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  • 1.
    Abbasi, Mahmoud
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanocomposite of chitosan/SiO2/carbon nanotubes and its application for dyes removal2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 145, p. 105-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adsorption characteristics of Direct Blue 71 (DB71) and Reactive Blue 19 (RB19) from aqueous solution onto novel magnetic nanocomposite of Chitosan/SiO2/CNTs (MNCSC) have been investigated. The morphology of MNCSC was characterized by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of initial dye concentration, contact time, adsorbent dosage and initial pH as experimental parameters on the removal of dyes were investigated. The adsorption experiments indicated the maximum adsorption capacity occurred at pH 6.8 for DB71 and pH 2.0 for RB19. The experimental data were analyzed by isotherm models and equilibrium results were fitted well with the Langmuir isotherm model and the maximum adsorption capacity of the MNCSM was determined to be 61.35 mg/g for DB71 (R-2 = 0.996) and 97.08 mg/g for RB19 (R-2 = 0.998). Adsorption data were analyzed with three kinetics models and pseudo second-order equation could best describe for adsorption of dyes. Finally, the thermodynamic parameters were determined. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Acevedo Gomez, Yasna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lagergren, Carina
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Reformate from biogas used as fuel in a PEM fuel cell2013In: EFC 2013 - Proceedings of the 5th European Fuel Cell Piero Lunghi Conference, 2013, p. 163-164Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of a PEM fuel cell can be easily degraded by introducing impurities in the fuel gas. Since reformate of biogas from olive mill wastes will contain at least one third of carbon dioxide, its influence was studied on a PtRu catalyst. A clean reformate gas for the anode (67% H2 and 33% CO2) without any traces of other compounds was used and electrochemical measurements showed that the performance of the fuel cell was hardly affected. However, diluting the hydrogen with higher amounts of CO2 will reduce the performance remarkably.

  • 3.
    Alexiadis, Alessio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Cornell, Ann
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Dudukovic, M. P.
    Comparison between CFD calculations of the flow in a rotating disk cell and the Cochran/Levich equations2012In: Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1572-6657, Vol. 669, p. 55-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) models (single-phase. VOF and Euler-Euler) are employed to simulate the flow in a finite, rotating electrode cell under different operative conditions. The main dimensionless groups are derived and their effect on the flow is investigated. Except very close to the rotating electrode (i.e. in the hydrodynamic layer), the results show a flow pattern considerably different from Cochran's approximate analytical solution often used in electrochemistry. Historically, the Cochran equation was used to derive the Levich equation, which permits the calculation of the limiting current density on a rotating electrode. Despite the general inadequacy of Cochran's analytical solution, however, we show that the Levich equation often retains its validity because, in many practical situations, the concentration boundary layer is considerably smaller than the hydrodynamic boundary layer. When bubbles are generated on the electrode and a certain critical void fraction is exceeded, however, the Levich equation also becomes inaccurate. We propose, therefore, an amended version of this equation, which provides results closer to the CFD calculations.

  • 4.
    Alexiadis, Alessio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Dudukovic, M. P.
    Ramachandran, P.
    Cornell, Ann
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    On the stability of the flow in multi-channel electrochemical systems2012In: Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, ISSN 0021-891X, E-ISSN 1572-8838, Vol. 42, no 9, p. 679-687Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of the fluid dynamics in the modelling of electrochemical systems is often underestimated. The knowledge of the flow velocity pattern in an electrochemical cell, in fact, can allow us to associate certain electrochemical reactions with specific fluid patterns to maximize the yield of some reaction and, conversely, to minimize unwanted or side reactions. The correct evaluation of the convective term in the Nernst-Planck equation, however, requires the solution of the so-called Navier-Stokes equations, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is today the established method to numerically solve these equations. In this work, a CFD model is employed to show that the gas-liquid flow pattern can be remarkably different in a single channel or in a multi-channel gas-evolving electrochemical system. In the single channel, in fact, under certain conditions, vortices and recirculation regions can appear in the flow, which does not appear in the multi-channel case. The reason of this difference is found in the uneven distribution of the small bubbles in the two cases. Additionally, a second, simplified, model of the flow is discussed to show how a higher concentration of small bubbles in the single channel system can destabilize the flow.

  • 5.
    Alexiadis, Alessio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Dudukovic, M. P.
    Ramachandran, P.
    Cornell, Ann
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Wanngard, J.
    Bokkers, A.
    Liquid-gas flow patterns in a narrow electrochemical channel2011In: Chemical Engineering Science, ISSN 0009-2509, E-ISSN 1873-4405, Vol. 66, no 10, p. 2252-2260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The flow in a narrow (3 mm wide) vertical gap of an electrochemical cell with gas evolution at one electrode is modeled by means of the two-phase Euler-Euler model. The results indicate that at certain conditions an unsteady type of flow with vortices and recirculation regions can occur. Such flow pattern has been observed experimentally, but not reported in previous modeling studies. Further analysis establishes that the presence of a sufficient amount of small (similar to 10 mu m) bubbles is the main factor causing this type of flow at high current densities.

  • 6.
    Alexiadis, Alessio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Dudukovic, M P
    Ramachandran, P
    Cornell, Ann
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Wanngard, J
    Bokkers, A
    On the electrode boundary conditions in the simulation of two phase flow in electrochemical cells2011In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 36, no 14, p. 8557-8559Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Alexiadis, Alessio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Dudukovic, M. P.
    Ramachandran, P.
    Cornell, Ann
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Wanngård, J.
    Bokkers, A.
    The flow pattern in single and multiple submerged channels with gas evolution at the electrodes2012In: International Journal of Chemical Engineering, ISSN 1687-806X, E-ISSN 1687-8078, Vol. 2012, p. 392613-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We show that the gas-liquid flow pattern in a single gas-evolving electrochemical channel can be remarkably different from the flow pattern in multiple submerged gas-evolving electrochemical channels. This is due to the fact that in a single channel there is a higher accumulation of small bubbles and these can considerably affect the liquid velocity pattern which in turn may affect the performance of a cell. Since experimental work is often carried out in single channels, while industrial applications almost always involve multiple channels, this study provides insight into the factors that affect the flow pattern in each situation and establishes the basis for relating the behavior of single-and multiple-channel devices.

  • 8.
    Alexiadis, Alessio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Dudukovic, M. P.
    Ramachandran, P.
    Cornell, Ann
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Wanngård, J.
    Bokkers, A.
    Transition to pseudo-turbulence in a narrow gas-evolving channel2012In: Theoretical and Computational Fluid Dynamics, ISSN 0935-4964, E-ISSN 1432-2250, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 551-564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different flow regimes have been observed, both experimentally and in CFD simulations, in narrow channels with gas evolution. In this manuscript, we examine, using the Euler-Euler model, the flow in a narrow channel, where gas is evolved from a vertical wall. We find some pseudo-turbulent features at conditions described in this manuscript. The transition to this pseudo-turbulent regime is associated with the value of a specific dimensionless group.

