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  • 1.
    Zou, Zhi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemical Engineering.
    Capacitive Mixing for Extracting Concentration Gradient Energy2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Capacitive mixing (CapMix) is a renewable method of extracting energy from the salinity gradient energy (SGE) between seawater and freshwater. The classical CapMix systems using solid electrodes generate electricity by periodically circulating seawater and freshwater into the CapMix system. The major limitation of classical CapMix is intermittent energy production. Therefore, the development of a new CapMix system to solve this limitation is highly desired. This thesis aims to develope an innovative CapMix system for continuous energy production. All the work is based on four papers and can be divided into the following parts.

    In Chapter 1, a brief introduction to the SGE and CapMix is presented. 

    In Chapter 2, a comparative study on the four classical CapMix systems, namely, capacitive energy extraction based on double layer expansion (CDLE), capacitive energy extraction based on the Donnan potential (CDP), and CDP with additional charging of constant voltage (CDP-CV) and constant current (CDP-CC)., is discussed. The influences of experimental parameters, e.g., applied voltage, applied current, accumulated charge, and the external load on the system performance, were systematically investigated and presented. A comprehensive comparison between these four classical CapMix systems is also given in this chapter.

    Chapter 3 and Chapter 4 describe two novel CapMix systems based on flow electrode (F-CapMix) configuration which were developed to realize continuous energy production. The first one is a two-cell F-CapMix system, in which the flow electrode slurry was circulated between the two cells. The second is a one-cell F-CapMix system with cross chambers, in which there are two chambers between one pair of plates in parallel; the flow electrode slurry was circulated within the two graphite plates of the cell. The feasibility of these two F-CapMix systems was examined. The effect of the experimental parameters, e.g., activated carbon loading, carbon black amount, external resistance, feedwater flow rate, and flow electrode flow rate, on the system performance were systematically investigated and presented. 

    In Chapter 5, a thorough study of the theoretical models related to the thermodynamic properties of the electric double layer at equilibrium, e.g., the Gouy-Chapman-Stern (GCS), Modified Poisson-Boltzmann-Stern (MPBS), modified Donnan (mD) and improved modified Donnan (i-mD) models is presented. The rationality and the physical interpretation of the parameters used in these models were detailed investigated and presented.

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    kappa
  • 2.
    Aad, G.
    et al.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, CNRS IN2P3, Marseille, France..
    Jensen, Bengt
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Ohm, Christian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Ripellino, Giulia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Shaheen, Rabia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Shope, David R.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Strandberg, Jonas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Zwalinski, L.
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland..
    Search for R-parity-violating supersymmetry in a final state containing leptons and many jets with the ATLAS experiment using root s=13 TeV proton-proton collision data2021In: European Physical Journal C, ISSN 1434-6044, E-ISSN 1434-6052, Vol. 81, no 11, article id 1023Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A search for R-parity-violating supersymmetry in final states characterized by high jet multiplicity, at least one isolated light lepton and either zero or at least three b-tagged jets is presented. The search uses 139 fb(-1) of root s = 13 TeV proton-proton collision data collected by the ATLAS experiment during Run 2 of the Large Hadron Collider. The results are interpreted in the context of R-parity-violating supersymmetry models that feature gluino production, top-squark production, or electroweakino production. The dominant sources of background are estimated using a data-driven model, based on observables at medium jet multiplicity, to predict the b-tagged jet multiplicity distribution at the higher jet multiplicities used in the search. Machine-learning techniques are used to reach sensitivity to electroweakino production, extending the data-driven background estimation to the shape of the machine-learning discriminant. No significant excess over the Standard Model expectation is observed and exclusion limits at the 95% confidence level are extracted, reaching as high as 2.4 TeV in gluino mass, 1.35 TeV in top-squark mass, and 320 (365) GeV in higgsino (wino) mass.

