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  • 1.
    Aghaei Meibodi, Mania
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies.
    Generative Design Exploration: Computation and Material Practice2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, computation serves as an important intermediary agent for the integration of analyses and the constraints of materialisation into design processes. Research efforts in the field have emphasised digital continuity and conformity between different aspects of a building project. Such an approach can limit the potential for significant discoveries, because the expression of architectural form is reduced to the varying tones of one fabrication technique and simulation at a time. This dissertation argues that disparate sets of digital and physical models are needed to incorporate multiple constraints into the exploration, and that the way the designer links them to one another significantly impacts the potential for arriving at significant discoveries. Discoveries are made in the moment of bridging between models, representational mediums, and affiliated processes.

    This dissertation examines the capacity of algorithm—as a basis for computation—to diversify and expand the design exploration by enabling the designer to link disparate models and different representational mediums. It is developed around a series of design experiments that question how computation and digital fabrication can be used to diversify design ideation, foster significant discoveries, and at the same time increase flexibility for the designer’s operation in the design process. The experiments reveal the interdependence of the mediums of design—algorithm, geometry, and material—and the designer’s mode of operation. They show that each medium provides the designer with a particular way of incorporating constraints into the exploration. From the way the designer treats these mediums and the design process, two types of exploration are identified: goal oriented and open-ended. In the former, the exploration model is shaped by the designer’s objective to reach a specified goal through the selection of mediums, models, and tools. In the latter, the design process itself informs the designer’s intention. From the kinds of interdependencies that are created between mediums in each experiment, three main exploration models emerge: circular and uniform, branched and incremental, and parallel and bidirectional.

    Finally, this dissertation argues that the theoretical case for integral computational design and fabrication must be revised to go beyond merely applying established computational processes to encompass the designer and several design mediums. The new model of design exploration is a cooperation between algorithm, geometry, materials, tools, and the designer. For the exploration to be novel, the designer must play a significant role by choosing one medium over another when formulating the design problem and establishing design drivers from the set of constraints, by linking the design mediums, by translating between design representations, and by describing the key aspects of the exploration in terms of algorithms.

     

  • 2.
    Alenius, Malin
    et al.
    White arkitekter.
    Lundgren, Marja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies. White Arkitekter.
    Architectural repertoire and daylight metricsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With this article wehighlight the importance of architectural repertoire, methods and tools touncover basic components set by building science in performance-basedregulation. This article elucidates the potential of architecturally groundedmethods when assessing daylight often used in legislation and certificationschemes, by making the daylight factor metric intelligible through geometry. Theempirical material used is five architectural cases from 1917 to 2016. Thesefive cases originate from an exhibition room on daylight presented in relationto architectural composition, historical changes in Swedish building regulationand the 2014 daylight factor building code requirement. The Swedish buildingregulation has, as many other countries, undergone a historical change fromprescriptive-based regulation to performance-based regulation. With regards toregulating daylight this has meant replacing requirements based on geometricalrelationships with abstract building science metrics. Additionally,we review these findings in relation findings from a numerical analysis of 2014daylight factor building code requirement from a larger number of Swedishresidential building stock from the 20th century. This articleargues that architectural research based in drawings and geometricalrelationships and case study material, weather historical or contemporary, canguide practitioners towards a new understanding of building code.

  • 3.
    Anstey, Tim
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies.
    Authority and Authorship in L. B. Alberti's De re aedificatoria2003In: Nordisk arkitekturforskning, ISSN ISSN 1102-5824, Vol. 4, p. 19-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the definition of the architect's role in Leon Battista' Alberti's instaurational text De re aedificatoria and considers the problems of judgement and authority for architectural authorship.

  • 4.
    Anstey, Tim
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies.
    The ambiguities of disegno2005In: Journal of Architecture, ISSN 1360-2365, E-ISSN 1466-4410, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 295-306Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Anstey, Tim
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies.
    The Dangers of Decorum2006In: arq Architecture research quarterly, ISSN 1359-1355, E-ISSN 1474-0516, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 131-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decorum, "appropriateness", is deeply embedded in the psyche of architects as a means to justify their actions. This essay considers the shifting significance of this term for architectural discourse.

  • 6.
    Anstey, Tim
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies.
    Grillner, Katja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Critical Studies in Architecture.
    Hughes, Rolf
    Konstfack.
    Architecture and Authorship2007Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Architecture and Authorship comprises 16 essays that explore issues of authorship, attribution and intellectual property in architecture. The book examines how individual architects and movements, from the fifteenth century onwards, have endeavoured to maintain their status by defending what they see as their own unique territory—the origins and intentions of their work, and their signature style.

