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  • 1.
    Aas, Steffen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Hillestad, Thomas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Verdivurdering av næringseiendom - hva brukes av aktørene i markedet?: - Er det behov for en verdivurderingsstandard i det norske markedet? 2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2.
    Abaris, Nedas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Sjönoce, Firass
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Investors and valuers: Similarities and differences from a behavioural perspective2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is an explorative analysis of the commercial real estate actors. The behavioral theory has revealed many flaws in the neo classical assumptions. This includes models of rationality and prescribed behaviors. Research suggests both appraisers and investor act in ways that can be seen as irrational. Appraisers amongst other things anchor to figures that are not part of the valuation theory and investor invest on bases that are not fundamentally sound. Both also exhibit biases, such as confirmation bias and loss aversion. If valuation does not reflect the way market participants behave then they fail to give us a correct market value. We use interviews to try and understand how appraisers try to reflect the market and to understand how investors and other market actors value properties by comparing their use of the DCF-method. Our results suggest that there are many technical differences between how methods are used by different actors and that appraisers have a too close connection with the market actors.

  • 3.
    Abdi, Adel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science.
    Designing appropriate contracts for achieving efficient winter road and railway maintenance with high performance quality: A survey of the state of practice in Sweden2014In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 399-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - For a long time, the winter maintenance of the Swedish road and railway network had been performed in-house by Swedish Transport Administration, Swedish local authorities i.e. municipalities and Stockholm public transport. During the last 15 years the winter operation and maintenance of these state infrastructures have been performed by public procurement and contracting from independent contractors, where in practice the lowest price is the dominating selection criteria. The aim of this paper is to investigate and identify how these contracts are designed and how satisfied the parties are with the contract and the quality of the performed work during the winter and point our directions for improvement. Design/methodology/approach - The study was conducted by a literature review and followed by semi-structured interviews and electronic questionnaire. Findings - The results of the study which are based on the interviews and the online questionnaire show that there is widespread dissatisfaction with the contracts among both clients and contractors. Practical implications - The article prepares a basis showing how a contract affects the quality of the performed winter road and railway maintenance services. Originality/value - The findings lead to a number of suggestions about how to improve the contracts, e.g. having a separate winter maintenance contract to increase the quality of performed winter maintenance measures, a more partnering-like structure where consultations and adjustment can be made during the contract period. A partnering structure also makes it less important to get all the details right in the contract.

  • 4.
    Abdi, Adel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Effective Winter Highway Maintenance through Applicationof Partnering Concept2013In: International Journal of Engineering Management and Economics (IJEME), ISSN 1756-5154, E-ISSN 1756-5162, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 112-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inmany countries winter road maintenance is outsourced to private contractors. Selecting appropriate contract for performance of winter highway maintenance and implementing it in an efficient way is then very important for both results and costs. Writing contracts concerning winter road maintenance is however difficult as weather conditions are hard to describe in an exact way and as what is rational to do in a certain situation, depends on expected future conditions. Problems during recent harsh winters in Sweden have clearly illustrated this. The study argues, with reference both to theoretical and empirical studies, that a partnering concept can improve efficiency in outsourced winter road maintenance. A detailed model of how partnering can be implemented is presented for winter road maintenance contracts together with systems for information supply such as International Roughness Index –surface unevenness measurement and Road Weather Information System.

  • 5.
    Abdi, Adel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Payment mechanisms for winter road maintenance services2013In: Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building, ISSN 1835-6354, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 18-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In countries with severe winters, a major portion of the annual budget for road maintenance is allocated to winter road maintenance. Thus it is important to identify an appropriate basis for the remuneration of the entrepreneurs who carry out the maintenance tasks, one that minimises or eliminates disputes and that satisfies both client organisations and contractors. The objective of this study is to investigate and evaluate the payment models applied in Sweden for winter road maintenance services and suggest possible improvements. Inadequate reimbursement models lead either to unnecessary cost overruns that affect the client's annual budget or cause cash flow problems for the contractor, which can result in safety issues. To solve the problems associated with paying for just-in-time road maintenance, cold region countries such as Sweden have developed various remuneration models, including some based on what is known as the Weather Index. The study uses a domestic questionnaire survey, analysis of a number of current contract documents, a series of meetings with project managers followed by an international benchmarking investigation. The study identified four winter maintenance remuneration models of which one is based on weather data. The study reveals that the payment model based on weather data statistics is applied only to roads with higher traffic flow and generates the most uncertainty about costs. Possible improvements should include more reliable weather data obtained from weather stations and bonuses related to customer satisfaction.

  • 6.
    Abdi, Adel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Public Procurement of Winter Road Maintenance Services Based on EU Procurement Directive: Lessons from Sweden2013In: Journal of Investment and Management, ISSN 2328-7721, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 70-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public procurement of road maintenance services, particularly in cold regions is not an easy task in order to satisfy road-users during winter. Road-users’ dissatisfaction, complaint and pressure can usually be considered as major factors for having more accessible and safe roads during winter. These pressures have contributed and led to an increasing critical approach focusing on public procurement of these services after some harsh winters in the recent years in Sweden with traffic disruption and delay as consequence i.e. an increasing focus on the way in which the Swedish state authorities and local governments procure winter road maintenance services. The present study which is part of a larger research project investigating efficient winter road maintenance through procurement, tendering and contract aimed at extending this knowledge base with regard to procurement and socioeconomic factors with focus on the winter maintenance of the Swedish road network. The study reveals that even the Swedish winter road maintenance services are procured and outsourced in accordance with EU directive and public procurement rules transposed into the Swedish act on public procurement, the act has been interpreted in a manner that all the process has led to great dissatisfaction of end-users during winter due to improper bundling of winter related services. The lack of economic motivation in current contracts concerning winter road maintenance in the form of incentives has led to an inefficient performance of winter road measures. The study suggests a number of proposals in order to make forthcoming contracts more effective through proper bundling of winter services and create incentives for contractors to improve the performance of winter road maintenance services.

  • 7.
    Abdi, Adel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Birgisson, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Highway and Railway Engineering.
    Use of Road Weather Information System (RWIS) as Assistive Tool for Effective Winter Road Maintenance: Technical andContractual Interactions2012In: International Journal of Engineering and Technolgy, ISSN 2049-3444, Vol. 2, no 12, p. 2002-2012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Winter highway operation and maintenance in the northern periphery is a challenge, a broad and complex area. Understanding about this area and its effect on winter traffic performance is far from complete. During the last forty years since Swedish Transport Administration (former Swedish National Road Administration) began attempting of the use of Road Weather Information System -RWIS on the Swedish road network, the repair and maintenance methods of this assistive tool has dramatically changed. Changing of the methods have been due to the progress and development of the technology within this area i.e. from simple stations that could be connected via telephone network for icy road warning to amore sophisticated and modern internet based technology. The main objective of this study was to investigate and find the importance and effectiveness of using weather data collected from RWIS by road agencies as an assistive tool for effective performance of winter road maintenance, and how these tools are currently maintained without influencing the delay of winter road maintenance.The study also attempts to find possible interactions between technical and contractual issues that may affect winter road maintenance. The method of the study was partly based on a theoretical study by reviewing some internationally published articles and reports in this area and furthermore a domestic questionnaire survey, an internationalbenchmarking and a follow-up study within a selected region in Sweden. The results of the study reveal that even if the weather stations are normally placed on roads where the risk of icy roads is greatest, there are indirect factors which influence the planned maintenance of these tools which subsequenly cause delay of winter road maintenance.

  • 8.
    Abdi, Brittemira
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Is Bitcoin here to stay?- A case study on cryptocurrency, Bitcoin2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of money has been around since we started using goods and commodities

    as means of payment. So for thousands of years people have been used to trading goods

    and services for money. The evolution of money as a tool for exchange started out with

    people using cocoa seeds, shells and other precious objects, that progressed into the use

    of precious metals, such as gold and silver. In recent centuries we have found ourselves

    using fiat currency and now, with the evolution of the Internet, we might be on the

    verge of the next step in the evolution cycle of money.

    Enter Bitcoin, which is the first decentralised digital currency that uses cryptography.

    The purpose of this thesis is to explore the positive and negative aspects of Bitcoin so

    far, and will investigate what the future might hold for the invention of this

    cryptocurrency.

