Change search
Refine search result
1234567 1 - 50 of 1143
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1. Abate, M.
    et al.
    De Jong, Gerard
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    The optimal shipment size and truck size choice - The allocation of trucks across hauls2014In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 59, p. 262-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a growing interest in understanding how firms allocate their trucks across hauls, and how this allocation changes under various economic environments. This study investigates how variations in route/haul, carrier and vehicle characteristics affect the optimal vehicle size choice and the associated choice of shipment size. We show that the two choices are derived from the same optimization problem. There can be a continuum of shipment sizes, but decision-makers in freight transport have to choose from a limited number of vehicle alternatives. Therefore, we use a discrete-continuous econometric model where shipment size is modeled as a continuous variable, and vehicle size/type choice as a discrete variable. The results indicate that when faced with higher demand, and during longer trips firms are more likely to use heavier vehicles and ship in larger quantities which suggest that firms are realizing economies of scale and economies of distance. The study also discusses the effect of vehicle operating cost on the vehicle selection process and its policy implications.

  • 2. Aebischer, B.
    et al.
    Hilty, Lorenz
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. University of Zurich, Switzerland .
    The energy demand of ICT: A historical perspective and current methodological challenges2015In: ICT Innovations for Sustainability, Springer, 2015, p. 71-103Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides an overview of energy demand issues in the field of ICT with a focus on the history of measuring, modelling and regulating ICT electricity consumption and the resulting methodological challenges. While the energy efficiency of ICT hardware has been dramatically improving and will continue to improve for some decades, the overall energy used for ICT is still increasing. The growing demand for ICT devices and services outpaces the efficiency gains of individual devices. Worldwide per capita ICT electricity consumption exceeded 100 kWh/year in 2007 (a value which roughly doubles if entertainment equipment is included) and is further increasing. Methodological challenges include issues of data collection and modelling ICT devices and services, assessing the entire life cycle of ICT devices and infrastructures, accounting for embedded ICT, and assessing the effect of software on ICT energy consumption.

  • 3. Ahlberg, J
    et al.
    Claesson, L
    Nauwelarts de Agé, M
    Näsman, P
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Relationen mellan upplevelsemått och fysiologiska mått på fysisk ansträngning1980In: Information från Psykotekniska institutet, ISSN 0347-2795, no 115Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Ahlroth, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Ecovalue08-A new valuation set for environmental systems analysis tools2011In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 19, no 17-18, p. 1994-2003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In environmental systems analysis tools such as cost-benefit analysis (CBA), life-cycle assessment (LCA) and Environmental Management Systems (EMS), weighting is often used to aggregate results and compare different alternatives. There are several weighting sets available, but so far there is no set that consistently use monetary values based on actual or hypothetical market valuation of environmental degradation and depletion. In this paper, we develop a weighting set where the values are based on willingness-to-pay estimates for environmental quality, and market values for resource depletion. The weighting set is applied to three case studies and the outcome is compared with the outcomes from three other weighting sets. Ecotax02, Ecoindicator99 and EPS2000. We find that the different sets give different results in many cases. The reason for this is partly that they are based on different values and thus should give different results. However, the differences can also be explained by data gaps and different methodological choices. If weighting sets are used, it is also important to use several to reduce the risk of overlooking important impacts due to data gaps. It is also interesting to note that though Ecovalue08 and Ecotax02 give different absolute values, the results are very similar in relative terms. Thus the political and the individual willingness-to-pay estimates yield a similar ranking of the impacts.

  • 5.
    Ahlroth, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Nilsson, Måns
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Weighting and valuation in selected environmental systems analysis tools - suggestions for further developments2011In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 19, no 2-3, p. 145-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In environmental systems analysis tools like Life Cycle Assessment, strategic environmental assessment, cost benefit analysis and environmental management systems, results need to be presented in a comprehensible way to make alternatives easily comparable. One way of doing this is to aggregate results to a manageable set by using weighting methods.. In this paper, we explore how weighting methods are used in some selected Environmental Systems Analysis Tools (ESATs), and suggest possible developments of their use. We examine the differences in current use patterns, discuss the reasons for and implications of such differences, and investigate whether observed differences in use are necessary. The result of our survey shows that weighting and valuation is broadly used in the examined ESATs. The use of weighting/valuation methods is different in different tools, but these differences are not always related to the application; rather, they are related to traditions and views on valuation and weighting. Also, although the requirements on the weights/values may differ between tools, there are intersections where they coincide. Monetary weights, using either endpoint or midpoint methods, are found to be useful in all the selected tools. Furthermore, the inventory shows that that there is a common need for generic sets of weights. There is a need for further research focusing on the development of consistent value sets derived with a wide range of methods. In parallel to the development of weighting methods it is important with critical evaluations of the weighting sets with regard to scientific quality, consistency and data gaps.

  • 6.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Environmental Impacts of Electronic Media: A Comparison of a Magazine’s Tablet and Print Editions2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to assess potential environmental impacts of electronic media distribution and consumption—from a life cycle perspective—as compared to those of print media.

    The thesis consists of a cover essay and two papers appended at the end of the thesis. The cover essay summarizes the papers and puts them in context. The main objectives of the thesis are twofold: to assess potential environmental impacts of production and consumption of tablet editions of magazines from a life cycle perspective (Paper I), and to compare potential environmental impacts of a magazine’s print edition with that of its tablet edition (Paper II).

    The thesis examines the following specific research questions: (1) What are the main environmental impacts of print and tablet editions? (2) Which activities are giving rise to the main environmental impacts of the print and tablet editions? (3) What are the key factors influencing these impacts? (4) What are major data gaps and uncertainties?

    Based on the present assessment, it is clear that for the print magazine, pulp and paper production is the principal cause of most of the potential environmental impacts. For this reason, the use of recycled paper, rather than virgin fiber, in newsprint production may considerably offset environmental impacts.

    For the tablet edition, the content production dominates the potential environmental impacts when readers are few. This appears to be the case in an emerging state of the magazine, but with distribution of more media products to smaller groups of people, this may persist for “mature” products as well. As the number of tablet readers grows, more of the environmental impact of the is due to manufacturing of the device and electronic distribution. However, content production may still be a major factor, depending on the specific environmental impacts studied.