  • 3.
    Bell, Thomas
    et al.
    Univ Cologne, Dept Chem, D-50939 Cologne, Germany..
    Smetana, Volodymyr
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mudring, Anja-Verena
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Mat & Environm Chem, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Meyer, Gerd
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry. Univ Cologne, Dept Chem, D-50939 Cologne, Germany..
    Binary Intermetallics in the 70 atom % R Region of Two R-Pd Systems (R = Tb and Er): Hidden, Obscured, or Nonexistent?2020In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 59, no 15, p. 10802-10812Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although rare-earth-metal-transition-metal (R/T) phase diagrams have been explored extensively, our recent studies have uncovered new previously nonexistent binary intermetallics. These compounds belong to a narrow region between 70 and 71.4 atom % of the rare-earth metal but represent four different structure types. The binaries Tb7Pd3 and Er17Pd7 are compositionally approaching (less than 1 atom % difference) the previously reported R2.16Pd0.89 (R = Tb and Er), and apparently form by peritectoid transformation, thus, being hard to detect by fast cooling. Tb7Pd3 (1) crystallizes in the Th7Fe3 structure type (hP20, P6(3)mc, a = 9.8846(4) angstrom, c = 6.2316(3) angstrom, Z = 2) while Er17Pd7 (2) belongs to the Pr17Co7 type being its second reported representative (cP96, P2(1)3, a = 13.365(2) degrees, Z = 4). Er17Pd7 (2) is overlapping with the cubic F-centered Er2.11Pd0.89 (3b, Fd (3) over barm, a = 13.361(1) angstrom, Z = 32) with practically identical unit cell parameters but a significantly different structure. Electronic structure calculations confirm that heteroatomic R-T bonding strongly dominates in all structures; T-T bonding interactions are individually strong but do not play a significant role in the total bonding.

  • 4.
    Hagbert, Pernilla
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Wangel, Josefin
    SLU.
    Broms, Loove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Department of Design, Interior Architecture and Visual Communication, Konstfack University of Arts, Crafts and Design, Sweden.
    Exploring the Potential for Just Urban Transformations in Light of Eco-Modernist Imaginaries of Sustainability2020In: Urban Planning, E-ISSN 2183-7635, Vol. 5, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article approaches urban ethics through critically examining the production and reproduction of an eco-modern socio-technical imaginary of sustainable urban development in Sweden, and the conditions and obstacles this poses for a just transformation. We see that notions of ecological modernization re-present problems of urban sustainability in ways that do not challenge the predominant regime, but rather uphold unjust power relations. More particularly, through an approach inspired by critical discourse analysis, we uncover what these problem representations entail, deconstructing what we find as three cornerstones of an eco-modern imaginary that obstruct the emergence of a more ethically-engaged understanding of urban sustainability. The first concerns which scales and system boundaries are constructed as relevant, and how this results in some modes and places of production and consumption being constructed as more efficient—and sustainable—than others. The second cornerstone has to do with what resources and ways of using them (including mediating technologies) are foregrounded and constructed as more important in relation to sustainability than others. The third cornerstone concerns the construction of subjectivities, through which some types of people and practices are put forth as more efficient—and sustainable—than others. Utilizing a critical speculative design approach, we explore a selection of alternative problem representations, and finally discuss these in relation to the possibility of affording a more ethical urban design and planning practice.

  • 5. Ahmed, Z.
    et al.
    Izbassarov, Daulet
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Costa, Pedro
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Muradoglu, M.
    Tammisola, Outi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Turbulent bubbly channel flows: Effects of soluble surfactant and viscoelasticity2020In: Computers & Fluids, ISSN 0045-7930, E-ISSN 1879-0747, Vol. 212, article id 104717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interface-resolved direct numerical simulations are performed to examine the combined effects of soluble surfactant and viscoelasticity on the structure of a bubbly turbulent channel flow. The incompressible flow equations are solved fully coupled with the FENE-P viscoelastic model and the equations governing interfacial and bulk surfactant concentrations. The latter coupling is achieved through a non-linear equation of state which relates the surface tension to the surfactant concentration at the interface. The two-fluid Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a front-tracking method, augmented with a very efficient FFT-based pressure projection method that allows for massively parallel simulations of turbulent flows. It is found that, for the surfactant-free case, bubbles move toward the wall due to inertial lift force, resulting in formation of wall layers and a significant decrease in the flow rate. Conversely, a high-enough concentration of surfactant changes the direction of lateral migration of bubbles, i.e., the contaminated bubbles move toward the core region and spread out across the channel. When viscoelasticity is considered, viscoelastic stresses counteract the Marangoni stresses, promoting formation of bubbly wall-layers and consequently strong decrease in the flow rate. The formation of bubble wall-layers for combined case depends on the interplay of the inertial and elastic, and Marangoni forces. 