  • 9.
    Abedini, Pegah
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Lag 2010:879 om allmännyttiga kommunala bostadsaktiebolag: Hur den implementerats av aktörerna2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund:

    Den första januari 2011 trädde lagen om allmännyttiga kommunala bostadsaktiebolag i kraft. Dess ändamål var att jämställa konkurrensen sinsemellan de privata fastighetsägarna och de allmännyttiga kommunala bostadaktiebolagen. Lagen yrkade främst på att de allmännyttiga kommunala bostadsaktiebolagen skulle agera mer affärsmässigt för att konkurrensen inte skulle snedvridas. Kommunen som ägare var bland annat tvungen att ställa tydligare krav på bolagen genom att ta ut marknadsmässiga borgensavgifter och låneräntor samt ställa marknadsmässiga avkastningskrav.

    Frågan är nu hur de allmännyttiga kommunala bostadsaktiebolagen agerat utifrån dessa nya förutsättningar sedan lagen trädde i kraft den 1 januari 2011. Uppsatsen syftar till att undersöka hur den nya lagen om allmännyttiga kommunala bostadsaktiebolag har implementerats av aktörerna på bostadshyresmarknaden. Målet med uppsatsen är att klarlägga konsekvenserna av lagen för aktörerna på bostadshyresmarknaden, tydliggöra dess implikationer för beslutsfattare i de kommunala bostadsaktiebolagen samt kunna ge kommunerna bättre underlag i besluten rörande sina bolag.

    Metod:

    Enkätstudie där vd:ar från allmännyttiga kommunala bostadsaktiebolag har tillfrågats angående bolagets och kommunens agerande och inställning sedan lagen ikraftträdde.

    Avgränsning:

    Enkätstudien har avgränsats till att omfatta vd:ar på kommunala bostadsaktiebolag i Sverige, rörande händelser som inträffat sedan den 1 januari 2011. Vd:ar på bolag belägna i Stockholms Län, Uppsala län, Södermanlands Län, Östergötlands Län, Jönköpings Län samt Västra Götalands Län har medverkat i enkäten.

    Resultat och slutsats:

    De kommunala allmännyttiga bostadsaktiebolagen instämmer allmänt i att de agerar mer affärsmässigt sedan den nya lagen introducerades. Avkastningskraven i ägardirektiven har setts över, och de kommunala borgens– och ränteavgifterna har generellt sett ökat sedan lagen trädde i kraft.

  • 10.
    Abela,, Eric
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Davidsson, Rasmus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Flexibility in the Office Market – A casestudy of the serviced office space ofGarnisonen2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The market for serviced office space has gone from previously solely consisting of premises in poor

    locations and of poor standards to presently consisting of a wide spectrum of properties ranging in

    location, standard and level of service. As the demand for flexibility increases in society, the serviced

    office space has become an increasingly greater part of the total office market and an important

    complement to the ordinary office market, in order to stimulate growth for smaller companies.

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate how the demand for serviced office space in B-locations in

    Stockholm is shaped and how important different factors are for businesses when choosing serviced

    office space. With this in mind we will then form a recommendation for how the serviced office space

    “Garnisonen” should be positioned on the market.

    To answer these questions a case study of Garnisonen serviced office space was conducted. Data has

    been collected through interviews, surveys and a literature review.

    Through our work we found that tenants that chose serviced office spaces in B-locations in Stockholm

    put the highest value in flexibility, simplicity, and the possibility to lease a fully functional office with

    only a few places.

    The physical environment isn’t the primary factor for success of serviced office space in B-locations in

    Stockholm. One of the most important factors for success, and to achieve tenant satisfaction, of serviced

    office space is to create a platform for networking between different companies and to create a social

    place where the companies can meet, which furthers their collective growth.

  • 11.
    Abela, Eric
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Qattan, Nessrin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Transaktioner på den kommersiella fastighetsmarknaden 2011: Trender och fallstudier2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att kartlägga några av de största transaktionerna på den svenska fastighetsmarknaden under 2011. Detta år har kännetecknats av lägre transaktionsvolym än föregående år, bland annat på grund av ett osäkrare ekonomiskt läge.

    Teorin har sin utgångspunkt i vilka aktörer som finns på marknaden och vilken roll konsulten, utländska investerare och banker spelar samt hur utvecklingen av fastighetstransaktions marknaden i Sverige sett ut fram tills idag. Kartläggningen har gjorts på sätt att försöka få med de flesta typer av aktörer och utreda varje transaktion för sig samt ge en närmare analys av dessa.

    Kartläggningen visar att de största transaktionerna i Sverige under 2011 gjordes av både noterade och onoterade fastighetsbolag på köpsidan, samt onoterade fastighetsbolag på säljsidan.

    Att döma av fjolårets utveckling marknadsmässigt pekar en hel del på att den kraftiga tillväxten i Sverige kommer att leda till mer arbetstillfällen, med fallande vakanser och stigande hyror som konsekvens på den svenska fastighetsmarknaden.

  • 12.
    Abrahmsén, Axel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Westerberg, Clas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Segmentering av kontorshotell i Stockholm2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The market for shared workplaces has seen a rapid growth in recent years. This can partly be explained due to the considerable growth of information technologies. These have in some ways changed how we live, but fundamentally changed how and where we wish to work. For the oÿce market this has resulted in a demand for increased flexibility.The purpose was to investigate which operators o˙er shared oÿce spaces through oÿce hotels, where they have chosen to locate their oÿce hotels and what tenants they have. Secondly, this project has investigated the market segmentation at various oÿce hotels, as well as the correlation between business area and digital representation. In addition, discussions have been held around what types of companies that would benefit from localization in oÿce hotels in favor of traditional oÿces. Research has shown that there are many operators within the market for oÿce hotels in Stockholm. Five of which were chosen to be studied in more detail. These operators have located the vast majority of their oÿce hotels within Stockholm CBD and have a great variety of tenants. The research of market segmentation and digital representation was done by analyzing a dataset with information from about 500 of these tenants.Results showed a market segmentation in which similar businesses formed clusters in some of the oÿce hotels e.g clusters in finance, public relations, media, etc. This can be explained by the fact that each oÿce hotel addresses di˙erent market segments, but also because similar businesses form clusters thru agglomerative benefits. In the case of digital representation, the result clearly shows that certain businesses are overrepresented. This is primarily the case with those who emphasize a clear profile, such as companies in digital innovation, media or communication. Digital representation also tends to be more important for activities with a larger clientele and thus take a more prominent role in clusters. Smaller activities that work in the interests of individual clients have a lower representation, which can be explained by the benefits of social infrastructure and agglomeration. These results show that companies in need of networking with other companies in the same area of business can benefit from localization in oÿce hotels.

  • 13.
    Adam, Achamyeleh Gashu
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Real Estate Planning and Land Law. Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia .
    Informal settlements in the peri-urban areas of Bahir Dar, Ethiopia: An institutional analysis2014In: Habitat International, ISSN 0197-3975, E-ISSN 1873-5428, Vol. 43, p. 90-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peri-urban land which has been used predominantly for agricultural purposes and held by local farmers is a target area for informal settlements in Ethiopia. An increasing number of people try to solve their housing needs by getting a plot of land informally in the transitional peri-urban areas. The purpose of this study is to explore the principal actors involved in the informal conversion of peri-urban agricultural land into urban built-up property. This study is also aimed at demonstrating the role of non-state institutions in facilitating informal acquisition and development of peri-urban plots. Both questionnaire and document analysis were the main sources of data for this study. The result of this study indicated that traditional social institutions played a significant role in processing peri-urban informal settlements and stabilizing land related conflicts by social sanction measures. The study has also found out that the process of acquiring a plot of land from peri-urban areas passes through its own stages which mainly start with identifying a plot for sale and ends with the confirmation of traditional letter of agreement signed by transacting parties without legal ground to do so.