  • 7.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Exploring the Effects of ICT on Environmental Sustainability: From Life Cycle Assessment to Complex Systems Modeling2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The production and consumption of information and communication technology (ICT) products and services continue to grow worldwide. This trend is accompanied by a corresponding increase in electricity use by ICT, as well as direct environmental impacts of the technology. Yet a more complicated picture of ICT’s effects is emerging. Positive indirect effects on environmental sustainability can be seen in substitution and optimization (enabling effects), and negative indirect effects can be seen in additional demand due to efficiency improvements (rebound effects).

    A variety of methods can be employed to model and assess these direct and indirect effects of ICT on environmental sustainability. This doctoral thesis explores methods of modeling and assessing environmental effects of ICT, including electronic media. In a series of five studies, three methods were at times applied in case studies and at others analyzed theoretically. These methods include life cycle assessment (LCA) and complex systems modeling approaches, including System Dynamics (SD) and agent-based (AB) modeling.

    The first two studies employ the LCA approach in a case study of an ICT application, namely, the tablet edition of a Swedish design magazine. The use of tablets has skyrocketed in recent years, and this phenomenon has been little studied to date. Potential environmental impacts of the magazine’s tablet edition were assessed and compared with those of the print edition. The tablet edition’s emerging version (which is marked by a low number of readers and low reading time per copy) resulted in higher potential environmental impacts per reader than did the print edition. However, the mature tablet edition (with a higher number of readers and greater reading time per copy) yielded lower impacts per reader in half the ten impact categories assessed.

    While previous studies of electronic media have reported that the main life-cycle contributor to environmental impacts is the use phase (which includes operational electricity use as well as the manufacture of the electronic device), the present study did not support those findings in all scenarios studied in this thesis. Rather, this study found that the number of readers played an important role in determining which life-cycle phase had the greatest impacts. For the emerging version, with few readers, content production was the leading driver of environmental impacts. For the mature version, with a higher number of readers, electronic storage and distribution were the major contributors to environmental impacts. Only when there were many readers but low overall use of the tablet device was the use phase the main contributor to environmental impacts of the tablet edition of the magazine.

    The third study goes beyond direct effects at product- and service-level LCAs, revisiting an SD simulation study originally conducted in 2002 to model indirect environmental effects of ICT in 15 European countries for the period 2000-2020. In the current study, three scenarios of the 2002 study were validated in light of new empirical data from the period 2000–2012. A new scenario was developed to revisit the quantitative and qualitative results of the original study. The results showed, inter alia, that ICT has a stimulating influence on total passenger transport, for it makes it more cost- and time-efficient (rebound effects).

    The modeling mechanism used to represent this rebound effect is further investigated in the fourth study, which discusses the feedback loops used to model two types of rebound effects in passenger transport (direct economic rebound and time rebound). Finally, the role of systems thinking and modeling in conceptualizing and communicating the dynamics of rebound effects is examined.

    The aim of the fifth study was to explore the power of systems modeling and simulation to represent nonlinearities of the complex and dynamic systems examined elsewhere in this thesis. That study reviews previous studies that have compared the SD and AB approaches and models, summarizing their purpose, methodology, and results, based on certain criteria for choosing between SD and AB approaches. The transformation procedure used to develop an AB model for purposes of comparison with an SD model is also explored.

    In conclusion, first-order or direct environmental effects of ICT production, use, and disposal can be assessed employing an LCA method. This method can also be used to assess second-order or enabling effects by comparing ICT applications with conventional alternatives. However, the assessment of enabling effects can benefit from systems modeling methods, which are able to formally describe the drivers of change, as well as the dynamics of complex social, technical, and environmental systems associated with ICT applications. Such systems methods can also be used to model third-order or rebound effects of efficiency improvements by ICT.

  • 8.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Hilty, Lorenz M.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Modeling the Effects of ICT on Environmental Sustainability: Revisiting a System Dynamics Model Developed for the European Commission2015In: ICT Innovations for Sustainability / [ed] Hilty, L.M.; Aebischer, B., Switzerland: Springer Publishing Company, 2015, p. 449-474Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter revisits a System Dynamics model developed in 2002 with the aim of exploring the future impacts of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on environmental sustainability in the EU, which then consisted of 15 countries. The time horizon of the study was 20 years (2000–2020). We analyze the results in light of empirical data that is now available for 2000–2012. None of the three scenarios that were developed by experts to specify the external factors needed to run the model were realistic from today’s point of view. If the model is re-run with more realistic input data for the first half of the simulation period, however, the main results regarding the impact of ICT remain qualitatively the same; they seem to be relatively robust implications of the causal system structure, as it is represented in the model. Overall, the impacts of ICT for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental burdens for 2020 tend to be slightly stronger if the simulation is based on the empirical data now available.

  • 9.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Hilty, Lorenz M.
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology. Department of Informatics, University of Zurich.
    Modelling Rebound Effects in System Dynamics2014In: Proceedings of the 28th Conference on Environmental Informatics - EnviroInfo 2014 - ICT for Energy Efficiency / [ed] Marx Gómez, J., Sonnenschein, M., Vogel, U., Winter, A., Rapp, B., Giesen, N., Germany: BIS Oldenburg, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The induction of demand by increasing the efficiency of a production or consumption process is known as the rebound effect. Feedback loops in System Dynamics can be used to conceptualize the structure of this complex phenomenon and also for communicating model-based insights. In passenger transport, the rebound effect can be induced through increased cost efficiency (direct economic rebound) and/or increase in speed (time rebound). In this paper we review and compare two models on environmental effects of passenger transport—including a model on the role of information and communication technology. We highlight the feedback mechanisms used to deal with the rebound effect (price, efficiency, and time rebound).

  • 10.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. Department of Informatics, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Hilty, Lorenz M
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. Department of Informatics, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Simulating the future impact of ICT on environmental sustainability: validating and recalibrating a system dynamics model - Background Data2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report serves as supplementary material to the book chapter “Modeling the Effects of ICT on Environmental Sustainability: Revisiting a System Dynamics Model Developed for the European Commission” (Achachlouei and Hilty 2015) published in the book “ICT Innovations for Sustainability” (Hilty and Aebischer 2015). The current report was referred to in the book chapter whenever the data to be presented exceeded the space provided for the book chapter.