  • 9. Bebelis, S.
    et al.
    Bouzek, K.
    Cornell, Ann
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Ferreira, M. G. S.
    Kelsall, G. H.
    Lapicque, F.
    Ponce de León, C.
    Rodrigo, M. A.
    Walsh, F. C.
    Highlights during the development of electrochemical engineering2013In: Chemical engineering research & design, ISSN 0263-8762, E-ISSN 1744-3563, Vol. 91, no 10, p. 1998-2020Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last century, electrochemical engineering has contributed significantly to societal progress by enabling development of industrial processes for manufacturing chemicals, such as chlorine and the Nylon precursor adiponitrile, as well as a wide range of metals including aluminium and zinc. In 2011, ca. 17 M tonne Cu p.a. was electro-refined to 99.99%+ purity required by electrical and electronic engineering applications, such as for electrodepositing with exquisite resolution multi-layer inter-connections in microprocessors. Surface engineering is widely practised industrially e.g. to protect steels against corrosion e.g. by electroplating nickel or using more recent novel self-healing coatings. Complex shapes of hard alloys that are difficult to machine can be fabricated by selective dissolution in electrochemical machining processes. Electric fields can be used to drive desalination of brackish water for urban supplies and irrigation by electrodialysis with ion-permeable membranes; such fields can also be used in electrokinetic soil remediation processes. Rising concerns about the consequences of CO2 emissions has led to the rapidly increasing development and deployment of renewable energy systems, the intermittency of which can be mitigated by energy storage in e.g. redox flow batteries for stationary storage and novel lithium batteries with increased specific energies for powering electric vehicles, or when economically viable, in electrolyser-fuel cells. The interface between electrochemical technology and biotechnology is also developing rapidly, with applications such as microbial fuel cells.Some of these applications are reviewed, the challenges assessed and current trends elucidated in the very active area of Chemical Engineering bordering with material science and electrochemistry.

  • 10.
    Behm, R. J.
    et al.
    University of Ulm.
    Seidel, Y. E.
    University of Ulm.
    Lindström, Rakel Wreland
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Jusys, Z.
    University of Ulm.
    Wiedwald, U.
    University of Ulm.
    Ziemann, P.
    University of Ulm.
    Wickman, B.
    Chalmers.
    Kasemo, B.
    Chalmers.
    Zhang, D.
    Karlsrohe University.
    Deutschmann, O.
    Karlsrohe University.
    Boneberg, J.
    University of Konstanz.
    Leiderer, P.
    University of Konstanz.
    Electrocatalytic Function of Nanostructured Surfaces – Reaction and Mass Transport2010In: Nanotechnology: Fundamentals and Applications of Functional Nanostructures / [ed] T. Schimmel, H. v. Löhneysen, M Barczewski, Eds, Stuttgart: Baden-Württemberg Stiftnung , 2010, p. 281-303Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Benamira, M.
    et al.
    ENSCP, Paris.
    Albin, V.
    ENSCP, Paris.
    Ringuedé, A.
    ENSCP, Paris.
    Vannier, R-N.
    UMR 8181 CNRS.
    Bodén, Andreas
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lagergren, Carina
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Cassir, M.
    ENSCP, Paris.
    Structural and Electrical Properties of Gadolinia-doped Ceria Mixed with Alkali Earth Carbonates for SOFC Applications2007In: SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS 10 (SOFC-X), PTS 1 AND 2 / [ed] Eguchi, K; Singhai, SC; Yokokawa, H; Mizusaki, H, 2007, p. 2261-2268Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The properties of composite materials based on mixtures of gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) and Li(2)CO(3)-K(2)CO(3) are analyzed as potential SOFC electrolytes. In a temperature range higher than 500 degrees C, their ionic conductivity is significantly higher than for single GDC. Discontinuities were found in the conductivity Arrhenius diagram (sigma vs. 1/T) around the melting point of the carbonate mixture (490 degrees C), showing, at least partially, the contribution of molten carbonates. At this stage, precise mechanisms are still under analysis.

  • 12. Benamira, M.
    et al.
    Ringuede, A.
    Albin, V.
    Vannier, R. -N
    Hildebrandt, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lagergren, Carina
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Cassir, M.
    Gadolinia-doped ceria mixed with alkali carbonates for solid oxide fuel cell applications: I. A thermal, structural and morphological insight2011In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 196, no 13, p. 5546-5554Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ceria-based composites are developed and considered as potential electrolytes for intermediate solid oxide fuel cell applications (ITSOFC). After giving a survey of the most relevant results in the literature, the structural, thermal and morphological properties of composite materials based on gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC) and alkali carbonates (Li2CO3-K2CO3 or Li2CO3-Na2CO3) are carefully examined. Thermal analyses demonstrate the stability of the composite with very low weight losses of both water and CO2 during thermal cycling and after 168 h ageing. High-temperature and room-temperature X-ray diffraction allowed determining the precise structure of the composite and its regular and reversible evolution with the temperature. The microstructure and morphology of electrolyte pellets, as observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), show two-well separated phases: nanocrystals of GDC and a well-distributed carbonate phase. Finally, electrical conductivity determined by impedance spectroscopy is presented as a function of time to highlight the stability of such composites over 1500h.

  • 13.
    Benamira, M.
    et al.
    Chimie ParisTech.
    Ringuede, A.
    Chimie ParisTech.
    Hildebrandt, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lagergren, Carina
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Vannier, R-N
    UMR 8181 CNRS.
    Cassir, M.
    Chimie ParisTech.
    Gadolinia-doped ceria mixed with alkali carbonates for SOFC applications: II - An electrochemical insight2012In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 37, no 24, p. 19371-19379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Composite materials based on gadolinia-doped ceria (GDC) and alkali carbonates (Li2CO3-K2CO3 or Li2CO3-Na2CO3) are potential electrolytes for low temperature solid oxide fuel cell applications (LTSOFC). This paper completes a first one dedicated to the thermal, structural and morphological study of such compounds; it is fully focussed on their electrical/electrochemical properties in different conditions, temperature, composition and gaseous atmosphere (oxidative or reductive). The influence of the gaseous composition on the Arrhenius conductivity plots is evidenced, in particular under hydrogen atmosphere. Finally, electrical conductivity determined by impedance spectroscopy is presented as a function of time to highlight the stability of such composites over 6000 h. First results on single cells showed performance at 600 degrees C of 60 mW cm(-2).