  • 14.
    Adam, Achamyeleh Gashu
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management. Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia .
    Land readjustment as an alternative land development tool for peri-urban areas of Ethiopia2015In: Property Management, ISSN 0263-7472, E-ISSN 1758-731X, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 36-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The rapid urban population growth in Ethiopia is causing an increasing demand for urban land, which primarily tends to be supplied by expropriation of peri-urban land. The process of urban development in Ethiopia is largely criticized for forced displacement and disruption of the peri-urban local community. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to introduce how Ethiopia’s urban development system could be built on the participatory and inclusive approaches of land acquisition. Design/methodology/approach – The study has employed questionnaire survey results, focus group discussion with panel of experts and previous research reports to examine the peri-urban situations and then to show why an alternative land development approach is needed to be introduced in the urban land development system of Ethiopia. Desk review on land readjustment was also made to explore best lessons from other countries applicable to the peri-urban contexts of Ethiopia. Findings – This study has explored that land readjustment is potentially an appropriate land development tool to alleviate peri-urban land development limitations in Ethiopia. Practical implications – Researchers, policy makers and government bodies that are interested in peri-urban land would appreciate and consider implementing the adapted land readjustment model as an alternative land development tool. Consequently, the local peri-urban landholders’ rights would be protected and maintained in the process of urbanization. Originality/value – Although land readjustment has the potential to achieve participatory peri-urban land development, awareness of the method in the Ethiopian urban land development system is inadequate. This study contributes to fill this gap and create an insight into the basic conditions for the adaption of the tool.

  • 15.
    Aden, Ayub
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Uzun, Serhat
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Fler, mindre och billigare bostäder: En opinionsundersökning på om SBUF:s förslag med avsteg från regler kan leda tillAffordable Housing2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The fact that the Swedish housing market is experiencing a housing crisis is widely known. Inparticular, there is a limited range of tenancies, as many of these are converted intocondominiums. This development mainly affects the resource-poor households, as the socialgap in the country has increased, as a result of the change in income distribution in Sweden.The gap between the rich and the resource-poor has increased, but households in Swedenhave also changed from large to smaller households. Thus, there is a need for accommodationthat meets the most basic requirements for a resource-poor individual, which is alsoreasonable to rent from an economic perspective. This has led to a demand for a housingsystem that can meet the needs of these resource-poor groups. In other countries this system iscalled Affordable Housing, but is not etablished in Sweden to the same extent. With this inmind, the purpose of this report is to investigate how SBUF proposes alternative housingsolutions, with the exception of building rules, can lead to such a housing system.As housing concerns people, an opinion poll has been made based on SBUF's proposalthrough a survey. In order to further complete this survey, interviews with subject expertshave been made. The result indicates that there is a market for the housing solutions such asthose SBUF presented, as the respondents in the survey responded positively to the proposal.More specifically, those groups that have low incomes and insecure housing forms as secondhandcontracts and lodger. The result also shows that this proposal could potentially havelowered construction costs through more flexible housing construction. In the end, it is aboutwhether this system is motivated from a socio-economic perspective, and how it should beintroduced in the best possible way into the Swedish housing system. The experts in the fieldclaims that such a system should be implemented in a way that counter segregation.Providing housing with alternative housing solutions to resource-poor households can lead toa controversial discussion of lower housing standards for these groups, but a discussion thatneeds to be taken. The conclusion that can be drawn is that the SBUF's proposal can be a wayof setting up a system such as Affordable Housing, and that it can potentially address the needfor housing that exists within these resource-poor households.

  • 16.
    Adler, Isabella
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Martinsson, Klara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Är det långsiktigt ekonomiskt gynnsamt att rusta upp närområden i miljonprogram?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this bachelor thesis, we have investigated if it is economically beneficial to restore thesurrounding areas in the Million Programme based on factors of social sustainability. Aqualitative analysis has been made based on interviews with property owners, constructioncompanies, previous studies and selected factors of various theoretical concepts. To answerour question, the factors were divided into different categories. The categories were selectedfrom Östgötamodellen, with some minor adjustments. The last category of Östgötamodellen,“Gender, Age and Heritage”, was replaced by “Transparency and Participation”. The factorswithout a particular assigned category were set as “unallocated”After categorising the factors of social sustainability, similarities and differences in focuswere analysed. In the comparison between theoretical concepts, interviews and previousstudies, a gap between property owners and the decisions that are made within theconstruction companies were highlighted. That might be a reason why social sustainabilityhas not been prioritised before. This could merely be a matter of speculations and thereforeneeds to be evaluated further.In order to get companies to invest in social initiatives and restore the surrounding areaswithin the Million Programme; the long-term economic benefits must be proven. If this canbe achieved, there may be a change in how the decisions are made when evaluating whether aproject should be implemented or not. Due to the fact that a lot of the projects are relativelynew and have not been evaluated yet, it is difficult to prove if these projects can generateeconomic benefits in the future.

  • 17.
    Adolfsson, Angelica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Köpcentrumförvaltning -Mjuka värdens påverkan på avkastningen2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18.
    af Klintberg, Tord
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Krav på tillgänglighetsanpassning vid renovering: Ett diskussionsinlägg2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Agholme, Alexandra
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Hammar, Caroline
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    The Effect of Attefall-houses – Can Attefall-houses assist to solve the housing shortage?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Stockholm, there is a great shortage of supply on the housing market and many newly

    established on the market find it hard to find a home. During 2014 the Planning and building

    act was changed, allowing for a new kind of small buildings, so called Attefall-houses, of up to 25 sqm to be built without building permit on single family housing units. This thesis evaluates the impact that Attefall-houses have on the housing shortage in Stockholm and how these houses could be property tax assessed.

    As a part of this, the profitability when those are let out have been calculated and whether they have a potential to become more popular has been investigated. Comparisons with foreign renting markets with a more widespread secondary market have furthermore been carried out.

    The thesis is limited towards Attefall-houses classified as residential. Few Attefall-houses have been built and are available for rent. Since the number of transactions pertaining to single family housing units with Attefall-houses was insufficient, market values have been estimated by studying the attitude of market actors, by an income based approach and by a cost approach. In order to get a more perspicuous view of the profitability, repayment times on those let out have been calculated.

    The value an Attefall-house entails on a single family housing unit has been estimated to

    between 200 000 SEK and 300 000 SEK. The repayment times when the Attefall-houses are

    let out and then are sold at this value vary between 5 and 12 years with the current  egislation, depending on financing and municipality. If all rental income had been tax-free, the repayment times would vary between 4 and 7 years instead. If the Attefall-house, on the other hand, is reformed into a tenant ownership unit, the sales prices vary between 1 500 000 and 2 100 000 SEK. According to this, Attefall-houses have the potential to be a profitable investment. A couple of problems and misleading incentives when building and renting them have, however, been found.

    A property with an Attefall-house will get two property tax assessment fees after 15 years. In

    addition, the rental income is taxable, which creates trouble for the property owner but also for the taxation authorities. It is also more economically profitable to re-form the Attefall-houses into tenant-ownership units rather than to keep them as complementary buildings. If the house is re-formed into a tenant ownership unit it is less of a clear alternative for newly established on the market hence not as good complement to the exiting property market as if the owners rent out the dwelling. The process when the houses are built is, furthermore, not as easy as it sounds since the municipality requires detailed documents and the buildings have to meet tough building standards to be allowed to be let out. The processing time before starting decision can be given also varies a lot between different municipalities.

    There are also a lot of ambiguities and grey areas that have been found. It is not clear when

    letting of Attefall-houses should be classified as a business rather than a private activity and it is also not clear on which market value maximum rent and property tax assessment should be based.

    Possibilities for a good investment and economic benefits exist but to make the Attefall-houses more popular, misleading incentives should be removed and incentives for renting should instead be created. The legislation should also be clarified to lower the risk for property owners.

    At the end, time is needed for Attefall-houses to become an established alternative on the

    residential market.

  • 20.
    Agrest, Inna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Skatt på finansiella transaktioner - En studie över hur Sverige kan komma att påverkas av skatt2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of taxing markets have been around for decades and the goals today are the same as they were 80 years ago, to

     Harmonize existing legislation by reducing the amount of different national taxation methods,

     Stabilize markets thru decreased volatility

     Collect tax revenue

    The tax revenue will later be used to finance something that the society wants to finance.