  • 11.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Hilty, Lorenz M.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (Empa) and University of Zurich, Department of Informatics.
    System Dynamics vs. agent-based modeling—comparing models and approaches: A literature review and a transformation procedureManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Systems modeling and simulation methods such as System Dynamics (SD) and agent-based (AB) modeling have been used to foster a better understanding of the dynamics and complexity of natural, technical, and social systems. System Dynamics provides an aggregate-level perspective, highlighting thinking in feedback loops and employing differential equations to model the causal relations in a system, exploring the system's dynamics by numerically solving the equations. Agent-based modeling, in a bottom-up method, focuses on constituent units (agents) and their interactions to explore the emerging behavior at a system level by means of simulation. Comparing these modeling methods can help us understand their strengths and weaknesses in order to choose the right approach for a given modeling problem. It may also support the analysis of a given system to build multiple models using the different approaches and comparing them, in particular to treat fundamental uncertainties in systems modeling and simulation. In this paper, we review the existing studies comparing the SD and AB approaches and models, investigating the aims, methodology, and results of such comparative studies. We also highlight lessons learned for future model comparisons by examining how the corresponding SD and AB models are built for the purpose of comparison. A procedure for transforming System Dynamics models into agent-based models is presented and discussed using examples from the literature.

  • 12.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). Empa – Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Technology and Society Lab , 9014 St. Gallen, Switzerland .
    Hilty, Lorenz M.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. University of Zürich, , Department of Informatics, CH-8050 Zürich, Switzerland; Empa – Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Technology and Society Lab , 9014 St. Gallen, Switzerland .
    Using Systems Thinking and System Dynamics Modeling to Understand Rebound Effects2016In: Advances And New Trends In Environmental And Energy Informatics / [ed] Jorge Marx Gómez, Michael Sonnenschein, Andreas Winter, Ute Vogel, Barbara Rapp Nils Giesen, Cham, Switzerland: Springer Publishing Company, 2016, p. 237-255Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Processes leading to an increase of demand for a resource as a consequence of increasing the efficiency of using this resource in production or consumption are known as (direct) rebound effects. Rebound effects at micro and macro levels tend to offset the reduction in resource consumption enabled by progress in efficiency. Systems thinking and modeling instruments such as causal loop diagrams and System Dynamics can be used to conceptualize the structure of this complex phenomenon and also to communicate model-based insights. In passenger transport, the rebound effect can be invoked by increased cost efficiency (direct economic rebound) and/or increase in speed (time rebound). In this paper we review and compare two existing models on passenger transport—including a model on the role of information and communication technology—with regard to the feedback loops used to conceptualize rebound effects.

  • 13.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Moberg, Åsa
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Carbon and ecological footprints of a magazine: Print vs. tablet editions2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and communication technology (ICT), in competition with traditional applications, is providingnew ways to access media content. Similar to print media, ICT-based media has environmental benefits andburdens alike. The overall goal of the present study is to assess the potential environmental impacts”’from a lifecycle perspective”’of a print magazine with its electronic version read on tablets. Important goals are to identifywhich activities give rise to the main impacts, in both print and tablet editions, and to identify the key factorsinfluencing the overall environmental impacts, in both editions. Moreover, data gaps and uncertainties areaddressed.The methodology used in the study is life cycle assessment (LCA). The environmental impacts assessedinclude climate change, cumulative energy/exergy demand, metal depletion, photochemical oxidant formation,particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification, freshwater/marine eutrophication and fossil depletion.The results indicate that it is hard to compare print and tablet editions of a magazine due to difficulties indefining the function, and that different functional units indicate different preferences in terms of environmentalimpacts. Also, differences between emerging (low number of readers and low reading time per copy) andmature (high number of readers and higher reading time per copy) tablet versions leads to various results in thecomparison between print and tablet versions.The studied tablet version in its emerging stage gives rise to higher potential environmental impacts per readerthan the print version; however with an assumed mature tablet version the impacts are generally lower perreader. This illustrates clearly the importance of the number of readers to spread the environmental impactsover.

  • 14.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Life cycle assessment of a magazine: part 2: A comparison of print and tablet editions2015In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 19, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid development of information and communications technology (ICT) is providing new ways to access media content. Electronic media are sometimes more advantageous from an environmental perspective than paper-based media solutions, but ICT-based media can also bring environmental burdens. This study compared the potential environmental impacts in a life cycle perspective of a print edition of a magazine and that of its electronic edition read on a tablet device. Important objectives were to identify activities giving rise to the main environmental impacts for both the print and tablet editions, determine the key factors influencing these impacts, and address data gaps and uncertainties. A detailed assessment of the tablet edition is provided in a previous article (part 1), whereas this article compares it with the print edition. The methodology used was life cycle assessment and the environmental impacts assessed included climate change, cumulative energy/exergy demand, metal depletion, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, and fossil depletion. Use of different functional units to compare the print and tablet editions of the magazine resulted in different relative environmental impacts. In addition, emerging (low number of readers and low reading time per copy) and mature (higher number of readers and higher reading time per copy) tablet editions yielded varying results. The emerging tablet edition resulted in higher potential environmental impacts per reader than the print edition, but the mature tablet edition yielded lower impacts per reader in half the impact categories assessed. This illustrates the importance of spreading the environmental impacts over a large number of readers. The electricity mix used in product system processes did not greatly affect the results of tablet/print comparisons, but overall number of readers for the tablet edition, number of readers per copy for the print edition, file size, and degree of use of the tablet device proved crucial for the comparison results.