  • 7.
    Anstey, Tim
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies.
    Kara, Hanif
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies.
    Discourse Networks and the Digital: The Phaeno Science Centre2008In: Space Craft: Developments in Architectural Computing / [ed] David Littlefield, London: RIBA Publications , 2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Anstey, Timothy
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies.
    "Theology and Geometry in the façade of S. Maria Novella"2003In: Albertiana, ISSN 1126-9588, E-ISSN 2035-6307, Vol. 6, p. 27-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is published in the a key international journal devoted to Alberti studies, produced  by the French Centre National de la Research Scientifique (CNRS) and published by Olshki Editore in Milan, with support from the French Ministry of Culture and Communication. The paper demonstrates previously unstudied relationships between theory and practice in the work of one of the most notable Renaissance figures associated with architecture.

  • 9.
    Anstey, Timothy
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies.
    Where is the project? Cedric Price on Architectural Action2006In: Nordisk arkitekturforskning, ISSN 1102-5824, Vol. 4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Balieu, Romain
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Chen, Feng
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Kringos, Nicole
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment of Electrified Road Systems2019In: International Journal on Road Materials and Pavement Design, ISSN 1468-0629, E-ISSN 2164-7402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread use of Electric Vehicles (EVs) has been one of the main directionsfor pursuing a sustainable future of road transport in which, the deployment ofthe associated charging infrastructures, static or dynamic, has been included as oneof the main cornerstones for its success. Different electrified road (eRoad) systemswhich allow for dynamic charging of EVs by transferring electrical power from theroad to the vehicle in-motion, either in a conductive or contactless way, are underactive investigation. One of the important tasks in feasibility analysis of suchinfrastructure is to quantitatively assess its environmental performance and, thus,the consequential influences to the sustainability of road electrification as a whole.Having this concern in mind, in this study, a systematic LCA study is carried out in which the environmental impacts from the different life cycle stages have beencalculated and compared among several promising eRoad systems. In a next step,suitable strategies can be accordingly made to minimize these impacts in a most effectiveway; and more importantly, the LCA results of this study can serve as one ofthe important bases for conducting a more comprehensive and objective evaluationof the potential environmental benefits EVs could bring.

  • 11.
    Bournas, Iason
    et al.
    Lunds Universitet, Institutionen för arkitektur och byggd miljö, Energi och ByggnadsDesign.
    Lundgren, Marja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies. White arkitekter.
    Alenius, Malin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture. White arkitekter.
    Dubois, Marie-Claude
    Lunds Universitet, Institutionen för arkitektur och byggd miljö, Energi och ByggnadsDesign.
    Urban densification affects daylighting: existing daylight levels in Swedish multi-family housing as a base for future daylight requirement2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the results of a study of the Swedish multi-family housing stock in relation to its daylight performance under overcast sky conditions. A total of 8573 rooms in 35 existing buildings were investigated using advanced lighting simulations to determine their point daylight factor, as defined in the current building regulations. The buildings were selected based on their architectural typology and construction era. The results show that, on average, the existing rooms meet the current daylighting requirement (point daylight factor DFp of 1%). The window sky exposure factor was found to affect the DFp significantly. Rooms with a large sky exposure angle that failed to meet the requirement were deep rooms or rooms with a small window-to-floor ratio. The general conclusion is that the current requirement can be considered realistic to ensure an adequate provision of daylight in multi-family dwellings.

  • 12.
    Chen, Feng
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Balieu, Romain
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Kringos, Nicole
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Sustainable implementation of future smart road solutions: a case study on the electrified road2017In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on the Bearing Capacity of Roads, Railways and Airfields (BCRRA 2017) / [ed] Andreas Loizos, Imad Al-Qadi, Tom Scarpas, Athens, Greece: CRC Press, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important feature of a future smart or multifunctional road is that an intrinsic integration of different new advances into the practical roads should be achieved, in terms of such as Car-to-Road communication, energy harvesting, autonomous driving or on-the-road charging. However, our current engineering and research communities do not necessarily allow for an optimal development of such integrated systems. To fill some of the knowledge gaps from infrastructure point of view, this research is focusing on a specific case of the electrified road (also called ‘eRoad’) that allows for on-the-road charging, in which the consequences and possible modifications of the road infrastructure are considered. Some preliminary analysis results are presented in this paper, from which it has been found that such kind of the integration could indeed influence the service performance of individual components of the whole system, while further studies should be carried out to ensure the implementation of these smart technologies is ultimately sustainable.

  • 13.
    Das, Prabir Kumar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Balieu, Romain
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies.
    Kringos, Niki
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    On the Oxidative Ageing Mechanism and Its Effect on Asphalt Mixtures Morphology2015In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 48, no 15, p. 3113-3127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the influence of mixture morphologies and microstructures on oxidative ageing of asphalt mixtures. For this, an oxidative ageing mechanism based on a diffusion–reaction process was developed. Previously, most asphalt oxidative ageing modeling research focused on unidirectional diffusion of continuous oxygen flow through bitumen films, which is far from the actual boundary conditions in asphalt mixtures. For this reason in the current study, a finite element (FE) analysis has been conducted in which 3D mixture morphology was considered. Mixture morphology is the combination of mineral aggregate packing, porosity, air-void distribution and their interconnectivity. One dense and one open graded field asphalt mixture core were scanned with a computerized tomography X-ray scanner. In the analyses, the developed oxidative ageing model was implemented. The FE analysis showed that the effect of the air-void distribution, their interconnectivity and the mineral aggregate packing has a significant effect on the resulting age hardening of the overall mixture. Furthermore, from the microstructural investigation done in this research, strong indications were found that, depending on the bitumen and its conditioning, water soluble thin films are formed due to ageing. This means that ageing and moisture damage are strongly interlinked and this should thus be considered in the design of the asphaltic materials and the prediction of their long term performance. © 2014, RILEM.