    This thesis examines the possible effects that the financial transaction tax might have on Sweden and will present the effects that the tax might have not only inside the 11 countries in the European Union that will implement the tax from January 2014 but also on those outside, who will face higher costs even though they are not planning on implementing the tax. Sweden faces a risk with decreased pension’s funds a change in how we invest and where we invest.

  • 21.
    Ahlberg, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Jansson, Anton
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Corporate Hybrid Bonds2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid securities do not constitute a new phenomenon in the Swedish capital markets. Most commonly, hybrids issued by Swedish real estate companies in recent years are preference shares. Corporate hybrid bonds on the other hand may be considered as somewhat of a new-born child in the family of hybrid instruments. These do, as all other hybrid securities, share some equity-like and some debt-like characteristics. Nevertheless, since 2013 the interest for the instrument has grown rapidly and has become a well-accepted, as well as a fairly standardized, source of financing for many well-established corporations around the world. Yet, we have seen very few issues in Sweden and no issues by Swedish real estate companies.

    Corporate hybrid bonds could in a rather simplified manner be explained as a subordinated bond with some equity characteristics. Examples of such equity characteristics are perpetual maturity (or at least very long), coupon deferability and the fact that it due to its subordination provides significant loss absorption. Yet, it also holds typical debt-like characteristics such as regular coupon payments and seniority to equity.

    The outcome of this research has shown that issuing corporate hybrid bonds could be beneficial to a firm. Coupon payments are, unlike dividend payments to holders of preference shares but alike interest payments on a standard bank loan, tax deductible. Other probable advantages with corporate hybrid bonds are; a stronger credit profile (which potentially could improve the (shadow)credit-rating and thus also the terms of other sources of finance), a diversified investment base as well as diversification from a capital structure perspective.

    However, despite the many advantages, numerous obstacles remain. The main shortcoming highlighted among potential issuers is the high pricing of the instrument in relation to other alternatives. Moreover, the lack of Swedish investors investing in hybrid bonds, the assumingly poor liquidity of the product along with the high denomination (piece price) due to regulatory legislations make up for topics of concern among both potential investors and issuers. Although, considering the many benefits, we believe that the weaknesses can be overseen and that there is a potential future use for the product in event of further expansion and acquisition or if the access to capital markets is limited. After all, all good things take time.

  • 22.
    Ahlbäck, Moa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Integrerade arbetsmetoder med Virtual Design and Construction2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual Design and Construction (VDC) was introduced early in the 21st century in order to encourage work with computer based models and construction planning in the design phase. VDC is a concept that has been embraced by several construction and consulting companies in order to develop their work with Building Information Model (BIM), innovations and cooperation within construction projects. VDC is a concept that keeps evolving and is being redefined by individuals and companies. This has contributed to a conceptual confusion within the construction sector about the definition of VDC. Furthermore, construction projects tend to be fragmented with project members that are working in silos and primarily focusing on their own discipline. In order to decrease the fragmentation within construction projects integrated working methods can be applied. Therefor the purpose of this master thesis is to explore the concept VDC and how it can stimulate integrated working methods.  The study is examined using qualitative methods based on scientific literature and an interview study. The scientific literature is defining VDC conceptually and two integrated working methods Integrated Concurrent Engineering (ICE) and Integrated Project Delivery (IPD). Furthermore, the interview study includes respondents from the construction industry whose reflections and thoughts about the subject are being presented. The study is geographically limited to Sweden.  The result shows the current ambiguity of how VDC is defined. In order to avoid a conceptual confusion a common definition should be formulated with national guidelines that describe how work with VDC should be conducted. Furthermore, VDC can stimulate an integrated approach through increased cohesion within construction projects, including common objectives within the project and joint problem solving between project members.

  • 23.
    Ahlgren, Max
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Goldmann, Jacob
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    The Internationalization of Swedish SMEs: how does internationalization affect individual firm’s capital and credit risk structure?2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this master thesis we examine how the level of internationalization, i.e. a firm’s relative exposure to foreign sales, affects individual SMEs in Sweden. Since it is conducted using a data sample with Swedish SMEs its applicability in other countries may vary. The aspects concerned in which the internationalization affects the firm’s structure is limited to the areas of capital structure, credit risk and the factors affecting credit risk. Altman’s Z-score model is employed to approximate a firm’s credit risk and the debt ratio represents the firm’s capital structure. The purpose of the thesis is to increase the knowledge and provide insights on how internationalization affects SMEs in general and in Sweden in particular. Knowledge on how internationalization affects firms is scarce and by this thesis we have extended the known area of the topic and shed light on this relatively unexplored SME aspect. Our hope is that by highlighting differences (and similarities) in credit risk attributes of high and low internationalized firms SMEs this will improve their financial transparency and ease their attracting and access to external sources of capital. To examine the effects of internationalization on Swedish SMEs we have employed statistical techniques, most importantly regression analysis.

    Our study has not only implications for academics, but for all parts that has any interest in efficient credit scoring models and to understand credit risk characteristics and how internationalization affects SMEs. Banks, policy makers and credit rating agencies are constantly pursuing improvements in the efficiency and accuracy of quantifying credit risk by developing credit-scoring models. Banks because they want to minimize credit losses and maximize profitability and policy makers to secure a viable business environment for companies to nurture economic growth, employment, innovation and the country’s competitiveness. The SME segment has received extra attention lately due to the financing barriers they are facing.

    Our results are contradictory to some earlier research in the area and in line with other. This implies that the characteristics and relationship of SMEs credit risk and internationalization changes over time and/or differs between countries, perhaps even between regions within national borders. For example we arrived at the conclusion that our basic model indicates a positive relationship between internationalization and credit risk, in line with both Rugman (2009) and Caves (2007). Our analysis shows no significant difference in the firm’s capital structure depending on the internationalization, although younger companies tended to have a higher level of internationalization. This finding is contradictory to the research conducted by Burgman (2009) and the reports carried out by the European Commission whose report reaches the conclusion that older firms had a higher level of international exposure. 

  • 24.
    Ahlinder, William
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Grass, Emil
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Construction Management: Risker och möjligheter för byggherrar2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional and well established project delivery methods have during an extended time been used in the construction sector. During the last decades, usage of alternative process methods and organizational structures has increased within the Swedish construction sector. Thus, the process of choosing a project delivery method is getting more complex. Clients are benefitted from having good knowledge about different ways of operating construction projects. Clients’ aim for construction projects with low level of risk, at the same time the project should be efficient in terms of costs, time and quality. The outcome of a project is highly dependent on decisions being taken early in the process, though the possibility of risk-minimization and changes decreases over time. Therefore, one of the most important decisions for clients is the choice of project delivery method. Construction Management (CM) is one of the alternative project delivery methods that have increased in usage within the Swedish construction and real estate market. Consequently, clients have one additional project delivery method to evaluate in aspects of what risks and possibilities it would entail to the project. This study evaluates what risks and possibilities CM-projects have in relation to other methods and identifies when the project delivery method is most suitable to use. Further, the study examines the level of knowledge concerning CM among different actors within the Swedish construction sector. The purpose of this study is to increase the knowledge of the project delivery method and to suggest possible changes in the way CM is used.The study comprises a qualitative interview based method where a wide spread of actors from the Swedish construction and real estate market are participating. The result is founded upon the perceptions, experiences and reflections the participating actors have expressed. The result of this study shows that CM can be used in all types of projects, where the benefits of the delivery method are best used in complex projects with high levels of risk and uncertainty. The use of CM could lead to shorter project time, lower price and give the client possibilities of cost effective changes. However, the project risk and responsibility is to a greater extent held by the client. The respondents expressed a difference about the contractual risk levels and the levels based upon experience from project results, which makes it hard to evaluate if CM relates to a higher or lower degree of risk in comparison to the traditional delivery methods.    A lot of possible changes could be implemented in the way CM-projects are executed to adapt more to the clients’ needs and thereby increase the demand of the project delivery method. These changes contain modified contracts between consultants and clients to move parts of the risk to the CM-organization that holds the project management. Further changes in how the consultant fees are charged and how the warranties are handled could decrease the clients´ concerns with CM-projects.