  • 15.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Climate Change Impact of Electronic Media Solutions: Case Study of the Tablet Edition of a Magazine2013In: ICT4S 2013: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies for Sustainability, ETH Zurich, February 14-16, 2013, ETH, Zurich, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shifts from print media to electronic media may be regarded as apossibility for promoting sustainability. However, the benefits ofelectronic media are not unquestioned. Previous studies on theenvironmental impacts of print and electronic media have shownthat there is no easy answer. Contributing to this field of research,the present study sought to assess the climate change impact ofthe tablet edition of a magazine using a life cycle perspective.Results showed that with few readers the emerging tablet versionhad a higher potential climate change impact per reader than themature tablet version, although the latter had a substantiallylonger reading time per copy. The contribution of contentproduction, electronic distribution, reading on tablet and wastetreatment of tablet to the impact was analysed. The sensitivityanalysis of electricity mix indicated that this was an importantfactor that clearly influenced the overall results.

  • 16.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Life Cycle Assessment of a Magazine: Part I: Tablet Edition in Emerging and Mature States2015In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 19, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and communication technology (ICT) is providing new ways to access media content. ICT has environmental benefits and burdens. The overall goal of the present study was to assess the environmental impacts of production and consumption of magazines read on tablets from a life cycle perspective. Important goals were to identify the activities giving rise to the main impacts and the key factors influencing the overall environmental impacts. Data gaps and uncertainties were also addressed. The results are compared against those for the print edition of the magazine in a separate article (part 2). The methodology used in the study was life cycle assessment. The environmental impacts assessed included climate change, cumulative energy/exergy demand, metal depletion, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification, freshwater/marine eutrophication, fossil depletion, human toxicity, and ecotoxicity. The results indicate that content production can be the major contributor to environmental impacts if readers are few (as for the emerging version of the magazine studied). Assuming more readers (more mature version) or a larger file size for the tablet magazine, electronic storage and distribution may be the major contributor. Thus, in contrast to previous studies on electronic media, which reported a dominant impact of the use phase, this study found a higher impact for content production (emerging version) and electronic storage and distribution (mature version). However, with inefficient, low overall use of the tablet with a mature version of the tablet magazine, the greatest impact was shown to come from the reading activity (i.e., the use phase). In conclusion, the relative impacts of the tablet magazine would decrease considerably with high numbers of readers, their efficient use of the tablet (i.e., for many purposes over a long life of the device), and a smaller magazine file.

  • 17.
    Ahmadi, Leila
    et al.
    Energy, Mining and Environment, National Research Council Canada.
    Young, Steven B.
    School of Environment, Enterprise and Development|, University of Waterloo.
    Fowler, Michael
    Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo.
    Fraser, Roydon A.
    Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    A cascaded life cycle: reuse of electric vehicle lithium-ion battery packs in energy storage systems2015In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery packs recovered from end-of-life electric vehicles (EV) present potential technological, economic and environmental opportunities for improving energy systems and material efficiency. Battery packs can be reused in stationary applications as part of a “smart grid”, for example to provide energy storage systems (ESS) for load leveling, residential or commercial power. Previous work on EV battery reuse has demonstrated technical viability and shown energy efficiency benefits in energy storage systems modeled under commercial scenarios. The current analysis performs a life cycle assessment (LCA) study on a Li-ion battery pack used in an EV and then reused in a stationary ESS.

    Methods

    A complex functional unit is used to combine energy delivered by the battery pack from the mobility function and the stationary ESS. Various scenarios of cascaded “EV mobility plus reuse in stationary clean electric power scenarios” are contrasted with “conventional system mobility with internal combustion engine vehicles plus natural gas peaking power.” Eight years are assumed for first use; with 10 years for reuse in the stationary application. Operational scenarios and environmental data are based on real time-of-day and time-of-year power use. Additional data from LCA databases are utilized. Ontario, Canada, is used as the geographic baseline; analysis includes sensitivity to the electricity mix and battery degradation. Seven environmental categories are assessed using ReCiPe.

    Results and discussion

    Results indicate that the manufacturing phase of the Li-ion battery will still dominate environmental impacts across the extended life cycle of the pack (first use in vehicle plus reuse in stationary application). For most impact categories, the cascaded use system appears significantly beneficial compared to the conventional system. By consuming clean energy sources for both use and reuse, global and local environmental stress reductions can be supported. Greenhouse gas advantages of vehicle electrification can be doubled by extending the life of the EV batteries, and enabling better use of off-peak low-cost clean electricity or intermittent renewable capacity. However, questions remain concerning implications of long-duration use of raw material resources employed before potential recycling.

    Conclusions

    Li-ion battery packs present opportunities for powering both mobility and stationary applications in the necessary transition to cleaner energy. Battery state-of-health is a considerable determinant in the life cycle performance of a Li-ion battery pack. The use of a complex functional unit was demonstrated in studying a component system with multiple uses in a cascaded application.

  • 18.
    Algers, Staffan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Even more possibilities to combine demand models2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Algers, Staffan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    New models for high speed rail forecasting2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Algers, Staffan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    What is the monetary value of security?2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Algers, Staffan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Beser Hugosson, Muriel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Modelling choice of flight and booking class - a study using Stated Preference and Revealed Preference data2001In: International Journal of Services Technology and Management, Vol. 2, no 1/2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Algers, Staffan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Transport and Location Analysis (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Rydergren, Clas
    Östlund, Bo
    Sampers: erfarenheter och utvecklingsmöjligheter på kort och lång sikt2009Report (Other academic)
  • 23. Allström, A.
    et al.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. cVTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Smartphone based travel diary collection: Experiences from a field trial in Stockholm2017In: Emerging technologies and models for transport and mobility 44th European Transport Conference Selected Proceedings, Casa Convalescència, Barcelona, Spain, 5-7 October 2016, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 26, p. 32-38Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, there is a great need for new methods to collect travel data. Traditional methods have considerable drawbacks and, at the same time, the models used to analyse the transport system require more and more detailed and high-quality data. An alternative method that stands out as very promising is to capture raw data from devices that can use any positioning technology (e.g., GPS, WiFi positioning, GSM, etc.), followed by transforming the raw data into meaningful travel data. Since most smartphones are equipped with various sensors that can be used to determine the location of the smartphone, and since smartphones are integrated in the daily life of most people, they provide an unprecedented opportunity for large-scale travel data collection. This method has a great potential to solve the problems related to the estimation of distance/travel time, geographic coding of departure/destination locations and forgotten trips and it will also provide a more detailed and extensive data set. In a recently completed research project the feasibility of replacing or complementing the traditional travel diary, with a suite of tools that make use of smartphone collected travel data has been evaluated. The advantages and disadvantages of the traditional method and the proposed method were studied. For a fair comparison, both methods have been tested in the same city, at the same time, and with the same respondents. To achieve the objectives of the project, MEILI, a system that consists of a smartphone application for capturing the movement of users and a web application for allowing the users to annotate their movement, has been deployed. The recruitment of respondents is a critical phase for traditional travel diaries and, as expected, this was the case also for the smartphone based method. A lesson learnt was that it is important to simplify the registration process as much as possible. In total 2142 trips were collected and annotated by 171 users. 51 of the users annotated trips covering more than a week. The experiences from the field trial shows that a smartphone based travel diary collection is a very useful complement to traditional travel diary collection methods since it appeals to a different age group and collects more detailed travel data for a longer period. The main findings of the paper are that smartphone based data collection is feasible, that the algorithms to save battery work well and that trips of the same respondent vary considerably depending on day of the week.