  • 14.
    Benavente-Araoz, Fabian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lundblad, Anders
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Campana, P. E.
    Zhang, Yang
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Cabrera, S.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Loss-of-load probability analysis for optimization of small off-grid PV-battery systems in Bolivia2017In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Applied Energy, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 142, p. 3715-3720Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluates the use of energy storage technologies coupled to renewable energy sources in rural electrification as a way to address the energy access challenge. Characteristic energy demanding applications will differently affect the operating conditions for off-grid renewable energy systems. This paper discusses and evaluates simulated photovoltaic power output and battery state of charge profiles, using estimated climate data and electricity load profiles for the Altiplanic highland location of Patacamaya in Bolivia to determine the loss of load probability as optimization parameter. Simulations are performed for three rural applications: household, school, and health center. Increase in battery size prevents risk of electricity blackouts while increasing the energy reliability of the system. Moreover, increase of PV module size leads to energy excess conditions for the system reducing its efficiency. The results obtained here are important for the application of off-grid PV-battery systems design in rural electrification projects, as an efficient and reliable source of electricity.

  • 15.
    Berendson, Jaak
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Electrochemical methods2007In: Surface Characterization: A User's Sourcebook, Wiley-Blackwell, 2007, p. 590-606Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Bessman, Alexander
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Soares, Rúdi Cavalerio
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric power and energy systems.
    Behm, Mårten
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Wallmark, Oskar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric power and energy systems.
    Leksell, Mats
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric power and energy systems.
    Svens, P.
    Investigating the aging effect of current ripple on lithium-ion cells2015In: ECS Transactions, Electrochemical Society, 2015, Vol. 69, no 18, p. 101-106Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have built an experimental setup which exposes twelve cells to a well-defined ripple current. It consists of a system for cycling high capacity cells in parallel with a triangular current waveform superimposed on top of the direct current. The frequency of the waveform is variable up to 50 Hz, and the sum of the DC and AC components can have a magnitude of -40 A to 40 A. Current is measured over a 500 μω shunt resistor. The voltage and current of each cell is read simultaneously at a sample rate up to 4 MS/s, allowing for precise impedance measurements even for high frequency harmonics. The cells are cycled at 40 °C. The experiment has been designed to eliminate indirect effects of the AC harmonics as far as possible. This system is being used to test whether or not AC harmonics affect Li-ion aging.

  • 17.
    Bessman, Alexander
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Soares, Rúdi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Vadivelu, Sunilkumar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Wallmark, Oskar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electric Power and Energy Systems.
    Svens, Pontus
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Ekström, Henrik
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Challenging Sinusoidal Ripple-Current Charging of Lithium-Ion Batteries2018In: IEEE transactions on industrial electronics (1982. Print), ISSN 0278-0046, E-ISSN 1557-9948, Vol. 65, no 6, p. 4750-4757Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sinusoidal ripple-current charging has previously been reported to increase both charging efficiency and energy efficiency and decrease charging time when used to charge lithium-ion battery cells. In this paper, we show that no such effect exists in lithium-ion battery cells, based on an experimental study of large-size prismatic cells. Additionally, we use a physics-based model to show that no such effect should exist, based on the underlying electrochemical principles.

  • 18.
    Brown, Shelley
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Diagnosis of the Lifetime Performance Degradation of Lithium-Ion Batteries: Focus on Power-Assist Hybrid Electric Vehicle and Low-Earth-Orbit Satellite Applications2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Lithium-ion batteries are a possible choice for the energy storage system onboard hybrid electric vehicles and low-earth-orbit satellites, but lifetime performance remains an issue. The challenge is to diagnose the effects of ageing and then investigate the dependence of the magnitude of the deterioration on different accelerating factors (e.g. state-of-charge (SOC), depth-of-discharge (DOD) and temperature).

    Lifetime studies were undertaken incorporating different accelerating factors for two different applications: (1) coin cells with a LixNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2-based positive electrode were studied with a EUCAR power-assist HEV cycle, and (2) laminated commercial cells with a LixMn2O4-based positive electrode were studied with a low-earth-orbit (LEO) satellite cycle. Cells were disassembled and the electrochemical performance of harvested electrodes measured with two- and three-electrode cells. The LixNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2-based electrode impedance results were interpreted with a physically-based three-electrode model incorporating justifiable effects of ageing.

    The performance degradation of the cells with nickelate chemistry was independent of the cycling condition or target SOC, but strongly dependent on the temperature. The positive electrode was identified as the main source of impedance increase, with surface films having a composition that was independent of the target SOC, but with more of the same species present at higher temperatures. Furthermore, impedance results were shown to be highly dependent on both the electrode SOC during the measurement and the pressure applied to the electrode surface. An ageing hypothesis incorporating a resistive layer on the current collector and a local contact resistance (dependent on SOC) between the carbon and active material, both possibly leading to particle isolation, was found to be adequate in fitting the harvested aged electrode impedance data.

    The performance degradation of the cells with manganese chemistry was accelerated by both higher temperatures and larger DODs. The impedance increase was small, manifested in a SOC-dependent increase of the high-frequency semicircle and a noticeable increase of the high-frequency real axis intercept. The positive electrode had a larger decrease in capacity and increase in the magnitude of the high-frequency semi-circle (particularly at high intercalated lithium-ion concentrations) in comparison with the negative electrode. This SOC-dependent change was associated with cells cycled for either extended periods of time or at higher temperatures with a large DOD. An observed change of the cycling behaviour in the second potential plateau for the LixMn2O4-based electrode provided a possible kinetic-based explanation for the change of the high-frequency semi-circle.

  • 19.
    Carlson, Annika
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Shapturenka, Pavel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lagergren, Carina
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Wreland Lindström, Rakel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Porous electrode optimization in anion-exchange membrane fuel cells2015In: Proceedings of the 6th European Fuel Cell - Piero Lunghi Conference, EFC 2015, ENEA , 2015, p. 221-222Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of anion-exchange membrane fuel cells is highly dependent on electrode preparation. This study has investigated the influence of water content and catalyst to ionomer ratio in the electrode ink on in-situ fuel cell performance and the electrode microstructure using SEM. It has shown that changing the solvent composition affects the electrode properties. Higher water content in ink results in a lower power density. An increase in water content from 40 to 70 vol% shows a 500 mA/cm2 drop in current density. SEM analysis of newly prepared electrodes revealed an observable difference in the microstructure. This indicates that for high water volume the ionomer distribution in the electrode is very uneven. The results also indicate that lower ionomer content in the bulk of the structure lowers the cell performance, which may be explained by limited hydroxide transportation.

  • 20. Casalongue, Hernan G. Sanchez
    et al.
    Benck, Jesse D.
    Tsai, Charlie
    Karlsson, Rasmus K. B.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Kaya, Sarp
    Ng, May Ling
    Pettersson, Lars G. M.
    Abild-Pedersen, Frank
    Norskov, J. K.
    Ogasawara, Hirohito
    Jaramillo, Thomas F.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Operando Characterization of an Amorphous Molybdenum Sulfide Nanoparticle Catalyst during the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction2014In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 118, no 50, p. 29252-29259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molybdenum sulfide structures, particularly amorphous MoS3 nanoparticles, are promising materials in the search for cost-effective and scalable water-splitting catalysts. Ex situ observations show that the nanoparticles exhibit a composition change from MoS3 to defective MoS2 when subjected to hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) conditions, raising questions regarding the active surface sites taking part in the reaction. We tracked the in situ transformation of amorphous MoS3 nanoparticles under HER conditions through ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and performed density functional theory studies of model MoSx systems. We demonstrate that, under operating conditions, surface sites are converted from MoS3 to MoS2 in a gradual manner and that the electrolytic current densities are proportional to the extent of the transformation. We also posit that it is the MoS2 edge-like sites that are active during HER, with the high activity of the catalyst being attributed to the increase in surface MoS2 edge-like sites after the reduction of MoS3 sites.