  • 25.
    Ahlvar, Mathias
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Berg, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Investment companies as an investment – Could a person without experience from investments bee helped by the active ownership of investment companies?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay we have been studying the development of investment companies that is traded at

    Mid Cap and Large Cap at the Stockholm stock market. We took out five investment companies at random from the mentioned markets above. We used these companies as benchmarking for the study. To measure the development we looked at the change in the stock price and the total yield over the given time period, we then compared these to three random portfolios of 8 stocks each and the index called Six-Return index. All the companies in the random portfolios have another type of owner structure and lack Investment Company as a big owner. Those companies have a more divided ownership. In the essay we also look at the yield with consideration to the

    risk that is taken in the given investment in forms of Sharpe ratio and standard deviation for each portfolio. To get some extra insight we have interviewed Investor AB and Investment AB

    Latour. Both companies are leading investment companies in Sweden. The time period for the essay is 10 years and is stretching from 2004-01-01 until 2014-01-01.

    The results from the paper are that investment companies in general had a higher yield then the index and portfolios that was used as comparison. The results for the investment companies are better in terms of change in stock price and in yield but also with the consideration of the risk. The explanation of the results lies in several variables where the active ownership of the investment companies is the major part of the explanation and net asset discount together with the high dividend is another part. With these result investment companies is supposedly a very good investment for t

    hose that can’t beat the market, which would mean a great deal of all

    investors.

  • 26.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Market orientation and public housing companies in the Swedish declining market2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The licentiate thesis consists of three papers with the particular topic in public housing. They discuss how the public housing companies manage the transition to higher economic demands meeting increased customer and market requirements. These studies focus specifically on how the public housing company deal with market challenges associated with the decision to demolish, maintain and/or new construction. Market-oriented perspective can be a tool for the public housing companies to achieve better customer value and enhance economic development. Although the market orientation concept has contributed to valuable improvements in research, the thesis assumes that it is necessary to distinguish between that the public housing companies operate market-oriented to meet customer requirements and their focus on innovation.

    Paper I develops market/innovation types and then investigates how public housing companies adapt to these types. It was found that economic conditions in the municipality have a major impact on the housing companies, causing them to act innovatively and create superior customer value by innovations. The study confirms that the implementation of market and innovation orientation contributes to competitive advantages in growing markets, while weak economic conditions impair implementation in declining markets.

    Paper II addresses how public housing companies in declining markets act based on the concept of market intelligence. This study suggested and tested whether there is a positive link between collecting customer information, disseminating it in the organization, and responding to customer needs, and whether this link has an impact on strategic performance. The result shows that weak links exist in the process; the efficiency of intelligence distribution in public housing companies is affected mainly by their responsiveness to customer needs.

    Paper III also addresses the public housing companies’ market strategies in declining markets. This study, based on a market-strategic perspective, compares how public housing companies act in relation to customer wants compared to the private housing market. The result shows that public housing companies are more engaged in carrying out new construction, renovation, and reconstruction, as well as taking more social responsibility compared to the private sector. In particular, their concern for the customers’ social needs is evident.

  • 27.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Moderating effects on market orientation and strategic performance: A study of public housing companies in Sweden2018In: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics. Högskolan i Gävle.
    The role of market orientation in public housing companies:: A study of MO’s effect on construction strategies2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of public housing companies in Sweden is strongly influenced by legal, economic, and demographic changes. The companies long tradition of taking responsibility for customer welfare in living have recently been criticized for excessive dominance over price setting, which is claimed to give them competitive advantages in the housing market. New legislation in 2011 requires financial return on investment, implying increased competition with radical changes for the companies. Because of the law, they find themselves transitioning from the role of being responsible for living conditions in Sweden to having to work in a businesslike manner with increased competition.The purpose of this dissertation is to analyze how the public housing companies’ deal with market orientation constructs and what their impact is on construction strategy choices. Theoretically, the market orientation concept is seen as a tool for companies to create superior value for the customers and influence strategic performance, which is a relationship tested and analyzed in this dissertation.The research was conducted through data collection stages using qualitative and quantitative methods. In the first stage, a qualitative pilot study was conducted with interviews of 15 managers in 11 public housing companies in central Sweden. In the second stage, two quantitative comparative studies of public and private housing companies in declining markets in central Sweden were conducted, collecting data from 23 (22 survey respondents) public and 37 private housing companies (16 respondents). In the third and final stage, two quantitative studies were conducted, collecting data from all 289 public housing companies (165 respondents) in Sweden.Results of the five studies show, firstly, that economic condition in the municipality have a major impact on the housing companies’ construction strategies, causing them to act innovatively in order to create superior customer value. Secondly, market orientation efforts contribute to competitive advantages in growing markets, while weak economic conditions limit the companies’ construction strategy choices in declining markets. After analyzing the link between market orientation constructs and construction strategy in declining markets, results showed that the public housing companies demonstrate higher responsiveness to customer demands compared to the private sector, but these have no effects on construction strategy. Thirdly, the analysis of moderating (external) and mediating (corporate social responsibility) effects on the market orientation and construction strategy relationship confirms that economic conditions in society influence construction strategy planning and decisions. The results of the mediating effects of CSR indicate that environmental and social issues have a positive influence on the market orientation and construction strategy relationship.

  • 29.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Strategies in decling housing markets: a comparison of public and private housing companiesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    et al.
    Gävle.
    Lind, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Sustainable strategies in a declining housing market: a comparative study2018In: International Journal of Management Practice, ISSN 1477-9064, E-ISSN 1741-8143, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 400-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is first to examine and compare sustainable strategies within public and private housing companies in declining markets in central Sweden. Then, the study evaluates the impact of new legislation that requires public housing companies to act in a ‘businesslike’ way, in the same way as a long-term private company. A quantitative study was conducted based on a survey sent to 72 housing companies. The results show that public housing companies are more strategy oriented than private housing companies. The results can be viewed as an on-going interaction process, where a company’s strategies affect its profit. The study aims toincrease the understanding of activities within housing companies in adeclining market that engage the companies in sustainable strategies to improve their market knowledge and profit.

  • 31.
    Ahmadi, Zahra
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Sundström, Agneta
    The market intelligence impact on strategic performance in declining markets2017In: International Journal of Applied Business and Economic Research, Vol. 15, no 15, p. 457-473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how companies in declining markets operate in the context of market intelligence, responding to customer needs and applying them to strategic performance. A quantitative survey was sent to 214 public housing companies. The results indicate that market intelligence creates commitment and is significant. A positive relationship was found between data gathering, dissemination, and responsiveness, which indicates that the companies comprehend market needs but companies have difficult to manage construction strategies that improve strategic performance. There was a low value of strategic performance; a link between market intelligence and the chosen strategy was not confirmed. Companies know what the market wants but base their decision on previous strategic performance on economic conditions in the municipality instead.

  • 32.
    Ahmarinejad, Pegah
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Fastighetsobligationer – Prissättningen av säkerställda kontra icke-säkerställda obligationer på en växande2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 33.
    Ahmetasevic, Mia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Shamoun, Helena
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    The Incorporation of the Tenant into the Public Construction Project: Through the three parameters of communication; Organisational culture, power and trust2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Public construction projects set the standards for new procedures and perspectives within the industry. A way of improving procedures is through communication and the inclusion of all involved parties. It is therefore the purpose of this report to investigate how communication through organisational culture, power and trust can affect the incorporation of the tenant in the construction process. Two case studies, both having public future tenants and public clients, were chosen to enable the investigation of the three parameters of communication, organisational culture, power and trust. The empirics showed that the tenant was often excluded from the construction process due to their differing cultural background. The results also showed that the tenant was considered to have lower status which was exploited at times. In addition, it was found that although opportunistic behaviour was present in the construction project, it was a greater internal issue within the tenant organisation. In the conclusion the authors recommend construction management to evaluate the consequences of incorporating the tenant in the construction meetings as it could lead to less construction errors. They further recommend the public organisations to oversee their distribution of resources in order to avoid opportunistic behaviour.