  • 14.
    Falk, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies.
    Samuelsson, Sture
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies.
    Tibert, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Structural Mechanics.
    Plate based tensegrity structures2005In: IASS 2005: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Shell and Spatial Structures, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Gabrielsson, Catharina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Anstey, TimKTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies.
    Nordic Journal of Architecture No. 3. vol. 2. winter 2012: Alteration2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Gabrielsson, Catharina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Anstey, Tim
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies.
    What we talk about when we talk about alteration2013In: Nordic - Journal of Architecture, ISSN 2244-968X, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 8-9Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Hellers, Bo Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies.
    Sahlin, Sven
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Concrete Structures.
    Eurocode 6 - Design of masonry structures: Proposed change in EN 1996-1-1/Nov 2005, Annex C: clause (6)2009In: Masonry International, ISSN 0950-2289, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 53-58Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Kara, Hanif
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies.
    After – Fragmentation of Processes and Products: Fordist lessons for the built environment in the developing world2010In: Implicate & Explicate Aga Khan Award for Architecture / [ed] Mohsen Mostafavi, Lars Muller Publishers , 2010, p. 286-289Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The book presents a shortlist of 19 projects including the winners. What these projects have in common is a commitment to design excellence despite constraints of budget, resources, climate, technology, and politics. They share this commitment as one of the necessary tools for societal betterment. The following five projects received the Aga Khan Award for Architecture 2010: Wadi Hanifa Wetlands,Riyadh,Saudi Arabia; Revitalisation of the Hypercentre of Tunis, Tunisia;MadinatAl-ZahraMuseum,Cordoba,Spain; Ipekyol Textile Factory,Edirne,Turkey;BridgeSchool,Xiashi,Fujian,China.

     

  • 19.
    Kara, Hanif
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies.
    AKT’s role in Heatherwick Studio’s Shanghai Expo pavilion2010In: Architects' Journal, p. 41-46Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Kara, Hanif
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies.
    Applied Diagrams2010In: The diagrams of architecture: AD Reader / [ed] Mark Garcia, Wiley-Blackwell, 2010, p. 160-167Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1980s, the diagram has become a preferred method for researching, communicating, theorising and making architectural designs, ideas and projects. Thus the rise of the diagram, as opposed to the model or the drawing, is the one of the most significant new developments in the process of design in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Diagrams of Architecture is the first anthology to represent – through texts and diagrams – the histories, theories and futures of architecture through the diagram.

  • 21.
    Kara, Hanif
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies.
    Architectural technology as a project2007Other (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Kara, Hanif
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies.
    Credit Packs a Punch2011In: RIBA Journal, ISSN 1463-9505, p. 20-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Kara, Hanif
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies.
    Design and Construction of the Phaeno Science Centre, Wolfsburg, Germany2007In: The Structural Engineer, ISSN 1466-5123, p. 33-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the design, drawing and construction of the Phaeno Science Centre,Wolfsburg,Germany. The building opened to the public in November 2005 and was subsequently shortlisted for the 2006 Stirling Prize and won the 2006 IStructE Structural Award in the Arts, Leisure and Entertainment category.

  • 24.
    Kara, Hanif
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies.
    Design Engineering2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaborating with leading architects like Zaha Hadid, Foreign Office Architects, Norman Foster, and Will Alsop, Adams Kara Taylor have become the engineers of choice for projects that redefine the conventional boundaries between structural engineering and architecture. Their holistic approach expands structural thinking to include technical solutions, aesthetics, and advanced research to adapt both diverse architectures and design methodologies. Organized into a series of synthetic themes - complexity, trans-scalarity, modelling, process - this book presents a cross-section of diverse projects and methods as a manual for new relations between radical engineering and design. Contributors include Alejandro Zaera-Polo, Simon Allford, Patrik Schumacher, Tim Anstey, Mohsen Mostafavi, and Michael Speaks.