  • 6.
    Wangel, Josefin
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Hesselgren, Mia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Product and Service Design. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC, Green Leap.
    Eriksson, Elina
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC, Green Leap.
    Broms, Loove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Kanulf, Gabriel
    Ateljé Gabriel Kanulf.
    Ljunggren, Andrejs
    Atlejé Andrejs Ljunggren.
    Vitiden: Transforming a policy-orienting scenario to a practice-oriented energy fiction2019In: Futures: The journal of policy, planning and futures studies, ISSN 0016-3287, E-ISSN 1873-6378, Vol. 112, article id UNSP 102440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a lack of futures studies addressing consumption and lifestyles at the level of everyday life. This article reports on the transformation of the policy-orienting scenario "Legato", developed by the Swedish Energy Agency in 2016, to a practice-oriented design speculation. The article describes the process of transformation and the resulting energy fiction “Vitiden”. The transformation involved three acts of translation. First, the scope of the transition was explored in-depth, both quantitatively and qualitatively, providing a more detailed understanding of the gap between the 'sustainable' 2050 and today. Second, the scenario Legato was analysed for practices and elements of practices that could be elaborated to descriptions of how everyday life could play out in this future. The third step involved re-presenting the practice-oriented scenario as a design speculation. The design speculation was given the form of a book named “Vitiden - an energy fiction” in which the reformulated version of Legato is presented through text and images, combining a forwardlooking manifesto and a backward-looking future archaeology. Besides the written content and the pictures and illustrations of Vitiden, the design of the book is also part of the speculation as it embodies an exploration of how publications, including form, graphic design and choice of materials, could look like in a future such as Legato.

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    Vitiden
  • 7.
    Hesselgren, Mia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Product and Service Design. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC, Green Leap.
    Eriksson, Elina
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC, Green Leap.
    Wangel, Josefin
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Broms, Loove
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Product and Service Design. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC, Green Leap.
    Exploring Lost and Found in Future Images of Energy Transitions: Towards a Bridging practice of Provoking and Affirming Design2018In: DRS2018: Catalyst, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We need to transition our society in a more sustainable direction, for example through enormous cuts in carbon emissions. Yet this future is hard to envision and work towards. In this project, with a transition design posture, we have designed tools that we believe can be useful to initiate dialogues and reflections for the future. In particular we are interested in using the bridging between provocative and affirmative design as a way to explore and articulate what people see as the lost and found of such a transition. In this paper, we present a study where we used a practice lens to address one possible low carbon future through a provocation workshop. We present our methodology, the tentative tools we used during the workshop and the experiences as expressed by the workshop participants.

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    fulltext
  • 8.
    Broms, Loove
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. Department of Design, Interior architecture and Visual communication, Konstfack University College of Arts, Crafts and Design, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wangel, Josefin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Green Leap.
    Andersson, Camilla
    Green Leap.
    Sensing energy: Forming stories through speculative design artefacts2017In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 31, p. 194-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The artificial world is part of an on-going negotiation of meaning, manifesting in social practice. From a sustainability perspective it is thus important to critically examine what norms are imprinted into the artificial, as well as to imagine, materialize and suggest artefacts that could afford more sustainable stories and practices to form. The project Sensing Energy is an attempt to explore how design could contribute to a re-imagination of everyday life and society, as well as what imaginaries (artefacts and related stories) could come out of such an endeavour. A critical and speculative design programme comprising the three leitmotifs Natureculture, Microsizing modernity, and Focal things and practices, provided a frame and foundation for a series of design experiments. The resulting artefacts were presented at two different workshops in which participants were asked to form stories that integrated one or more of the design experiments into their everyday life. Based on the material from the workshops we can conclude that the design experiments worked well as parts of or catalysts for new stories of the everyday.

  • 9.
    Wangel, Josefin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC, Green Leap.
    Broms, Loove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC, Green Leap.
    Eriksson, Elina
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC, Green Leap.
    Hesselgren, Mia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Product and Service Design. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC, Green Leap.
    Kanulf, Gabriel
    Freelance graphic designer.
    Ljunggren, Andrejs
    Freelance graphic designer.
    Vitiden: en energifiktion2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We must accept the present reality – only thereby do we have the possibility to understand it, relate to it to influence it and create culture that is a flexible tool for the transition.