  • 21. Cassir, Michel
    et al.
    Lagergren, Carina
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Basile, Angelo
    Strategic views on molten carbonates: An introduction to the special issue section on the "2015 International Workshop on Molten Carbonates & Related Topics (IWMC2015), 11-13 June, 2015, Shenyang, China"2016In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 41, no 41, p. 18687-18691Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22. Ciosek Högström, Katarzyna
    et al.
    Lundgren, Henrik
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Wilken, Susanne
    Zavalis, Tommy G.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Behm, Mårten
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Edström, Kristina
    Jacobsson, Per
    Johansson, Patrik
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Impact of the flame retardant additive triphenyl phosphate (TPP) on the performance of graphite/LiFePO4 cells in high power applications2014In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 256, p. 430-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents an extensive characterization of a standard Li-ion battery (LiB) electrolyte containing different concentrations of the flame retardant triphenyl phosphate (TPP) in the context of high power applications. Electrolyte characterization shows only a minor decrease in the electrolyte flammability for low TPP concentrations. The addition of TPP to the electrolyte leads to increased viscosity and decreased conductivity. The solvation of the lithium ion charge carriers seem to be directly affected by the TPP addition as evidenced by Raman spectroscopy and increased mass-transport resistivity. Graphite/LiFePO4 full cell tests show the energy efficiency to decrease with the addition of TPP. Specifically, diffusion resistivity is observed to be the main source of increased losses. Furthermore, TPP influences the interface chemistry on both the positive and the negative electrode. Higher concentrations of TPP lead to thicker interface layers on LiFePO4. Even though TPP is not electrochemically reduced on graphite, it does participate in SEI formation. TPP cannot be considered a suitable flame retardant for high power applications as there is only a minor impact of TPP on the flammability of the electrolyte for low concentrations of TPP, and a significant increase in polarization is observed for higher concentrations of TPP.

  • 23. Ciosek, K.
    et al.
    Killiches, S.
    Zavalis, Tommy
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Behm, Mårten
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Johansson, P.
    Edström, K.
    Jacobsson, P.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Energy storage activities in the swedish hybrid vehicle centre2009In: 24th International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition 2009, EVS 24, 2009, p. 2850-2854Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Significant efforts are put worldwide on developing new concepts for vehicle propulsion with the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) being a prominent example. Hybrid technology is clearly a strategic future activity for automotive industries and in response to the rapid development in the area; the Swedish Hybrid Vehicle Centre (SHC) was formed in 2007 to join forces between Swedish industry and academia in the field. The centre emphasizes a holistic view to meet the environmental and societal needs with new technological solutions. The research within SHC is currently divided into three different themes where of we here describe the Energy Storage theme with emphasis on the activities carried out at the involved universities in the current main project areas: Cell Properties, Electrode Materials and Electrolyte Additives. Examples are given on how these projects attacks the problems at hand separately, but also how we create synergy effects between the projects. As an example cell modelling is performed given a specific chemistry and cycling scheme, the same parameters are used for electrochemical experiments which provide macroscopic data that are connected with molecular level actions in the electrodes, the electrolyte, and the interfaces. All this is done using our base-line chemistry and a subsequent route is to investigate the role of different additives to overcome the limitations that are observed.

  • 24. Ciosek, K.
    et al.
    Killiches, S.
    Zavalis, Tommy
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Behm, Mårten
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Johansson, P.
    Edström, K.
    Jacobsson, P.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Energy storage activities in the Swedish hybrid vehicle centre2009In: World Electric Vehicle Journal, ISSN 2032-6653, E-ISSN 2032-6653, Vol. 3, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Significant efforts are put worldwide on developing new concepts for vehicle propulsion with the hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) being a prominent example. Hybrid technology is clearly a strategic future activity for automotive industries and in response to the rapid development in the area; the Swedish Hybrid Vehicle Centre (SHC) was formed in 2007 to join forces between Swedish industry and academia in the field. The centre emphasizes a holistic view to meet the environmental and societal needs with new technological solutions. The research within SHC is currently divided into three different themes whereof we here describe the Energy Storage theme with emphasis on the activities carried out at the involved universities in the current main project areas: Cell Properties, Electrode Materials and Electrolyte Additives. Examples are given on how these projects attacks the problems at hand separately, but also how we create synergy effects between the projects. As an example cell modelling is performed given a specific chemistry and cycling scheme, the same parameters are used for electrochemical experiments which provide macroscopic data that are connected with molecular level actions in the electrodes, the electrolyte, and the interfaces. All this is done using our base-line chemistry and a subsequent route is to investigate the role of different additives to overcome the limitations that are observed.

  • 25.
    Cornell, Ann
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Chlorate cathodes and electrode design2014In: Encyclopedia of applied electrochemistry / [ed] R.F. Savinell,K. Ota,G. Kreysa, Springer, 2014, p. 175-181Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Cornell, Ann
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Chlorate synthesis cells and technology2014In: Encyclopedia of applied electrochemistry / [ed] R.F. Savinell, K. Ota, G. Kreysa, Springer, 2014, p. 181-187Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Cornell, Ann
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Industrial Electrolysis: Electrochemical Synthesis of Organic and Inorganic Products and Intermediates2012In: 6th European Summer School on Electrochemical Engineering: Lectures and Book of Abstracts / [ed] Zoran Mandic, Aleksandar Dekanski, Zagreb: Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology , 2012, 1, p. 225-256Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28. Darab, Mandi
    et al.
    Barnett, Alejandro Oyarce
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry. SINTEF, Norway.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Thomassen, Magnus Skinlo
    Sunde, Svein
    The Influence of Catalyst Layer Thickness on the Performance and Degradation of PEM Fuel Cell Cathodes with Constant Catalyst Loading2017In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 232, p. 505-516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three catalytic layers containing Pt nanoparticles supported on high surface area carbon of different Pt loading but with the same total amount of platinum and therefore of different thickness were employed as cathode catalytic layers (CCLs) in a PEM fuel cell. The layers were subjected to a degradation protocol with an upper potential limit of 1.5 V. Upon exposure to the degradation protocol particle size increased, the electrochemical areas (ECAs) of the catalysts decreased, the catalytic layers became thinner, and the average pore size decreased, indicating both carbon and Pt corrosion. The relative decrease in the ECA was approximately the same for all three layers and was therefore approximately independent of CCL thickness. For all samples the reaction order with respect to oxygen was one half and the samples showed doubling of the slope of the potential vs. log current curve (dEld logi) at high current densities. This indicates that kinetics control the potential at low currents and kinetics and proton migration (ohmic drops in the catalytic layer) at high. However, the degradation protocol also introduced limitations due to oxygen diffusion in the agglomerates. This led to a quadrupling of the dEld logi-slope in 13% oxygen in the samples with the highest catalyst area per volume. For the sample with the lowest catalyst area per volume this slope increased by a factor of six in 13% oxygen, indicating that the local current density exceeded that required for the Tafel slope of the oxygen-reduction reaction (ORR) to double.

