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  • 1.
    Andersson, Oscar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering. KTH, Centres, XPRES, Excellence in production research.
    Budak, Nesrin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Solid Mechanics (Dept.).
    Melander, Arne
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering. KTH, Centres, XPRES, Excellence in production research.
    Palmquist, Niclas
    Experimental measurements and numerical simulations of distortions of overlap laser-welded thin sheet steel beam structures2017In: Welding in the World, ISSN 0043-2288, E-ISSN 1878-6669, Vol. 61, no 5, p. 927-934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distortions of mild steel structures caused by laser welding were analyzed. One thousand-millimeter U-beam structures were welded as overlap joints with different process parameters and thickness configurations. Final vertical and transverse distortions after cooling were measured along the U-beam. Significant factors, which affect distortions, were identified. Heat input per unit length, weld length, and sheet thickness showed a significant effect on welding distortions. Furthermore, the welding distortions were modeled using FE simulations. A simplified and computationally efficient simulation method was used. It describes the effect of shrinkage of the weld zone during cooling. The simulations show reasonable computation times and good agreement with experiments.

  • 2. Cui, Y.
    et al.
    Liu, Y.
    Wang, Xi Vincent
    KTH, Centres, XPRES, Excellence in production research. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Production Systems.
    Ding, W.
    Liu, Q.
    Research on measurement of cutting area temperature and its prediction model2018In: International Journal of Manufacturing Research, ISSN 1750-0591, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 209-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the temperature measuring tool based on NiCr/NiSi thin film thermocouple is developed. 6,061 aluminium alloys is selected as the experiment object. Based on the cutting area temperature result during field test, the central composite design is utilised, which contains the parameters of cutting speed, feed rate and cutting depth. Regarding each parameter, three levels are selected and then the second-order regression equation between cutting area temperature and three cutting parameters is established. The data of experimental measurement corresponds well with the mathematical prediction, which confirms that the experimental and mathematical methods are valid in the research on cutting area temperature.

  • 3.
    Fahlkrans, Johan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering. KTH, Centres, XPRES, Excellence in production research. Scania CV, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Effects of manufacturing chain on mechanical performance: Study on heat treatment of powertrain components2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing demands for lightweight designs with high strength call for improved manufacturing processes regarding heat treatment of steel. The manufacturing process has considerable potential to improve the mechanical performance and to obtain more reliable results with less variation.

    The goal of this thesis is to establish new knowledge regarding improved manufacturing processes in industrial heat treatment applications. Three research questions with associated hypotheses are formulated. Process experiments, evaluation of the mechanical performance, and modelling of the fatigue behaviour assist in answering the questions.

    The gas quenching procedure following low-pressure carburising differs from the conventional procedure of gas carburising and oil quenching. It is shown that the introduction of a holding time during the low-temperature part of the quench has a positive effect on mechanical properties, with some 20 percent increase in fatigue strength. This is attributed to increased compressive surface residual stress and stabilisation of austenite.

    Tempering is a common manufacturing process step following hardening in order to increase the toughness of the steel. However, the research shows that the higher hardness from eliminating tempering from the manufacturing process is beneficial for contact fatigue resistance. The untempered steel showed not only less contact fatigue damage but also a different contact fatigue mechanism.

    Straightening of elongated components is made after heat treatment in order to compensate for distortions. The research shows that straightening of induction hardened shafts may lead to lowering of the fatigue strength of up to 20 percent. A fracture mechanics based model is developed to estimate the effects of straightening on fatigue strength.

  • 4.
    Fahlkrans, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Welding Technology. KTH, Centres, XPRES, Excellence in production research. Scania CV, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Melander, Arne
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Welding Technology. KTH, Centres, XPRES, Excellence in production research. Swerea KIMAB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gårdstam, Johannes
    Swerea KIMAB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Haglund, Sven
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Welding Technology. KTH, Centres, XPRES, Excellence in production research. Swerea KIMAB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Straightening of induction hardened shafts: influence on fatigue strength and residual stress2012In: HTM Journal of Heat Treatment and Materials, ISSN 1867-2493, Vol. 67, no 3, p. 179-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Straightening of distorted components after heat treatment is often a necessary operation. The straightening operation leads to local plasticization, which is affecting the residual stress state, the hardness, and ultimately the fatigue strength of the component. The present study evaluates the influence of a straightening operation on fatigue strength and on the residual stress state of induction hardened shafts of steel 42CrMo4. A simplified FEM model was formulated. The model showed that the residual stress state was asymmetric along the circumference of a straightened shaft. Fatigue testing was performed in three point bending and showed that the fatigue strength was reduced by up to some 20 % by heavy straightening. A fracture mechanics model for fatigue crack growth and arrest was developed. The model could be used to predict the fatigue strength of a straightened shaft provided that the residual stress state was known.