     

  • 25.
    Kara, Hanif
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies.
    Expand your Mind2009In: RIBA Journal, ISSN 1463-9505, p. 20-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Kara, Hanif
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies.
    On Design Engineering2010In: Structuralism: Design, Engineering and Architectural Technologies,: AD, Reader / [ed] Guest Editors: Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman Editor: Caroline Ellerby, John Wiley & Sons, 2010, p. 199-219Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today the convergence of design, engineering and architectural technologies are breeding a new material practice in experimental architecture. In this pioneering publication, this important shift is fully defined as a highly dynamic synthesis of emerging principles of spatial, structural and material ordering integrated through the application of materialization and fabrication technologies. Providing the foundations for a new theory of structuring in architecture, The New Structuralism has broad implications for the way we both conceive and undertake architectural design, as its impact starts to emanate not only across education internationally, but also through architectural research and practice

  • 27.
    Kara, Hanif
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies.
    On design engineering2010In: Architectural Design, ISSN 0003-8504, E-ISSN 1554-2769, Vol. 80, no 4, p. 46-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    London-based Adams Kara Taylor (AKT) is one of the most innovative design-led structural and civll engineering practices in the UK. Seeking out creative collaborations with leading architectural fi rms and schools of architecture and design internationally, it has, as Hanif Kara, Co-Founder and Director at AKT, explains, developed a holistic approach in which architecture and engineering converge. Here Kara defi nes the emerging methods of 'design engineering', emphasising the importance of early input at the conceptualisation stage and research over even the contribution of digital technologies.

  • 28.
    Kara, Hanif
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies.
    Places of production: An engineer’s perspective2010In: Workplaces: The Transformation of Places of Production: Industrialization and the built environment in the Islamic World / [ed] al-Asad, Mohammad, Istanbul Bilgi University Press , 2010, p. 201-211Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Kara, Hanif
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies.
    Red Eye Rewards2009In: RIBA Journal, ISSN 1463-9505, p. 24-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Kara, Hanif
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies.
    Reductive Engineering Patterns: An Interview with Hanif Kara2009In: Patterns of Architecture / [ed] Mark Garcia, John Wiley & Sons, 2009, p. 66-73Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pattern–making is ubiquitous in both the natural and manmade world. The human propensity for pattern recognition and fabrication is innate. Encompassing the historical, vernacular and parametric, this title explores the creation, materialisation and theorisation of some of the world′s most significant and spectacularly patterned spaces. It investigates how interiors, buildings, cities and landscapes are patterned through design, production and manufacturing, use, time, accident and perception. It also brings into focus how contemporary advanced spatial practices and CAD/CAM are now pushing patterns to encompass a greater range of structural, programmatic, aesthetic and material effects and properties. Extending patterns far beyond the surface notion of and decoration, Patterns of Architecture assesses how and why the deployment of patterns is shaping the future of architecture.

  • 31.
    Kara, Hanif
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies.
    Sex Appeal2010In: RIBA Journal, ISSN 1463-9505, p. 18-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Kara, Hanif
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies.
    Tools and Weapons … Engineers take2008In: Emerging Possibilities of Testing and Simulation Methods and Techniques in Contemporary Construction  Teaching: EAAE Transactions on Architectural Education / [ed] Maria Voyatzaki, Tessalonike: Emerging Possibilities of Testing and Simulation Methods and Techniques in Contemporary Construction Teaching , 2008, p. 55-72Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Kara, Hanif
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies.
    Bramblebey, Reuben
    Ansotegni, Jugatx
    Beyond Problem Solving by AKT2010In: Nine problems in the form of a pavilion / [ed] Yusuke Obuchi and Alan Dempsey, Architectural Association Publications , 2010, p. 62-63Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The AA DRL TEN Pavilion is one of those built projects that push the conventions in architecture and structural engineering as well as the building materials industry. A full-scale construction built by a group of students as part of their academic activities, the pavilion was conceived as a way of bringing together digital explorations in architectural design with state-of-the-art manufacturing processes and advanced structural calculations based on non-linear stress analysis. This book recounts the story of the creation of the Pavilion and identifies the key problems encountered during its successful design and realisation. Though grounded in the specific experience of the pavilion, the book argues that these problems are common to broader contemporary design to production workflows and how they are addressed will have a major influence on future architectural pedagogy and practice.

  • 34.
    Khan, Abdullah
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Balieu, Romain
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Redelius, Per
    Kringos, Nicole
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Modelling coalescence process during breaking of bitumen emulsions2016In: / [ed] International Society for Asphalt Pavements (ISAP), 2016, p. 1-12, article id Paper 61Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cold mix bitumen emulsion technology is getting a lot of focus by the road industries since a few decades due to the diminished environmental impacts and reduced energy associated with it. The durability and mechanical performance of cold asphalt mixtures very much depend on the breaking, coalescence and phase separation processes in bitumen emulsions; however, the exact nature of the breaking mechanism of bitumen emulsion is not completely understood today. During coalescence or relaxation process, two bitumen droplets are completely fused into a unique spherical droplet and their kinetic is usually recorded in terms of time, denoted as relaxation time or τrelaxation.  In this work, a two dimensional Phase Field model was used to simulate the coalescence process of two bitumen droplets in water phase. The numerical model is based on Finite Element Method and solves Navier-Stokes system of equations coupled with the Cahn-Hilliard equation. The model predictions are validated by direct comparison with the experimental measurements performed in our previous work. Moreover, the study was extended to the small size (order μm) bitumen droplets which are difficult to produce and handle via experimental methods.  