  • 29. Das, B
    et al.
    Behm, Mårten
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Reddy, M. V.
    Chowdari, B. V. R.
    High performance metal nitrides, MN (M = Cr, Co) nanoparticles for non-aqueous hybrid supercapacitors2015In: Advanced Powder Technology, ISSN 0921-8831, E-ISSN 1568-5527, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 783-788Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, metal nitrides MN (M = Cr, Co) nanoparticles of particle size similar to 20-30 nm have been prepared under NH3 + N-2 atmosphere at relatively low temperature. The Cr-urea complex was directly converted to CrN with an intermediate formation of Cr2O3, whereas CoN was prepared from Co3O4. These compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) techniques. The electrochemical properties were evaluated by galvanostatic cycling, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrochemical performance of the resultant MN nanoparticles showed that they can be used as potential electrode materials for non-aqueous hybrid electrochemical supercapacitors (HESCs). The MN/AC showed high specific capacitance of 75 and 37 F g (1) for M = Cr, Co, respectively when cycled at 30 mA g (1) in non-aqueous electrolyte.

  • 30.
    Degerman Engfeldt, Johnny
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Predicting Electrochromic Smart Window Performance2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The building sector is one of the largest consumers of energy, where the cooling of buildings accounts for a large portion of the total energy consumption.

    Electrochromic (EC) smart windows have a great potential for increasing indoor comfort and saving large amounts of energy for buildings. An EC device can be viewed as a thin-film electrical battery whose charging state is manifested in optical absorption, i.e. the optical absorption increases with increased state-of-charge (SOC) and decreases with decreased state-of-charge. It is the EC technology's unique ability to control the absorption (transmittance) of solar energy and visible light in windows with small energy effort that can reduce buildings' cooling needs.

    Today, the EC technology is used to produce small windows and car rearview mirrors, and to reach the construction market it is crucial to be able to produce large area EC devices with satisfactory performance. A challenge with up-scaling is to design the EC device system with a rapid and uniform coloration (charging) and bleaching (discharging). In addition, up-scaling the EC technology is a large economic risk due to its expensive production equipment, thus making the choice of EC material and system extremely critical. Although this is a well-known issue, little work has been done to address and solve these problems.

    This thesis introduces a cost-efficient methodology, validated with experimental data, capable of predicting and optimizing EC device systems' performance in large area applications, such as EC smart windows. This methodology consists of an experimental set-up, experimental procedures and a twodimensional current distribution model. The experimental set-up, based on camera vision, is used in performing experimental procedures to develop and validate the model and methodology. The two-dimensional current distribution model takes secondary current distribution with charge transfer resistance, ohmic and time-dependent effects into account. Model simulations are done by numerically solving the model's differential equations using a finite element method. The methodology is validated with large area experiments.

    To show the advantage of using a well-functioning current distribution model as a design tool, some EC window size coloration and bleaching predictions are also included. These predictions show that the transparent conductor resistance greatly affects the performance of EC smart windows.

  • 31.
    Degerman Engfeldt, Johnny
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Georen, Peter
    Lagergren, Carina
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lindbergh, N Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Methodology for measuring current distribution effects in electrochromic smart windows2011In: Applied Optics, ISSN 1559-128X, E-ISSN 2155-3165, Vol. 50, no 29, p. 5639-5646Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochromic (EC) devices for use as smart windows have a large energy-saving potential when used in the construction and transport industries. When upscaling EC devices to window size, a well-known challenge is to design the EC device with a rapid and uniform switching between colored (charged) and bleached (discharged) states. A well-defined current distribution model, validated with experimental data, is a suitable tool for optimizing the electrical system design for rapid and uniform switching. This paper introduces a methodology, based on camera vision, for experimentally validating EC current distribution models. The key is the methodology's capability to both measure and simulate current distribution effects as transmittance distribution. This paper also includes simple models for coloring (charging) and bleaching (discharging), taking into account secondary current distribution with charge transfer resistance and ohmic effects. Some window-size model predictions are included to show the potential for using a validated EC current distribution model as a design tool.

  • 32.
    Degerman Engfeldt, Johnny
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Georen, Peter
    Lagergren, Carina
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lindbergh, N Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Predicting Performance of Large Area Electrochromic Smart WindowsArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 33. Dermenci, K.B.
    et al.
    Turan, S.
    Behm, Mårten
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Effect of cathode slurry composition on the electrochemical properties of Li-ion batteries2015In: ECS Transactions, ISSN 1938-5862, E-ISSN 1938-6737, Vol. 66, no 9, p. 285-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance difference between commercial and laboratory scale cells remains a problem to be solved. Different way of battery electrode preparation is considered to be the main reason underlying various battery performance. In this work, the effect of slurry composition on electrochemical properties of Li-ion batteries is reported. Slurry preparation with various compositions of LiFePO4 active material (76-88%), PVdF binder (6-12%) and Super P Carbon conductive additive (6-12%) has been studied. Charge-discharge curves and capacity fade of electrodes are also investigated. Selected electrodes were pressed in order to see the effect of pressing on the final performance. Results showed that varying PVdF and carbon content mainly effects charge-discharge characteristics. For unpressed samples, higher amount of PVdF and carbon could result higher maximum specific capacity and lower internal resistance during lithiation and delithiation of positive electrode. Pressing reduces the distance between slurry particles, which enhances the conductivity of the prepared cell.

  • 34. Dinnebier, R.
    et al.
    Sofina, N.
    Hildebrandt, Lars
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Jansen, M.
    Crystal structures of the trifluoromethyl sulfonates M(SO3CF3)(2) (M = Mg, Ca, Ba, Zn, Cu) from synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data2006In: Acta Crystallographica Section B: Structural Science, ISSN 0108-7681, E-ISSN 1600-5740, Vol. 62, p. 467-473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The crystal structures of divalent metal salts of trifluoromethyl sulfonic acid ('trifluoromethyl sulfonates') M( SO3CF3)(2) (M = Mg, Ca, Ba, Zn, Cu) were determined from high-resolution X-ray powder diffraction data. Magnesium, calcium and zinc trifluoromethyl sulfonate crystallize in the rhombohedral space group R (3) over bar . Barium trifluoromethyl sulfonate crystallizes in the monoclinic space group I2= a(C2/c) and copper trifluoromethyl sulfonate crystallizes in the triclinic group P (1) over bar. Within the crystal structures the trifluoromethyl sulfonate anions are arranged in double layers with the apolar CF3 groups pointing towards each other. The cations are located next to the SO3 groups. The symmetry relations between the different crystal structures have been analysed.