    This is the opening paragraph of "Vitiden - an energy fiction"1 where the transition to a more sustainable society is explored through interacting text and image. In the forward-looking and text-based manifesto, Vitiden is outlined as an answer to today's ecological and social challenges. The high pitch and ambitions of the manifesto are commented on by an image-based future archaeology, constructed by fictional fragments of the future. Inset images from the acceptera manifesto2, which is also paraphrased in the introductory paragraph of Vitiden, relates the energy fiction to the modernist societal development and the critique thereof. A generous body of annotations contributes with further perspectives.

    1) The term Vitiden is Swedish and can be translated to the 'we-age'. In contrast to other 'ages' such as the bronze age or the atom age, Vitiden is not a description of a historical era, but a suggested future, an age yet to come, distinguished by its emphasis on togetherness.

    1An energy fiction is a design fiction or essentially any image of the future dealing primarily with questions related to energy, in this case as an enabling and constraining factor for sociomaterial entanglements and practices to emerge and endure.

    2Asplund, G., Gahn, W., Markelius, S., Paulsson, G., Sundahl, E., Åhrén, U. 1980[1931] acceptera. Tiden förlag. Faksimil.

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    fulltext
  • 10.
    Broms, Loove
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Product and Service Design. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC, Green Leap.
    Storyforming: Experiments in creating discursive engagements between people, things and environments2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis introduces and critically reflects on a design programme, Storyforming, that explores ways to design objects and places to enrich daily life narratives. Using an experimental design approach, the goal is to exemplify and explore this idea with discursive artefacts that, through their physical and temporal form, act as catalysts in the construction of meaningful experiences.

    In the current sustainability discourse, behavioural change has been pointed out as a key factor in achieving a sustainable society. Historically, design has been very effective in increasing production and consumption behaviours by creating new types of needs and, in a way, manufacturing desire (Forty, 1986). Drawing on this, the overarching aim of this thesis is the investigation of the ways design, through a suggested programme, can afford alternative types of meaningful experiences in contrast to the prevailing consumer culture.

    The empirical work reported in the thesis stems from several research projects looking into the matter of energy use in relation to design. In addition, two of the projects have been carried out in the author’s own design practice. Some concepts are explored more in-depth—involving events such as field studies, situated interviews, workshops, prototype building, design interventions in the form of domestication probes, and contextual studies ranging from a few weeks up to a year—while other concepts exist only as sketches or photo montages. The diversity of these concepts, the design experiments, helps span a design space becoming a new provisional design programme. The idea for this programme has evolved from observations and reflections made throughout the experiments presented in the thesis.

    The general results are the suggested approach of Storyforming, which focuses on the design of artefacts supporting daily narratives that can be used to create engagement, meaning, and alternative values applicable to the discourse of sustainable behaviour.

    Specific contributions are the selection of design experiments. In the thesis, the experiments have first been examined from the perspective of stories and forming as a basis for the new programme formulation. Through this articulation of the programme, the experiments are revisited through three leitmotifs, part of the provisional programme focusing on different properties related to the aspect of forming. From the perspective of the user, these themes—seeing and accessing designs, exploring and expressing complexity, and sharing experiences and negotiating use—are finally elaborated on in relation to other theoretical concepts as well as their implications for future research.

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    Thesis
  • 11.
    Ehrnberger, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Product and Service Design. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC, Green Leap.
    Broms, Loove
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Product and Service Design. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC, Green Leap.
    Katzeff, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. Interactive Institute.
    Becoming the Energy AWARE Clock: Revisiting the Design Process Through a Feminist Gaze2013In: Experiments in Design Research / [ed] Eva Brandt, Pelle Ehn, Troels Degn Johansson, Maria Hellström Reimer, Thomas Markussen, Anna Vallgårda, Köpenhamn: The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Schools Architecture, Design and Conservation , 2013, p. 258-266Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the border between technology and design (form giving) from a feminist perspective. Looking at the energy system and how it has been integrated in the household, we want to address the underlying structures that have been built into the ecology of electrical appliances used in daily life, preserving certain norms that could be questioned from both a gender and a sustainability perspective. We have created an alternative electricity meter, the Energy AWARE Clock, addressing design issues uncovered in an initial field study. In this paper, we will make parallels to these issues. We also use feminist technoscience studies scholar Donna Haraway’s theory of the cyborg in order to clarify useful concepts that can be derived from feminist theory and that can act as important tools for designers engaged in creative processes. From our own experience with the Energy AWARE Clock this approach has great potential for questioning and rethinking present norms within sustainability and gender, from the viewpoints of design research and design practice.