  • 34.
    Ajne, Joel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Peterhoff, Marcus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Digitalisering inom den Svenska Fastighetsmarknaden2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    PropTech has become a worldwide phenomenon in the real estate market. The attribute of digitization benefit the entire range of owners, investors and tenants. Cost-efficiency, time optimization and the renewal of stereotypes are some of the reasons for this. In Sweden, interest has risen sharply over the past three years, but the real estate industry is slow moving and it is only until now that real estate companies begin to realize the value of applying the new technology. The purpose of the report is to get a market view of how the Swedish real estate industry defines PropTech and digitization, as well as investigate how companies look at the future of the subject. The problem is answered using expert interviews that also form the basis for the analysis. The perception of the significance of digitization varies depending on ownership and yield, while it is clear that the mission of a property owner will change in the future.

  • 35.
    Aldenlov, Jens
    et al.
    Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Business Adm Technol & Social Sci, S-97187 Lulea, Sweden..
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Business Adm Technol & Social Sci, S-97187 Lulea, Sweden..
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Business Adm Technol & Social Sci, S-97187 Lulea, Sweden..
    Soderholm, Peter
    Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Business Adm Technol & Social Sci, S-97187 Lulea, Sweden..
    Karrbom Gustavsson, Tina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Public procurement of railway infrastructure maintenance - a literature review2017In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 9TH NORDIC CONFERENCE ON CONSTRUCTION ECONOMICS AND ORGANIZATION / [ed] Buser, M Lindahl, G Raisanen, C, POLYTEKNISK FORLAG , 2017, p. 10-21Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The maintenance of railway infrastructure has in several instances been changed from government-based to being based on public procurement, with varying degrees of flexibility for the contractor to design their maintenance work. The purpose of-giving contractors a larger freedom of choice of how to perform maintenance is to stimulate them to innovate and develop their maintenance processes. Since the contracts differ in between and there are changes in government policies over time that affects both existing and new contracts, a comparison between different contracts becomes challenging. A literature review has been conducted to understand the change in procurement strategy and how to encourage contractors to innovate. The research questions include: What procurement strategies are there? How is maintenance evaluated? How does procurement affect the innovation opportunities for entrepreneurs? The literature review focuses on railway maintenance and contract design between client and contractor. In total, 17 articles matched the search criteria and were selected for the review. To have successful maintenance service, five articles suggested partnering as a strategy with common goals in combination with good communication during the entirety of the contract. When selecting incentive plan, four articles mentions that a focus on performance-based incentives in combination with risk management is better rather than actual payment schemes. The reason being that payment is often the main cause of conflicts between client and contractor. The scientific literature suggests that improvement in incentives improves quality of maintenance, decreases delays and technical failures. The conclusion from the literature review is that partnering in railway maintenance is considered successful. With accurate knowledge about railway assets the incentive plan becomes accurate which reduces costs. The literature review is a part of a research project with an overall goal to develop a model to guide the selection of appropriate type of procurement strategy, contract and control of maintenance for a more sustainable railway system.

  • 36.
    Alekhtyar, Mumena
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Building Information Modelling and Virtual Design and Construction: Differentiations and interaction2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within the last decade BIM technology products have been providing the construction industry with various tools that can be used in all construction phases and aspects with a wide set of potentials that range from visualization to simulation, scheduling and cost estimation (Kam , et al., 2016). As a result, the term BIM started to have new interpretation from a process- oriented perspective beside the product-oriented interpretation. These different interpretations and definitions of BIM creates an ambiguity regarding BIM. The ambiguity about what is BIM takes another direction when the term “Virtual Design and Constructions” VDC is used as synonym of BIM as well in many situations. VDC is defined as the use of integrated multi-disciplinary performance models of design-construction projects to support explicit and public business objectives (Kunz & Fischer, 2012). This study is an attempt to answer the following questions: What are the differences between BIM and VDC and how BIM and VDC interact and affect each other. As a result, a timeline for both terms was created based on a historical analysis for the emergence of both terms. Furthermore, more differences between VDC and BIM were located through literature reviews and empirics and this mapping was used to find how each term affects the other.   The study was conducted in Tyréns Swedish consultancy company and it covered two infrastructure projects where VDC is used. 

  • 37.
    Alemu, Belachew Yirsaw
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Real Estate Planning and Land Law.
    Expropriation, Valuation and Compensation in Ethiopia2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how the expropriation, valuation and compensation process are carried out in Ethiopia when privately held land and attached real properties are taken for public and private investment purposes. The study  examines three case studies, inquiring whether the process of expropriation and valuation are transparent and  justified or not and the compensation paid is fair and reasonable from an international perspective. A valid with  theoretical background, the study examines practical problems that faced expropriatees and searches for possible theoretical explanations. The study also assesses whether there is a gap between the laws and the practice undertake on the ground.

    The study reveals that expropriation as a concept and a land policy tool has economic and political justification and acceptance in Ethiopia. Similar to other developing countries, Ethiopia has faced enormous economic and social problems. The question of housing and other real estate construction for high population pressure, the development and investment questions, poor public utility facilities and other public interests are some of the problems that need the intervention of both the Federal and Regional governments. In order to facilitate these needs of the society, the Federal government, the City Administrations and/or Regional governments have been using “expropriation” as a meaningful and useful management tool. However,  the field survey result  reveals that different compensation standards among government institutions, inadequate compensation standards for loss of land use rights, lack of professional and certified property valuers, lack of reliable and up to date data and nontransparent expropriation and valuation procedures are some of the main problems that impend the proper and equitable implementation of expropriation, valuation and compensation in the country in general and the study areas in particular.

    Another emerging issue is how the land laws especially the expropriation and payment of compensation laws are applied. It is evident that the application of and adherence to legal provisions with consistency, transparency and objectivity; by the acquiring authorities in ensuring that fairness is done, seems to be quite crucial. On the other hand, non-adherence to such laws brings numerous implementation problems in such programs. Whereas the affected expropriatees need “fair treatment and compensation” the government wants to pay a “manageable compensation” so, this thesis argues for a reasonable compensation to be established by striking a balance between these two view points.

    This study ends up by proposing that both the Federal and Regional governments should revise the land laws especially the expropriation and payment of compensation laws in such a way that it would define and protect property rights for the vulnerable groups both in urban and rural areas and where and when these rights are acquired “reasonable compensation” must be paid.

     

     

     

  • 38.
    Alexandrie Valo, Emilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Housing for asylum-seekers and new citizens, an investment perspective on different kinds of solutions in relation to economic integration2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The number of refugees worldwide has reached record levels in recent years. Sweden experienced a sharp increase of refugees in 2015 that lead to a shortage of accommodations. The study aims to explore how the Real Estate companies view different accommodation solutions for asylum seekers and new citizens and how they view factors related to the housing with an impact on economic integration. The study is qualitative and based on interviews with the Swedish Migration Agency, and representatives of municipal and private property companies.

    The result is that construction of new apartments is a challenge for many municipal housing companies and several actors view long-term demand of apartments as uncertain in areas where demand has increased due to immigration. Regarding existing stock there is a lack of economic incentives to set aside apartments particularly for asylum-seekers and new citizens.

    There is a resistance among several actors to invest in housing particularly for asylum-seekers or new citizens. The private Real Estate companies focused on community properties does not think that housin particularly for asylum-seekers or new citizens is included in their strategy. There are municipal actors that have chosen to invest in this kind of housing. For construction of housing for asylum-seekers or new citizens to be attractive for investors it is necessary in negotiations to achieve a relatively high rent and long contractual period. It is also necessary that the location and characteristics of the housing provide good chances of alternative use once the contract expires.

    Regarding factors with an impact on the possibilities of economic integration the actors involvement vary. In general the municipal housing companies takes great responsibility not only for providing housing but also for creating a good living environment and in some cases even employment

  • 39.
    Ali, Ali
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Räntefria finansieringsmodeller vid köp av bostadsrätter: Ett möjligt scenario i Sverige?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of interest-free financing options in Sweden and a failed attempt to implement

    Islamic banking in the country, has contributed to many Muslims today have limited

    opportunities to purchase condominiums, villas or similar accommodations. The reason for

    this is the condemnation of charging interest in the belief of Islam.

    In this essay, three interest-free financing models invented by the author will be presented.

    The primary purpose of this paper is to investigate how the announced financing models are

    perceived by various people from different categories. Then on the basis of respondents'

    views determine what or which models are the most realistic scenario. All models consist of a

    financier whose purpose is to buy on the behalf of the stakeholders’ and resell for a higher

    price. The financing models can be briefly described as follows:

    • Model 1 - Acquisitions of single condominium funded by an intermediary who buys

    and then sells on to the prospect of interest-free installments.