  • 35. Dolidze, T. D.
    et al.
    Khoshtariya, D. E.
    Behm, Mårten
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Glaser, Julius
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Two-equivalent electrochemical reduction of a cyano-complex Tl-III(CN)(2) (+) and the novel di-nuclear compound (CN)(5)Pt-II-Tl-III (0)2005In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 50, no 22, p. 4444-4450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extending our recent insights in two-electron transfer microscopic mechanisms for a Tl-III/Tl-I redox system, the electrochemical response of glassy carbon electrode in acidified solutions of Tl-III (ClO4)(3) containing different concentrations of sodium cyanide has been extensively studied for the first time by use of cyclic voltammetry and the CVSIM curve simulation PC program. The complex [Tl-III(CN)(2)](+) has been thoroughly identified electrochemically and shown to display a single welldefined reduction wave (which has no anodic counterpart), ascribed to the two-equivalent process yielding [Tl-I(aq)](+). This behavior is similar to that of [Tl-III (aq)](3+) ion in the absence of sodium cyanide, disclosed in the previous work, and is compatible with the quasi-simultaneous yet sequential two-electron transfer pattern (with two reduction waves merged in one), implying the rate-determining first electron transfer step (resulting in the formation of a covalently interacting di-thallium complex as a metastable intermediate), and the fast second electron transfer step. Some preliminary studies of the two-equivalent reduction of directly metal-metal bonded stable compound [(CN)(5)Pt-II-Tl-III](0) has been also performed displaying two reduction waves compatible with a true sequential pattern.

  • 36. Ebin, B.
    et al.
    Gümen, S.
    Arslan, C.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Electrochemical properties of nanocrystalline LiFe xMn 2-xO 4 (x = 0.2-1.0) cathode particles prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method2012In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 76, p. 368-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nanocrystalline LiFe xMn 2-xO 4 (x = 0.2-1.0) particles were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method using nitrate salts of ingredients at 800°C in air atmosphere. Particle properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy. Besides, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic tests were performed to investigate the effects of the iron substituent amount on electrochemical behavior. Particle characterization studies show that nanocrystalline particles have spinel structure and they are in submicron size range with spherical morphology. The lowest iron doped sample (LiFe 0.2Mn 1.8O 4) exhibits 117 mAh g -1 cumulative discharge capacity at 0.5 C and 88% capacity retention for 4 V plateau after 50 cycles. At higher iron concentrations, substituent tends to occupy the 8a tetrahedral sites, which prevent the lithium transport in the lattice during charge-discharge process. Increasing of the iron amount in the spinel structure causes the deterioration of the electrochemical performance.

  • 37. Ebin, B.
    et al.
    Gürmen, S.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Electrochemical properties of nanocrystalline LiCu xMn 2-xO 4 (x = 0.2-0.6) particles prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method2012In: Materials Chemistry and Physics, ISSN 0254-0584, E-ISSN 1879-3312, Vol. 136, no 2-3, p. 424-430Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nanocrystalline LiCu xMn 2-xO 4 (x = 0.2-0.6) particles were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method using lithium nitrate, manganese nitrate and copper nitrate salts at 800 °C in air atmosphere. Particle properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy. Besides, voltammetric and galvanostatic tests were performed to investigate the effects of the copper substituted on electrochemical behavior. Particle characterization studies showed that low copper substituted nanocrystalline particles had single spinel structure, and increasing amount caused tendency of second spinel phase formation. Particles, ranging between 250 nm and 1.5 μm size, were formed by aggregation of nanoparticles. The cumulative discharge capacities of LiCu 0.2Mn 1.8O 4 were determined as 122, 105 and 87 mAh g -1 at 0.5, 1 and 2 C rates, respectively between 4.8 and 3 V potential range. The capacity fade is 44% of initial capacity after 50 cycles at 0.5C rate. Results showed that electrochemical properties of LiCu xMn 2-xO 4 (x = 0.2-0.6) particles were impaired by increasing Cu substitute due to the second phase formation and ionic displacement in the lattice.

  • 38. Ebin, Burcak
    et al.
    Gürmen, Sebahattin
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Preparation and electrochemical properties of spinel LiFexCuyMn1.2O4 by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis2014In: Ceramics International, ISSN 0272-8842, E-ISSN 1873-3956, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 1019-1027Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocrystalline LiFexCuyMn1.2O4 (x and y=0.2, 0.4 and 0.6) particles were prepared by the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method using nitrate salts at 800 degrees C in air atmosphere. Particle properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Also, cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic tests were performed to investigate the effects of the double substituent and doping amounts on electrochemical behavior. Results show that the aggregation of nanocrystallites around 90 nm size formed submicron spherical cathode particles. Transition metal ratios in particles exhibited a perfect fit with desired amounts. Although the change of iron and copper amounts do not show significant differences in the particle size and shape morphology, they modify the 4 V and 3 V potential plateaus of spinel LiMn2O4. The discharge capacities of LiFe0.2Cu0.6Mn1.2O4 particles are 39 and 23 mAh g(-1) for 4 and 2.6 V potential regions, respectively. 4 V discharge capacity disappeared with increasing of iron and decreasing of copper contents due to random occupation of iron and copper ions in the spinel lattice.

  • 39. Ebin, Burcak
    et al.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Gurmen, Sebahattin
    Preparation and electrochemical properties of nanocrystalline LiBxMn2-xO4 cathode particles for Li-ion batteries by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method2015In: Journal of Alloys and Compounds, ISSN 0925-8388, E-ISSN 1873-4669, Vol. 620, p. 399-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocrystalline LiBxMn(2-x)O(4) (x = 0.1-0.4) particles are prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis using lithium nitrate, manganese nitrate and boric acid at 800 degrees C in an air atmosphere. The materials properties are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The electrochemical behaviors are investigated with cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic techniques. The particle characterization studies show that nanocrystalline particles have spinel structure of submicron size with spherical morphology. All boron substituted lithium manganese oxide spinels show improved cycling performance. Among them, LiB0.3Mn1.7O4 particles exhibit 92 mAh g(-1) discharge capacity and 82% capacity retention after 50 cycles at a 0.5 C rate. The higher degree of atomic ordering and the avoidance of the formation of a glass phase in LiBxMn2-xO4 materials are responsible for the better electrochemical performance.