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    Ehrnberger et al. Becoming the Energy AWARE Clock Nordes 2013
  • 12.
    Katzeff, Cecilia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Broms, Loove
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Product and Service Design. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC, Green Leap.
    Jönsson, Li
    Denmark Design School.
    Räsänen, Minna
    Södertörns Högskola.
    Westholm, Ulrika
    Exploring Sustainable Practices in Workplace Settings through Visualizing Electricity Consumption2013In: ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, ISSN 1073-0516, E-ISSN 1557-7325, ISSN ISSN 1073-0516, Vol. 20, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People’s domestic habits are increasingly being targeted to reduce levels of CO2 emissions. Whereas domestic energy consumption has received a lot of attention with several reported studies on sustainable practices, there are very few studies on workplace practices. Nevertheless, these are considered as having much potential for reducing energy consumption. This paper presents the findings from two field studies where two different types of prototypes for visualizing energy use were designed, implemented and evaluated in different types of workplace settings – factories and offices. The studies used design probes to explore how visual feedback for electricity use was interpreted and acted upon by employees in work settings. A striking observation was that it is very difficult to get people to change to more pro-environmental behavior and practices in a workplace environment. The paper discusses why this might be the case.

  • 13.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Killian, Manuela S.
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering 4, Chair for Surface Science and Corrosion, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Martensstr.7, 91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Blomberg, Eva
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Virtanen, Sannakaisa
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering 4, Chair for Surface Science and Corrosion, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Martensstr.7, 91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Schmuki, Patrik
    Department of Materials Science and Engineering 4, Chair for Surface Science and Corrosion, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Martensstr.7, 91058 Erlangen, Germany.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Interaction of bovine serum albumin and lysozyme with stainless steel studied by time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy2012In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 28, no 47, p. 16306-16317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An in-depth mechanistic understanding of the interaction between stainless steel surfaces and proteins is essential from a corrosion and protein-induced metal release perspective when stainless steel is used in surgical implants and in food applications. The interaction between lysozyme (LSZ) from chicken egg white and bovine serum albumin (BSA) and AISI 316L stainless steel surfaces was studied ex situ by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) after different adsorption time periods (0.5, 24, and 168 h). The effect of XPS measurements, storage (aging), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and elevated temperature (up to 200 °C) on the protein layers, as well as changes in surface oxide composition, were investigated. Both BSA and LSZ adsorption induced an enrichment of chromium in the oxide layer. BSA induced significant changes to the entire oxide, while LSZ only induced a depletion of iron at the utmost layer. SDS was not able to remove preadsorbed proteins completely, despite its high concentration and relatively long treatment time (up to 36.5 h), but induced partial denaturation of the protein coatings. High-temperature treatment (200 °C) and XPS exposure (X-ray irradiation and/or photoelectron emission) induced significant denaturation of both proteins. The heating treatment up to 200 °C removed some proteins, far from all. Amino acid fragment intensities determined from ToF-SIMS are discussed in terms of significant differences with adsorption time, between the proteins, and between freshly adsorbed and aged samples. Stainless steel–protein interactions were shown to be strong and protein-dependent. The findings assist in the understanding of previous studies of metal release and surface changes upon exposure to similar protein solutions.

  • 14.
    Broms, Loove
    et al.
    Interactive Institute.
    Katzeff, Cecilia
    Interactive Institute.
    Bång, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Nyblom, Åsa
    Interactive Institute.
    Ilstedt Hjelm, Sara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Product and Service Design.
    Ehrnberger, Karin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Product and Service Design.
    Days in the life of the Energy Aware Clock2011In: Swedish Design Research Journal, ISSN 2000-964X, no 1, p. 30-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a potential for greater electricity savings if we can better understand how design affects behaviour. This paper describes om design of an energy awareness artefact - the Energy AWARE Clock- and discusses it in relation to behavioural processes in the home. The Energy AWARE Clock showed to play a significant role in drawing households' attention to their electricity use. It became a natural part of the household and conceptions of electricity became natmalized into informants' everyday language.