  • 35.
    Ledesma, Enrique Córdoba
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Chen, Feng
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Balieu, Romain
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Kringos, Nicole
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Towards an understanding of the structural integrity of electrified roads through a combined numerical and experimental approach2017In: TRB 96th Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The continuous growth in road transportation demands further development towards sustainable strategies. The electrification of road infrastructure (commonly referred to as ‘e-Road’) to enable wireless charging solutions for Electric Vehicles (EVs) is arising as one of the most promising and yet challenging alternatives for the future mobility by road. In this context, the introduction of charging facilities in the pavement structure and its adequate performance from an infrastructural perspective is determining for the successful implementation of these systems.This study aims to evaluate the structural integrity of e-Roads, considering the embedment in the pavement of a solid module denominated ‘Charging Unit’ (CU) in which the charging facilities are assumed to be installed. To do so, the critical locations of an e-Road pavement structure were identified through computational modelling for its further representation as small-scale e-Road samples in the laboratory. Afterwards, this structure was subjected to different loading conditions using mechanical hydraulic devices and compared with conventional road samples produced under the same conditions. Finally, e-Road samples were scanned with X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) prior to, during and after loading for additional inspection. Results provided valuable learnings of the potential mechanisms of failure of such structure and a better understanding of the e-Road infrastructure. 

  • 36.
    Lundgren, Marja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies. White arkitekter AB.
    Energy and architectural consequences of Swedish building code2016In: Smart and Sustainable Built Environment, ISSN 2046-6099, E-ISSN 2046-6102, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 125-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose building code changes that would benefit both architectural design and the potential of achieving nearly zero energy goals by analyzing the architectural implications of the energy system boundaries within the Swedish code.

    Design/methodology/approach: The analysis is driven by three questions that relate the national implementation of EU directive on nearly zero energy 2020 to the premises set out in the guidelines for revising the Swedish building code aiming at a performance-based regulation. A crucial part of the research is a comparative analysis of the design implications of the code to research findings in scientific articles on near-zero energy or low-energy design.

    Findings: The energy system boundaries in the Swedish code are steering the architectural design and energy consequences of offices towards using less heat but more electricity. The energy section is also limiting the architectural design choices by ignoring the positive energy aspects of daylight. A proposal of a new comprehensive energy section taking all architectural design related energy aspects into account is presented, in order to support design of nearly zero energy buildings.

    Practical implications: A building code that relates the energy system boundaries to form will help integrated design choices that are more likely to support the strive towards nearly zero energy buildings.

    Originality/value: The paper reveals the design implication of the Swedish energy section to be counterproductive regarding energy efficiency as well as limiting architectural design choices.

    Keywords: Architectural design, Building code, Daylight, EU directive, Nearly zero energy, Performance based regulation

  • 37.
    Lundgren, Marja
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies. White arkitekter AB.
    Performance in the Swedish Building Code: An Inquiry into the Consequences for Architectural Design of the Formulation and Assessment of Performance Requirements2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates performance-based regulation in Sweden and its consequences for architectural design. In the last 50 years, there has been a transition from prescriptive to performance-based regulation, propelled by the drive to further innovation, productivity and competitiveness by expressing the functions expected of the buildings as performances. This thesis examines the promise of freedom in design and solution that this regulatory construction offers, considering two specific performance aspects of the Swedish building code: the requirements regarding energy performance in relation to user-comfort, and the requirement in terms of daylight in relation to health and hygiene. Each case investigates the implications of the performance-based system of regulation for the synesthetic and multidisciplinary process of design, focussing on how it affects the work of architects.This thesis also addresses the disciplinary knowledge necessary for assessing performance requirements, which in turn connects to the entry into building regulation of abstract natural science models quantifying societal goals in legislation, and to the disciplinary histories of the engineering and architectural professions.Speculating on ways forward that address the concerns that emerge from this analysis, the thesis turns to a historical example that dealt with a similar problem to evaluate its potential for developing current architectural practice. The dual nature of design, reaching into both expressional and technical concerns, has been the subject of research and eloquent discussion within the architectural concept of tectonics. The concluding section of this thesis raises questions about the architectural discourse in relation to tectonics. It suggests that there is work to be done to reconcile the division between architectural design and technical characteristics connected to building physics that permeates systems of building regulation in Sweden and more generally. The thesis suggests that if performance-based regulation is to offer freedom in architectural design, the architecture community needs to be much more involved in both the research and critique of performance requirements and of their formulation and assessment methods when addressing this.