  • 24. Almquist, T.
    et al.
    Jacobson, S. H.
    Mobarrez, F.
    Näsman, Per
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Hjemdahl, P.
    Lipid-lowering treatment and inflammatory mediators in diabetes and chronic kidney disease2014In: European Journal of Clinical Investigation, ISSN 0014-2972, E-ISSN 1365-2362, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 276-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Inflammation may contribute to the high cardiovascular risk in diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) facilitates the recruitment of monocytes into atherosclerotic lesions and is involved in diabetic nephropathy. Interferon gamma (IFNγ) is important in atherosclerosis and increases the synthesis of chemokines including MCP-1. Lipid-lowering treatment (LLT) with statins may have anti-inflammatory effects, and ezetimibe cotreatment provides additional cholesterol lowering. Methods: After a placebo run-in period, the effects of simvastatin alone (S) or simvastatin + ezetimibe (S+E) were compared in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study on inflammatory parameters. Eighteen DM patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 15-59 mL/min × 1·73 m2 (CKD stages 3-4) (DM-CKD) and 21 DM patients with eGFR > 75 mL/min (DM only) were included. Results: At baseline, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) (P = 0·03), IFNγ (P = 0·02), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα) (P < 0·01) and soluble vascular adhesion molecule (sVCAM) (P = 0·001) levels were elevated in DM-CKD compared with DM-only patients. LLT with S and S+E reduced MCP-1 levels (P < 0·01 by anova) and IFNγ levels (P < 0·01) in DM-CKD patients but not in DM-only patients. Reductions were most pronounced with the combination treatment. Conclusions: DM patients with CKD stages 3-4 had increased inflammatory activity compared with DM patients with normal GFR. Lipid-lowering treatment decreased the levels of MCP-1 and IFNγ in DM patients with concomitant CKD, which may be beneficial with regard to the progression of both atherosclerosis and diabetic nephropathy.

  • 25.
    Almström, Peter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System analysis and economics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Three essays on transport CBA uncertainty2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) has for a long time been used in transport planning, but it is often questioned. One main argument against CBA is that the results depend largely on assumptions regarding one or a few input factors, as for example the future fuel price or valuation of CO2 emissions.

    The three papers included in this thesis investigate some aspects of uncertainty in transport CBA calculations. The two first papers explore how changes in input data assumptions affect the CBA ranking of six rail and road investments in Stockholm. The first paper deals with the effect of different land-use assumptions while the second deals with the influence of economic growth, driving cost and public transport fare. The third paper investigates how alternative formulations of the public transport mode choice and route choice affect travel flows, ticket revenues and consumer surplus. These are important factors previously known to affect CBA results.

    The findings of the first two papers suggest that CBA results are robust concerning different land-use scenarios and single input factors. No change in rank between a road and a rail object is observed in the performed model calculations, and only one change between two road objects. The fact that CBA results seem robust regarding input assumptions supports the use CBA as a tool for selecting transport investments. The results in the third paper indicate that if there is detailed interest in, for example, number of boardings and ticket income from a certain transit line, or the total benefit of a price change, a more detailed formulation of the public transport mode choice and route choice will provide more reliable results. On the other hand, this formulation requires substantially more data on the transit line and price structure than the conventional formulation used in Swedish transport planning, especially in areas with many different pricing systems.

  • 26. Almström, Peter
    et al.
    Berglund, Svante
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Land use planning and transport investment appraisal2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27. Almström, Peter
    et al.
    Berglund, Svante
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    The impact of land use planning on Cost-Benefit Analysis rankings2011In: Proceedings of the European Transport Conference, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Almström, Peter
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Berglund, Svante
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Börjesson, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    The impact of travel costs and economic growth on cost-benefit analysis rankings2012Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) as a tool for selecting transport investments is often questioned. It is not unusual that politicians or others in the public debate argue that the outcome of a CBA completely rely on assumptions concerning a particular input factor, such as valuation of CO2 emissions or future fuel price. This paper explores whether the relative ranking of CBA outcomes are robust with respect to some key inputs in transport demand analysis driving cost, public transport fare and economic growth. We study six different infrastructure objects (three road and three rail objects) and four alternative assumptions on input factors compared to a reference scenario.

    The findings suggest that single input factors in a CBA, individually have a small impact on the ranking of the studied investments. In our model calculations we observe no change in rank between a road and a rail object.

  • 29.
    Almström, Peter
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Engelson, Leonid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Algers, Staffan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Modelling the effect of transit supply and price structure on mode choice and route choice2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper develops a new mode choice and transit route choice model for work trips by either car or transit. In contrast to the conventional regional traffic models used for transportation planning in Sweden, the model accounts for the fact that the value of time varies within a population of travellers making a trip with the same purpose and the fact that the price can differ between different transit lines (bus, regional trains, etc.). A mixed binomial logit (MXL) model with a lognormally distributed cost parameter has been estimated for the mode choice. The MXL specification makes it possible to capture some of the variation in the value of time. The transit route choice model rests on the assumption that transit commuters purchase travel passes that are valid for a certain time period, e.g. a month. The travel pass then allows the traveller to use a certain set of transit lines, while others are not available. For the mode choice, the traveller compares travel cost and time with the chosen pass with the travel cost and time by car. The results from performed analyses indicate that if the interest is in overall mode share and overall travel flows, the conventional method in Swedish transport modelling will suffice. However, if the interest is more detailed, for example concerning boardings and ticket income from a certain transit line, or the total benefit of a price change, the model developed in this paper will give more reliable results.