  • 15.
    Spagnolli, Anna
    et al.
    University of Padua.
    Corradi, Nicola
    University of Padua.
    Gamberini, Luciano
    University of Padua.
    Hoggan, Eve
    University of Helsinki.
    Jacucci, Giulio
    Aalto University.
    Katzeff, Cecilia
    Interactive Institute.
    Broms, Loove
    Interactive Institute.
    Jönsson, Li
    Interactive Institute.
    Eco-Feedback on the Go: Motivating Energy Awareness2011In: IEEE Computer Society, ISSN 1051-4651, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 38-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EnergyLife mobile interface incorporates lessons from environmental psychology and feedback intervention to relay information from appliance sensors, offeringa gaming environment that rewards usersfor decreased electricity consumption.

    Download full text (pdf)
    eco-feedback
  • 16.
    Broms, Loove
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Sustainable Interactions: Studies in the Design of Energy Awareness Artefacts2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents a collection of experimental designs that approach the problem of growing electricity consumption in homes. From the perspective of design, the intention has been to critically explore the design space of energy awareness artefacts to reinstate awareness of energy use in everyday practice. The design experiments were used as vehicles for thinking about the relationship between physical form, interaction, and social practice. The rationale behind the concepts was based on a small-scale ethnography, situated interviews, and design experience. Moreover, the thesis compares designer intention and actual user experiences of a prototype that was installed in nine homes in a residential area in Stockholm for three months. This was done in order to elicit tacit knowledge about how the concept was used in real-world domestic settings, to challenge everyday routines, and to enable both users and designers to critically reflect on artefacts and practices. From a design perspective, contributions include design approaches to communicating energy use: visualizations for showing relationships between behaviour and electricity consumption, shapes and forms to direct action, means for turning restrictions caused by energy conservation into central parts of the product experience, and ways to promote sustainable behaviour with positive driving forces based on user lifestyles. The general results indicate that inclusion is of great importance when designing energy awareness artefacts; all members of the household should be able to access, interact with, and reflect on their energy use. Therefore, design-related aspects such as placement and visibility, as well as how the artefact might affect the social interactions in the home, become central. Additionally, the thesis argues that these types of artefacts can potentially create awareness accompanied by negative results such as stress. A challenge for the designer is to create artefacts that communicate and direct energy use in ways that are attractive and can be accepted by all household members as a possible way of life.

  • 17.
    Broms, Loove
    et al.
    Interactive Intstitute.
    Katzeff, Cecilia
    Interactive Institute.
    Bång, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Nyblom, Åsa
    Interactive Institute.
    Ilstedt Hjelm, Sara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Product and Service Design.
    Ehrnberger, Karin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Product and Service Design.
    Coffee Maker Patterns and the Design of Energy Feedback Artefacts2010In: DIS '10 Proceedings of the 8th ACM Conference on Designing Interactive Systems, 2010, p. 93-102Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart electricity meters and home displays are being installed in people’s homes with the assumption that households will make the necessary efforts to reduce their electricity consumption. However, present solutions do not sufficiently account for the social implications of design. There is a potential for greater savings if we can better understand how such designs affect behaviour. In this paper, we describe our design of an energy awareness artefact – the Energy AWARE Clock – and discuss it in relation to behavioural processes in the home. A user study is carried out to study the deployment of the prototype in real domestic contexts for three months. Results indicate that the Energy AWARE Clock played a significant role in drawing households’ attention to their electricity use. It became a natural part of the household and conceptions of electricity became naturalized into informants’ everyday language.

  • 18.
    Jönsson, Li
    et al.
    Interactive Institute.
    Broms, Loove
    Interactive Institute.
    Katzeff, Cecilia
    Interactive Institute.
    Watt-Lite; Energy Statistics Made Tangible2010In: DIS '10, New York: ACM Press, 2010, p. 240-243Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing our knowledge of how design affects behaviour in the workplace has a large potential for reducing electricity consumption. This would be beneficial for the environment as well as for industry and society at large. In Western society energy use is hidden and for the great mass of consumers its consequences are poorly understood. In order to better understand how we can use design to increase awareness of electricity consumption in everyday life, we will discuss the design of Watt-Lite, a set of three oversized torches projecting real time energy statistics of a factory in the physical environments of its employees. The design of Watt-Lite is meant to explore ways of representing, understanding and interacting with electricity in industrial workspaces. We discuss three design inquiries and their implications for the design of Watt-Lite: the use of tangible statistics; exploratory interaction and transferred connotations.