  • 38.
    Lundgren, Marja
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies. White arkitekter.
    Zinnecker, Max
    White arkitekter.
    Runberger, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE). White architects.
    Grahn, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE). White arkitekter.
    Dubois, Marie-Claude
    Lunds Universitet, Institutionen för arkitektur och byggd miljö, Energi och ByggnadsDesign.
    Daylight autonomy and facade design: From research to practice for the Stockholm SEB Bank head office2014In: Advanced Building Skins Conference Proceedings of the 9th ENERGY FORUM 28 - 29 October 2014, Bressanone, Italy, Munich: EF ECONOMIC FORUM , 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glazing-to-wall area ratio (GWAR) is one of the key parameters determining energy use in office buildings. Excessive fenestration areas not only yield significantly higher energy use, they are often associated with glare problems yielding a wasteful solution, where blinds are down while electric lighting is on. Future near-zero energy office buildings will have a reasonable GWAR to optimize the balance between good daylighting and low heating and cooling loads while providing a satisfying work environment with good view out. Starting from this evidence-based knowledge, White arkitekter developed innovative building facades for the SEB Bank headquarters in Stockholm, using advanced parametric modelling, where glazingto-wall ratios were optimized as a function of orientation. Other aspects of the design included: 1) adaptation of building functions in relation to orientation to avoid glare, 2) use of self-shading principles adapted to orientation, 3) increase of the window-head-height to maximize daylight penetration, 4) tri-dimensional angulation of facade elements allowing diffuse indirect daylight reflections and intermediate light transitions, 5) modulation of GWAR according to floor level. This paper presents the innovative architectural design proposal and discusses the process used to translate the evidence-based knowledge into an innovative building design using parametric modelling supported by advanced simulation and modelling tools.

  • 39.
    Lövqvist, Lisa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Balieu, Romain
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Kringos, Nicole
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    A Coupled Micromechanical Model of Frost Damage in Asphalt2018In: Transportation Research Board 97th Annual Meeting, Washington DC, January 7-11, 2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Frost damage in asphalt pavements is an important factor influencing the performance of the pavement. This type of damage occurs during freeze-thaw cycles when ice forms in the air voids, causing microstructural changes and degradation of material properties, thus affecting the performance of the pavement. It is therefore necessary to understand the process of frost damage in order to prevent it. However, experimental testing is often expensive and time consuming and only a limited number of numerical models dealing with the topic exist. In this work, a numerical micromechanical model has been developed that couple the diffusion of moisture in the asphalt to the damage occurring in a freezing and thawing environment. In this paper, the model is presented and applied on an asphalt microstructure obtained by x-ray scanning of a real asphalt sample. The effect of including frost damage is shown by comparing the behavior of a damaged microstructure to the behavior of an undamaged microstructure. It is revealed that the strength of the damaged microstructure reduces to about 50% of the strength of the undamaged microstructure. Furthermore, the coupling of the moisture content in the air voids to the expansion of the air voids is proved to be important since the assumption that all air voids are fully saturated overestimates the decrease in strength. The next step in this research will be to validate the model with laboratory data. A validated model can assist in improving the predictions of frost damage and help in developing better laboratory tests.

  • 40.
    Lövqvist, Lisa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Balieu, Romain
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Kringos, Nicole
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    A micromechanical model of freeze-thaw damage in asphalt mixturesIn: The international journal of pavement engineering, ISSN 1029-8436, E-ISSN 1477-268XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Freeze-thaw damage in asphalt pavements is a complex phenomenon depending on many parameters such as moisture infiltration, temperature and mechanical properties of the asphalt constituents as well as the interface between them. As a first step in creating a comprehensive multiscale model including all of these parameters, a micromechanical model has been developed. This model couples the infiltration of moisture and the associated damage, the expansion caused by the water inside the air voids freezing, and the mechanical damage. The expansion of the air voids is implemented by applying a volumetric expansion in the air voids dependent on the temperature. The cohesive damage in the mastic and adhesive damage in the mastic-aggregate interface are included by implementing an energy based damage model and the cohesive zone model, respectively. To show the capabilities of the model, two different graded microstructures were exposed to 10 freeze-thaw cycles each and their stiffness was evaluated before and after the simulated freeze-thaw cycles. In addition, the sensitivity of the resulting damage to the time the microstructure was exposed to temperatures below zero was evaluated by simulating freeze-thaw cycles with a total time ranging between 10 hours and 14 days. From the analyses it was concluded that the model was capable of capturing the deteriorating effect of an increasing number of freeze-thaw cycles, and was sensitive to the freezing time in the freeze-thaw cycles.    