  • 5.
    Fahlkrans, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Welding Technology. KTH, Centres, XPRES, Excellence in production research. Scania CV, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Melander, Arne
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Welding Technology. KTH, Centres, XPRES, Excellence in production research. Swerea KIMAB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Haglund, Sven
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Welding Technology. KTH, Centres, XPRES, Excellence in production research. Swerea KIMAB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gas Quench Rate after Low Pressure Carburizing and its Influence on Fatigue Properties of Gears2013In: HTM - Journal of Heat Treatment and Materials, ISSN 1867-2493, Vol. 68, no 6, p. 239-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Process modifications of the gas quench sequence for low pressure carburized gears can increase the performance of up to 22 %, compared to direct gas quenching. Several test series were made with different interruptions of the gas quenching sequence, near the martensite start temperature Ms. The quench interruption resulted in an increase in magnitude of compressive residual stress which was attributed to temperature homogenization and rearrangement of local stresses. The increased fatigue strength was a result of the combination of enhancement of the compressive residual stress state, and of mechanical stabilization of austenite.

  • 6.
    Fahlkrans, Johan
    et al.
    Scania CV, Sweden.
    Melander, Arne
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Welding Technology. KTH, Centres, XPRES, Excellence in production research. Swerea KIMAB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Krister
    Scania CV, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Haglund, Sven
    Swerea KIMAB, Sweden.
    Hosseini, Seyed B.
    Swerea IVF, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Influence of tempering on contact fatigue2011In: International Journal of Microstructure and Materials Properties, ISSN 1741-8410, E-ISSN 1741-8429, Vol. 6, no 6, p. 465-478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most components are tempered after heat treatment operations such as case hardening or induction hardening. The common opinion is that the martensitic structure after heat treatment is too brittle and tempering is necessary to increase toughness.

    Tempering is an additional operation which leads to increased costs by energy, handling, and investments. Eliminating tempering from the heat treatment process leads to increased productivity, energy savings, and lowered environmental impact.

    Two carburised steels, Ovako 253A (?EN 22NiCrMo12-5F mod. A) and EN 20NiCrMo2 (SAE 8620, SS2506), were tested for contact fatigue resistance in a roller to roller rig. The tested samples were characterised with respect to amount of fatigue damage, residual stress, amount of retained austenite and hardness. The objective was to determine if tempering is always necessary after a heat treatment operation.

    The contact fatigue tests show that tempering results in lower contact fatigue resistance. Further, fatigue cracks were found to have initiated in different ways between tempered and untempered steel.

  • 7. Fahlström, Karl
    et al.
    Andersson, Oscar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Welding Technology. KTH, Centres, XPRES, Excellence in production research.
    Karlsson, Leif
    Svensson, Lars-Erik
    Metallurgical effects and distortions in laser welding of thin sheet steels with variations in strength2017In: Science and technology of welding and joining, ISSN 1362-1718, E-ISSN 1743-2936, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 573-579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Geometrical distortions occur while welding, but the understanding of how and why they occur and how to control them is limited. The relation between the weld width, weld metal volume, total energy input, width of hard zone and distortions when laser welding three different thin sheet steels with varying strength has therefore been studied. Weld metal volume and total energy input show a good correlation with distortion for one steel at a time. The best correlation with the when including all three steel grades was the width of the hard zone composed of weld metal and the martensitic area in the heat affected zone.