  • 19.
    Broms, Loove
    et al.
    Interactive Institute.
    Bång, Magnus
    Interactive Institute.
    Ilstedt Hjelm, Sara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Product and Service Design.
    Persuasive Engagement: Exploiting Lifestyle as a Driving Force to Promote Energy-aware Use Patterns and Behaviours2009In: Undisciplined! Proceedings of the Design Research Society Conference 2008, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electricity consumption has been rising significantly in the western world the last decades and this has affected the environment negatively. Efficient use and more energy conservative usage patterns could be ways to approach this problem. However, electricity has for a long time actively been hidden away and it is rarely thought of unless it ceases to exist. From the perspective of critical design, we have been working to find methods to visualise electricity and electricity consumption in everyday life to promote environmentally positive behavioural change. In this paper, we are looking at how aspects of lifestyles can be used in design as central driving forces that could lead to changed behaviour. Attempts to promote behavioural changes related to energy consumption might be successfully carried out when people are offered desirable alternatives that are engaging and that do not impose a perceived extra burden in their everyday life. This argument is exemplified through two design concepts, the AWARE Laundry Lamp and the Energy Plant, which are examples on how to increase people’s energy awareness and offer them means for reducing their energy consumption in the home. Both prototypes are inspired by current trends in lifestyle as well as actual observed user behaviour.

  • 20.
    Broms, Loove
    et al.
    Interactive Institute.
    Ehrnberger, Karin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Product and Service Design.
    Ilstedt Hjelm, Sara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Product and Service Design.
    Bång, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    The Energy AWARE Clock: Incorporating Electricity Use in the Social Interactions of Everyday Life2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New interfaces to the energy system can facilitate changes of habits and provide means to control the household’s use of energy. In this paper, we look at energy use and such interfaces in the home from a socio- technical perspective. We describe how interviews and user observations can be used in combination with the theory of domestication to inform and inspire the design of interfaces to the energy system. As a result of our approach, we present the Energy AWARE Clock, an example of a new type of electricity meter that challenges the norm of how the electricity system is typically represented in the home. The Energy AWARE Clock makes use of a clock metaphor to visualise electricity-use in relation to time in everyday life. Energy-awareness products always challenge domestic social patterns and it is important to consider these aspects in the design process to find successful solutions for the future. 

  • 21.
    Broms, Loove
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC).
    Awareness Aspects of the RemoteHome: A concept for a remotely shared flat share2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The RemoteHome is a concept for the first remotely shared apartment. It is one place ofliving in two different cities: London and Berlin.This Master’s thesis revolves around the exhibit of the home at the E-cultures Fair inAmsterdam between the 23rd and the 25th of October 2003. It also looks back at previousversions of the RemoteHome in an effort to evaluate how well the home succeeds in one ofits major goals: To represent awareness on distance.The home consist of a set of interactive furniture located at two different places andwith a similar, although not identical, setup.For the exhibition one piece of furniture, the interactive wall, was modified to becomemore responsive and easy to understand. During interviews at the exhibition and the following workshop it became apparent that there was no single answer on how to improveinteractiveness and the feeling of presence. This mostly because the RemoteHome as aproject has more than one goal. It is a product for only a few friends or couple but it isdesigned to be shown for a larger audience.The solution suggested for improving interaction and awareness is to choose betweeneither the home or exhibition setting and continue the development from there.In a home setting the RemoteHome should focus on feedback, privacy and situationadaptation. At the fair it should be more self explanatory and conspicuous in order tomediate any awareness efficiently. Anonymity is one problem that should be dealt with.

  • 22. Rapp, S.
    et al.
    Salomonsson, F.
    Bentell, J.
    Sagnes, I.
    Moussa, H.
    Mériadec, C.
    Raj, R.
    Streubel, K.
    Hammar, Mattias
    Near room-temperature continuous-wave operation of electrically pumped 1.55 ÎŒm vertical cavity lasers with InGaAsP/InP bottom mirror1999In: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911X, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 49-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first near room-temperature continuous-wave (CW) operation of a vertical cavity laser based on an epitaxial InGaAsP/InP bottom mirror is reported. The structure employs a package of nine strain compensated GaInAsP quantum wells and a wafer-fused GaAs/AlGaAs top mirror. For a 10 Όm diameter device, the threshold current is 6mA and the input threshold power is 21mW. The maximum operating temperature is 17 and 101°C for CW and pulsed conditions, respectively. © IEE 1999.

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