  • 41.
    Lövqvist, Lisa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Balieu, Romain
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Kringos, Nicole
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Freeze-thaw damage in asphalt: a set of simplified simulations2018In: Proceedings of Canadian Technical Asphalt Association 63rd Annual Conference / [ed] Stephen Goodman, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Winter damage in pavements, such as potholes, dislodging of stones and structural layer separation, occurs during and after winter seasons. This damage is caused by several processes, such as freezing and thawing action, moisture accumulation, traffic loads and winter maintenance actions, which combined makes winter damage a highly complex phenomenon. To better understand this process and, in the future, being able to predict the damage propagation by modeling, this paper discusses the possibility to separate these actions and phenomena into different cases. The focus in this paper is on the freezing -and thawing damage and how it is affected by different environmental conditions, inspired by real weather data from the City of Luleå in the north of Sweden. To investigate this, a microscale model is utilized. The results from the simulations show an increasing adhesive damage with the number of freeze-thaw cycles while the cohesive damage in the viscoelastic mastic increases is the most severe for a period with several days of freezing temperatures. A discussion of how the separation of winter damage into different cases will contribute to the ultimate goal of a multiscale model is also included.

  • 42.
    Lövqvist, Lisa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Balieu, Romain
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Kringos, Nicole
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Structural Engineering and Bridges.
    Modeling the evolution of winter damage in an asphalt concrete microstructure2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Winter damage in asphalt pavements is a complex phenomenon which may cause pothole formation, dislodging of stones and structural layer separation. In order to reduce the winter damage, knowledge about the process in both the pavement and on a microstructural level is required. This paper focuses on modeling the process of damage evolution on a microstructural level in order to identify and understand the different phenomena influencing the degradation process. In this paper the evolution of winter damage in an asphalt concrete microstructure was modeled throughout the course of two winter seasons. The simulations include freezing and thawing cycles as well as additional damage originating from snow plows, both based on real weather data from Luleå in the north of Sweden. The results show a large increase of damage in both the mastic and the aggregate-mastic interface, and thereby also vertical displacement of the top surface, after the first freeze-thaw cycle. During the following freeze-thaw cycles the mastic damage continuous to increase but with a decreasing rate while the damage in the aggregate-mastic interface is only affected by the manually added damage from the snow plow. These results indicate a need to include the growth of -and emergence of new air voids in the model as well as an investigation of the actual behavior and influence of the damage evolution in the interface regions.

  • 43.
    Marcus, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm University.
    Colding, Johan
    Royal Swedish Academy of the Sciences .
    Erixon, Hanna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Critical Studies in Architecture.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Stockholm University.
    Grahn, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies.
    Torsvall, Jonas
    Kärsten, Carl
    Q-book Albano 4: Sustainability2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is the result of a collaboration between The Stockholm Resilience Centre at Stockholm University, The School of Architecture at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm and the Architectural firm KIT also based in Stockholm. It explores and discusses strategies for integrating novel social-ecological research within the planning and urban design practices aiming to delineate principles for an integrated and comprehensive social-ecological urban design practice. As focal case and example works the Albano campus area in Stockholm, with a strategic location at the crossroads between the three major universities in Stockholm as well as its inner city and the National City Park, the latter adressing the contested issue of expanding the university and city inside a large urban park of national interest. Taken together this critical location in a most informative way highlights several of the potentials and challenges that the contemporary planning and urban design fields are facing today.

    Q-book Albano 4 originated from the work by a inter- and transdisciplinary research team, in their effort to challenge existing development plans for the expansion of the Stockholm University campus over an area inside the National Urban Park. While the existing plans lacked a clear engagement with novel findings from research and design theory, and while the campus expansion was to be placed within a park with important biodiversity and cultural heritage, the team took upon them to articulate an alternative vision based on contemporary international and local research. Consequently, the team offered an alternative vision for the area, in contrast to the plans that the City had been offered by other architects and planners.

    Furthermore, through presenting this vision at an international academic conference open to the public, the real-estate developer Akademiska hus, a body within the Swedish state that manages university campuses across the country, making them one of the largest developers of their kind in the world, showed an interest and urged the team to develop their suggestion further. Through this support, time was given to deepen the principles of social-ecological urban design and to further develop the alternative vision for how the Albano area could be developed according to these principles. This included workshops with experts, and stakeholder meetings with civil society organizations.

    The alternative vision, in this process developed into this illustrated report that effectively joins theories of resilience, social-ecological systems and ecosystem services with theories of spatial analysis, urban morphology and design methodology, translating this new body of knowledge into principles and elements of social-ecological urban design, using the Albano site as case study.

     

  • 44.
    Martinsson Achi, Lina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies.
    Tibert, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Structural Mechanics.
    A graph theoretical methodology for conceptual design2012In: IASS-APCS 2012: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Shell and Spatial Structures, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Norell, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies.
    Noise Control: Designing with Entropic Processes2013In: New Constellations / New Ecologies: Proceedings of the 101st Annual Meeting of the Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture (ACSA) / [ed] Ila Berman and Edward Mitchell, ACSA Press , 2013, p. 283-288Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Noise Control offers a specific approach to design where noise is understood as a productive rather than destructive force. This approach is distinct from others in architecture, where the noise produced by entropic processes is simply accepted as inevitable, or from those that celebrate the purely picturesque nature of matter in a state of decay. Noise Control draws from an eclectic collection of sources ranging from contemporary dis-courses on matter and digital design, to disciplinary history and neighboring disciplines. It argues that the distortion produced by noise can be productively associated with the precision of digital design in order to produce specificmaterialsensibilities.These sensibilities lean towards the strange, because of their pe-culiar pairing of immediate, sensory experiences of matter with a slower set of associations that rely on manipulation of vaguely familiar objects.