    • Model 2 - Formation of the condominium association in order to acquire land and

    build house in order to sell to stakeholders of interest-free loans with an interest-free

    installment plan.

    • Model 3 - Acquisition of newly built condominium project to then sell on to the

    stakeholders of interest-free mortgage with an interest-free payment plan.

    A qualitative study will be the basis of empirical data regarding the perception of the

    financing models. A number of people from various construction companies, researchers and

    potential investors have been interviewed, to give their opinions on the models. Furthermore,

    an investment calculation regarding the profitability of model 3 been conducted.

    Based on the respondents and the report it is possible to conclude that model 2 is the most

    realistic scenario. Thus Model 1 is regarded a possible realistic scenario, however, Model 3

    was excluded by the majority of respondents.

    Furthermore, it was found that an investment by the procedure of Model 3, with a yield

  • 40.
    Ali, Ali Abdulsalam
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Räntefria finansieringsmodeller vid köp avbostadsrätter: Ett möjligt scenario i Sverige?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    The lack of interest-free financing options in Sweden and a failed attempt to implementIslamic banking in the country, has contributed to many Muslims today have limitedopportunities to purchase condominiums, villas or similar accommodations. The reason forthis is the condemnation of charging interest in the belief of Islam.In this essay, three interest-free financing models invented by the author will be presented.The primary purpose of this paper is to investigate how the announced financing models areperceived by various people from different categories. Then on the basis of respondents'views determine what or which models are the most realistic scenario. All models consist of afinancier whose purpose is to buy on the behalf of the stakeholders’ and resell for a higherprice. The financing models can be briefly described as follows:• Model 1 - Acquisitions of single condominium funded by an intermediary who buysand then sells on to the prospect of interest-free installments.• Model 2 - Formation of the condominium association in order to acquire land andbuild house in order to sell to stakeholders of interest-free loans with an interest-freeinstallment plan.• Model 3 - Acquisition of newly built condominium project to then sell on to thestakeholders of interest-free mortgage with an interest-free payment plan.A qualitative study will be the basis of empirical data regarding the perception of thefinancing models. A number of people from various construction companies, researchers andpotential investors have been interviewed, to give their opinions on the models. Furthermore,an investment calculation regarding the profitability of model 3 been conducted.Based on the respondents and the report it is possible to conclude that model 2 is the mostrealistic scenario. Thus Model 1 is regarded a possible realistic scenario, however, Model 3was excluded by the majority of respondents.Furthermore, it was found that an investment by the procedure of Model 3, with a yield of4.5%, resulted a net present value as large as one-third of the initial investment.

  • 41.
    Ali, Ali
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Jeng, Michelle
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Flexibla hyresförhållanden på lager- och logistikfastighetsmarknaden: En kvalitativ studie om e-handelns påverkan2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    "The demand that e-commerce is giving rise to today is contradictive to us property owners. Because e-commerce companies have a temporary need of something that will last for a very long time."

    - Matthias Kettelhoit, NREP

    The continuous development of digitalization as well as the growing e-commerce have profoundly changed the retail industry, where shifts in consumer behavior in particular has been one of the driving forces for retailers to adapt their business models. The rise of new retail trends and the number of e-commerce companies has increased significantly. This imposes new demands on property owners, not least on the rental market in the warehouse and logistics segment, where the traditionally long leases now are being challenged by tenants' demand for flexible rental conditions. The purpose of this study was to investigate how property owners can meet this demand. The method chosen for the study was a qualitative method, where semi-structured interviews were conducted with property owners, e-commerce companies and a third-party logistics provider. The study showed that the rapidly increasing e-commerce is a driving force for modern warehouses and flexible leasing conditions being sought by tenants. The conclusion that can be drawn from this study is that there is a difference in what large and small e-commerce companies define as valuable flexible leasing conditions. In order for property owners to meet the demand for flexibility from large e-commerce companies, offering of expansion opportunities will be crucial. Moreover, the study shows that the noted demand for short leases is merely a response to the lack of space flexibility within the segment. To further add, it may be necessary to implement new rental models in order for property owners to better meet the demand for flexibility from startups and small e-commerce companies. In an attempt to attract this target group, a revenue-based rental model was brought up for discussion in this paper as a way for property owners to gain greater market share of e-commerce.

  • 42.
    Alias, Klara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Hur en introduktion vid nyanställning kan bli ännu bättre2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 43.
    Alinder, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Finansinspektionens regelverk för ersättningssystem inom finansbranschen: En granskande studie av regleringens effekter på den finansiella industrin2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att det finns ett tydligt samband mellan ersättningssystems utformning och de anställda och ledningens beteende är sedan länge känt. I efterdyningarna av den senaste finanskrisen har det funnits stort medialt fokus på de enorma bonusar som betalats ut till anställda på banker som sedan tvingats söka statligt stöd.

    För att både minska de risker som är förknippade med vissa typer av rörliga ersättningssystem och för att tillgodose den allmänna opinionen har EU valt att inkludera reglering av rörlig ersättning som en del av regleringen av finansiell verksamhet. Detta beslut resulterade för den svenska marknadens del i regelverket FFFS 2009:6 där Finansinspektionen redogjorde för föreskrifter och allmänna råd gällande rörlig ersättning i finansiella företag. För att tillgodose de uppdaterade EU-direktiven utformades en uppdaterad version av regelverket, FFFS 2011:1, som är ett bindande regelverk i form av endast föreskrifter.

    Reaktionerna från finansbranschen har till stora delar varit negativa. Många anser att regleringen är ett spel för galleriet med en väldigt liten reell verkan på att stävja företagens risktagande och öka den finansiella stabiliteten. Politiker, makthavare och allmänheten är dock rörande överens om att förändringar inom företagens rörliga ersättningssystem måste ske för att främja en långsiktigt hållbar utveckling och undvika kostsamma statliga räddningspaket till systemviktiga institutioner i kristider.

    I denna uppsats redogör vi för teorier bakom de finansiella risker som rörliga ersättningssystem utgör. Vidare beskriver vi bakgrunden till föreskrifterna för rörlig ersättning på både nationell och internationell nivå och redogör för regelverkets utformning. Slutligen presenterar vi tankar från berörda företag som vi intervjuat och analyserar effekterna av regleringen.

    De totala effekterna av regleringen är än så länge oklara men redan nu kan vi se förändringar i företags ersättningssystem i form av ökad fast ersättning samt förändringar i ersättningspolicys med ett ökat fokus på ickefinansiella kriterier. De praktiska effekterna för branschens arbetssätt är dock ytterst diffusa och vi ställer oss frågande till hur gynnsamma dessa nya regler kommer vara för den svenska marknaden på sikt.

  • 44.
    Alizadeh Amirbeigi, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    A study of optimizing the Processing time for Building permits: Study Case: Tyresö municipality2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are rules in urban development and the construction industry, which encourages organizations to work according to standards and approved codes. For example: it is required by law for all property owners to apply and obtain a permit in order to carry out an action in construction building. Often, the permit process takes a great deal of time to process.

     

    Currently, there is a lack of constructional project for residential buildings in Stockholm region, and there is critique toward the municipalities for having a long processing time for reviewing building permits. This study is about ways to optimize the processing time for building permits. As a first step, it was important to study parameters, which maximizes the quality and efficiency. Since, time is often one of the restricted factors in urban development, optimizing the processing time issuing a construction permit can be one of the quality elements in service oriented business organizations like a municipality.

     

    This study aims to analyze the building permit processing time, and investigate different factors that have influence on it. The case for this was Tyresö municipality, a municipality with approximately 45 000 inhabitants in the south east of the Stockholm region. Required information has been developed based on interviews with the municipality's personnel and professional construction developer who have applied for building permit in Tyresö region. In addition, previous reports, statistics, and cases from the municipality archive have been used to identify important concepts as empirical material.