  • 30. Andersson, M.
    et al.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS (closed 20110701). Jönköping International Business School, Sweden .
    Månsson, K.
    Dynamics of entry and exit of product varieties: What evolution dynamics can account for the empirical regularities?2011In: Nonlinear Economic Dynamics, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2011, p. 155-174Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Firm-level heterogeneity is substantial even in narrowly defined industries. This chapter focuses on formulating evolution dynamics which can account for the observed heterogeneity and its maintenance. Based on examination of data on Swedish firms' supply pattern across different markets over time, we present a parsimonious model that has the ambition to capture the picture of heterogeneous firms, while accommodating the simultaneous exit and entry of destination varieties in firms' supply pattern. The model assumes both scale economies of firms and path-dependence, where the latter is manifested in such a way that the arrival rate of innovation ideas to an individual firm is a function of each firm's stock of varieties at every given point in time. The path-dependence phenomenon is an "explosive" non-linearity, whereas conservation mechanisms include development of demand and exit of established varieties. The described path dependence explains the skewed distribution of varieties across firms. Exit of obsolete varieties and growth of demand keep the "equilibrium" away from competitive exclusion where only few large firms remain. We make use of simulations to depict and assess the innovation dynamics of the proposed model.

  • 31.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS (closed 20110701).
    Grasjo, Urban
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS (closed 20110701).
    Spatial dependence and the representation of space in empirical models2009In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 159-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A well-formed spatial model should most likely not produce spatial autocorrelation at all. From this perspective spatial autocorrelation is not (pure) statistical nuisance but a sign of that a model lacks a representation of an important economic phenomenon. In a Knowledge Production Function (KPF) context, this paper shows that a representation of space reflecting the potential of physical interaction between localities by means of accessibility variables on the "right-hand-side"aEuro"a simple alternative to spatial lag and spatial error which can be estimated by OLS-captures substantive spatial dependence. Results are verified with Monte Carlo simulations based on Anselin's (Int Reg Sci Rev 26(2):153-166, 2003) taxonomy of modelled and unmodelled effects. The analysis demonstrates that an accessibility representation of explanatory variables depict the network nature of spatial interaction, such that spatial dependence is actually modelled.

  • 32.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Hellerstedt, Karin
    Location Attributes and Start-ups in Knowledge-Intensive Business Services2009In: Industry and Innovation, ISSN 1366-2716, E-ISSN 1469-8390, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 103-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines start-ups in knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS) across Swedish regions by individuals with a formally recognized capacity to produce and develop advanced business services. The empirical analysis focuses on whether their involvement in entrepreneurship may be explained by location attributes. As much as 75 percent of the KIBS founders have prior work experience from business services, suggesting that KIBS start-ups are more frequent in regions where the KIBS sector is already large. Controlling for the stock of potential entrepreneurs and the stock of KIBS firms, it is shown that variables reflecting both supply-side conditions and market size influence KIBS start-up activity. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that KIBS entrepreneurship in a region is stimulated by the simultaneous presence of (i) knowledge resources conducive for the generation and diffusion of knowledge and ideas upon which new firms can be established and (ii) a large market.

  • 33. Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS (closed 20110701).
    Karlsson, Charlie
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS (closed 20110701).
    Multinationals in the Knowledge Economy: A case study of AstraZeneca in Sweden2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Multinational companies play a large and growing role in the world economy. Theycontribute about 10 percent to world GDP and about two thirds to global exports. Inthe vast majority of the countries in the world, the presence of multinationals has alsobeen growing over time.

    This report presents a case study of the role of a large multinational company, activein one of the most R&D and knowledge intensive industries of the world, withestablishments in a small open economy. The case study examines the role ofAstraZeneca in the Swedish economy, i.e. an economy dominated by multinationalcompanies. They account for almost all of Sweden’s aggregate investments in privateR&D, over 90 percent of the country’s exports and imports as well as a significantshare of the total number of employees in the private sector. The analyses in the reportmake it possible to assess the importance of the local presence of such a largeknowledge-intensive multinational for Sweden.

  • 34. Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Johansson, Börje
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics (closed 20110301), Economics (closed 20110301). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS (closed 20110701).
    Månsson, Kristofer
    Dynamics of Entry and Exit of Product Varieties: – what evolution dynamics can account for the empirical regularities?2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Firm-level heterogeneity is substantial even in narrowly defined industries. This paper focuses on formulating evolution dynamics which can account for the observed heterogeneity and its maintenance. Based on examination of data on Swedish firm’ supply pattern to different markets over time, we present a parsimonious model that has the ambition to capture the picture of heterogeneous firms, while accommodating the simultaneous exit and entry of destination varieties in firms’ supply pattern. The model assumes both scale economies of firms and pathdependence, where the latter is manifested in such a way that the arrival rate of innovation ideas to an individual firm is a function of each firm’s stock of varieties at every given point in time. The path-dependence phenomenon is an “explosive” non-linearity, whereas conservation mechanisms include development of demand and exit of established varieties. The described path dependence explains the skewed distribution of varieties across firms, but the question of what keeps the “equilibrium” away from competitive exclusion where only few large firms remain. We make use of simulations to depict and assess the innovation dynamics of the proposed model.

  • 35.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Koster, Sierdjan
    Sources of persistence in regional start-up rates-evidence from Sweden2011In: Journal of Economic Geography, ISSN 1468-2702, E-ISSN 1468-2710, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 179-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article assesses the spatial-temporal persistence of a dynamic phenomenon: start-ups. Two mechanisms that explain persistence in start-up rates are distinguished: (i) determinants of start-ups that are spatially 'sticky' and durable and (ii) path dependence in start-up activities in the form of a response mechanism between previous and current start-up activities. A dynamic panel analysis of the relationship between lagged start-up rates and current start-up rates confirms that both effects are important in explaining persistence. The second mechanism implies a regional dimension in persistence, such that regions with high levels of start-up rates will exhibit stronger persistence. We find empirical evidence of this using quantile regression techniques.