  • 46.
    Norell, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies.
    Taming the Erratic: Representation and materialization in post-digital architectural design2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates materialization and representation in contemporary architectural design practice. Due to cultural and technological shifts, the act of design is no longer squarely located in the abstract realms of drawings or digital geometries. Computer aided manufacturing, simulation and scanning offer new design opportunities that are located in the transfer between representation and material. This has given rise to a post-digital model of practice and thought, in which ‘real’ and discrete chunks of matter are incorporated at the earliest stages of design.

    The thesis is practice-based, and spans in scope from design to technology to theory. The design work included explores materialization and representation from a particular point of view. In addition, it suggests a methodological approach to design, and explores the theoretical implications in this approach. These implications are addressed in two connected research questions: How can material processes, whether real or simulated, turn transfers between geometry and materialized objects into productive design opportunities? And how might material simulation alter the ways in which representations are conceptualized and used by architects? In parallel with practice-based work, the thesis suggests a theoretical framework for current issues of representation and materialization in architecture. This framework draws from the recent history of the digital turn in architecture as well as from recent design research work and theory in a post-digital turn.

    This thesis makes contributions in three main areas. Through the design work Erratic, it makes a visceral case for how the use of material simulation might open up new ways of harnessing material agency. It positions simulation in the field of architecture in-between established polarities such as geometry vs. matter, virtual vs. real and drawing vs. mock-up. It discusses the conceptual difference between design based on geometry and design based on discrete pieces of material. Finally, it proposes that form in architecture increasingly can be conceptualized as ‘chunks,’ as opposed to reduced descriptions of geometry. 

  • 47.
    Norell, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies.
    Hökby, Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Humus House2012In: Digital Aptitudes + Other Openings: Poster Proceedings of the 100th Annual Meeting of the Association of Collegiate Schools of Architecture (ACSA) / [ed] Mark Goulthorpe and Amy Murphy, Washington, DC, 2012, p. 11-11Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Norell, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies.
    Rodhe, Einar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Erratic2014In: Open Cities: The New Post-Industrial World Order / [ed] Alice Y Kimm, Jaepil Choi, 2014, p. 10-11Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Norell, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies.
    Rodhe, Einar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Taming the Erratic: Artefacts of Making2015In: Making Research | Researching Making, Aarhus: ADAPTr and The Aarhus School of Architecture , 2015, p. 78-83Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The exhibition Taming the Erratic: Artefacts of Making examines the artefact as locus for the design process. It gathers a diverse set of studies carried out for the installation Erratic, ranging from digitally simulated models to full-scale material assemblies. Together, these artefacts outline an approach to process where transfers back and forth between the Euclidian space of the simulation and the real space of the material assembly become productive opportunities.

  • 50.
    Runberger, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Project Communication. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies.
    Arkitekters Verktyg: en kritisk diskussion om betydelsen av verktyg i förståelsen och skapandet av arkitektur2012Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund Den tekniska utvecklingen av verktyg för gestaltning och utformning inom arkitektur och byggande har sedan introduktionen av CAD på arkitektkontoren under 70- och 80-talen gått snabbt framåt. Parallellt utvecklas informationsteknologi för projektering, produktion och förvaltning som syftar till att industrialisera produktionsapparaten. Här är informationsstandardisering och modellering viktiga beståndsdelar. För de praktiserande arkitekterna är det viktigt att kunna följa, förstå och ta ställning till denna snabba utveckling.

    Projektbeskrivning Denna publikation i Arkus serie Litteraturöversikt syftar till att ge verksamma arkitekter och andra parter inom byggnadsbranschen inblick i dagens situation i Sverige och internationellt, och en förståelse för de möjligheter som ligger framför oss, med internationella exempel från framkanten av fältet inom både praktik och forskning. Utgångspunkten tas i gestaltningsarbetet och designprocessen, men utvidgas till att omfatta metoder och tekniker som knyter an till branschen, marknaden och samhället i övrigt. Områden är mycket komplext, och är dessutom till vissa delar knutet till leverantörer av programvara och teknik. En översikt kan därför inte bli heltäckande, men punktvisa djupare beskrivningar är nödvändiga för att materialet inte skall bli alltför generellt. Fältet är under ständig utveckling, och publikationen kommer att ge en översikt av situationen idag, med en fördjupning i en diskussion om vad som ligger framför oss. Underlaget finns inom internationella publikationer, men kommer även från verksamma arkitekter och systemutvecklare.  Litteraturöversikten kompletteras därför med artiklar, intervjuer och exempel från svensk och internationell forskning och praktik. Grafiskt material kompletterar texterna för fördjupad förståelse av verktygens uppbyggnad och dess påverkan på arkitekturen.

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