicated to automotive embedded systems, AUTOSAR provides means to describe software architecture architectures. The contribution of the paper is a relationship investigation between different concepts of the two languages. Three case studies, of a position control , fuel control and a brake-by-wire system, have been used to support and validate the work. The resulting mapping scheme provides a basis for automated architecture refinements and synthesis.

  • 41.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Johansson, Rolf
    SP Technical Research Institute, Sweden.
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB, Sweden.
    Blom, Hans
    Volvo Technology AB, Sweden.
    Walker, Martin
    University of Hull, United Kingdom.
    Papadopoulos, Yiannis
    University of Hull, United Kingdom.
    Torchiaro, Sandra
    Centro Ricerche Fiat (CRF), Italy.
    Tagliabo, Fulvio
    Centro Ricerche Fiat (CRF), Italy.
    Sandberg, Anders
    Mecel AB, Sweden.
    Integrated safety and architecture modeling for automotive embedded systems2011In: Elektrotechnik und Informationstechnik, ISSN 0932-383X, Vol. 128, no 6, 196-202 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    EAST-ADL is an architecture description language (ADL) for model-based development of automotive embedded systems.The formalization of domain-specific engineering information and methodology brings a potential for a wide range of benefitsfor information management, system design and integration, tool interaction, documentation and communication. This paper describesthe EAST-ADL language support for safety requirements, faults/failures, hazards and safety constraints in the context of ISO/DIS 26262reference safety lifecycle. Based on the language support, the safety related information can be derived and managed seamlessly alongwith its target nominal system architecture model with multiple abstraction levels and view extensions. Through model transformationand tool integration, automated safety analysis is allowed.

  • 42.
    Biehl, Matthias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    De-Jiu, Chen
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Integrating safety analysis into the model-based development tool chain of automotive embedded systems2010In: ACM SIGPLAN Notices, ISSN 0362-1340, Vol. 45, no 4, 125-132 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive industry has a growing demand for the seamless integration of safety analysis tools into the model-based development tool chain for embedded systems. This requires translating concepts of the automotive domain to the safety domain. We automate such a translation between the automotive architecture description language EAST-ADL2 and the safety analysis tool HiPHOPS by using model transformations and by leveraging the advantages of different model transformation techniques. By means of this integration, the safety analysis can be conducted early in the development process, when the system can be redesigned to fulfill safety goals with relatively low effort and cost.

  • 43.
    Feng, Lei
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Verifying System Behaviors in EAST-ADL2 with the SPIN ModelChecker2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    EAST-ADL2 is a domain-specific architecture descriptionlanguage to support the model-based developmentof automotive embedded systems. It emerged to manage thecomplexity of software and electronics in advanced automotiveapplications. The language focuses on the structural definitionfor functional specifications. Behavior is defined only on thecomponent level, in terms of functional blocks and their triggersand interfaces. The behavioral definition inside each functionalblock is not prescribed. This paper shows one approachto augment the language with precise syntax and semanticsfor behavior, and develops a procedure that transforms thecomposed behavioral model to the SPIN model for logicmodel checking. The contribution improves the modeling andverification capability of EAST-ADL2.

  • 44.
    Papadopoulos, Yiannis
    et al.
    University of Hull.
    Walker, Martin
    University of Hull.
    Reiser, Mark-Oliver
    Technical University of Berlin.
    Weber, Matthias
    Carmeq GmbH.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    David, Servat
    CEA List , Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique Saclay.
    Andreas, Abele
    Continental Automotive GmbH.
    Stappert, Friedhelm
    Continental Automotive GmbH.
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Berntsson, lars-Olof
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Johansson, Rolf
    Mentor Graphics Corp..
    Tagliabo, Fulvio
    Centro Ricerche Fiat S.C.p.A..
    Torchiaro, Sandra
    Centro Ricerche Fiat S.C.p.A..
    Sandberg, Anders
    Mecel AB.
    Automatic allocation of safety integrity levels2010In: Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on Critical Automotive applications: Robustness & Safety, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2010, 7-10 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we describe a concept for the automatic allocationof general Safety Integrity Levels (SILs) to subsystems andcomponents of complex hierarchical networked architectures thatdeliver sets of safety critical functions. The concept is generic andcan be adapted to facilitate the safety engineering approachdefined in several standards that employ the concept of integrityor assurance levels including ISO 26262, the emergingautomotive safety standard. SIL allocation is facilitated by HiPHOPS,an automated safety analysis tool, and can be performed inthe context of development using EAST-ADL2, an automotivearchitecture description language. The process rationalizescomplex risk allocation and leads to optimal/economic allocationof SILs.

  • 45.
    Sandberg, Anders
    et al.
    Mecel AB.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Lönn, Henrik
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Johansson, Rolf
    Mentor Graphics Corp..
    Feng, Lei
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Torchiaro, Sandra
    Centro Ricerche Fiat.
    Tavakoli-Kolagari, Ramin
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Abele, Andreas
    Continental Automotive GmbH.
    Model-Based Safety Engineering of Interdependent Functions in Automotive Vehicles Using EAST-ADL22010In: COMPUTER SAFETY, RELIABILITY, AND SECURITY, Springer, 2010, Vol. 6351Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For systems where functions are distributed but share support forcomputation, communication, environment sensing and actuation, it is essentialto understand how such functions can affect each other. Preliminary HazardAnalysis (PHA) is the task through which safety requirements are established.This is usually a document-based process where each system function isanalyzed alone, making it difficult to reason about the commonalities of relatedfunctional concepts and the distribution of safety mechanisms across a systemof-systems. This paper presents a model-based approach to PHA with theEAST-ADL2 language and in accordance with the ISO/DIS 26262 standard.The language explicitly supports the definition and handling of requirements,functions and technical solutions, and their various relations and constraints as acoherent whole with multiple views. We show in particular the engineeringneeds for a systematic approach to PHA and the related language features forprecise modeling of requirements, user functionalities, system operationcontexts, and the derived safety mechanisms.

  • 46.
    Chen, DeJiu
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Persson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Qureshi, Tahir Naseer
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Towards Model-Based Engineering of Self-Configuring Embedded Systems2010In: Model-based engineering of embedded real-time systems / [ed] Giese, H; Karsai, G; Lee, E; Rumpe, B; Schatz, B, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2010, 1st Edition, Vol. 6100, 345-353 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In self-configuring embedded systems, upgrades, attachment of devices, relocation ofapplications and adjustment of performance parameters can be carried out during run-timefor the purposes of information/function integration, maintenance, performance, resourceefficiency, and robustness. We describe a model-based engineering approach to support thedevelopment of such systems. Essential ingredients include a combined usage of a systemmodel, simulation combined with a number of formal techniques, and run-time models used as a basis for on-line decision making, with the overall goal to ascertain flexible, yet dependable, system behavior.

  • 47.
    Qureshi, Tahir Naseer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Persson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Experiences in Simulating a Dynamically Self-Configuring Middleware: A Case Study of DySCAS2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased usage of electronic components, wired and wireless networks, software and advanced telematics systems in modern automotive systems has raised the overall complexity in terms of both the system functionalities and their development and maintenance. One way to handle a few of the complexities is the use of middlewares and introduction of self-management mechanisms. This report presents the experiences and efforts for verification and proof of concepts by simulations of a dynamically self-configuring middleware for automotive systems. A brief overview of the architecture and control flow of the simulated middleware, requirements for a self-managing systems and their simulation platform are also presented.

  • 48.
    Qureshi, Tahir Naseer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Persson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    On Mapping UML™ Models to Simulink® /SimEvents™:  A Case Study of Dynamically Self-Configuring Middleware2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the increased usage of electronics and software the complexity of systems such as automotive as well as their development process is also increasing. One possible solution to reduce and manage this complexity is model-based and component based development approach. One of the major key features of model-based development is model transformation. This report presents an effort towards the model-based development in automotive systems with a dynamically self-configuring middleware as case study. A mapping scheme from UML™ (Unified modeling language) to SimEvents™ an extension of Simulink® for discrete event simulations is the major outcome of this work. The focus of this work is on the behavior of the middleware components specified by state machines and activity diagrams using UML™. Identification of the requirements and challenges in model transformations for self-configuring systems and a library for the middleware core services for SimEvents™ is also part of this work.

  • 49.
    Anthony, Richard
    et al.
    The University of Greenwich.
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Scholle, Detlef
    Enea Data AB.
    Sanfridson, Martin
    Volvo Technology AB.
    Rettberg, Achim
    University of Paderborn/C-LAB.
    Qureshi, Tahir Naseer
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Persson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Systems.
    Autonomic Middleware for Automotive Embedded Systems2009In: Autonomic Communication / [ed] Vasilakos, Athanasios V.; Parashar, Manish; Karnouskos, Stamatis; Pedrycz, Witold, Springer US , 2009, 169-210 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter describes DySCAS: an advanced autonomic platform-independent middleware framework for automotive embedded systems. The concepts and architecture are motivated and described in detail, focusing on the need for, and achievement of, high flexibility and automatic run-time reconfiguration. The design of the middleware is positioned with respect to the way it overcomes the specific technical, environmental, and performance challenges of the automotive domain. Self-management is achieved in terms of automatic configuration for context-aware behavior, resource-use efficiency, and self-healing to handle run-time detected faults. The self-management is governed by the use of policies distributed throughout the middleware components. The simulation techniques that have been used for extensive validation are described and some key results presented. A reference implementation is presented, illustrating the way in which the various concepts and mechanisms can be realized and orchestrated.

  • 50.
    Qureshi, Tahir Naseer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Persson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Chen, DeJiu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Model-Based Development of Middleware forSelf-Configurable Embedded Real Time Systems: Experiences from the DySCAS Project2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents experiences from the model-based development of a framework for a middleware targeting the needs for self-management and context awareness in automotive systems. The major focus is on a simulation platform and a reference implementation of the middleware architecture. We also discuss challenges and possible future extensions.

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