  • 40. Ekstrom, Henrik
    et al.
    Lafitte, Benoit
    Ihonen, Jari
    Markusson, Henrik
    Jacobsson, Per
    Lundblad, Anders
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Jannasch, Patric
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Evaluation of a sulfophenylated polysulfone membrane in a fuel cell at 60 to 110 degrees C2007In: Solid State Ionics, ISSN 0167-2738, E-ISSN 1872-7689, Vol. 178, no 13-14, p. 959-966Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel sulfophenylated polysulfone membrane material has been evaluated in a hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell using Nation-impregnated commercial electrodes. Comparative measurements were performed with Nation membranes to distinguish between different sources of potential losses. The operational temperatures in the experiments ranged from 60 to 110 degrees C, and the effect of different humidifying conditions was investigated. Membranes that were operated over 300 h under fully humidified conditions showed a slight increase in the cell resistance. At lower humidification levels the cell resistance increased significantly. No difference in the membrane composition between active areas and areas not subjected to ionic currents could be detected by ATR-IR or Raman spectroscopy after fuel cell testing. The best fuel cell performance for these membranes was found at 90 degrees C and 100 degrees C. The current density at a cell voltage of 0.5 V ranged between 100 and 200 mA cm(-2) depending on the operating conditions. The relatively low current densities found when using the new membrane material are explained by high ionic contact resistances between the electrodes and the membrane.

  • 41.
    Ekström, Henrik
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Evaluating Cathode Catalysts in the Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) converts the chemical energy of hydrogen and oxygen (air) into usable electrical energy. At the cathode (the positive electrode), a considerable amount of platinum is generally required to catalyse the sluggish oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). This has implications regarding the cost in high-power applications, and for making a broad commercialisation of the PEMFC technology possible, it would be desirable to lower the amount of Pt used to catalyse the ORR.

    In this thesis a number of techniques are described that have been developed in order to investigate catalytic activity at the cathode of the PEMFC. These methodologies resemble traditional three-electrode research in liquid electrolytes, including cyclic voltammetry in inert gas, but with the advantage of performing the experiments in the true PEMFC environment.

    From the porous electrode studies it was seen that it is possible to reach mass activities close to 0.2 gPt/kW at potentials above 0.65 V at 60 ◦C, but that the mass activities may become considerably lower when raising the temperature to 80 ◦C and changing the measurement methodology regarding potential cycling limits and electrode manufacturing.

    The model electrode studies rendered some interesting results regarding the ORR at the Pt/Nafion interface. Using a novel measurement setup for measuring on catalysed planar glassy carbon disks, it was seen that humidity has a considerable effect on the ORR kinetics of Pt. The Tafel slopes become steeper and the activity decreases when the humidity level of the inlet gases decreases. Since no change in the the electrochemical area of the Pt/Nafion interface could be seen, these kinetic phenomena were ascribed to a lowered Pt oxide coverage at the lower humidity level, in combination with a lower proton activity.

    Using bi-layered nm-thick model electrodes deposited directly on Nafion membranes, the behaviour of TiO2 and other metal oxides in combination with Pt in the PEMFC environment was investigated. Kinetically, no intrinsic effect could be seen for the model electrodes when adding a metal oxide, but compared to porous electrodes, the surface (specific) activity of a 3 nm film of Pt deposited on Nafion seems to be higher than for a porous electrode using ∼4 nm Pt grains deposited on a carbon support. Comparing the cyclic voltammograms in N2, this higher activity could be ascribed to less Pt oxide formation, possibly due to a particle size effect.

    For these bi-layered films it was also seen that TiO2 may operate as a proton-conducting electrolyte in the PEMFC.

  • 42.
    Ekström, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Hanarp, Per
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Gustavsson, Marie
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Fridell, Erik
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lundblad, Anders
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    A Novel Approach for Measuring Catalytic Activity of Planar Model Catalysts in the Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Environment2006In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, Vol. 153, no 4, p. A724-A730Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction on nanostructured supported platinum electrodes is measured using a newly developed solid-state polymer electrolyte electrochemical cell. Measurements were made on three types of catalytic surfaces on glassy carbon supports: nanostructured model electrodes prepared by colloidal lithography, a thin thermally evaporated Pt film, and a pure glassy carbon surface. Measurements in nitrogen and oxygen at several different humidities were performed at 60 degrees C in a fuel-cell-like environment. Lowering humidity showed a higher Tafel slope at high potentials for oxygen reduction on the nanostructured catalyst. Good agreement between the electrochemical active area from the hydrogen adsorption peaks and the catalytic area determined from scanning electron microscopy images was found. No significant change of the electrochemically active area with humidity could be found. Double-layer capacitance and oxygen reduction currents increased with increased humidification temperatures.

  • 43.
    Ekström, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    A model for predicting capacity fade due to SEI formation in a commercial graphite/LiFePO4 cell2015In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 162, no 6, p. A1003-A1007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An aging model for a negative graphite electrode in a lithium-ion battery, for moderate currents up to 1C, is derived and fitted to capacity fade experimental data. The predictive capabilities of the model, using only four fitted parameters, are demonstrated at both 25°C and 45°C. The model is based on a linear combination of two current contributions: one stemming from parts of the graphite particles covered by an intact microporous solid-electrolyte-interface (SEI) layer, and one contribution from parts of the particles were the SEI layer has cracked due to graphite expansion. Mixed kinetic and transport control is used to describe the electrode kinetics.

  • 44.
    Ekström, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Wickman, Björn
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Göteborg.
    Gustavsson, Marie
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Göteborg.
    Hanarp, Per
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Göteborg.
    Eurenius, Lisa
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Göteborg.
    Olsson, Eva
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Göteborg.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Nanometer-thick films of titanium oxide acting as electrolyte in the polymer electrolyte fuel cell2007In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 52, no 12, p. 4239-4245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    0-18nm-thick titanium, zirconium and tantalum oxide films are thermally evaporated on Nation 117 membranes, and used as thin spacer electrolyte layers between the Nation and a 3 nm Pt catalyst film. Electrochemical characterisation of the films in terms of oxygen reduction activity, high frequency impedance and cyclic voltammetry in nitrogen is performed in a fuel cell at 80 degrees C and full humidification. Titanium oxide films with thicknesses up to 18 nm are shown to conduct protons, whereas zirconium oxide and tantalum oxide block proton transport already at a thickness of 1.5 nm. The performance for oxygen reduction is higher for a bi-layered film of 3 nm platinum on 1.5 or 18 nm titanium oxide, than for a pure 3 nm platinum film with no spacer layer. The improvement in oxygen reduction performance is ascribed to a higher active surface area of platinum, i.e. no beneficial effect of combining platinum with zirconium, tantalum or titanium oxides on the intrinsic oxygen reduction activity is seen. The results suggest that TiO2 may be used as electrolyte in fuel cell electrodes, and that low-temperature proton exchange fuel cells could be possible using TiO2 as electrolyte.