  • 8.
    Fahlström, Karl
    et al.
    Swerea KIMAB, Sweden.
    Andersson, Oscar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering. KTH, Centres, XPRES, Excellence in production research. Volvo Cars, Sweden.
    Todal, Urban
    Melander, Arne
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Welding Technology. KTH, Centres, XPRES, Excellence in production research.
    Minimization of distortions during Laser Welding of Ultra High Strength Steel2015In: Journal of laser applications, ISSN 1042-346X, E-ISSN 1938-1387, Vol. 27, no S2, article id S29011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultra high strength steels are frequently used within the automotive industry for several components. Welding of these components is traditionally done by resistance spot welding, but to get further productivity and increased strength, laser welding has been introduced in the past decades. Fusion welding is known to cause distortions due to built in stresses in the material. The distortions result in geometrical issues during assembly which become the origin of low joint quality due to gaps and misfits. U-beam structures of boron steel simulating B-pillars have been welded with laser along the flanges. Welding parameters and clamping have been varied to create different welding sequences and heat input generating a range of distortion levels. The distortions have been recorded dynamically with an optical measurement system during welding. In addition, final distortions have been measured by a digital Vernier caliper. The combined measurements give the possibility to evaluate development, occurrence, and magnitude of distortions with high accuracy. Furthermore, section cuts have been analyzed to assess joint geometry and metallurgy. The results show that final distortions appear in the range of 0–8 mm. Distortions occur mainly transversely and vertically along the profile. Variations in heat input show clear correlation with the magnitude of distortions and level of joint quality. A higher heat input in general generates a higher level of distortion with the same clamping conditions. Section cuts show that weld width and penetration are significantly affected by welding heat input. The present study identifies parameters which significantly influence the magnitude and distribution of distortions. Also, effective measures to minimize distortions and maintain or improve joint quality have been proposed. Finally, transient finite element (FE) simulations have been presented which show the behavior of the profiles during the welding and unclamping process.

  • 9.
    Fahlström, Karl
    et al.
    Swerea KIMAB.
    Andersson, Oscar
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering. KTH, Centres, XPRES, Excellence in production research. Volvo Cars Corporation.
    Todal, Urban
    Melander, Arne
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Welding Technology. KTH, Centres, XPRES, Excellence in production research. Swerea KIMAB.
    Lars-Erik, Svensson
    Högskolan Väst.
    Leif, Karlsson
    Högskolan Väst.
    Distortion Analysis in laser Welding of Ultra High Strength Steel2014In: Proc 6th International Swedish Production symposium 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to increased demands on reduced weight in automotive industries, the use of ultra high strength steels (UHSS) has increased. When laser welding UHSS ssheets, heating and cooling of the material will cause geometrical distortions and may cause low joint quality. 700 mm long U-beam structures of 1 mm thick boron steel simulating structural pillars in body-in-white constructions have been laser welded along the flanges with different welding speeds to investigate distortions and weld quality. The results show that final distortions appear in the range of 0-8 mm. FE simulation methods have also been presented which generally predict the distribution of welding distortions.

  • 10.
    Liu, Yongkui
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Production Systems.
    Wang, Yuquan
    KTH.
    Wang, Xi Vincent
    KTH, Centres, XPRES, Excellence in production research. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Production Systems.
    Zhang, L.
    China.
    Multi-agent-based scheduling in cloud manufacturing with dynamic task arrivals2018In: Procedia CIRP, Elsevier, 2018, p. 953-960Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scheduling is a critical means for providing on-demand manufacturing services in cloud manufacturing. Multi-agent technologies provide an effective approach for addressing scheduling issues in cloud manufacturing, which, however, have rarely been used for solving the issue. This paper addresses scheduling issues in cloud manufacturing using multi-agent technologies. A multi-agent architecture for scheduling in cloud manufacturing is proposed firstly. Then, a corresponding multi-agent model is presented, which incorporates many-to-many negotiations based on an extended contract net protocol and takes into account dynamic task arrivals. Simulation results indicate the feasibility of the model and approach proposed.

  • 11.
    Ratanathavorn, Wallop
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering. KTH, Centres, XPRES, Excellence in production research. Swerea KIMAB AB, Sweden.
    Melander, Arne
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering. KTH, Centres, XPRES, Excellence in production research. Swerea KIMAB AB, Sweden.
    Dissimilar joining between aluminium alloy (AA 6111) and thermoplastics using friction stir welding2015In: Science and technology of welding and joining, ISSN 1362-1718, E-ISSN 1743-2936, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 222-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, friction stir welding was used to produce shear overlap joints between aluminium and a thermoplastic (AA 6111 to polyphenylene sulphide). The process uses the friction stir welding tool to create metallic chips which merge with the molten thermoplastic to form a joint. No special surface pretreatment is required before joining. Cross-sections show mechanical locking between the chipped polymer filled zone and the surrounding aluminium sheet. The effects of joining parameters such as rotational speed, translational speed and distance to backing were investigated in relation to the joint strength and failure mode. Optimum speeds and backing distances could be identified. The joint strength is dominated by mechanical interlocking between the chip and polymer filled zone and the aluminium sheet.

  • 12. Senington, R.
    et al.
    Pataki, B.
    Hungary.
    Wang, Xi Vincent
    KTH, Centres, XPRES, Excellence in production research. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Production Systems.
    Using docker for factory system software management: Experience report2018In: Procedia CIRP, Elsevier, 2018, p. 659-664Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As factories become increasingly computerised, and with the increasing interest in Cyber-Physical-Systems and the Internet-of-Things, the issues of software management, deployment, configuration and integration are expected to become increasingly important. This paper reports on the ongoing experiences of using the Docker container technology in a major EU research project targeting smart factories. Docker is used to distribute, deploy and manage the configuration of multiple software modules between multiple teams and demonstrator sites in multiple locations, where each module can use its own mixture of protocols, programming languages and platforms.

  • 13.
    Sivard, Gunilla
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering. KTH, Centres, XPRES, Excellence in production research.
    Lindberg, Lars
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Shariatzadeh, Navid
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    The BIC Model – Towards Business Oriented Information Contexts2015In: Procedia CIRP / [ed] Elsevier B.V. Moshe Shpitalni, Anath Fischer and Gila Molcho, Elsevier, 2015, Vol. 36, p. 101-105Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasingly complex products and business models require support of increasingly complex information. In this paper we propose a new approach BIC, Business Information Context, to define contexts for accessing, viewing, and managing this complex information. BIC structures information based on key domains: business drivers, business processes, information entities, product characteristics, and information systems. We compare BIC with other and simpler approaches, like views and contexts used in the ISO 10303 (STEP) standards, design methodologies, and PLM systems. We illustrate the definition and use of BIC with an implementation of an application forprotecting a company’s intellectual property.

  • 14.
    Stenberg, Niclas
    et al.
    KTH, Centres, XPRES, Excellence in production research. Swerea KIMAB AB, Sweden.
    Delic, Aldin
    Björk, Thomas
    KTH, Centres, XPRES, Excellence in production research. Swerea KIMAB AB, Sweden.
    Using the SPH method to easier predict wear in machining2017In: 16TH CIRP CONFERENCE ON MODELLING OF MACHINING OPERATIONS (16TH CIRP CMMO) / [ed] Outeiro, J Poulachon, G, Elsevier, 2017, p. 317-322Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Usage of FE-models to predict wear is a tricky business. There is the question of material behaviour that gives the loading on the tool. There is the question of wear models and parameters that determine the amount of wear that can be expected for each combination of loadings. And there is the question of FE-specific features like re-mesh or failure modelling in the chip separation zone. The main objective with this paper is to better characterise the wear in numerical simulations by using the SPH modelling technique and determine wear model with wear parameters suitable for such simulations. The SPH(Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics) modelling technique is used because of its capability to capture large deformations in a consistent way. Wear studies are used as a base for the choice of appropriate simulation based wear model. Two materials with seemingly similar elastic-plastic material behaviour but with distinct different wear behaviour will be compared. Wear can be assumed to derive from the loading on the tool in combination with the surface to surface slip. It is known that a change of failure model and parameter together with friction values used in a simulation yields a change the shape of the chip. And the shape of the chip determines the loading on the tool. Moreover, the wear model that is used in the analysis will capture the the effect of the loading and the combination of the tool-work piece material. The tool-work piece contact is characterised by shear zone where no slip is present followed by an unloading sequence where slip is present with subsequent visible wear. loading patterns from the simulations were consistent with the observed wear and consequently the SPH method was determined as suitable for the task.

  • 15. Strondl, A.
    et al.
    Khodaee, Alireza
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering. KTH, Centres, XPRES, Excellence in production research.
    Sundaram, M. V.
    Andersson, M.
    Melander, Arne
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering. KTH, Centres, XPRES, Excellence in production research. Swerea KIMAB, Sverige.
    Heikkilä, I.
    Miedzinski, A.
    Nyborg, L.
    Ahlfors, M.
    Innovative powder based manufacturing of high performance gears2016In: World PM 2016 Congress and Exhibition, European Powder Metallurgy Association (EPMA) , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are strong driving forces towards high-performance gear wheels which can handle higher engine outputs, or allow more compact designs of transmissions. Today the performance and life of conventionally manufactured gear wheels are limited by factors such as inhomogeneous microstructure and distribution of inclusions. Powder metallurgy (PM) can solve some of these problems but has so far had limitations caused by porosity. In this paper a cost effective way to eliminate porosity by HIP-ing without canister has been evaluated with encouraging results. Parameters such as powder particle size, lubricant and double pressing have been evaluated in the PM route in order to get a gas tight surface enabling effective post HIP-ing. So far double pressing has given promising results. Challenges such as open porosity, surface porosity and inclusions are addressed in the paper.

  • 16.
    Wang, Xi Vincent
    et al.
    KTH, Centres, XPRES, Excellence in production research. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Production Systems.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Production Systems.
    A cloud-based production system for information and service integration: an internet of things case study on waste electronics2017In: Enterprise Information Systems, ISSN 1751-7575, E-ISSN 1751-7583, Vol. 11, no 7, p. 952-968Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud computing is the new enabling technology that offers centralised computing, flexible data storage and scalable services. In the manufacturing context, it is possible to utilise the Cloud technology to integrate and provide industrial resources and capabilities in terms of Cloud services. In this paper, a function block-based integration mechanism is developed to connect various types of production resources. A Cloud-based architecture is also deployed to offer a service pool which maintains these resources as production services. The proposed system provides a flexible and integrated information environment for the Cloud-based production system. As a specific type of manufacturing, Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) remanufacturing experiences difficulties in system integration, information exchange and resource management. In this research, WEEE is selected as the example of Internet of Things to demonstrate how the obstacles and bottlenecks are overcome with the help of Cloud-based informatics approach. In the case studies, the WEEE recycle/recovery capabilities are also integrated and deployed as flexible Cloud services. Supporting mechanisms and technologies are presented and evaluated towards the end of the paper.

  • 17.
    Wang, Xi Vincent
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Production Systems. KTH, Centres, XPRES, Excellence in production research.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Production Systems.
    Mohammed, Abdullah
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Production Systems.
    Givehchi, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Production Systems.
    Ubiquitous manufacturing system based on Cloud: A robotics application2017In: Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, ISSN 0736-5845, E-ISSN 1879-2537, Vol. 45, p. 116-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern manufacturing industry calls for a new generation of production system with better interoperability and new business models. As a novel information technology, Cloud provides new service models and business opportunities for manufacturing industry. In this research, recent Cloud manufacturing and Cloud robotics approaches are reviewed. Function block-based integration mechanisms are developed to integrate various types of manufacturing facilities. A Cloud-based manufacturing system is developed to support ubiquitous manufacturing, which provides a service pool maintaining physical facilities in terms of manufacturing services. The proposed framework and mechanisms are evaluated by both machining and robotics applications. In practice, it is possible to establish an integrated manufacturing environment across multiple levels with the support of manufacturing Cloud and function blocks. It provides a flexible architecture as well as ubiquitous and integrated methodologies for the Cloud manufacturing system.

  • 18. Wredenberg, F.
    et al.
    Stenberg, Niclas
    KTH, Centres, XPRES, Excellence in production research.
    A free tool for prediction of shape distortions in the AM process that focus on the digitalisation aspects of production planning2017In: Simulation for Additive Manufacturing 2017, Sinam 2017, International Center for Numerical Methods in Engineering , 2017, p. 54-55Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Åslund, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Welding Technology. KTH, Centres, XPRES, Excellence in production research. Scania CV, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Melander, Arne
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Welding Technology. KTH, Centres, XPRES, Excellence in production research. Swerea KIMAB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Krister
    Scania CV, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Haglund, Sven
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Welding Technology. KTH, Centres, XPRES, Excellence in production research. Swerea KIMAB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hosseini, Seyed B.
    Swerea IVF, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Influence of tempering on contact fatigue2009In: New challenges in heat treatment and surface engineering, conference in honour of Prof Božidar Liščić, Dubrovnik, Cavtat, Croatia 9-12 June 2009, 2009, p. 87-94Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most components are tempered after heat treatment operations such as case hardening orinduction hardening. The common opinion is that the martensitic structure after heat treatmentis too brittle and tempering is necessary to increase toughness.

    Tempering is an additional operation which leads to increased costs by energy, handling,and investments. Eliminating tempering from the heat treatment process leads to increasedproductivity, energy savings, and lowered environmental impact.

    Two carburised steels, Ovako 253 and 20NiCrMo2 (AISI 8620, SS2506), were tested forcontact fatigue resistance in a roller to roller rig. The tested samples were characterised withrespect to amount of fatigue damage, residual stress, amount of retained austenite andhardness. The objective was to determine if tempering is always necessary after a heattreatment operation.

    The contact fatigue tests show that tempering results in lower contact fatigue resistance.

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