     

    Long processing time is a current existing problem in many municipalities. A service oriented organization like a municipality should try to increase clients’ satisfaction by a continual and proper communication with public. The municipality can identify the costumer needs and expectations and improve the quality efficiency by communication. Optimizing of processing time in the building permit cases is one of the issues of process optimization that can increase customer satisfaction. Using Total Quality Management strategy in the organization, help the municipality to optimize the processing time continuously. It means quality improvement and leads to long term costumer satisfaction. Since functional team develops solutions to problems in TQM style it often shortens the time taken to produce services. The focus of this management style is on importance of the relationship between costumer and organization and it is directly linked to their communication.

     

    By service guarantee as a tool, municipality which is a politically governed organization makes assurance for public as its costumer to provide community services with proper quality. A well defined service Guarantee has been contributed the improving quality of the services. It helps the planning and building department of municipality to increase the costumer satisfaction and attract more building developer to invest in the municipality region.

  • 45.
    Alizadeh Khameneh, Mohammad Amin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Geodesy and Satellite Positioning. WSP Civils, Department of Geographic Information and Asset Management.
    Eshagh, Mehdi
    University West, Department of Engineering Science.
    Jensen, Anna B. O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Geodesy and Satellite Positioning.
    Optimization of Deformation Monitoring Networks using Finite Element Strain Analysis2018In: Journal of Applied Geodesy, ISSN 1862-9016, E-ISSN 1862-9024, Vol. 12, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An optimal design of a geodetic network can fulfill the requested precision and reliability of the network, and decrease the expenses of its execution by removing unnecessary observations. The role of an optimal design is highlighted in deformation monitoring network due to the repeatability of these networks. The core design problem is how to define precision and reliability criteria. This paper proposes a solution, where the precision criterion is defined based on the precision of deformation parameters, i.e. precision of strain and differential rotations. A strain analysis can be performed to obtain some information about the possible deformation of a deformable object. In this study, we split an area into a number of three-dimensional finite elements with the help of the Delaunay triangulation and performed the strain analysis on each element. According to the obtained precision of deformation parameters in each element, the precision criterion of displacement detection at each network point is then determined. The developed criterion is implemented to optimize the observations from the Global Positioning System (GPS) in Skåne monitoring network in Sweden. The network was established in 1989 and straddled the Tornquist zone, which is one of the most active faults in southern Sweden. The numerical results show that 17 out of all 21 possible GPS baseline observations are sufficient to detect minimum 3 mm displacement at each network point.

  • 46.
    Allan Fred, Onyango
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Interaction between Lean Construction and BIM : How effectiveness in production can be improved if lean and BIM are combined in the design phase A literature review2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Construction industry has had a relatively low increase in the efficiency rates over the recent years. Two developments of Lean construction and Building Information Modelling(BIM) have been introduced that have each shown improvements in the efficiency rates in construction. These two individual concepts of Lean and BIM have been applied each independent of the other and because of their similarities and overlapping benefits, it is thought that them being applied together improves the efficiency in a greater way than them being applied individually. This study looks at the synergy that is possible due to the overlapping benefits in applying Lean Construction and BIM. The study is a Literature review aimed at understanding Lean and BIM and their overlaps. The Literature looks at past research studies that have investigated this area. The clear look at these studies shows that when the two concepts are combined, then that collaboration leads to a more integrated process in construction that in turn yields higher efficiency rates.

  • 47.
    Allvin, Fanny
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Sedig, Johanna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    How should the responsibility for interior maintenance be regulated? – A study of seven museums’ leases2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    All premises are covered by a lease which governs the rights and obligations between landlord and tenant. Contracts can be designed in different ways, but to develop a contract that takes all possible outcomes into account is basically impossible. One can still in various ways make contracts as clear as possible. One area which often causes problem of boundaries is maintenance of interior surface layers, and this is the problem that this thesis focuses on. We have studied this issue at the National Property Board (SFV) by looking at seven museums. As a landlord, SFV is strongly tied to many of their tenants because of the special facilities they manage. Because many of the tenants of SFV are strongly tied to the premises that the business is conducted in, the ability to terminate the contract is limited for both parties. It makes the relationship with the tenants extremely important since it is long-term. Even tenants cherish the relationship with SFV and short-term conflicts are rare. There is simply a lot of value in avoiding conflicts and disputes are often solved by compromises. To regulate the responsibilities and provide clarity between SFV and their tenants SFV uses detailed demarcation lists. It has been shown that these lists are rarely used because of its length and incalculability. Our judgment is that because both parties care so much about having a good relationship, they will perform their obligations, which means that such detailed demarcation lists are not necessary. Our recommendation is instead a shorter, more general list, which we believe would simplify the situation, both for SFV and their tenants.

  • 48.
    Allvin, Fanny
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Sedig, Johanna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Underhåll av småhus utlagt på totalentreprenad: Finns det en efterfrågan?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi har undersökt om det finns en marknad för ett underhållsavtal för småhusägare. Vår idé är att villaägare ska kunna teckna ett avtal med ett företag som i sin tur förhandlar med ett eller flera underhållsföretag. Huset besiktigas sedan och det görs upp en underhållsplan, med de åtgärder som villaägaren önskar ska ingå. Villaägaren kommer sedan att betala in en viss summa pengar enligt avtal varje månad till företaget, som ser till att underhållet sköts. Månadskostnaden är beroende av både vilka underhållsåtgärder som ingår och husets standard vid tecknandet av avtalet.

    För att undersöka om det finns en marknad har vi intervjuat fem villaägare och två underhållsföretag. Vi har även talat med Folke Björk, professor i byggvetenskap, angående hans syn på vår idé. Alla tre parter var generellt positiva till idén. Den främsta målgruppen för ett underhållsavtal bedömer vi är barnfamiljer och välbärgade pensionärer. Både företagen och privatpersonerna ansåg att det utvändiga underhållet skulle passa bäst för ett underhållsavtal, då det invändiga underhållet inte bara utförs för att det måste utan även för att man vill ha lite omväxling och fräscha upp huset. Det invändiga underhållet går dessutom i stor utsträckning att göra själv.

    Det vi har kommit fram till är att det finns en marknad för ett underhållsavtal men att det finns många aspekter att se över innan ett underhållsavtal skulle kunna tecknas i praktiken.

  • 49.
    Alm, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH.
    Lindgren, Eidar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Real Estate Planning and Land Law.
    Paulsson, Jenny
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Real Estate Planning and Land Law.
    Hållbar dagvattenhantering i stadsmiljö: Ansvar och finansiering2017In: Bostad 2.0: En bostadsmarknad för alla / [ed] Maria Hullgren och Mats Wilhelmsson, Stockholm: Kungliga Tekniska högskolan, 2017, p. 71-77Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Almgren, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Haggren, Viktor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Market shares of regional shopping centres with proximity to an IKEA warehouse: IKEA Centres Case Study2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis focuses on regional shopping centre’s market shares. It is written in cooperation with IKEA Centres that provided data regarding their shopping centres and funds for the gathering of statistics. The research question for the study is: What level of market share is valid for regional shopping centres in close proximity to an IKEA warehouse? In order to answer this question as accurate as possible the study is designed as a case study. The case is implemented on three different shopping centres, owned by IKEA Centres, with similar locations and market areas. The three shopping centres that are selected as subject centres in the study are Birsta City in Sundsvall, I-Huset in Linköping and Erikslund Shopping Center in Västerås. The case is focused on the regional shopping centres isolated and do not include the IKEA furniture store. The first part of the study concerns the delineation of the subject centres’ primary- and secondary market area. This is done using Reilly’s Law based on the prerequisites of the specific shopping centre. By using this method breaking points or borders of the market areas can be defined and located based on the calculated driving time. To be able to calculate the potential market shares for the centres, the buying power segmentation method is used.  The statistics are bought from Statistics Sweden and concerns mainly the number of households in the market areas and their disposable income. The market share is calculated by comparing the potential buying power of the households and the actual sales in the shopping centres. The results of the conducted study regarding the market share in the total market area is that Birsta City has a significant larger market share (60%) than the two other centres that the study concerns. I-Huset (17% market share) and Erikslund Shopping (25% market share) are located in regions with a higher population and more competition, the authors see this as the main factor to the difference in the market share. Results regarding market shares in different categories of goods are also presented. The three subjects’ centres offer several different collections of items. All centres have a large market share in the fashion segments that are offered, a wide tenant mix in combination with the target groups is seen to be an effecting factor.

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