  • 45. Enback, S.
    et al.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Experimentally validated model for CO oxidation on PtRu/C in a porous PEFC electrode2005In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 152, no 1, p. A23-A31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon monoxide oxidation in a porous polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) electrode with PtRu/C catalyst was studied with steady-state polarization curves and open- circuit decay measurements. The Tafel slope was about 210 mV/decade and the reaction order for CO was about 0.45 at 0.4 V vs. RHE. This experimental behavior is explained with a mathematical model with CO adsorbing on Pt and water adsorbing on Ru. Kinetic parameters are determined from a fitting of the model to both the steady-state and the transient measurements. A single rate-determining step cannot account for the polarization curves over the whole potential range. At mid-range potentials the oxidation step is rate-determining but at lower potentials the water adsorption might be rate-determining. The open- circuit decay measurements gave noise-free measurements and confirmed the accuracy of the steady-state measurements. The obtained model for CO oxidation where the coverage of COads on Pt is determined can be used together with a model for H-2 oxidation.

  • 46.
    Endrodi, Balazs
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry. University of Szeged, Hungary.
    Simic, Nina
    Wildlock, Mats
    Cornell, Ann M.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    A review of chromium(VI) use in chlorate electrolysis: Functions, challenges and suggested alternatives2017In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 234, p. 108-122Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sodium chlorate is industrially produced by electrolysis of an aqueous salt solution, in which chromium ( VI) constitutes an important excipient component. It is added to a concentration of a few grams Na2Cr2O7/ liter to the electrolyte and has several functions in the process, the most important being to increase the Faradaic efficiency for hydrogen evolution in the undivided electrochemical cells. A thin film of Cr(OH)(3) x nH(2)O formed by reductive deposition on the cathodes decreases the rate of unwanted side reactions, while still enabling hydrogen evolution to occur. In addition chromium(VI) buffers the electrolyte at the optimum pH for operation and promotes the desired homogeneous reactions in the electrolyte bulk. Chromium species also affect the rates of hydrogen and oxygen evolution at the electrodes and are said to protect the steel cathodes from corrosion. Although chromium(VI) stays in a closed loop during chlorate production, chromate is a highly toxic compound and new REACH legislation therefore intends to phase out its use in Europe from 2017. A production without chromium(VI), with no other process modifications is not possible, and today there are no commercially available alternatives to its addition. Thus, there is an urgent need for European chlorate producers to find solutions to this problem. It is expected that chromium-free production will be a requirement also in other parts of the world, following the European example. As the chromium(VI) addition affects the chlorate process in many ways its replacement might require a combination of solutions targeting each function separately. The aim of this paper is to explain the role and importance of chromium(VI) in the chlorate manufacturing process. Previous achievements in its replacement are summarized and critically evaluated to expose the current state of the field, and to highlight the most promising avenues to be followed. An attempt is also made to reveal connections with other research fields (e.g. photochemical water splitting, corrosion science) facing similar problems. Allied effort of these different communities is expected to open up research avenues to the mutual benefit of these fields.

  • 47.
    Eric, Jacques
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Kjell, Maria
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Zenkert, Dan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Behm, Mårten
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Impact of the mechanical loading on the electrochemical capacity of carbon fibres for use in energy storage composite materials2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing system mass for improvements in system performance has become a priority for future applications such as mobile phones or electric vehicles which require load bearing components and electrical energy storage devices. Structure and energy storage are usually subsystems with the highest mass contributions but energy storage components are structurally parasitic. A novel solution is a multifunctional lightweight design combining these two functions in a single material entity able to simultaneously bear mechanical loads as a carbon fiber composite component and store electrochemical energy as a lithium-ion battery.

  • 48.
    Eriksson, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Jaouen, F.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Wreland Lindström, Rakel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Lagergren, Carina
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Degradation and lifetime evaluation of Fe-N-C based catalyst in PEMFC2015In: Proceedings of the 6th European Fuel Cell - Piero Lunghi Conference, EFC 2015, ENEA , 2015, p. 223-224Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The restricted lifetime of Fe-N-C based catalysts is often assumed to be connected to the operating temperature. This study will investigate how the cell performance, electrode structure and composition vary over time, at different cell temperatures. At lower temperature, one may expect an increase in radical's stability, but a decrease in reactivity. Results show that the electrode degenerates over time, and that the electrochemical performance decay is similar for 40, 60, and 80° C. However, the loss of active sites is higher at higher temperature. This suggests that indirect production of radicals via H2O2 production during ORR is higher at higher temperatures and is a key degradation mechanism for this Fe-N-C catalyst.

  • 49. Esmaily, M.
    et al.
    Blücher, D. B.
    Wreland Lindström, Rakel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Svensson, J. -E
    Johansson, L. G.
    The influence of SO2 on the corrosion of Mg and Mg-Al alloys2015In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 162, no 6, p. C260-C269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The SO2-induced atmospheric corrosion of some magnesium-aluminum (Mg-Al) alloys, including Mg alloy AZ91D, and commercially pure Mg (CP Mg) was investigated using well-controlled laboratory exposures and included real-time measurements of SO2 deposition. The influence of SO2 concentration, alloy composition, humidity, and ppb level additions of O-3 or NO2 on the rate of SO2 deposition was investigated. SO2 accelerates the corrosion of Mg and Mg alloys causing localized corrosion, MgSO(3)6H(2)O being the dominant corrosion product. At 60% RH, traces of O-3 or NO2 strongly increased both the SO2 deposition and the corrosion rate. The rate of SO2 deposition was strongly dependent on humidity; at 70% RH and higher the SO2 deposition rate was very rapid and constant in time while it was transient below 50% RH. At 60% RH, a change from transient to rapid, steady-state, SO2 deposition occurred. The sudden activation is explained by the onset of electrochemical corrosion. The activation behavior was shown to depend on SO2 concentration, the thickness of the surface film and by the presence of ambient O-2. (C) The Author(s) 2015. Published by ECS. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License (CC BY, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse of the work in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  • 50.
    Fatima, Masoom
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Farooq, R.
    Lindström, Rakel
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Saeed, M.
    A review on biocatalytic decomposition of azo dyes and electrons recovery2017In: Journal of Molecular Liquids, ISSN 0167-7322, E-ISSN 1873-3166, Vol. 246, p. 275-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Discharge of waste water from textile industry during coloring processes contains high concentrations of biologically difficult-to-degrade dye chemicals along with antifouling agents. Azo dyes considered to be the largest class of synthetic dyes used in the textile industries and are present in significant amounts in its effluents. These are highly stable because of its complex aromatic structure and covalent azo bonds. Traditional physico-chemical methods are not considered sufficient because of their high cost, partial degradation and more sludge production. The use of biocatalysts for decolorization is a gaining momentum due to having redox-active molecules. Current review explored techniques for the decomposition of textile dyes, their merits, limitations and recommended the emerging microbial fuel cell technology followed by aerobic treatment for complete degradation of dye intermediate metabolites.

123456 1 - 50 of 282
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