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  • 1. Ahmed, K. M.
    et al.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Hasan, M. A.
    Rahman, M
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Hossain, Mohammed
    Islam, M. Mainul
    Rahman, Marina
    Rashid, S.M.A.
    Sustainable Arsenic Mitigation (SASMIT) in Bangladesh: The Matlab strategy2010In: Abstracts with programs (Geological Society of America), ISSN 0016-7592, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 652-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2. Ahmed, K. M.
    et al.
    Sultana, S.
    Hasan, M. A.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Hasan, M. K.
    Burgess, W. K.
    Hoque, M. A.
    Groundwater quality contrasts between Upper and Lower Dupi Tila Aquifers in Megacity Dhaka, Bangladesh2011In: Groundwater quality contrasts between Upper and Lower Dupi Tila Aquifers in Megacity Dhaka, Bangladesh: Proc. 7th International Groundwater Quality Conference, 2011, p. 71-74Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dhaka is one of the fastest growing megacities of the world and is set to become the third largest by 2025. Currently about 86% of the municipal water supply comes from over 500 wells drilled in the Dupi Tila aquifers underlying the city. The Upper Dupi Tila aquifer (UDTA) is overexploited and a large part has been dewatered; abstractions from the lower Dupi Tila started only recently. Results of water analysis and EC surveys have been used to decipher the variations in groundwater quality in the UDTA and LDTA. EC surveys reveal a systematic deterioration of water quality in the vicinity of the Buriganga River in southeast Dhaka. The UDTA is more widely affected by anthropogenic processes than the LDTA, which still largely exhibits its intrinsic water quality characteristics. Regular monitoring and proper management practices are essential to protect the quality of this precarious resource.

  • 3.
    Alam, M.S.
    et al.
    Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada.
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Hasan, M.A.
    University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Hossain, Muhammed
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Controls of sedimentary facies on arsenic mobilization in shallow aquifers of the Matlab North Upazila, southeastern Bangladesh2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater extracted from shallow (<100 m bgl) Holocene alluvial aquifers, is the primary source of drinking water in Matlab North Upazila, Southeast Bangladesh. The distribution of lithofacies and its relation to hydrochemistry in such heterogeneous deposits are of fundamental importance for the analysis of groundwater quality. Aquifer sediment samples were collected from 48 locations throughout the study area. Lithofacies distribution was characterized using grain size and sediment colors. Channel fills (sandy) and over bank (silt-clay) deposits the two main lithofacies groups, were identified. These sandy deposits represent an active meandering river or channel fills sediment sequence, which are usually capped by silts and clays of an over bank sediment sequence. All the collected sediments samples were generalized and subdivided based on four distinct color variations, such as Black, White, Off-white, and Red according to Munsell color chart and water-well drillers’ perception.

    Mineral compositions showed variability with the sediment color and grain size. Red and off-white sediments contain fewer amounts of metastable minerals (hornblende, actinolite, kyanite and pyroxenes etc.) than that of black sediments, whereas black sediments contain higher amount of biotite. The relatively high content of biotite and other dark colored ferromagnesian minerals are responsible for the black and grayish color of these sediments. Ferruginous coating on silicates, particularly on quartz grains, gives the red and off-white coloration. Based on the available information regarding sediment colors of aquifers in which tubewell screens were placed, 44 domestic hand pumped tubewells (HTWs) were selected for water sampling. The groundwater abstracted from black sediments of shallow aquifer showed higher concentrations in DOC (median: 5.81 mg/L), dissolved NH

    4+ (median: 3.47 mg/L), PO43- (median: 1.36 mg/L), Fe (median: 4.87 mg/L), As (median: 252.53 μg/L) and relatively low Mn (median: 0.54 mg/L) and SO42-(median: 0.59 mg/L) concentrations, whereas groundwater abstracted from off-white and red sediments of shallow aquifer showed lower concentrations in DOC (median: 1.95 and 1.71 mg/L, respectively), dissolved NH4+ (median: 0), PO43- (median: 0.14 and 0.04 mg/L, respectively), Fe (median: 2.25 and 0.63 mg/L, respectively), As (median: 17.36 and 15.05 μg/L, respectively) and relatively high Mn+2 (median: 1.12 and 1.15 mg/L, respectively) and SO42- (median: 0.79 and 0.78 mg/L, respectively) concentrations. The water samples collected from black sediments (median Eh: 211 mV) indicated most reducing environment, followed by white (median Eh: 227 mV), whereas off-white and red sediments (median Eh: 268 and 274 mV) signified less reducing environment. The study supports that the sediment colors in shallow aquifer can be a reliable indicator of high and low-As concentrations and can be a useful tool for local drillers to target arsenic safe aquifers.

  • 4.
    Annaduzzaman, Md.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Biswas, Ashis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Hossain, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Ahmed, Kazi Matin
    University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Tubewell platform color: A low-cost and rapid screening tool for arsenic and manganese in drinking water2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Presence of high level of geogenic arsenic (As) in groundwater is one of the major and adverse drinking water quality problem all over the world, especially in Southeast Asia, where groundwater is the prominent drinking water source. Bangladesh is already considered as one of the most As affected territories, where As contamination in the groundwater is key environmental disasters. Recently besides As, presence of high level of manganese (Mn) in drinking water has also got attention due to its neurological effect on children. It becomes very essential to formulate a reliable safe drinking water management policy to reduce the health threat caused by drinking As and Mn contained groundwater. The development of a simple low cost technique for the determination of As and Mn in drinking water wells is an important step to formulate this policy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potentiality of tubewell platform color as low-cost, quick and convenient screening tool for As and Mn in drinking water wells (n=272) in a highly arsenic affected area on Matlab, Southeastern Bangladesh.

    The result shows strong correlation between the development of red color stain on tubewell platform and As enrichment in the corresponding tubewell water compared to WHO drinking water guideline (10 μg/L) as well as Bangladesh drinking water standard (BDWS) (50 μg/L), with certainty values of 98.7% and 98.3% respectively. The sensitivity and efficiency of red colored platforms to screen high As water in tubewells are 98% and 97% respectively at 10 μg/L, whereas at cut-off level of 50μg/L both sensitivity and efficiency values are 98%. This study suggests that red colored platform could be potentially used for primary identification of tubewells with elevated level of As and thus could prioritise sustainable As mitigation management in developing countries. Due to lack of tubewells with black colored platform in the study area, the use of platform color concept for screening of Mn enriched water in the wells have not been tested significantly, which requires further study.

    Acknowledgements: This study was carried out with support from the Liuuaeus-Palme Academic Exchange Programme supported by International Programs Office (IPK) and the KTH led joint collaborative action research project on Sustainable Arsenic Mitigation- SASMIT (Sid Contribution 750000854).

  • 5.
    Apul, Defne S.
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, University of Toledo.
    Diaz, Maria E.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Toledo.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Hundal, Lakhwinder S.
    Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago, Research and Development Department, Section 123.
    Geochemical Modeling of Trace Element Release from Biosolids2010In: Environmental Engineering Science, ISSN 1092-8758, E-ISSN 1557-9018, Vol. 27, no 9, p. 743-755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biosolids-borne trace elements may be released to the environment when biosolids are used as fertilizers in farm land. Trace element leachate concentrations from biosolids are known to be limited by both organic and inorganic sorbent surfaces; this experimental evidence has not been previously verified with geochemical modeling of sorption reactions. In this study, pH-dependent leaching experiments and sorption isotherm experiments were coupled with a multisurface geochemical modeling approach. Biosolids samples were obtained from Toledo and Chicago wastewater treatment plants; their sorbent surfaces were defined and modeled as a combination of organic matter (OM) and Fe-, Al-, and Mn-oxides. The multisurface geochemical modeling approach was partially successful in predicting the pH-dependent leachate concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, and Zn. Both modeled and experimental data indicated that As and Mo in biosolids were bound to Fe- oxides; Cd, Cr, and Cu were bound mainly to OM; and as pH increased the fractions of Cd and Cu bound to Fe- oxides in the biosolids matrix increased. Ni and Zn were distributed between OM and Fe- oxides, and the percentage of each fraction depended on the pH. This study showed that the multisurface geochemical model could be used to generate As (and to a lesser extent Cd) Freundlich isotherm parameters for biosolids. However, the composition and reactivity of solid and dissolved OM was identified as a source of uncertainty in the modeling results. Therefore, more detailed studies focusing on the reactivity of isolated biosolids OM fractions with regard to proton and metal binding are needed to improve the capability of geochemical models to predict the fate of biosolids-borne trace metals in the environment.

  • 6.
    Aullón Alcaine, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Schulz, C.
    Universidad Nacional de la Pampa, Argentina.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    University of Southern Queensland, Australia.
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Physics.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholms Universitet, Institutionen för geologiska vetenskaper.
    Geogenic arsenic and fluoride in shallow aquifers of northeastern La Pampa, Argentina: mobility constraints2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    High concentrations of geogenic arsenic (As) and fluoride (F-) in groundwater have been reported at elevated concentrations in different parts of the Chaco-Pampean Plain, in Argentina, where more than 2 million people may be exposed to high levels of these toxic elements through drinking water. Groundwater from the shallow aquifer is far exceeding the permissible WHO Standard limits of 10 μg/L for As and 1.5 mg/L for fluoride, as well as the Argentinean Standard limit of 50 μg/L for As. Geogenic As results due to the weathering of ash originated by volcanic eruptions from the Andean Cordillera and transported by wind and deposited along with the sediments and also as discrete layers and lenses over large geographical area containing around 90% of rhyolitic glass. Groundwater is hosted in a sandy silty interconnected system of aquifers and aquitards within the The Pampean aquifer. A total of 44 groundwater samples were collected from the shallow aquifers in NE of La Pampa province. Two rural areas covering an area of 600km2 in Quemú Quemú (QQ) and 300km2 in Intendente Alvear (IA) were investigated in the present study. Groundwater was circum-neutral to alkaline (pH 7.43-9.18), predominantly oxidizing (Eh ~0.24 V) with widely variable EC range (456-11,400 μS/cm). The major cation dissolved in groundwater was Na+, while the predominant anions were HCO3-, Cl- and SO42-, respectively. Water type in QQ was mostly Na-HCO3- while in IA, the composition differed between Na-HCO3- and Na-Cl-SO42- water types. Groundwater composition showed high degree of mineralization and high salinity evidenced by high EC. In discharge areas, high evaporation rates result in high salinity of shallow groundwater and visible salts incrustations on the surface of the lakes. Elevated concentrations of NO3- and PO43- observed in some wells indicated possible anthropogenic contamination. Total As concentration in groundwater from QQ ranged from 5.58 to 535 μg/L, where 94% of the wells exceeded the WHO standard limit for safe drinking water of 10 μg/L, and 56% of the wells exceeded the old Argentine standard limit of 50 μg/L. F- concentrations revealed heterogeneity and high concentrations in some wells (0.5-14.2 mg/L), 78% of samples in QQ study area exceeded the WHO standard limit of 1.5 mg/L. Under oxidizing conditions and neutral to alkaline pH, arsenate (AsV) species predominated, mainly in HAsO42- forms. As "hotspots" indicated locally contamination and correlated positively with F-, HCO3-, B and V and showed negative correlation with salinity, dissolved Fe, Al and Mn. The mechanisms involved in the mobilization of As in the shallow aquifers are controlled by the rise of pH, variations in Eh conditions and the presence of competitor ions (HCO3-, PO43-, Si, V oxyanions). Geochemical processes like adsorption/desorption, precipitation/dissolution and redox reactions may trigger to As mobilization in the shallow aquifers of La Pampa region.

  • 7.
    Baken, Stijn
    et al.
    KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Smolders, Erik
    KU Leuven, Belgium.
    The association between iron and carbon in freshwater colloids2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iron and carbon are important constituents of natural colloids, which intimately links the fate of these two elements in riverine systems. Iron may strongly affect the binding of trace metals by organic matter, e.g. through competition for binding sites, which highlights the importance of a correct appreciation of the Fe speciation in surface waters. However, the chemistry of Fe and C in natural colloids is complex and depend on many factors including the pH, the Fe:C ratio, and the redox speciation of Fe [1-3]. Two areas with a contrasting Fe chemistry were studied: a lowland area with widespread seepage of iron-rich groundwater, and an upland peat area. Samples of ten oxic, well-mixed streams were subjected to cascade filtration using conventional filtration (1.2 µm, 0.45 µm, 0.1 µm) and cross-flow ultrafiltration (CFF; 5 kDa). The colloidal fraction, here operationally defined as between 0.45 µm and 5 kDa, was isolated by CFF and subsequently freeze-dried. The speciation of colloidal Fe was determined by EXAFS spectroscopy at the Fe K-edge (MAX-lab, Lund, Sweden). In the rivers draining upland peat, Fe and C were predominantly recovered in the fraction between 5 kDa and 0.1 µm. Conversely, in the rivers draining the lowland with extensive seepage of iron-rich groundwater, Fe was most abundant in the > 0.1 µm fraction, whereas C was predominantly present < 0.1 µm. The EXAFS data reveal that colloidal Fe speciation is different in both study areas. It exists as mononuclear Fe complexed by dissolved organic matter, as colloidal hydrous ferric oxides (likely stabilized by adsorbed organic matter), or as a mixture of these. The colloidal Fe concentrations show considerable seasonal variability. Overall, this study contributes to a better understanding of colloidal Fe speciation and of its interaction with organic C.

  • 8.
    Balfors, Berit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    SINGH, NANDITA
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Koku, John
    Dept. of Geography & Environment, University of Ghana.
    Contamination of water resources in Takwa mining area of Ghana: Linking technical, social-economic and gender dimensions2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ghana is Africa’s second largest producer of gold with gold deposits in western part of the country. There are seven large-scale mines and 168 small-scale mining concessions valid in the region. Wassa West District is an important mining area, with Tarkwa as administrative capital. In recent years, the area has been exposed to lead, cadmium, arsenic, mercury and cyanide. Both small and large-scale mining industries have reportedly contaminated rivers, streams, dug wells and boreholes with heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, arsenic, mercury and cyanide. There has been significant adverse impact upon health, economy, and social life that may be felt differently by women and men, raising the question of sustainable access to safe water as a millennium development goal (MDG) in the area.

    A multi-disciplinary approach was adopted in the project with distinct work components on the technical as well as on social, gender and policy aspects. It also aimed to suggest integrated strategies to address the problem so as to ensure achievement of the MDGs. Based upon a field study in 37 local communities coupled with water and sediment analysis from the area, the research indicated the existence of not only higher levels of metal contaminants in local water resources in Tarkwa area, particularlymanganese and iron, but also arsenic and aluminium in some wells. However, water resources, particularly groundwater is currently safe for human consumption but the spillages of cyanide and other effluents into surface streams have health and ecological implications. Levels of mercury in stream sediments are high with a clear risk of methylation of the mercury and transfer in the food chain via fish to humans.

    Regarding the impact of mining, it was found that for women who are the primary domestic water managers, contamination of local water sources has forced them to fetch water from greater distances, and livelihoods are hampered due to the fish loss through cyanide spillages in streams. Another finding was the lack of trust and rising water conflicts between mining authorities and the local communities. Regarding the policy aspects underlying the problem, it was found that there is a lack of coordination between the 3 policy areas, namely, rural water supply, mining, and environmental impact assessment (EIA) and environmental protection to the detriment of women as water users and domestic water managers. While impact of mining is increasingly seen as an issue of human rights violation, little is being done to strengthen participatory approaches especially involving women in rural water supply programs. The detailed analysis of the EIA regulations reveals that most mining have not undertaken any comprehensive EIA guiding their operations.

    A number of recommendations have emerged from the integrated perspective attempted to be developed through this research. These include a need for further in-depth explorations on the situation of contamination in groundwater and surface waters as well as stream sediments in the area; the need to resolve the situations of water conflicts between the local communities and the mining authorities by promoting greater public participation; and the need to minimize the gaps between the three related policy frameworks. Also, there is a necessity to strengthen environmental compliance on part of the mining companies so as to uphold the quality of water resources in the area.

  • 9. Battaleb-Looie, S.
    et al.
    Moore, F.
    Jafari, H.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Ozsvath, D.
    Hydrogeochemical evolution of groundwaters with excess fluoride concentrations from Dashtestan, South of Iran2012In: Environmental Earth Sciences, ISSN 1866-6280, Vol. 67, no 4, p. 1173-1182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogeochemical investigations were carried out in the Dashtestan, the eastern part of Borazjan, with a focus on fluoride content. The study area is underlain by a complex geology that is dominated by three lithological units, namely marl, alluvial sediments, and carbonate rocks. To assess the major geochemical factors controlling the fluoride enrichment in water, 37 groundwater and 12 surface water samples were collected from the three lithological units. Fluoride concentrations ranged up to 3 mg/L, and average concentrations varied from 1.12 (in carbonate aquifers) to 1.73 (in alluvial aquifers) to 1.82 mg/L (in marl aquifers). To study the influence of rocks and soils on groundwater quality, an additional 41 soil and rock samples were also taken and analyzed for fluoride. The order of average fluoride content in both rocks and soils is: marl > alluvial sediments > limestone, which confirms that marl is a likely source of fluoride.

  • 10. Bhattacharya, Aparajita
    et al.
    Routh, Joyanto
    Jacks, Gunnar
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Morth, Magnus
    Environmental assessment of abandoned mine tailings in Adak, Vasterbotten district (northern Sweden)2006In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 21, no 10, p. 1760-1780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sulfide-rich mine tailings in Adak that are exposed to weathering cause acid mine drainage characterized by low PH (2-4) and high SO4 (UP to 800 mg L-1). Surface water, sediment and soil samples collected in this study contain higher concentrations of As, Cu, Fe and Zn, compared to the target and/or intervention limits set by international regulatory agencies. In particular, high As concentrations in water (up to 2900 mu g L- 1) and sediment (up to 900 mg kg(-1)) are of concern. There is large variability in trace element concentrations, implying that both physical (grain size) and chemical factors (pH, secondary phases as sulfides, Al-oxides or clay minerals) play an important role in their distribution. The low PH keeps the trace elements dissolved, and they are transported farther downstream. Trace element partition coefficients are low (log K-d = 0.3-4.3), and saturation indices calculated with PHREEQC are < 0 for common oxide and sulfidic minerals. The sediment and soil samples indicate an enhanced pollution index (up to 17), and high enrichment factors for trace elements (As up to 38,300; Zn up to 800). Finally, leaves collected from different plant types indicate bioaccumulation of several elements (As, Al, Cu, Fe and Zn). However, some of the plants growing in this area (e.g., Salix, Equisetum) are generally resistant to metal toxicity, and hence, liming and phytoremediation could be considered as potential on-site remediation methods.

  • 11.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Ahmed, K.M.
    Hasan, M.A.
    Broms, S.
    Fogelström, J.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Sracek, O.
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Routh, J.
    Mobility of arsenic in groundwater in a part of Brahmanbaria district, NE Bangladesh2006In: Managing Arsenic in the Environment: From soil to human health / [ed] Naidu, R., Smith, E., Owens, G., Bhattacharya, P. Nadebaum. P., Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO Publishing , 2006, p. 95-115Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Hasan, Md Aziz
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Sracek, Ondra
    Smith, Euan
    Ahmed, K. Matin
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Huq, S. M. Imamul
    Naidu, Ravi
    Groundwater chemistry and arsenic mobilization in the Holocene flood plains in south-central Bangladesh2009In: Environmental Geochemistry and Health, ISSN 0269-4042, E-ISSN 1573-2983, Vol. 31, p. 23-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparative study of arsenic enrichment in the Bengal Delta (BD) was carried Out in three alluvial aquifers in south-central Bangladesh. Investigated sites included Sonargaon in Narayanganj, Chandina in Comilla and Sirajdikhan in Munshiganj districts. At all sites samples from different depths were collected, and water chemistry and redox status vs. depth trends were determined. The concentrations of DOC and HCO3- were highest at Sirajdikhan site, while at the Sonargaon and Chandina sites the concentrations were lower. On the contrary, the NH4+ concentration was high at the Chandina site as compared to the other sites. There was a good match between dissolved As and Fe at the Sirajdikhan and Sonargaon sites, but not at the Chandina site. The dissolved aqueous concentration of Mn was low at the Chandina site, which suggested that the Mn(IV) redox buffering step was missing. Speciation modeling indicated a possibility of siderite precipitation at all sites, but precipitation of rhodochrosite only at the Sonargaon and Sirajdikhan sites. At the Sirajdikhan site, the log P-CO2 values were very high (-1.37), which revealed the production Of CO2 in redox processes. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated an impact of sea water and redox status of different samples. These results suggest that the dissolved As is de-coupled from dissolved Mn because when released, As is re-adsorbed onto the Fe(Ill) minerals in solid phase, as well as from dissolved Fe when precipitation of Fe(II) minerals controls the aqueous concentrations of Fe. In addition, several other concurrent redox processes may exert kinetic constraints depending on refractory characteristics of Fe(II) minerals.

  • 13.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Maity, Jyoti Prakash
    Nath, Bibhash
    Chen, Chien-Yen
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Mukherjee, Abhijit
    Groundwater arsenic in the Lower Ganges Delta Plain in West Bengal, India and Bangladesh: A hydrogeochemical comparison2010In: Geological Society of America: Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 42, No. 5, 2010, p. 653-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic contaminations in groundwater have been widely reported. The serious arsenic contamination of groundwater of Lower Ganga delta Plain (LGDP) in West Bengal, India and Bangladesh has emerged as a global natural environmental health disaster. The Bengal Delta Plain (BDP) is one of the largest deltas in the world, drained by the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna river (GBM) systems. Groundwater samples were collected from 67 different sites located in the districts of 24-Parganas (S), 24-Parganas (N) and Nadia in West Bengal, India along the western margin (Bhagirathi sub-basin), and 40 different sites located in the districts of Comilla, Laxmipur, Munshiganj, Faridpur and Jhenaida districts of Bangladesh along the eastern part of the Bengal Basin (Padma-Meghna sub-basin).

    Groundwater in the Nadia, West Bengal is mostly of Ca–HCO3 type while in the lower part of the delta, the groundwater is of Ca-Mg-SO4 type. The concentrations of major solutes (Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+, HCO3-, SO42-, NO3- and PO43- in groundwater of Meghna sub-basin is more variable than Bhagirathi sub-basin that indicating different hydrological setting in the parts of the Bengal basin. The trace element concentrations such as As, Fe and Mn also show considerable variability in the two distinct parts of the Bengal basin. Most groundwaters of the LGDP contain arsenic above the WHO and the BIS standard of 0.01 mg/L as well as in many case above the Bangladesh drinking water standard (0.05 mg/L). Both sites have moderately reducing environment, with high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, indicating dominantly metal-reducing processes and nearly similar mechanism in As mobilization. The occurrence of elevated arsenic in groundwater is generally associated with natural biogeochemical reactions (such as reductive dissolution of iron oxides/hydroxides) by altering groundwater redox state and releasing arsenic from sediment to aqueous phase. The various redox-sensitive solutes indicate overlapping redox zones, leading to partial redox equilibrium conditions where As, once liberated from minerals of sediments, would tend to remain in groundwater because of the complex interplay among the electron acceptors. Also, microbes in organic matter environment are acting as the major electron acceptor, in the Lower Ganges Delta Plain.

  • 14.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Shi, Fei
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Sracek, O
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bundschuh, J
    Groundwater characteristics in the shallow aquifers of Huhhot region in Inner Mongolia, PR China: Implications on the mobilisation of arsenic2006In: Natural Arsenic in Groundwaters of Latin America: Abstract Volume / [ed] Bundschuh, J., Armienta, M.A., Bhattacharya, P., Matschullat, J., Birkle, P., Rodríguez, R., 2006, p. 11-12Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Elevated arsenic (As) concentration ingroundwater is becoming a worldwide problem. In Huhhot Alluvial Basin (HAB) in 

    Inner Mongolia, People’s Republic ofChina, a population of over a million isexposed to severe health risk due to theconsumption of groundwater with high Asconcentration. In some arsenic seriouslyaffected areas, As concentration reach 1491µg L-1, 149 times over WHO’s drinkingwater guideline value for As and exceed theChinese drinking water standard by a factorof 30 times. Due to the acute shortage ofsafe water supply and inefficient watermanagement system, people are compelledto drink groundwater with high As concentration. Long period ingestion of water withhigh As concentration have lead to chronicarsenic poisoning among the residents ofthe region. This present work deals with thehydrogeochemical characterisation of thegroundwater of the shallow alluvial aquifers and their implications on the chemistryand its relation to the mechanism of Asmobilization in the HAB.Groundwater samples were collected during October 2003, from 29 sites in the village of Tie Men Jing, located about 100 kmfrom Inner Mongolia’s capital Huhhot. ThepH, redox potential (Eh), temperature andelectrical conductivity were measured atsites while major ions, trace elements including As total and As (III) were analyzedin laboratories at the Royal Institute ofTechnology and Stockholm University inSweden. Groundwater is generally neutralto alkaline and the pH varies from 6.67 to8.7. The redox potential (Eh) lies between74 and 669 mV. The electrical conductivity(EC) range varies from 581 to 5200 µS cm-1. Temperature ranges from 9.1 to 13.5 °C.Depths of wells are from 4 m to 75 m.Groundwater is mostly of Na-Mg-HCO3-Cl-type and dominated by HCO3-and Cl-asthe predominant anions. The concentrationsof SO42-range between 0.3 and 172.8 mg L-1and there is a trend of decreasing sulfateconcentrations with increase in well depth.The levels of NO3-were lower than theWHO´s guideline value of 50 mg L-1in 27wells. These high NO3-concentrations 

    could have been caused by anthropogeniccontamination due to the sanitation practices.The PO43-concentration ranges between 0.04to 2.6 mg L-1.Total As concentration ranged from belowdetect limit (5.2 µg L-1) to 141 µg L-1. In 28of the investigated wells, As levels exceededWHO’s guideline value 10 µg L-1and 17wells exceeded Chinese standard 50 µg L-1.Among the 42 groundwater samples of theshallow aquifers only three complied withthe WHO drinking water guideline value forAs. The dominant species in the groundwaterwas As (III). In the 29 wells of Tie MenJing, the concentration of Fe and Mn –exceeded the WHO’s guideline value by afactor of 10.The aquifers are composed of Quaternary(mainly Holocene) fluvial and lacustrinesediments. High As occurring in anaerobicgroundwater in low-lying areas is associatedwith high concenrations of dissolved Fe andMn. Improved water supply system, employment new water and energy resources,poverty fighting and expertise cooperationare recommended to solve Huhhot basinrural area’s drinking water problem.

  • 15.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    von Brömssen, M.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Hasan, M.A.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Ahmed, K.M.
    Sracek, O.
    Jakariya, M.
    Huq, S.M.I.
    Naidu, R.
    Smith, E.
    Owens, G.
    Arsenic mobilisation in the Holocene flood plains in South-central Bangladesh: Evidences from the hydrogeochemical trends and modeling results2008In: Groundwater for Sustainable Development: Problems, Perspectives and Challenges / [ed] Bhattacharya, P., Ramanathan, AL., Mukherjee A.B., Bundschuh, J., Chandrasekharam, D. Keshari, A.K., The Netherlands: Taylor and Francis/A.A. Balkema , 2008, p. 283-299Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    von Brömssen, M.
    Jakariya, M.
    Hasan, M. A.
    Ahmed, K. M.
    Jonsson, L.
    Lundell, L.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Arsenic-safe aquifer as sustainable source of drinking water supply: A case study from Matlab thana in Southeast Bangladesh2005In: Abstract Volume, The 15th Stockholm Water Symposium: Drainage Basin Management- Hard and Soft Solutions in Regional Development, 2005, p. 143-144Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Jakariya, Md
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Hasan, M.
    Ahmed, K. M.
    Ramanathan, A.
    Chandrashekharam, D.
    Mahanta, Chandan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Husain, V.
    Targeting safe aquifers in regions with high arsenic groundwater in South Asia: Options for sustainable drinking water supply2006In: Abstract Volume-International Conference on Arsenic Contamination in Tropics (ICACT-2007) / [ed] Patel K.S., 2006, p. 18-21Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Welch, Alan H.
    Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.
    McLaughlin, Mike J.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    Panaullah, G.
    Arsenic in the environment: Biology and Chemistry2007In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 379, no 03-feb, p. 109-120Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic (As) distribution and toxicology in the environment is a serious issue, with millions of individuals worldwide being affected by As toxicosis. Sources of As contamination are both natural and anthropogenic and the scale of contamination ranges from local to regional. There are many areas of research that are being actively pursued to address the As contamination problem. These include new methods of screening for As in the field, determining the epidemiology of As in humans, and identifying the risk of As uptake in agriculture. Remediation of As-affected water supplies is important and research includes assessing natural remediation potential as well as phytoremediation. Another area of active research is on the microbially mediated biogeochemical interactions of As in the environment. In 2005, a conference was convened to bring together scientists involved in many of the different areas of As research. In this paper, we present a synthesis of the As issues in the light of long-standing research and with regards to the new findings presented at this conference. This contribution provides a backdrop to the issues raised at the conference together with an overview of contemporary and historical issues of As contamination and health impacts. Crown

  • 19.
    Biswas, Ashis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Nath, Bibhash
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Halder, Dipti
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Kundu, Arnit K.
    Mandal, Ujja
    Mukherjee, Abhijit
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Testing tubewell platform color as a rapid screening tool for arsenic and manganese in drinking water wells2012In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, ISSN 0013-936X, Vol. 46, p. 434-440Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A low-cost rapid screening tool for arsenic (As) and manganese (Mn) in groundwater is urgently needed to formulate mitigation policies for sustainable drinking water supply. This study attempts to make statistical comparison between tubewell (TW)platform color and the level of As and Mn concentration in groundwater extracted from the respective TW (n = 423), to validate platform color as a screening tool for As andMnin groundwater. The result shows that a black colored platform with 73% certainty indicates that well water is safe fromAs, while with 84% certainty a red colored platform indicates that well water is enriched with As, compared to WHO drinking waterguideline of 10 μg/L. With this guideline the efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity of the tool are 79%, 77%, and 81%, respectively.However, the certainty values become 93% and 38%, respectively, for black and redcolored platforms at 50 μg/L, the drinking water standards for India and Bangladesh. The respective efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity are 65%, 85%, and 59%. Similarly for Mn, black and red colored platform with 78% and 64% certainty, respectively, indicates that wellwater is either enriched or free from Mn at the Indian national drinking water standard of 300 μg/L. With this guideline the efficiency, sensitivity, and specificity of the tool are 71%, 67%, and 76%, respectively. Thus, this study demonstrates that TWplatform color can bepotentially used as an initial screening tool for identifying TWs with elevated dissolved As andMn, tomake further rigorous groundwater testing more intensive and implement mitigation options for safe drinking water supplies.

  • 20.
    Blix, Annika
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Enhancing the capacity of seeds as turbidity removal agents in water treatment.: A Minor Field Study.2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this master’s thesis was to investigate if defattening of Parkinsonia aculeata (in

    swahili “mkeketa”) and Vigna unguiculata (in swahili “choroko”) would enhance the capacity of the seed’s properties in removing suspended particles from surface water. The seeds are used in local traditional treatment of drinking water in Tanzania. The aim was also to investigate the possibility to reduce high concentrations of fluoride with the seeds. The seeds contain proteins that act as coagulants. Coagulated particulate matter can be flocculated and separated from the water. A purification of the coagulants by defattening was expected to enhance the coagulating capacity. Experiments were conducted in jar-tests with dosages of coagulant solutions of undefattening and defattened seed solutions and alum (aluminium sulphate). The experiments showed that both Parkinsonia aculeata and Vigna unguiculata seeds can compete with alum in drinking water treatment of surface water, reaching the same or better final results in turbidity removal. Both seeds also produce less sludge volumes than alum and functions in turbidity removal together with alum. The seeds may be used as coagulant aids to reduce the usage of chemicals and sludge production. They were not able to clarify turbid waste water and did not reduce high concentrations of fluoride in groundwater. Further, the turbidity-removal capacity of the coagulants had reduced capacities in water with low pH-values.

  • 21. Braun, S.
    et al.
    Warrinnier, R.
    Börjesson, G.
    Ulén, B.
    Smolders, E.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Assessing the ability of soil tests to estimate labile phosphorus in agricultural soils: Evidence from isotopic exchange2019In: Geoderma, ISSN 0016-7061, E-ISSN 1872-6259, Vol. 337, p. 350-358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient phosphorus (P) fertilization strategies are essential for intensive crop production with minimal negative environmental impacts. A key factor in sustainable P use is assessment of the plant available soil P pool using soil P tests. This study determined isotopically exchangeable P after six days of reaction with 33PO4 (P-E (6 d)) to determine how accurately two commonly used P tests, Olsen and AL (acid ammonium acetate lactate) can quantify the amount of labile P. Soil samples were taken from both highly P-amended and unamended plots at six sites within the Swedish long-term soil fertility experiments. According to P K-edge XANES spectroscopy, the P speciation was dominated by Al-bound P and organic P, with additional contributions from Fe-bound P and Ca phosphates in most soils. The results showed that the AL test overestimated P-E (6 d) by a factor of 1.70 on average. In contrast, the Olsen test underestimated P-E (6 d), with the mean ratios of P-Olsen to P-E (6 d) being 0.52 for high-P and 0.19 for low-P soils. The 33P/31P ratio in the Olsen extract of a 33PO4 spiked soil was closer to that of a 0.005 mol L−1 CaCl2 soil extract than the corresponding ratio in the AL extract, suggesting that AL extraction solubilized more non-labile P. In conclusion, the AL and Olsen methods are not suitable for direct quantification of the isotopically exchangeable soil P pool after 6 days of equilibration. However, based on the results, Olsen may be superior to AL for classification of soil P status, due to its even performance for calcareous and non-calcareous soils and lower extraction of non-labile P.

  • 22. Bulbul, A.
    et al.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Huq, S.M.I.
    Gunaratna, K.R.
    Arsenic uptake by fresh water green alga, Chlamydomonas2008In: Groundwater for Sustainable Development: Problems, Perspectives and Challenges / [ed] Bhattacharya, P., Ramanathan, AL., Mukherjee A.B., Bundschuh, J., Chandrasekharam, D. Keshari, A.K., The Netherlands: Taylor and Francis/A. A. Balkema , 2008, p. 389-396Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Bhattacharya, ProsunKTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.Chandrashekharam, D.
    Natural Arsenic in Groundwater: Occurrence, Remediation and Management2005Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bhattacharya, ProsunKTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.Chandrashekharam, DornadulaIndian Institute of Technology-Bombay, Mumbai-400076, India.
    Natural Arsenic in Groundwater: Occurrences, Remediation and Management: Proceedings of the Pre-Congress Workshop "Natural Arsenic in Groundwater", 32nd International Geological Congress, Florence, Italy, 18-19 August 20042005Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Groundwater is an important resource that serves as a backbone of human development. In several regions -mostly in developing countries- groundwater from sedimentary and hard rock aquifers used for drinking are naturally contaminated with arsenic. In different countries in Asia such as eastern India, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Nepal, Pakistan, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam, the situation of arsenic toxicity is alarming and severe health problems are reported amongst the inhabitants relying on groundwater as sources of water for drinking purposes. Arsenic occurrences in groundwater in Bengal Delta Plain of West Bengal, India and Bangladesh is one of the largest environmental health disaster of the present century, where at least 50 million people is at risk of cancer and other arsenic related diseases due to the consumption of high arsenic groundwater. In these same countries, land and agricultural sustainability is threatened by the use of arsenic contaminated irrigation water. In several Middle- and South-American countries, for example in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Mexico, high arsenic is reported in natural waters. In Argentina, at least 1.2 million people are affected. Elevated levels of natural arsenic in groundwater due to geogenic sources, is therefore an issue of primary environmental concern, which limits the use of these resources for drinking or other purposes, and hinders the economic and social development. Hence there is need to improve our understanding on the genesis of high arsenic groundwaters from the various aquifers in order to develop strategies of e to improve the socio-economic status of the affected regions.

  • 25.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Jakariya, Md
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Management and Assessment.
    Litter, M.I.
    Garcia, M.E.
    Arsenic-safe aquifers as a socially acceptable source of safe drinking water: What can rural Latin America learn from Bangladesh experiences?2009In: Natural Arsenic in Groundwater of Latin America: Occurrence, health impact and remediation, The Netherlands: CRC Press/Balkema , 2009, p. 677-685Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26. Christiansen, J. R.
    et al.
    Elberling, B.
    Jansson, Per-Erik.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Modelling water balance and nitrate leaching in temperate Norway spruce and beech forests located on the same soil type with the CoupModel2006In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 237, no 03-jan, p. 545-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two contrasting forest ecosystems located in close proximity to each other were selected for evaluating the importance of tree species and afforestation in relation to the water balance and the quality of the water leaving the forest root zone. Measurements included soil water content and the collection of precipitation, canopy throughfall, stem flow and soil solution on a weekly basis during 15 months (1999-2000). Soil solutions were extracted using suction probes installed at all major horizons within the upper 120 cm of a Norway spruce (N. spruce) stand (Picea Abies [L.] Karst.) and a European beech stand (Fagus Sylvatica L.) located on the same soil type. Soil solutions were analyzed for the content of all major ions, including nitrate. A water balance model (CoupModel) was used to estimate percolation rates beneath the root zone. Percolation at the beech stand was 292 mm and only 41 rnm at the N. spruce stand mainly due to differences in the interception loss. The highest annual leaching of Mg, K, Na, Al, Cl, SO4-S was noted in the N. spruce stand while leaching of NO3-N was highest in the beech stand, corresponding to 39 kg ha(-1) year(-1). By contrast, the annual leaching of NO3-N in the N. spruce stand was only 0.5 kg ha(-1) year(-1). The larger amount of NO3-N was leaving the beech forest soil despite the fact that the N. spruce stand had the highest atmospheric N-deposition. Thus, differences in NO3-N leaching between the stands must be related to differences in uptake and accumulation of N in the vegetation and within the upper 120 cm of the soil. Differences in the water balance and NO3-N leaching between beech and N. spruce stands call for further attention to the selection of tree-species on a soil type basis when planning future afforestation projects, particularly when such projects aim to improve the quality of water infiltrating to the groundwater zone.

  • 27.
    Cucarella, Victor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Zaleski, Tomasz
    Mazurek, Ryszard
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Recycling Polonite used for on-site wastewater treatment as a soil amendment to a wheat cropping field2009Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Eveborn, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bed filters for phosphorus removal in on-site wastewater treatment: Removal mechanisms and sustainability2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For many surface waters, phosphorus (P) leaching is a serious problem that should be minimized to prevent eutrophication. In Sweden there is a demand for physical and technical development of high-performance P removal techniques to reduce phosphorus leaching from on-site wastewater treatment systems to the Baltic Sea. However, although these systems are designed to reduce eutrophication there are also other environmental impacts to be considered when implementing them in on-site systems; energy use and global warming potential are two examples. This study has investigated several bed filter materials (reactive media and natural soils) for their total environmental impact (in commercial applications) as well as for the predominating chemical phosphorus removal mechanisms. The use of life cycle assessment revealed that several reactive bed filters are relatively energy-consuming due to the material manufacturing process. Characterization of phosphorus compounds in used reactive media provided evidence for calcium phosphate precipitation as the predominating P removal mechanism in alkaline filter materials. However, in soil treatment systems with noncalcareous soils, batch experiments and extractions suggested that aluminium compounds were important for P removal. According to mass balance calculations that compared accumulated P with the estimated P load in a soil treatment system, the long term P removal capacity was very low; only 6.4 % of the applied phosphorus had been removed during 16 years of operation.

  • 29.
    Eveborn, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Sustainable phosphorus removal in onsite wastewater treatment2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquatic eutrophication is a serious environmental problem that occurs all over the world. To protect surface waters (in particular the Baltic Sea), the regulatory pressure on onsite wastewater treatment (OWT) systems have increased in Sweden. Stringent requirements have led to uncertainties regarding the capability of conventional treatment techniques (soil treatment systems (STS)) to remove phosphorus (P), but they have also stimulated the development and introduction of enhanced P treatment techniques. In this thesis the accumulation and mobility of P as well as the chemical P removal mechanisms were studied in soils and reactive filter media. This knowledge was then used in environmental systems analysis. A model based on life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was developed to evaluate the overall environmental performance of conventional and enhanced P treatment systems under various local conditions. The P accumulation in the studied STS varied (320-870 g m-3) and the accumulated P was rather mobile in some soils. Phosphorus compounds were identified in alkaline reactive filter media (calcium phosphates predominated) by means of X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES). In sandy soils from STS aluminium was found to be a key element for P removal, as evidenced by a strong relationship between oxalate-extractable P and Al. The LCA studies indicated that enhanced P treatment systems may be beneficial from an eutrophication and P recycling perspective but causes increased impacts in terms of global warming and acidification. Despite the drawbacks, enhanced P treatment techniques should be considered suitable substitutes to surface water discharge STS under most conditions. This is because the latter systems have such a strong eutrophication impact. On the other hand, under appropriate conditions, STS with groundwater discharge may be advantageous. These systems generally caused low environmental impacts except for the dispersion of P resources. 

  • 30.
    Eveborn, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering. JTI - Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Sweden .
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering. Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Elmefors, Elin
    JTI,Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering.
    Yu, Lin
    Center for Environmental and Climate Research (CEC), Lund University.
    Eriksson, Ann-Kristin
    Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Ljung, Emelie
    JTI,Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering.
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Phosphorus in soil treatment systems: accumulation and mobility2014In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 64, p. 42-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In several western countries, septic tanks with subsequent soil treatment systems (STS) are a common treatment technique for domestic wastewater in rural areas. However the suitability of STS (especially relatively close to surface waters) can be questioned since the discharge of phosphorus (P) from such effluents is not well known. In this study, six STS in Sweden (11 to 28 years old) were investigated by means of batch and column experiments on samples taken from the unsaturated subsoil beneath the distribution pipes. At all sites the wastewater had clearly influenced the soil. This was observed through decreased pH, increased amounts of oxalate extractable metals and altered P sorption properties. The amount of accumulated P in the STS (defined as the amount of total P in the STS samples minus the amount of total P in unused soil samples) were found to be between 0.32 and 0.87 kg m-3, which in most cases was just a small fraction of the estimated P load (< 30%). Column studies revealed that remarkably high P concentrations (up to 6 mg L-1) were leached from the material when deionized water was applied. However, the response to deionized water varied between the sites. The affinity for P in the soils was well correlated to the amount of oxalate-extractable aluminium (as evidenced by a strong relationship between oxalate-extractable Al and oxalate-extractable P) and generally soils with high content of oxalate extractable Al was also less vulnerable to P leakage.

  • 31.
    Eveborn, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Hesterberg, Dean
    University Raleigh, Department of Soil Science, North Carolina, USA.
    Hillier, Stephen
    Macaulay Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen, UK.
    XANES Speciation of P in Environmental Samples: An Assessment of Filter Media for on-Site Wastewater Treatment2009In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, no 17, p. 6515-6521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopyis a useful technique for characterization of chemical speciesof phosphorus in complex environmental samples. To developand evaluate bed filters as sustainable on-site wastewater treatment solutions, our objective in this study was to determine the chemical forms of accumulated phosphorus in a selectionof promising filter materials: Filtralite P, Filtra P, Polonite, Absol, blast furnace slag, and wollastonite. Full-scale operational wastewater-treatment systems were sampled and in addition, filter samples collected from laboratory studies provided access to additional media and complementary samples.Phosphorus species were characterized using phosphorus K-edge XANES spectroscopy, complemented by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and attenuated total reflectance Fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). No systematic differences could be seen in the results between laboratory and full-scale samples. All six filter media contained significant amounts of crystalline calcium phosphates. Some samples also contained amorphous calcium phosphate (>60 % of totalP in Absol). In Filtralite P and blast furnace slag, more than 35 % of the accumulated phosphorus was associated with Fe or Al. Both the power and shortcomings of XANES analysis for characterizing P species in these filter media are discussed.

  • 32.
    Eveborn, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Kong, Deguo
    Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Wastewater treatment by soil infiltration: Long-term phosphorus removal2012In: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, ISSN 0169-7722, E-ISSN 1873-6009, Vol. 140, p. 24-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphorus (P) leaching from on-site wastewater treatment systems may contribute to eutrophication. In developed countries the most common on-site treatment technique is septic systems with soil infiltration. However, the current knowledge about long term P removal in soil treatment systems is not well developed and the data used for estimation of P losses from such systems are unreliable. In this study we sampled four filter beds from community-scale soil treatment systems with an age of between 14 and 22 years to determine the long-term P removal and to investigate the chemical mechanisms behind the observed removal. For one site the long-term P removal was calculated using a mass balance approach. After analysis of the accumulated P. it was estimated that on average 12% of the long-term P load had been removed by the bed material. This indicates a low overall capacity of soil treatment systems to remove phosphorus. Batch experiments and chemical speciation modelling indicated that calcium phosphate precipitation was not an important long-term P removal mechanism, with the possible exception of one of the sites. More likely, the P removal was induced by AlPO4 precipitation and/or sorption to poorly ordered aluminium compounds, as evidenced by strong relationships between oxalate-extractable Al and P.

  • 33.
    Eveborn, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Sörelius Kiessling, Helene
    JTI - Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering.
    Environmental systems analysis on enhanced phosphorus removal in onsite wastewater treatmentManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to minimize phosphorus (P) loads to surface waters, the regulatory pressure on onsite wastewater treatment systems has increased. However, the environmental side-effects of implementing secondary P treatment have not been seriously reviewed. In this study we hypothesized that local conditions will largely govern the overall environmental benefits and drawbacks of different options for onsite wastewater treatment from a regional perspective. To explore the validity of this hypothesis an environmental systems analysis (ESA) model was developed that could handle differences in local conditions. The model was applied for four different treatment options, two conventional and two enhanced P treatment options. In a sensitivity analysis three diverse local contexts (type cases) were configured to evaluate the overall environmental impacts from the local and the regional perspective. The evaluation indicated that the eutrophication impacts from onsite wastewater treatment systems are significant in relation to the mean per capita contributions. This statement was valid even at a regional perspective as long as the natural retention was not very strong. Thus, the environmental side effects (increased emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and acidifying substances) of implementation of enhanced treatment solutions might be justifiable in many situations. However, due to a low impact in most of the studied environmental aspects, groundwater discharging soil treatment systems (STS) seemed to be preferable in areas were hydrogeological conditions are satisfactory and the distance to surface water is sufficient.

  • 34.
    Fatehi Pouladi, Soheil
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Phosphorus Removal from Domestic Wastewater Using Dual Reactive Materials Polonite® and Absol®.2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Private wastewater treatment facilities release tons of phosphorus to the aquatic environment due to the insufficient removal efficiency in conventional soil infiltration systems. Reactive filter materials have demonstrated promising P removal rates. Laboratory-scale column experiments were carried out using Absol® and Polonite® in dual infiltration media and results were compared with Polonite® functioning as the only layer of reactive filter material. Two sets of experiments were arranged with layer lengths of 5 cm and 15 cm which were operated for 50 and 119 days respectively. Columns with an additional layer of Absol® demonstrated very good average removal rates of 85.99 % and 99.13 % in both experiments while the effluent in the former exceeded the maximum allowed P concentration shortly after half of the total time of the experiment. On the other hand, O-P concentration in collected samples from dual filter media with 15 cm layers of Absol® and Polonite® (column B1) was as low as 0.04 mg/l after 119 days of operation exhibiting high potentials for Absol® in local wastewater treatment. Levels of pH in treated samples showed a decreasing trend in all columns which was similarly simultaneous with high removal rates observed in B1.

  • 35.
    Fältmarsch, Rasmus
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University, Department of Geology and Mineralogy.
    Österholm, Peter
    Åbo Akademi University, Department of Geology and Mineralogy.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Chemical composition of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L) grown on acid sulphate soils2010In: Journal of Plant Nutrition And Soil Science/Zeitschrift für Pflanzenernahrung und Bodenkunde, ISSN 1436-8730, E-ISSN 1522-2624, Vol. 173, no 3, p. 423-433Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Gingborn, Nicklas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Wåhlén, Hanna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Investigating sustainable mitigation alternatives for groundwater in Matlab Upazila, Bangladesh.:  A Minor Field Study.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since the late 20th century most people in rural Bangladesh use hand pumped tube wells to extract groundwater as their primary source of water. In 1993 it was officially recognized that many of the Holocene groundwater aquifers contain elevated levels of arsenic (As) and that millions of people in Bangladesh are exposed and at risk for mass poisoning. The need to focus efforts to areas with scarce supply of safe drinking water has raised the need to quickly locate and identify these areas. Mitigation options evaluated in this study focus on 1) how to target As safe aquifers and 2) how to identify As safe tube wells

    An attempt to target As safe shallow aquifers based on sediment color was evaluated. The majority of 30 new tube wells screened in off-white sand sediments have As safe water with respect to both the WHO and the national guideline, but including the failed attempts to target off-white sediments at shallow depths, the success rate of the method was considered to be too low.

    This study also attempt to validate platform color as a rapid low-cost screening tool for As by relating platform color to water chemistry in 103 tube wells. Different classification methods were tested to develop recommendations for the future use of this method. The results showed that a simplified color classification was better than a detailed classification at predicting water chemistry of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and As.

    Recently, Mn has also emerged as a possible widespread problem in the Bengal Basin. Although not thoroughly investigated, present evidence indicates that a high concentration of Mn in drinking water affects the intellectual function in children. The occurrence of both low As and low Mn concentrations in shallow aquifers was found to be very unlikely since only one out of 133 tested wells had this water chemistry composition. Instead it was showed that the highest Mn concentrations occur in As-safe aquifers. Therefore WHO should consider reintroducing their previous health based guideline value for Mn to highlight the potential risk of excessive exposure, since more people risk being exposed to Mn when As-safe shallow aquifers are targeted.

  • 37. Granlund, Nils
    et al.
    Lundberg, Angela
    Feiccabrino, James
    Gustafsson, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Laboratory test of snow wetness influence on electrical conductivity measured with ground penetrating radar2009In: Nordic Hydrology, ISSN 0029-1277, E-ISSN 1996-9694, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 33-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ground penetrating radar operated from helicopters or snowmobiles is used to determine snow water equivalent (SWE) for annual snowpacks from radar wave two-way travel time. However, presence of liquid water in a snowpack is known to decrease the radar wave velocity, which for a typical snowpack with 5% (by volume) liquid water can lead to an overestimation of SWE by about 20%. It would therefore be beneficial if radar measurements could also be used to determine snow wetness. Our approach is to use radar wave attenuation in the snowpack, which depends on electrical properties of snow (permittivity and conductivity) which in turn depend on snow wetness. The relationship between radar wave attenuation and these electrical properties can be derived theoretically, while the relationship between electrical permittivity and snow wetness follows a known empirical formula, which also includes snow density. Snow wetness can therefore be determined from radar wave attenuation if the relationship between electrical conductivity and snow wetness is also known. In a laboratory test, three sets of measurements were made on initially dry 1m thick snowpacks. Snow wetness was controlled by stepwise addition of water between radar measurements, and a linear relationship between electrical conductivity and snow wetness was established.

  • 38. Guha, D. K.
    et al.
    Henkel, Herbert
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Engineering Geology and Geophysics.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Abandoned on-shore deep wells: a potential for geothermal energy resource for rural Bangladesh2005In: Proceedings of the World Geothermal Congress 2005: paper 2214, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Arsenate adsorption to soils: Modelling the competition from humic substances2006In: Geoderma, ISSN 0016-7061, E-ISSN 1872-6259, Vol. 136, no 02-jan, p. 320-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is currently no agreement to what extent humic substances may compete with arsenate and other anions for oxide adsorption sites in soils, and how to model this interaction. In this study, batch experiments were made in which the competition between fulvic acid and arsenate was studied in a spodic Bs horizon. Additional experiments were performed in which the pH and concentration dependence of arsenate adsorption was studied in four soils. The results showed that fulvic acid decreased the adsorption of AsO4, probably because of competition effects. The K-d value of AsO4 adsorption to the four studied soils differed by three orders of magnitude at pH 5. The introduction of an irreversibly sorbed component RO- into the Three-Plane CD-MUSIC model, and the optimisation of RO- using the K-d of AsO4 for one sample from each data set, permitted the use of the model to predict AsO4 adsorption under different conditions. On the whole, the predictions were reasonably close to measured values, but the model failed in 3 of 4 soils at high surface coverage. A strong relationship between the optimised RO- value and the observed pyrophosphate-extractable C value supported the assumption that RO- can be considered as being an adsorbed humic functional group. The large concentrations of RO- compared to those of adsorbed PO4 and SO4 suggest that humic substances may be the most important competitors for anion adsorption sites in many soils.

  • 40.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Geochemical modelling of arsenic adsorption to oxide surfaces2007In: Arsenic in soil and groundwater environment: Biogeochemical Interactions, Health Effects and Remediation / [ed] Bhattacharya, P., Mukherjee, A.B., Bundschuh, J., Zevenhoven, R., Loeppert, R.H., Elsevier, 2007, p. 159-206Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In natural environments, arsenic chemistry is dominated by the reactions of its two predominant soluble forms, arsenate and arsenite. To predict the fate of As in the environment, it is necessary to consider processes that act to restrict its mobility. The mobility of As is strongly influenced by adsorption reactions to particle surfaces. Arsenate and arsenite may form surface complexes with a number of different oxides, including Fe-, Al-, Mn- and Ti oxides. The focus of this chapter is on the adsorption of As(III) and As(V) to the surfaces of oxides, in particular Fe oxides. We have analysed the existing data for arsenite and arsenate adsorption to ferrihydrite and goethite. Spectroscopic results show that arsenate forms bidentate binuclear complexes under all conditions; for arsenite, evidence has been found both for a bidentate binuclear complex and for a weaker outer-sphere complex, which may be of some importance at low ionic strength. We optimized As adsorption parameters for two surface complexation models, the diffuse double-layer model (DLM) and the three-plane CD-MUSIC model (TPCD), taking into account the spectroscopic evidence. For arsenate adsorption to ferrihydrite, the new DLM constants imply stronger binding than the previous compilation by Dzombak and Morel (1990), whereas for arsenite the revised DLM constants are in reasonable agreement. The surface complexation models could not be optimized satisfactorily for data sets in which the dissolved arsenite concentration at equilibrium was larger than 10 mM; the reasons for this are discussed. Simulations of competition effects show that o-phosphate competes strongly with arsenate over the whole pH range. Silicic acid and carbonate are important competitors in the circumneutral pH range, while sulphate may have a small competitive effect at low pH. Humic substances are important competitors when a large part of the Fe oxides is covered with humic substances. By contrast, calcium promotes arsenate adsorption at alkaline pH because of surface charge effects.

  • 41.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Dässman, Ellinor
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Bäckström, Mattias
    Örebro University.
    Towards a consistent geochemical model for prediction of uranium(VI) removal from groundwater by ferrihydrite2009In: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 454-462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Uranium(VI), which is often elevated in granitoidic groundwaters, is known to adsorb strongly to Fe (hydr)oxides under certain conditions. This process can be used in water treatment to remove U(VI). To develop a consistent geochemical model for U(VI) adsorption to ferrihydrite, batch experiments were performed and previous data sets reviewed to optimize a set of surface complexation constants using the 3-plane CD-MUSIC model. To consider the effect of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on U(VI) speciation, new parameters for the Stockholm Humic Model (SHM) were optimized using previously published data. The model, which was constrained from available X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy evidence, fitted the data well when the surface sites were divided into low- and high-affinity binding sites. Application of the model concept to other published data sets revealed differences in the reactivity of different ferrihydrites towards U(VI). Use of the optimized SHM parameters for U(VI)-DOM complexation showed that this process is important for U(VI) speciation at low pH. However in neutral to alkaline waters with substantial carbonate present, Ca-U-CO3 complexes predominate. The calibrated geochemical model was used to simulate U(VI) adsorption to ferrihydrite for a hypothetical groundwater in the presence of several competitive ions. The results showed that U(VI) adsorption was strong between pH 5 and 8. Also near the calcite saturation limit, where U(VI) adsorption was weakest according to the model, the adsorption percentage was predicted to be >80%. Hence U(VI) adsorption to ferrihydrite-containing sorbents may be used as a method to bring down U(VI) concentrations to acceptable levels in groundwater.

  • 42.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Kleja, D. B.
    Modeling salt-dependent proton binding by organic soils with the MICA-Donnan and Stockholm Humic models2005In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 39, no 14, p. 5372-5377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Models are available for simulations of proton dissociation and cation binding by natural organic matter; two examples are the NICA-Donnan and Stockholm Humic (SHM) models. To model proton and metal binding, it is necessary to properly account for the ionic strength dependence of proton dissociation. In previous applications of the models for soils it was assumed that the electrostatic interactions for solid-phase humic substances were the same as in solution;this assumption was recently challenged. Therefore, we reanalyzed previously published acid-base titrations of acid-washed Sphagnum peat, and we produced additional data sets for two Sphagnum peats and two Spodosol Oe horizons. For the soil suspensions, the original NICA-Donnan and SHM models, which were developed for dissolved humic substances, underestimated the observed salt dependence considerably. When a fixed Donnan volume of 1 L kg(-1) for humic substances in the solid phase was used, the NICA-Donnan model fits were much improved. Also for SHM, slight changes produced improved model fits. The models also produced acceptable simulations of the dissolved Ca, Mg, and Cd concentrations, provided that cation selectivity was introduced. In conclusion, the proposed extensions to the NICA-Donnan and SHM models were shown to predict the salt dependence of solid-phase humic substances more satisfactorily than earlier model versions.

  • 43.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Persson, Ingmar
    Kleja, Dan Berggren
    Van Schaik, Joris W. J.
    Binding of iron(III) to organic soils: EXAFS spectroscopy and chemical equilibrium modeling2007In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 1232-1237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complexation of iron(III) to soil organic matter is important for the binding of trace metals in natural environments because of competition effects. In this study, we used extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy to characterize the binding mode for iron(III) in two soil samples from organic mor layers, one of which was also treated with iron(III). In most cases the EXAFS spectra had three significant contributions, inner-core Fe-O/N interactions at about 2.02(2) A, Fe-C interactions in the second scattering shell at 3.00(4) A, and a mean Fe-Fe distance at 3.37(3) A. One untreated sample showed features typical for iron (hydr)oxides; however, after treatment of iron(III) the EXAFS spectrum was dominated by organically complexed iron. The presence of a Fe-Fe distance in all samples showed that the major part of the organically complexed iron was hydrolyzed, most likely in a mixture of complexes with an inner core of (O5Fe)(2)O and (O5Fe)(3)O. These results were used to constrain a model for metal-humic complexation, the Stockholm Humic Model (SHM). The model was able to describe iron(III) binding very well at low pH considering only one dimeric iron(III)-humic complex. The competition effect on trace metals was also well described.

  • 44.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Renman, Agnieszka
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Renman, Gunno
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Poll, Katarina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Phosphate removal by mineral-based sorbents used in filters for small-scale wastewater treatment2008In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 42, no 1-2, p. 189-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mineral-based sorbents Filtra P, Polonite (R), natural wollastonite and water-cooled blast furnace slag (WCBFS) were studied in terms of their PO4 removal performance. Results from a long-term column experiment showed that both Filtra P and Polonite (R) removed > 95% of PO4 from the applied synthetic solution, and that the used filter materials had accumulated several (1.9-19) g kg(-1) P. Phosphorus was removed also by natural wollastonite and WCBFS, but these materials were less efficient. Batch experiments on the used materials showed that the solubility PO4 was considerably larger than the one expected for crystalline Ca phosphates such as hydroxyapatite, and results from investigations with attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) on the Filtra P material showed that the formed P phase was not crystalline. These evidence suggest that a soluble amorphous tricalcium phosphate (ATCP) was formed in the mineral-based sorbents; the apparent solubility constant on dissolution was estimated to log K-s = -27.94 ( 0.31) at 21 degrees C. However, since only up to 18% of the accumulated PO4 was readily dissolved in the experiments, it cannot be excluded that part of the phosphorus had crystallized to slightly less soluble phases. In conclusion, Filtra P and Polonite are two promising mineral-based sorbents for phosphorus removal, and at least part of the accumulated phosphorus is present in a soluble form, readily available to plants.

  • 45.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Tiberg, Charlotta
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Edkymish, Abubaker
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630).
    Kleja, Dan Berggren
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Modelling lead(II) sorption to ferrihydrite and soil organic matter2011In: Environmental Chemistry, ISSN 1448-2517, E-ISSN 1449-8979, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 485-492Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lead(II) adsorption to soil organic matter and iron (hydr)oxides is strong, and may control the geochemical behaviour of this metal. Here, we report the adsorption of Pb(2+) (i) to 2-line ferrihydrite, and (ii) to a mor layer. The results showed that ferrihydrite has heterogeneous Pb(2+) binding. Use of a surface complexation model indicated that similar to 1% of the surface sites adsorbed Pb(2+) more strongly than the remaining 99 %. Although only one surface complexation reaction was used (a bidentate complex of the composition (equivalent to FeOH)(2)Pb(+)), three classes of sites with different affinity for Pb(2+) were needed to simulate Pb(2+) binding correctly over all Pb/Fe ratios analysed. For the mor layer, Pb(2+) sorption was much stronger than current models for organic complexation suggest. The results could be described by the Stockholm Humic Model when the binding heterogeneity was increased, and when it was assumed that 0.2% of the binding sites were specific for Pb. Use of revised model parameters for nine Vietnamese soils suggest that lead(II) binding was more correctly simulated than before. Thus, underestimation of lead(II) sorption to both (hydr) oxide surfaces and organic matter may explain the failure of previous geochemical modelling attempts for lead(II).

  • 46.
    Gustafsson, Jon-Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Modelling metal sorption in soil2009In: Modelling of pollutants in complex environmental systems / [ed] Grady Hanrahan, St Albans: ILM Publications , 2009, 1, , p. 145-176Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Gårdestedt, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Plea, Mama
    Nilsson, Gertrud
    Jacks, Birgitta
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Zinc in Soils, Crops, and Meals in the Niger Inland Delta, Mali2009In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 334-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zinc deficiency is a problem in developing countries and not least so in Africa. This concerns both agriculture and human food provision. Zinc deficiency in soils may severely decrease yields, whereas insufficient zinc in food intake primarily affects the immune defense, notably in children. The present investigation concerned zinc availability in soils, crops, and food in the Niger inland delta in Mali. Agricultural soils are largely deficient in plant-available zinc, however, soils in close vicinity to habitation show elevated zinc concentrations. The zinc concentrations in crops are low; in rice, they are about half of reference ranges. Zinc intake assessed from a number of sampled meals was about half the recommended requirement. When zinc concentration is higher phytate was also high, which made the zinc less available. In spite of a recorded sufficient intake of iron, anemia is common and is most likely because of the high phytate concentration in the cereal-dominated diet. Increasing zinc and iron availability would be possible through the use of malting, fermentation, and soaking in food preparation. Finally, in the long run, any trace element deficiency, especially that of zinc in agricultural soils needs to be amended by addition of appropriate amounts in commercial fertilizers.

  • 48.
    Halder, Dipti
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bhowmick, Subhamoy
    Biswas, Ashis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Mandal, Ujjal
    Nriagu, Jerome
    Mazumdar, Debendra Nath Guha
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering, Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Consumption of Brown Rice: A Potential Pathway for Arsenic Exposure in Rural Bengal2012In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, no 7, p. 4142-4148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study assesses the arsenic (As) accumulation in different varieties of rice grain, that people in rural Bengal mostly prefer for daily consumption, to estimate the potential risk of dietary As exposure through rice intake. The rice samples have been classified according to their average length (L) and L to breadth (B) ratio into four categories, such as short-bold (SB), medium-slender (MS), long-slender (LS), and extra-long slender (ELS). The brown colored rice samples fall into the SB, MS, or LS categories; while all Indian Basmati (white colored) are classified as ELS. The study indicates that the average accumulation of As in rice grain increases with a decrease of grain size (ELS: 0.04; LS: 0.10; MS: 0.16; and SB: 0.33 mg kg(-1)), however people living in the rural villages mostly prefer brown colored SB type of rice because of its lower cost. For the participants consuming SB type of brown rice, the total daily intake of inorganic As (TDI-iAs) in 29% of the cases exceeds the previous WHO recommended provisional tolerable daily intake value (2.1 mu g day(-1) kg(-1) BW), and in more than 90% of cases, the As content in the drinking water equivalent to the inorganic As intake from rice consumption (C-W,C-eqv) exceeds the WHO drinking water guideline of 10 mu g L-1. This study further demonstrates that participants in age groups 18-30 and 51-65 yrs are the most vulnerable to the potential health threat of dietary As exposure compared to participants of age group 31-50 yrs, because of higher amounts of brown rice consumption patterns and lower BMI.

  • 49.
    Halder, Dipti
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Biswas, Ashis
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Bhowmick, S.
    University of Kalyani, India.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Nriagu, Jerome O.
    University of Michigan, USA.
    Guha Mazumder, D.N.
    DNGM Research Foundation, India.
    Slejkovec, Z.
    Josef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    University of Kalyani, India.
    Assessment of arsenic exposure risk from drinking water and dietary component in West Bengal, India2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current status of arsenic (As) exposure risk from drinking water and different dietary components in rural Bengal has been compared in the present study. This study shows that the consumption of rice is the major source of dietary intake of inorganic As among the population when they are drinking As safe water. Consumption of vegetables does not pose a significant health threat to the population independently; it nevertheless can increase the total daily intake of inorganic As (TDI-iAs). The results indicate that when people are drinking water with As concentration <10 μg L-1, in 35% of the cases the total daily intake of inorganic As (TDI-iAs) exceeds the previous provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) value of 2.1 μg day-1 kg-1 BW, recommended by World Health Organization (WHO). It should be mention here that the joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives (JECFA) has withdrawn the previous PTDI value in their 72nd meeting because PTDI value was in the lower range of bench mark dose level for 0.5% increased of lung cancer. However, Codex Committee on Contaminants in Foods (CCCF) has argued that TDI-iAs below BMDL0.5 does not indicates that there is no risk and this motivated us to compare TDI-iAs of the participants with the previous PTDI value of 2.1 μg day-1 kg-1 bw. At the As concentration level <10 μg L-1in drinking water, the consumption of rice is the major source of daily intake of inorganic As. When As concentration in drinking water exceeds 10 μg L-1, drinking water and rice consumption contributes almost equally (~40% from rice, ~50% from drinking water, and 10% from vegetables according to median DI-iAs) and TDI-iAs exceeds previous PTDI for all the participants. The relative contribution of daily intake of iAs from drinking water (DI-iAs-DW) largely predominates over daily intake of iAs from rice (DI-iAs-R) when As concentration in drinking water exceeds 50 μg L-1. This study implies that when consumption of rice contributes significantly to the TDI-iAs, supply of drinking water to the population considering national drinking water standard of India and Bangladesh as a safety measure for As might compound the As exposure largely by increasing TDI-iAs. Thus it can be concluded that any effort to mitigate the As poisoning of rural villagers in Bengal must look beyond the drinking water and consider all the routes of exposure.

  • 50. Herbert, R.B.
    et al.
    Höckert, L.
    Von Brömssen, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology. Ramböll Sverige AB, Sweden .
    Friis, H.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering (moved 20130630), Environmental Geochemistry and Ecotechnology.
    Mine waste stabilisation with biosludge and Ca carbonate residues: column experiments2007In: Biohydrometallury: From the Single Cell to the Environment, Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2007, Vol. 20-21, p. 291-294Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Column experiments investigated the stabilization of waste rock from Ljusnarsberg mine in Kopparberg, Sweden. In order to inhibit the generation of acidic leachate from the waste rock, biosludge and a Ca carbonate - rich residue from the paper industry were mixed with the sulfidic mine waste. The results of the column experiments indicate that the stabilization of the waste rock with the reactive amendments succeeded in maintaining a near - neutral pH in the waste rock leachate, compared to a pH 3 leachate from untreated waste rock. Copper and Zn concentrations in leachate from the untreated waste exceeded 100 mg/L, while these metals were detected at concentrations less than 0.1 and 1 mg/L, respectively, in the leachate from the treated wastes. This study indicates that the stabilization of acid - generating waste rock with biosludge and Ca carbonate residues is effective in preventing the generation of acid mine drainage; the treatment is expected to continue until the reactive amendments are exhausted.

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