  • 36.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Samhällsekonomi.
    Lööf, Hans
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Samhällsekonomi.
    Agglomeration and productivity: evidence from firm-level data2011In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 601-620Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do agglomerations stimulate productivity? An extensive literature on agglomeration economies, or urban increasing returns, has analyzed this question with aggregated spatial data. This paper estimates the relationship between agglomeration and productivity at the firm level using static and dynamic models. It makes use of a rich dataset comprising register information on all manufacturing firms in Sweden with 10 or more employees over the period 1997-2004. Three things emerge. First, firms located in larger regions are more productive when controlling for size, human capital, physical capital, ownership structure, import: and export, industry classification, and time trend. Second, results from dynamic panel estimations suggests a learning effect in that agglomeration enhances firms' productivity. Third, the role of agglomeration phenomena does not seem to have a clear coupling to firm size.

  • 37.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport and Economics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Lööf, Hans
    Johansson, Sara
    Productivity and International Trade: firm-level evidence from a small open economy2008In: Review of World Economics, ISSN 1610-2878, E-ISSN 1610-2886, Vol. 144, no 4, p. 774-800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a comprehensive description and analysis of the international trading activities of firms based on novel and detailed Swedish data. We provide robust evidence of selection operating from market to market which is consistent with that low productive firms are confined to markets with low productivity thresholds. We further show that selection also applies to the number of products traded. There is a substantial heterogeneity among exporters and importers in terms of the number of markets they trade with and in terms of the number of products they trade. Productivity premiums increase in the number of markets and the number of products traded, respectively. Firms that both export and import (i.e. two-way traders) are more productive than firms that only export or only import. This finding can be explained by that two-way traders are deeply engaged in the international division of labor and employ inputs based on frontier knowledge and technology in their production process, which increase their productivity and success on export markets.

  • 38.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS.
    Noseleit, Florian
    Start-ups and employment dynamics within and across sectors2011In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 461-483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use a decade of longitudinal data on start-ups and employment in Swedish regions to analyze the effect of start-ups on subsequent employment growth. We extend previous analyses by decomposing the effect of start-ups on total employment change into within- and cross-sector effects. We find that start-ups in a sector influence employment change in the same as well as in other sectors. The results illustrate that the known S-shaped pattern can be attributed to the different effects of start-ups in a sector on employment change in the same sector and in others. Start-ups in a sector have a positive impact on employment change in the same sector. The effects on employment change in other sectors may be negative or positive, and depend on the sector under consideration. In particular, start-ups in high-end services deviate from manufacturing and low-end services in that they have significant negative impacts on employment change in other sectors. The findings are consistent with the idea that start-ups are a vehicle for change in the composition of regional industry.

  • 39.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Centre for Innovation, Research and Competence in the Learning Economy (CIRCLE) Lunds Universitet.
    Thulin, Per
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Economics (Closed (20130101). KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, CESIS (closed 20110701).
    LABOR MOBILITY AND SPATIAL DENSITY2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on a much cited but seldom measured micro-foundation for agglomerations: inter-firm labor mobility. Labor mobility has been advanced as a vehicle for knowledge flows and labor market efficiency, and is often maintained to be an important source of agglomeration economies. Based on matched employer-employee data, we estimate the influence that spatial employment density has on the probability of inter-firm job-switching, while controlling for ample attributes of each worker and employer. The rate of inter-firm labor mobility varies substantially across regions and we document a systematic and robust positive influence of density on the probability of job switching. The likelihood that such switching is intra-regional is significantly higher if the employees operate in denser regions, verifying that labor mobility (and thus the effects mediated by it) is indeed localized. Higher rates of inter-firm labor mobility appear as a likely mechanism behind the empirically verified productivity advantage of dense regions.

  • 40.
    Andersson, Matts
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. WSP Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Hultén, Staffan
    Transaction and transition costs during the deregulation of the Swedish Railway market2016In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, Vol. 59, p. 349-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research on regulatory reform has identified and measured three types of costs associated with the shift from monopoly to competition: transaction costs, misalignment costs and transition costs. In this article we use a case study approach to measure and compare these costs during the deregulation of the Swedish railway system from 2000-2015. Our case studies confirm earlier research that vertical separation and the introduction of competition in the railway markets result in comparatively small direct transaction costs. Extraordinary transaction costs in the form of interrupted contracts are also a minor problem for the railway system as a whole but might create major problems for the affected region. Our research concurs with earlier research on the British railway system and a CER study that misalignment costs seem to be significantly bigger and more troublesome to handle than direct transaction costs. Railway maintenance costs in Sweden using competitive tenders are increasing four to five times faster than railway operations with no measurable improvement in performance. Transition costs have been and continue to be important in the deregulated Swedish railway system. First, procrastination in the form of delayed changes in the allocation of train paths results in misalignment costs that seem to be growing. Second, adjustment costs in the form of handouts to the former monopolist have been ten times higher than the costs for interrupted contracts.

  • 41.
    Andersson, Matts
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Mandell, Svante
    Braun Thörn, Helena
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Gomér, Ylva
    The effect of minimum parking requirements on the housing stock2016In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 49, p. 206-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cost of parking is in many cities subsidized and instead channelled through higher housing prices, wages, taxes, etc. The effects on other markets are principally well known, but the work on the area is limited. In this paper, we study how parking norms affect the size of the housing stock. Our analysis is based on a model of the rental, asset- and construction markets, the results are quality-assured by interviews with market actors. Prices and profits are affected when constructors are forced, through parking norms, to build more parking spaces than the customers demand. Parking norms reduce the housing stock by 1.2% and increase rents by 2.4% (SEK 300) in our example suburb. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 42.
    Andersson, Roland
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Nabavi, Pardis
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Wilhelmsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    The impact of advanced vocational education and training on earnings in Sweden2014In: International Journal of Training and Development, ISSN 1360-3736, E-ISSN 1468-2419, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 256-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers have established a relationship between greater education and training and higher earnings but it is difficult to infer that the former causes the latter if those with higher earnings tend to engage in more education and training. The present study attempts to control for ability and family background to see if stronger inferences can be made about education and training as the independent variable. The study focuses upon advanced vocational education and training (AVET) in Sweden. This is post-secondary school education for individuals who are 20 years of age or older. The aim of this article is to estimate the effects of AVET on earnings by controlling for selection bias. We used various approaches such as instrumental variables, Hausman–Taylor estimates, fixed effects estimates and propensity score matching to achieve this aim. A panel, or longitudinal, data set for eight different labor markets in Sweden for the period 1996–2008 was used. The results indicate that earnings from AVET are higher than the return on investment in comprehensive education. The average effect on income is estimated to be in the range of 3–8 percent.

  • 43.
    Andersson, Roland
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Real Estate Planning and Land Law.
    Quigley, John M.
    Wilhelmsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Urbanization, productivity, and innovation: Evidence from investment in higher education2009In: Journal of Urban Economics, ISSN 0094-1190, E-ISSN 1095-9068, Vol. 66, no 1, p. 2-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past two decades, Swedish government policy has decentralized post-secondary education throughout the country. We investigate the economic effects of this decentralization policy on the level of productivity and innovation and their spatial distribution in the national economy. We find important and significant effects of this investment policy upon economic output and the locus of knowledge production, suggesting that the decentralization has affected regional development through local innovation and increased creativity. Our evidence also suggests that aggregate productivity was increased by the deliberate policy of decentralization. Finally, we estimate the spillovers of university investment over space, finding that they are substantial, but that they are greatly attenuated. Agglomerative effects decline rapidly; roughly half of the productivity gains from these investments are manifest within 5-8 km of the community in which they are made.

  • 44.
    Andersson, Roland
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Wilhelmsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Universities, knowledge transfer and regional development: Geography, entrepreneurship and policy2012In: Papers in regional science (Print), ISSN 1056-8190, E-ISSN 1435-5957, Vol. 91, no 2, p. 477-479Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Anderstig, Christer
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Berglund, Svante
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Andersson, Matts
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Congestion Charges and Labour Market Imperfections2016In: Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, ISSN 0022-5258, E-ISSN 1754-5951, Vol. 50, p. 113-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Standard cost-benefit analyses of transport policy measures will not capture all benefits and losses if there are labour market imperfections. In the case of congestion charges, theoretical analyses have raised concerns that these effects may constitute considerable losses, possibly to the extent that aggregate welfare is reduced, contrary to conventional wisdom. We investigate this by estimating the effects on labour income of the Stockholm congestion charges, using an estimated relationship between accessibility and income. Results show that effects on labour income are, in fact, positive. It turns out to be crucial that the model accounts for value-of-time heterogeneity.

  • 46. Anderstig, Christer
    et al.
    Berglund, Svante
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Andersson, Matts
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Congestion charges and labour market imperfections: “Wider economic benefits” or “losses”?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Anderstig, Christer
    et al.
    WSP.
    Berglund, Svante
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis.
    Eliasson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Andersson, Matts
    WSP.
    Pyddoke, Roger
    VTI.
    Congestion charges and labour market imperfections: “Wider economic benefits” or “losses”?2011In: Journal of Urban Economics, ISSN 0094-1190, E-ISSN 1095-9068Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48. Anderstig, Christer
    et al.
    Sundberg, Marcus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport and Location Analysis. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    Integrating SCGE and I-O in Multiregional Modelling2013In: Employment Location in Cities and Regions: Models and Applications / [ed] Francesca Pagliara, Michiel de Bok, David Simmonds, Alan Wilson, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, p. 159-180Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Economic activities can be modeled at different levels of aggregation. Different levels of detail regarding spatial or temporal resolution, or levels of sectoral aggregation are appropriate depending on the question at hand. In cases where changes on the micro scale affects what happens at the macro level, and vice versa, an integrated approach is required. In this paper a modeling framework is presented, where focus is placed on the interactions between production and employment. The aggregate spatial computable general equilibrium model STRAGO is interacted with the highly detailed input-output model system rAps. Interregional and intersectoral relations of production, including agglomeration, are represented in the aggregate model, providing a coarse description of production by which the rAps model system is constrained. Such constraints will affect where individuals may find a suitable job. At the same time the aggregate model is dependent on the labour supply, provided by rAps, in determining production. An application of the proposed modeling framework is presented where future projections are compared to historical data.

  • 49.
    Andreasson, Ingmar J.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Extending PRT capabilities2009In: Automated People Movers 2009: Connecting People, Connecting Places, Connecting Modes: Proceedings of the twelfth international conference, May 31-June 3, 2009 : Atlanta, Georgia, American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2009, p. 343-349Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) offers direct, on-demand travel in automated vehicles seating 3-6 passengers on exclusive right-of-way. Commercially available systems now offer speeds up to 45 kph at headways from 3 seconds. With 3-second headways, a typical load of 1.5 passengers and 30 empty vehicles, the link capacity will be 1200 passengers per hour (one direction). This paper explores ways to extend the capabilities of PRT with respect to capacity and speed. Strategies have been developed and verified with the generic simulation software PRTsim.

  • 50.
    Andreasson, Ingmar J.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR.
    Personal Rapid Transit as Feeder-Distributor to Rail2012In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, no 2275, p. 88-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient feeder distributor systems around train stations are important in attracting train passengers. Such systems would be a suitable application for personal rapid transit (PRT). This paper suggests layouts and operations strategies for transfer stations between PRT and heavy rail. Ticket handling can be avoided by having the train fare include PRT trips. Ridesharing can be encouraged by destination signs. The catchment area that can be efficiently served is related to the interval between trains. The capacity of the station and guideway can be improved by coupling PRT vehicles in the station and decoupling them as necessary en route. Applications in Sweden are illustrated with the PRTsim software. In one case, outgoing PRT vehicles were loaded to 78%.

1234567 1 - 50 of 1143
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf