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  • 1. Aebischer, B.
    et al.
    Hilty, Lorenz
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. University of Zurich, Switzerland .
    The energy demand of ICT: A historical perspective and current methodological challenges2015In: ICT Innovations for Sustainability, Springer, 2015, p. 71-103Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides an overview of energy demand issues in the field of ICT with a focus on the history of measuring, modelling and regulating ICT electricity consumption and the resulting methodological challenges. While the energy efficiency of ICT hardware has been dramatically improving and will continue to improve for some decades, the overall energy used for ICT is still increasing. The growing demand for ICT devices and services outpaces the efficiency gains of individual devices. Worldwide per capita ICT electricity consumption exceeded 100 kWh/year in 2007 (a value which roughly doubles if entertainment equipment is included) and is further increasing. Methodological challenges include issues of data collection and modelling ICT devices and services, assessing the entire life cycle of ICT devices and infrastructures, accounting for embedded ICT, and assessing the effect of software on ICT energy consumption.

  • 2.
    Ahlroth, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Ecovalue08-A new valuation set for environmental systems analysis tools2011In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 19, no 17-18, p. 1994-2003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In environmental systems analysis tools such as cost-benefit analysis (CBA), life-cycle assessment (LCA) and Environmental Management Systems (EMS), weighting is often used to aggregate results and compare different alternatives. There are several weighting sets available, but so far there is no set that consistently use monetary values based on actual or hypothetical market valuation of environmental degradation and depletion. In this paper, we develop a weighting set where the values are based on willingness-to-pay estimates for environmental quality, and market values for resource depletion. The weighting set is applied to three case studies and the outcome is compared with the outcomes from three other weighting sets. Ecotax02, Ecoindicator99 and EPS2000. We find that the different sets give different results in many cases. The reason for this is partly that they are based on different values and thus should give different results. However, the differences can also be explained by data gaps and different methodological choices. If weighting sets are used, it is also important to use several to reduce the risk of overlooking important impacts due to data gaps. It is also interesting to note that though Ecovalue08 and Ecotax02 give different absolute values, the results are very similar in relative terms. Thus the political and the individual willingness-to-pay estimates yield a similar ranking of the impacts.

  • 3.
    Ahlroth, Sofia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Nilsson, Måns
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Weighting and valuation in selected environmental systems analysis tools - suggestions for further developments2011In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 19, no 2-3, p. 145-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In environmental systems analysis tools like Life Cycle Assessment, strategic environmental assessment, cost benefit analysis and environmental management systems, results need to be presented in a comprehensible way to make alternatives easily comparable. One way of doing this is to aggregate results to a manageable set by using weighting methods.. In this paper, we explore how weighting methods are used in some selected Environmental Systems Analysis Tools (ESATs), and suggest possible developments of their use. We examine the differences in current use patterns, discuss the reasons for and implications of such differences, and investigate whether observed differences in use are necessary. The result of our survey shows that weighting and valuation is broadly used in the examined ESATs. The use of weighting/valuation methods is different in different tools, but these differences are not always related to the application; rather, they are related to traditions and views on valuation and weighting. Also, although the requirements on the weights/values may differ between tools, there are intersections where they coincide. Monetary weights, using either endpoint or midpoint methods, are found to be useful in all the selected tools. Furthermore, the inventory shows that that there is a common need for generic sets of weights. There is a need for further research focusing on the development of consistent value sets derived with a wide range of methods. In parallel to the development of weighting methods it is important with critical evaluations of the weighting sets with regard to scientific quality, consistency and data gaps.

  • 4.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Environmental Impacts of Electronic Media: A Comparison of a Magazine’s Tablet and Print Editions2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to assess potential environmental impacts of electronic media distribution and consumption—from a life cycle perspective—as compared to those of print media.

    The thesis consists of a cover essay and two papers appended at the end of the thesis. The cover essay summarizes the papers and puts them in context. The main objectives of the thesis are twofold: to assess potential environmental impacts of production and consumption of tablet editions of magazines from a life cycle perspective (Paper I), and to compare potential environmental impacts of a magazine’s print edition with that of its tablet edition (Paper II).

    The thesis examines the following specific research questions: (1) What are the main environmental impacts of print and tablet editions? (2) Which activities are giving rise to the main environmental impacts of the print and tablet editions? (3) What are the key factors influencing these impacts? (4) What are major data gaps and uncertainties?

    Based on the present assessment, it is clear that for the print magazine, pulp and paper production is the principal cause of most of the potential environmental impacts. For this reason, the use of recycled paper, rather than virgin fiber, in newsprint production may considerably offset environmental impacts.

    For the tablet edition, the content production dominates the potential environmental impacts when readers are few. This appears to be the case in an emerging state of the magazine, but with distribution of more media products to smaller groups of people, this may persist for “mature” products as well. As the number of tablet readers grows, more of the environmental impact of the is due to manufacturing of the device and electronic distribution. However, content production may still be a major factor, depending on the specific environmental impacts studied.

  • 5.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Exploring the Effects of ICT on Environmental Sustainability: From Life Cycle Assessment to Complex Systems Modeling2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The production and consumption of information and communication technology (ICT) products and services continue to grow worldwide. This trend is accompanied by a corresponding increase in electricity use by ICT, as well as direct environmental impacts of the technology. Yet a more complicated picture of ICT’s effects is emerging. Positive indirect effects on environmental sustainability can be seen in substitution and optimization (enabling effects), and negative indirect effects can be seen in additional demand due to efficiency improvements (rebound effects).

    A variety of methods can be employed to model and assess these direct and indirect effects of ICT on environmental sustainability. This doctoral thesis explores methods of modeling and assessing environmental effects of ICT, including electronic media. In a series of five studies, three methods were at times applied in case studies and at others analyzed theoretically. These methods include life cycle assessment (LCA) and complex systems modeling approaches, including System Dynamics (SD) and agent-based (AB) modeling.

    The first two studies employ the LCA approach in a case study of an ICT application, namely, the tablet edition of a Swedish design magazine. The use of tablets has skyrocketed in recent years, and this phenomenon has been little studied to date. Potential environmental impacts of the magazine’s tablet edition were assessed and compared with those of the print edition. The tablet edition’s emerging version (which is marked by a low number of readers and low reading time per copy) resulted in higher potential environmental impacts per reader than did the print edition. However, the mature tablet edition (with a higher number of readers and greater reading time per copy) yielded lower impacts per reader in half the ten impact categories assessed.

    While previous studies of electronic media have reported that the main life-cycle contributor to environmental impacts is the use phase (which includes operational electricity use as well as the manufacture of the electronic device), the present study did not support those findings in all scenarios studied in this thesis. Rather, this study found that the number of readers played an important role in determining which life-cycle phase had the greatest impacts. For the emerging version, with few readers, content production was the leading driver of environmental impacts. For the mature version, with a higher number of readers, electronic storage and distribution were the major contributors to environmental impacts. Only when there were many readers but low overall use of the tablet device was the use phase the main contributor to environmental impacts of the tablet edition of the magazine.

    The third study goes beyond direct effects at product- and service-level LCAs, revisiting an SD simulation study originally conducted in 2002 to model indirect environmental effects of ICT in 15 European countries for the period 2000-2020. In the current study, three scenarios of the 2002 study were validated in light of new empirical data from the period 2000–2012. A new scenario was developed to revisit the quantitative and qualitative results of the original study. The results showed, inter alia, that ICT has a stimulating influence on total passenger transport, for it makes it more cost- and time-efficient (rebound effects).

    The modeling mechanism used to represent this rebound effect is further investigated in the fourth study, which discusses the feedback loops used to model two types of rebound effects in passenger transport (direct economic rebound and time rebound). Finally, the role of systems thinking and modeling in conceptualizing and communicating the dynamics of rebound effects is examined.

    The aim of the fifth study was to explore the power of systems modeling and simulation to represent nonlinearities of the complex and dynamic systems examined elsewhere in this thesis. That study reviews previous studies that have compared the SD and AB approaches and models, summarizing their purpose, methodology, and results, based on certain criteria for choosing between SD and AB approaches. The transformation procedure used to develop an AB model for purposes of comparison with an SD model is also explored.

    In conclusion, first-order or direct environmental effects of ICT production, use, and disposal can be assessed employing an LCA method. This method can also be used to assess second-order or enabling effects by comparing ICT applications with conventional alternatives. However, the assessment of enabling effects can benefit from systems modeling methods, which are able to formally describe the drivers of change, as well as the dynamics of complex social, technical, and environmental systems associated with ICT applications. Such systems methods can also be used to model third-order or rebound effects of efficiency improvements by ICT.

  • 6.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Hilty, Lorenz M.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Modeling the Effects of ICT on Environmental Sustainability: Revisiting a System Dynamics Model Developed for the European Commission2015In: ICT Innovations for Sustainability / [ed] Hilty, L.M.; Aebischer, B., Switzerland: Springer Publishing Company, 2015, p. 449-474Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter revisits a System Dynamics model developed in 2002 with the aim of exploring the future impacts of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on environmental sustainability in the EU, which then consisted of 15 countries. The time horizon of the study was 20 years (2000–2020). We analyze the results in light of empirical data that is now available for 2000–2012. None of the three scenarios that were developed by experts to specify the external factors needed to run the model were realistic from today’s point of view. If the model is re-run with more realistic input data for the first half of the simulation period, however, the main results regarding the impact of ICT remain qualitatively the same; they seem to be relatively robust implications of the causal system structure, as it is represented in the model. Overall, the impacts of ICT for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental burdens for 2020 tend to be slightly stronger if the simulation is based on the empirical data now available.

  • 7.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Hilty, Lorenz M.
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology. Department of Informatics, University of Zurich.
    Modelling Rebound Effects in System Dynamics2014In: Proceedings of the 28th Conference on Environmental Informatics - EnviroInfo 2014 - ICT for Energy Efficiency / [ed] Marx Gómez, J., Sonnenschein, M., Vogel, U., Winter, A., Rapp, B., Giesen, N., Germany: BIS Oldenburg, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The induction of demand by increasing the efficiency of a production or consumption process is known as the rebound effect. Feedback loops in System Dynamics can be used to conceptualize the structure of this complex phenomenon and also for communicating model-based insights. In passenger transport, the rebound effect can be induced through increased cost efficiency (direct economic rebound) and/or increase in speed (time rebound). In this paper we review and compare two models on environmental effects of passenger transport—including a model on the role of information and communication technology. We highlight the feedback mechanisms used to deal with the rebound effect (price, efficiency, and time rebound).

  • 8.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. Department of Informatics, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Hilty, Lorenz M
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. Department of Informatics, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Simulating the future impact of ICT on environmental sustainability: validating and recalibrating a system dynamics model - Background Data2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report serves as supplementary material to the book chapter “Modeling the Effects of ICT on Environmental Sustainability: Revisiting a System Dynamics Model Developed for the European Commission” (Achachlouei and Hilty 2015) published in the book “ICT Innovations for Sustainability” (Hilty and Aebischer 2015). The current report was referred to in the book chapter whenever the data to be presented exceeded the space provided for the book chapter.

  • 9.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Hilty, Lorenz M.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (Empa) and University of Zurich, Department of Informatics.
    System Dynamics vs. agent-based modeling—comparing models and approaches: A literature review and a transformation procedureManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Systems modeling and simulation methods such as System Dynamics (SD) and agent-based (AB) modeling have been used to foster a better understanding of the dynamics and complexity of natural, technical, and social systems. System Dynamics provides an aggregate-level perspective, highlighting thinking in feedback loops and employing differential equations to model the causal relations in a system, exploring the system's dynamics by numerically solving the equations. Agent-based modeling, in a bottom-up method, focuses on constituent units (agents) and their interactions to explore the emerging behavior at a system level by means of simulation. Comparing these modeling methods can help us understand their strengths and weaknesses in order to choose the right approach for a given modeling problem. It may also support the analysis of a given system to build multiple models using the different approaches and comparing them, in particular to treat fundamental uncertainties in systems modeling and simulation. In this paper, we review the existing studies comparing the SD and AB approaches and models, investigating the aims, methodology, and results of such comparative studies. We also highlight lessons learned for future model comparisons by examining how the corresponding SD and AB models are built for the purpose of comparison. A procedure for transforming System Dynamics models into agent-based models is presented and discussed using examples from the literature.

  • 10.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). Empa – Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Technology and Society Lab , 9014 St. Gallen, Switzerland .
    Hilty, Lorenz M.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. University of Zürich, , Department of Informatics, CH-8050 Zürich, Switzerland; Empa – Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Technology and Society Lab , 9014 St. Gallen, Switzerland .
    Using Systems Thinking and System Dynamics Modeling to Understand Rebound Effects2016In: Advances And New Trends In Environmental And Energy Informatics / [ed] Jorge Marx Gómez, Michael Sonnenschein, Andreas Winter, Ute Vogel, Barbara Rapp Nils Giesen, Cham, Switzerland: Springer Publishing Company, 2016, p. 237-255Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Processes leading to an increase of demand for a resource as a consequence of increasing the efficiency of using this resource in production or consumption are known as (direct) rebound effects. Rebound effects at micro and macro levels tend to offset the reduction in resource consumption enabled by progress in efficiency. Systems thinking and modeling instruments such as causal loop diagrams and System Dynamics can be used to conceptualize the structure of this complex phenomenon and also to communicate model-based insights. In passenger transport, the rebound effect can be invoked by increased cost efficiency (direct economic rebound) and/or increase in speed (time rebound). In this paper we review and compare two existing models on passenger transport—including a model on the role of information and communication technology—with regard to the feedback loops used to conceptualize rebound effects.

  • 11.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Moberg, Åsa
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Carbon and ecological footprints of a magazine: Print vs. tablet editions2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and communication technology (ICT), in competition with traditional applications, is providingnew ways to access media content. Similar to print media, ICT-based media has environmental benefits andburdens alike. The overall goal of the present study is to assess the potential environmental impacts”’from a lifecycle perspective”’of a print magazine with its electronic version read on tablets. Important goals are to identifywhich activities give rise to the main impacts, in both print and tablet editions, and to identify the key factorsinfluencing the overall environmental impacts, in both editions. Moreover, data gaps and uncertainties areaddressed.The methodology used in the study is life cycle assessment (LCA). The environmental impacts assessedinclude climate change, cumulative energy/exergy demand, metal depletion, photochemical oxidant formation,particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification, freshwater/marine eutrophication and fossil depletion.The results indicate that it is hard to compare print and tablet editions of a magazine due to difficulties indefining the function, and that different functional units indicate different preferences in terms of environmentalimpacts. Also, differences between emerging (low number of readers and low reading time per copy) andmature (high number of readers and higher reading time per copy) tablet versions leads to various results in thecomparison between print and tablet versions.The studied tablet version in its emerging stage gives rise to higher potential environmental impacts per readerthan the print version; however with an assumed mature tablet version the impacts are generally lower perreader. This illustrates clearly the importance of the number of readers to spread the environmental impactsover.

  • 12.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Life cycle assessment of a magazine: part 2: A comparison of print and tablet editions2015In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 19, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid development of information and communications technology (ICT) is providing new ways to access media content. Electronic media are sometimes more advantageous from an environmental perspective than paper-based media solutions, but ICT-based media can also bring environmental burdens. This study compared the potential environmental impacts in a life cycle perspective of a print edition of a magazine and that of its electronic edition read on a tablet device. Important objectives were to identify activities giving rise to the main environmental impacts for both the print and tablet editions, determine the key factors influencing these impacts, and address data gaps and uncertainties. A detailed assessment of the tablet edition is provided in a previous article (part 1), whereas this article compares it with the print edition. The methodology used was life cycle assessment and the environmental impacts assessed included climate change, cumulative energy/exergy demand, metal depletion, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, and fossil depletion. Use of different functional units to compare the print and tablet editions of the magazine resulted in different relative environmental impacts. In addition, emerging (low number of readers and low reading time per copy) and mature (higher number of readers and higher reading time per copy) tablet editions yielded varying results. The emerging tablet edition resulted in higher potential environmental impacts per reader than the print edition, but the mature tablet edition yielded lower impacts per reader in half the impact categories assessed. This illustrates the importance of spreading the environmental impacts over a large number of readers. The electricity mix used in product system processes did not greatly affect the results of tablet/print comparisons, but overall number of readers for the tablet edition, number of readers per copy for the print edition, file size, and degree of use of the tablet device proved crucial for the comparison results.

  • 13.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Climate Change Impact of Electronic Media Solutions: Case Study of the Tablet Edition of a Magazine2013In: ICT4S 2013: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies for Sustainability, ETH Zurich, February 14-16, 2013, ETH, Zurich, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shifts from print media to electronic media may be regarded as apossibility for promoting sustainability. However, the benefits ofelectronic media are not unquestioned. Previous studies on theenvironmental impacts of print and electronic media have shownthat there is no easy answer. Contributing to this field of research,the present study sought to assess the climate change impact ofthe tablet edition of a magazine using a life cycle perspective.Results showed that with few readers the emerging tablet versionhad a higher potential climate change impact per reader than themature tablet version, although the latter had a substantiallylonger reading time per copy. The contribution of contentproduction, electronic distribution, reading on tablet and wastetreatment of tablet to the impact was analysed. The sensitivityanalysis of electricity mix indicated that this was an importantfactor that clearly influenced the overall results.

  • 14.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Hochschorner, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Life Cycle Assessment of a Magazine: Part I: Tablet Edition in Emerging and Mature States2015In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 19, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and communication technology (ICT) is providing new ways to access media content. ICT has environmental benefits and burdens. The overall goal of the present study was to assess the environmental impacts of production and consumption of magazines read on tablets from a life cycle perspective. Important goals were to identify the activities giving rise to the main impacts and the key factors influencing the overall environmental impacts. Data gaps and uncertainties were also addressed. The results are compared against those for the print edition of the magazine in a separate article (part 2). The methodology used in the study was life cycle assessment. The environmental impacts assessed included climate change, cumulative energy/exergy demand, metal depletion, photochemical oxidant formation, particulate matter formation, terrestrial acidification, freshwater/marine eutrophication, fossil depletion, human toxicity, and ecotoxicity. The results indicate that content production can be the major contributor to environmental impacts if readers are few (as for the emerging version of the magazine studied). Assuming more readers (more mature version) or a larger file size for the tablet magazine, electronic storage and distribution may be the major contributor. Thus, in contrast to previous studies on electronic media, which reported a dominant impact of the use phase, this study found a higher impact for content production (emerging version) and electronic storage and distribution (mature version). However, with inefficient, low overall use of the tablet with a mature version of the tablet magazine, the greatest impact was shown to come from the reading activity (i.e., the use phase). In conclusion, the relative impacts of the tablet magazine would decrease considerably with high numbers of readers, their efficient use of the tablet (i.e., for many purposes over a long life of the device), and a smaller magazine file.

  • 15.
    Ahmadi, Leila
    et al.
    Energy, Mining and Environment, National Research Council Canada.
    Young, Steven B.
    School of Environment, Enterprise and Development|, University of Waterloo.
    Fowler, Michael
    Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Waterloo.
    Fraser, Roydon A.
    Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, University of Waterloo.
    Ahmadi Achachlouei, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    A cascaded life cycle: reuse of electric vehicle lithium-ion battery packs in energy storage systems2015In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery packs recovered from end-of-life electric vehicles (EV) present potential technological, economic and environmental opportunities for improving energy systems and material efficiency. Battery packs can be reused in stationary applications as part of a “smart grid”, for example to provide energy storage systems (ESS) for load leveling, residential or commercial power. Previous work on EV battery reuse has demonstrated technical viability and shown energy efficiency benefits in energy storage systems modeled under commercial scenarios. The current analysis performs a life cycle assessment (LCA) study on a Li-ion battery pack used in an EV and then reused in a stationary ESS.

    Methods

    A complex functional unit is used to combine energy delivered by the battery pack from the mobility function and the stationary ESS. Various scenarios of cascaded “EV mobility plus reuse in stationary clean electric power scenarios” are contrasted with “conventional system mobility with internal combustion engine vehicles plus natural gas peaking power.” Eight years are assumed for first use; with 10 years for reuse in the stationary application. Operational scenarios and environmental data are based on real time-of-day and time-of-year power use. Additional data from LCA databases are utilized. Ontario, Canada, is used as the geographic baseline; analysis includes sensitivity to the electricity mix and battery degradation. Seven environmental categories are assessed using ReCiPe.

    Results and discussion

    Results indicate that the manufacturing phase of the Li-ion battery will still dominate environmental impacts across the extended life cycle of the pack (first use in vehicle plus reuse in stationary application). For most impact categories, the cascaded use system appears significantly beneficial compared to the conventional system. By consuming clean energy sources for both use and reuse, global and local environmental stress reductions can be supported. Greenhouse gas advantages of vehicle electrification can be doubled by extending the life of the EV batteries, and enabling better use of off-peak low-cost clean electricity or intermittent renewable capacity. However, questions remain concerning implications of long-duration use of raw material resources employed before potential recycling.

    Conclusions

    Li-ion battery packs present opportunities for powering both mobility and stationary applications in the necessary transition to cleaner energy. Battery state-of-health is a considerable determinant in the life cycle performance of a Li-ion battery pack. The use of a complex functional unit was demonstrated in studying a component system with multiple uses in a cascaded application.

  • 16. Andrews, Evan Stuart
    et al.
    Barthel, Leif-Patrick
    Beck, Tabea
    Benoît, Catherine
    Ciroth, Andreas
    Cucuzzella, Carmela
    Gensch, Carl-Otto
    Hébert, Julie
    Lesage, Pascal
    Manhart, Andreas
    Mazeau, Pierre
    Mazijn, Bernard
    Methot, Andrée-Lise
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Norris, Greg
    Parent, Julie
    Prakash, Siddarth
    Reveret, Jean-Pierre
    Spillemaeckers, Sophie
    Ugaya, Cassia Maria Lie
    Valdivia, Sonia
    Weidema, Bo
    Guidelines for Social Life Cycle Assessment of Products.: Social and socio-economic LCA guidelines complementing environmental LCA and Life Cycle Costing, contributing to the full assessment of goods and services within the context of sustainable development.2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Apelmo, Elisabet
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. Lund University.
    Greger, Henriksson
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Kan stadsbors användning av IT bidra till ett hållbart samhälle?: En kunskapsöversikt.2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report deals with everyday habits with environmental impacts in relation to the use of information and communication technology (ICT, colloquially referred to as IT).

    We raise issues related to a) how environmentally promising and problematic ‘ICT-practices’ in urban everyday life can be identified and b) how the potential for such practices to be transformed through the use of ICT can be assessed, and ultimately utilized, in the context of sustainable urban development.

    These issues we have addressed through reviewing case studies, reports etc. Case study examples showed how ICT is used, e.g. to streamline and inform, or to share resources, vehicles and other products.

    We discussed how it might be possible, from an environmental sociology perspective, to assess when and how ICT might serve as an enabling technology that enhances or replaces previous patterns of action. We also briefly included, and discussed, phenomena defined from more general sustainability science point of view, e.g. substitution, induction and rebound effects.

    An important starting point was that social structures both enable and limit specific patterns of action. The structures can only be said to exist, or be maintained, by people's actions and through their experience. Change occurs as a result of the dynamics between people's actions and the structures created by past actions. Social practices are constantly being reproduced, with additions of new elements, e g when ICT applications are put to new uses. Then patterns of social relations and systems might also change, for example in how we use energy, travel, consume or socialize during both work and leisure time.

    Our review indicates that the knowledge that partners of Centre for Sustainable Communications (CESC) currently have access to, is fragmented and with a bias towards certain types of sectors, and patterns of action. Environmentally promising practices are more researched than problematic ones. Furthermore, use of ICTs for e.g. commuting and monitoring household energy use is more researched than most other patterns of action involving use of ICTs. Research on e.g. leisure and entertainment in relation to the environment is very much absent from today’s body of knowledge (as it is defined and delimited in this report).

    As for how everyday practices might change towards increased environmental sustainability by the use of ICT, we have found the knowledge situation even more incomplete. This shows, however, that it is worthwhile for CESC researchers and partners to carry on searching and developing knowledge regarding this.

    Regarding what should be viewed as more promising respectively more problematic urban patterns of action, we have to some extent illuminated this by exemplifying international environmental sociological research that is useful for discussing social practices in relation to environmental impacts. We have exemplified how this can shed light on some of the case studies we found among the CESC researchers and partners. Based on environmental sociology we discussed in what ways city dwellers with high income account for the most environmentally problematic practices. Correspondingly, we discussed how inhabitants with low income – out of necessity–account for many promising practices. In relation to this we also briefly discussed how rebound effects should be seen as related to socio-economic position.

    Another kind of problematic aspect highlighted is that players responsible for introducing, trying out etc., new ICTs, seem to have a tendency to do this in own networks or among the urban middle class. This is problematic from a democratic point of view. In 2012, 1.2 million people in Sweden did very rarely, or not at all, use the internet in their homes. Detailed knowledge about this group's ICT related practices seems to be largely missing.  If representatives for these groups are not represented in environmental research there is a danger that they also become less visible in public debate of environmental and ICT issues.

    This means that different social positions imply different opportunities and constraints. What patterns of actions people take more or less part in is influenced by social structures, norms and regulations, the historical and the immediate context, but also by the individuals' previous experiences and knowledge. The understanding of how a change towards a more sustainable society could come about through use of ICT therefore requires knowledge of practices among the full socio-demographic range of city dwellers.

  • 18.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Environmental Impacts of ICT: Present and Future2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    ICT is developing rapidly and is playing an increasingly important role in society. High expectations are placed on ICT in relation to sustainable development. In order to provide basis for decision-making and ensure that ICT is used in the best possible way for enabling sustainable development, the sustainability impacts of ICT need to be studied.

    This thesis aims to provide new knowledge on the environmental impacts related to ICT, to explore the potential of ICT to contribute to sustainability, and discuss ways of assessing environmental impacts of ICT. In order to fulfill the aim a literature review of existing LCA studies of ICT was done, an LCA case study of printed and online media was performed, a methodological framework for sustainability assessment of scenarios was developed and then applied for environmental assessment of future ICT societies.

    The results show that manufacturing and use phase are the life cycle stages contributing the most to the ICT environmental impacts. For online newspapers online distribution and content production may give significant contribution to the overall impact. User behavior was observed to be crucial for the results of comparisons of ICT solutions with their traditional counterparts.

    The following key issues were concluded to influence the environmental risks and opportunities in future ICT societies: energy mix, economic conditions, life styles, technology, and environmental ambitions, incentives and regulation. The potential of ICT for sustainability is affected by these key issues.

    A new methodological framework (SAFS) was developed for the assessment of future scenarios (societal level). Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used for assessment on a product level. Application of both methods, their benefits, drawbacks, and challenges of assessment were discussed. Both types of assessments were concluded to be important to support decision-making.

  • 19.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    LCA of ICT solutions: environmental impacts and challenges of assessment2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and communication technology (ICT) is playing an important role in modern society, contributing to economic growth and affecting society and people’s lifestyles. There are high expectations on ICT to contribute to sustainable development, e.g. through greenhouse gas emissions reductions. ICT solutions (ICT products and services) are often perceived as having low or no environmental impacts compared with conventional alternatives. In order to determine the potential of ICT to reduce environmental impacts, environmental assessments of ICT solutions compared with other alternatives are needed. A number of studies have already assessed the environmental impacts of individual ICT solutions and the ICT sector. However, more research is needed, covering different types of impacts (primary, secondary, rebound, etc.) in a variety of impact categories (e.g. climate change, ozone depletion, eutrophication, human and ecotoxicity, etc.). The findings then need to be systematised in order to identify hot-spots and draw generic conclusions. As the area is rather new and fast-developing, assessment methods need to be critically appraised in order to identify challenges and developments necessary for high quality assessments.

    This thesis aims to contribute to the knowledge on the direct life cycle environmental impacts of ICT solutions and to investigate and analyse the challenges of applying Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as a tool for environmental assessment of ICT solutions. Two research questions: “What life cycle environmental impacts and their causes can be identified for ICT solutions?” and “What are the methodological challenges of assessing the ICT solutions using LCA?” were analysed by reviewing published LCAs on ICT solutions and conducting a case study of online and printed newspapers. The literature review helped identify hotspots in the life cycle of ICT solutions, draw generic conclusions concerning environmental impacts and their causes, and identify major challenges to LCA application. The case study assessed the environmental impacts of traditional and new media solutions and provided information on methodological challenges.

    The results show that impacts other than climate change potential and energy use are not well-studied in the ICT sector, creating a risk of possible sub-optimisation and problem shifting. Manufacturing and the use phase are concluded to be the most environmentally intense life cycle stages of ICT products in many studies. However, transportation and end-of-life treatment should not be omitted in the assessments, although their impacts appear lower, as uncertainty and lack of data might be a reason for underestimations.

    As ICT is under constant and rapid development, environmental assessment of ICT solutions faces challenges regarding e.g. data quality and availability; choice of data type; methodological choices (e.g. choice of functional unit, scope definition and allocation); and assumptions on user behaviour. These affect the final results and thus need to be carefully considered by LCA practitioners.

    The outcomes of this thesis can benefit practitioners and decision-makers, improving knowledge on the environmental impacts of ICT solutions and challenges in applying LCA for assessment of ICT solutions, and providing improved grounds for more informed decision-making. Areas for further research regarding methodology development and filling knowledge gaps are also identified.

  • 20.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Eriksson, Ola
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Soderman, Maria Ljunggren
    Sundqvist, Jan-Olov
    Stenmarck, Asa
    Environmental Assessment of Possible Future Waste Management Scenarios2017In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 2, article id 247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste management has developed in many countries and will continue to do so. Changes towards increased recovery of resources in order to meet climate targets and for society to transition to a circular economy are important driving forces. Scenarios are important tools for planning and assessing possible future developments and policies. This paper presents a comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) model for environmental assessments of scenarios and waste management policy instruments. It is unique by including almost all waste flows in a country and also allow for including waste prevention. The results show that the environmental impacts from future waste management scenarios in Sweden can differ a lot. Waste management will continue to contribute with environmental benefits, but less so in the more sustainable future scenarios, since the surrounding energy and transportation systems will be less polluting and also because less waste will be produced. Valuation results indicate that climate change, human toxicity and resource depletion are the most important environmental impact categories for the Swedish waste management system. Emissions of fossil CO2 from waste incineration will continue to be a major source of environmental impacts in these scenarios. The model is used for analyzing environmental impacts of several policy instruments including weight based collection fee, incineration tax, a resource tax and inclusion of waste in a green electricity certification system. The effect of the studied policy instruments in isolation are in most cases limited, suggesting that stronger policy instruments as well as combinations are necessary to reach policy goals as set out in for example the EU action plan on circular economy.

  • 21.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Ekener, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Moberg, Asa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Coroama, Vlad C.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    A framework for sustainability assessment of ICT futures Scenarios and sustainability impacts of future ICT-societies2015In: PROCEEDINGS OF ENVIROINFO AND ICT FOR SUSTAINABILITY 2015, Atlantis Press , 2015, p. 1-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid development of information and communication technology (ICT) has an influence on all societal sectors and can have both positive and negative consequences. To support ICT for sustainability (ICT4S), we need to learn when and how ICT can enable sustainable development. It is important to take into account all types of potential impacts environmental and social, direct and indirect. Looking at future ICT societies and their potential environmental and social implications is of special interest, as this can provide valuable knowledge for planning and policy-making today to enable ICT4S. A methodological framework for environmental and social assessment of future ICT societies with a consumption perspective was developed as a part of a joint project with researchers at KTH, ICT industry, municipality and county. The overall goal of the project was to develop five different future scenarios for Swedish ICT societies and to assess the risks and opportunities for environmental and social consequences in those scenarios. This paper presents the framework for environmental and social assessment of future scenarios and discusses the challenges experienced and lessons learned in the process of the framework development. The framework is aimed to deal with a broad and complex object and scope of assessment, the inherent uncertainty and data restrictions of future scenarios, and is applying qualitative analysis.

  • 22.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Ekener, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Sustainability assessment framework for scenarios – SAFS2017In: Environmental impact assessment review, ISSN 0195-9255, E-ISSN 1873-6432, Vol. 63, p. 23-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To address current challenges regarding sustainable development and support planning for this form of development, new learning about different possible futures and their potential sustainability implications is needed. One way of facilitating this learning is by combining the futures studies and sustainability assessment (SA) research fields. This paper presents the sustainability assessment framework for scenarios (SAFS), a method developed for assessing the environmental and social risks and opportunities of future scenarios, provides guidelines for its application and demonstrates how the framework can be applied. SAFS suggests assessing environmental and social aspects using a consumption perspective and a life cycle approach, and provides qualitative results. SAFS does not suggest any modelling using precise data, but instead offers guidelines on how to carry out a qualitative assessment, where both the process of assessing and the outcome of the assessment are valuable and can be used as a basis for discussion. The benefits, drawbacks and potential challenges of applying SAFS are also discussed in the paper. SAFS uses systems thinking looking at future societies as a whole, considering both environmental and social consequences. This encourages researchers and decision-makers to consider the whole picture, and not just individual elements, when considering different futures.

  • 23.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Ekener, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Sustainability Assessment Framework for Scenarios - SAFSManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Ekener-Petersen, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Lessons learned: Review of LCAs for ICT products and services2014In: Computers in industry (Print), ISSN 0166-3615, E-ISSN 1872-6194, Vol. 65, no 2, p. 211-234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Application of information and communication technology (ICT) is often expected to result in decreased environmental impacts. Several studies have, however, also addressed the possibilities of negative impacts. It is therefore important to assess environmental impacts of ICT products and services. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a tool for assessing the potential impacts of a product or service over the whole life-cycle, i.e. from raw material acquisition to waste management via production and use phases. The aim of this paper is to review LCA studies of ICT products and services, including a few Social Life Cycle Assessment (S-LCA) studies. Many of the studies have considered consumer products, such as computers and TVs. Other consumer products, such as game consoles and TV peripherals, as well as business products, e.g. related to networks, are however more rarely assessed. Manufacturing and use phase have the highest impact in the life cycle. Use phase seems to be the predominant in energy consumption and global warming for some ICT products but for others, especially energy efficient, low weight products, manufacturing may dominate. Rapid technological development is stressed by several authors as a source of variability of results, impacting the production processes and suppliers as well as the content and energy performance of the actual devices. In the future, conducting LCA on ICT, the research community needs to consider the limitations found in the studies conducted so far. It encompasses, among others, the need to address a broad spectrum of environmental impacts, including human and ecotoxicological impacts; modeling actual e-waste management, covering informal management when relevant; and considering user behavior in a realistic way, accounting for rebound and other indirect effects.

  • 25.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    What makes a difference for environmental performance of online newspapers?2012In: Electronics Goes Green 2012+, ECG 2012 - Joint International Conference and Exhibition, Proceedings / [ed] Klaus-Dieter Lang, Nils F. Nissen, Andreas Middendorf, Perrine Chancerel, IEEE , 2012, p. 6360454-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The media sector is becoming increasingly digital and newspapers are most commonly published online as well as on paper. For printed newspaper, paper production is the main reason for environmental impacts according to several studies performed, but for online newspapers the environmental impacts are not as well studied. The current study looked into key factors influencing the potential climate change impact of online newspapers using life cycle assessment. The main contributors to the climate change potential of the Finnish online newspaper studied were: in the case of using a computer, manufacturing of the device followed by electronic distribution, and in the case of using a tablet device, electronic distribution followed by manufacturing of the device. Geographical location, lifetime and total active use of the electronic devices are important factors when assessing the environmental impacts and so is the type of device used for accessing and reading the online newspaper.

  • 26.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Coroama, Vlad C.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Ekener, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Future ICT Societies – Environmental Opportunities and ChallengesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Hohenthal, Catharina
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Ovaskainen, Mari
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Nors, Minna
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Challenges in environmental assessment of new media solutions - case studies of Alma Media newspapers2012In: SETAC 18th LCACase Study Symposium: Sustainability Assessment in the 21st centuryTools, Trends & Applications, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the media sector, recently new means of distribution, new platforms for accessing media and consequently new media products have been introduced. With new products potential environmental impacts related to activities of media companies are changing. Finnish media publisher Alma Media commissioned an LCA study in order to learn more about environmental impacts related to their mature and emerging products. Based on this, the current paper aims to present potential environmental impacts related to printed and online newspapers, focusing on their differences and challenges in assessing, comparing, communicating and acting on the results. Three newspapers are studied as cases, covering upstream printing house supply chain, printing house activities, delivery to readers and final disposal for print versions; electronic storage and distribution, the relevant share of electronic devices manufacturing and disposal and electricity needed for downloading and reading for online versions; content production for both.

    Mainly generic data was used for online products assessment, since specific data were not available. The specific data for the more mature print products were detailed but less comprehensive than generic. The implication is increased uncertainty and difficulties in communication of results. Environmental performance of both printed and online newspapers is dependent on various characteristics of the newspaper and its readers, including e.g. format and number of pages for print versions, and type of device used and its total use, size of content download and reading time for online versions. User practices may be changing as emerging products get more mature, which will influence environmental performance.

    Print and online versions give rise to different types of environmental impacts and the distribution of impacts in the life cycles differ. Printed newspaper impacts largely occur in the printing house supply chain and in delivery to readers, whereas online newspapers impacts are mainly connected to the electronic devices supply chain, and to some extent electricity used for reading and distribution. Impacts of printed newspapers studied occur more locally with paper manufacturing and printing located in Finland. Impacts related to online versions largely occur in other countries. Also, new value chain actors are involved, which are not directly related to the media company. Different actions for improvement may be necessary for emerging media products, as well as new types of collaborations.

    Comparison of online and print versions is not straightforward as different benefits are provided and reader practices differ. Although emerging media products may be considered substitutes for print counterparts, this is not necessarily the case. The choice of functional unit of assessment proved crucial for the comparison. Different functional units were used (one year, one reader and week, one reading hour). Comparing print and online versions Alma Media online newspapers showed lower environmental impacts than their print versions per year and also per reader and week. However, impacts per reading hour were lower for printed newspapers in some cases. Using different kinds of perspectives, e.g. through different functional units, gives more information and increased knowledge. Complexity in assessing, comparing, communicating and acting on emerging media products was experienced in this study. Further studies and action need to be taken.

  • 28.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Moberg, Åsa
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Nors, Minna
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Hohenthal, Catharina
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Media content provided on different platforms –Environmental performance of online and printed versions of Alma Medianewspapers.2014In: Journal of Print and Media Technology Research, ISSN 2223-8905, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 7-31Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Nors, Minna
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Hohenthal, Catharina
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Pihkola, Hanna
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Environmental Assessment of E-media Solutions Challenges Experienced in Case Studies of Alma Media Newspapers2014In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2014 CONFERENCE ICT FOR SUSTAINABILITY, Atlantis Press , 2014, p. 11-19Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid and continuous development of information and communication technology (ICT) in society today is providing new means for various societal activities. To facilitate that new ICT solutions reduce environmental impacts and bring social improvements the potential impacts of those new solutions should be assessed. One way of making environmental assessments is Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This paper presents and discusses challenges in assessing, comparing, communicating and acting on the results of an LCA of traditional media products and of new ICT solutions for media products, based on case studies of three newspapers in their printed and online versions. The case studies revealed the complexity in assessment and comparison of online and printed newspapers due to differences in functions and characteristics, choice and availability of data (specific and generic data, data gaps and quality), methodological choices (functional unit, allocation, scope) and assumptions on reader profile. Often no single answer can be given regarding the best option from an environmental perspective, leading to challenges in communicating the results to different stakeholders. A particular challenge is how to combine easily communicated messages with robust, transparent background information.

  • 30.
    Arushanyan, Yevgeniya
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Nors, Minna
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Hohenthal, Catharina
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Pihkola, Hanna
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Environmental assessment of new media solutions: challenges experienced in case studies of Alma Media newspapers.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31. Benoît, Catherine
    et al.
    Norris, Gregory A.
    Valdivia, Sonia
    Ciroth, Andreas
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Bos, Ulrike
    Prakash, Siddharth
    Ugaya, Cassia
    Beck, Tabea
    The Guidelines for Social Life Cycle Assessment of products: Just in time!2010In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 156-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Authors of different sustainability journals, including authors of articles in past issues of the International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment have acknowledged the rising interest and the pressing need for a social and socio-economic life cycle assessment methodology and identified challenges in its development and implementation. Social life cycle assessment (LCA) allows identification of key issues, assessing, and telling the story of social conditions in the production, use, and disposal of products. In this article, the United Nations Environment Programme/The Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Guidelines for Social Life Cycle Assessment of Products will be presented.

    Aim and scope The guidelines demystifies the assessment of product life cycle social impacts and presents an effective framework representing the consensus of an international group of experts leading research in this field. The guidelines complement those for environmental life cycle assessment and life cycle costing, and by doing so contribute to the full assessment of goods and services within the context of sustainable development. They enable a larger group of stakeholders to engage. Key aspects of the framework and the research needs identified in the guidelines will be summarized.

    Conclusions In a globalized world where transparency and information occupies a predominant place and where consumers and companies reach out to shed light on both the brightest and the darkest side of the economy and, when applicable, transform its condition, social LCA brings strong value. At a moment where major companies and initiatives are going forward with using LCA and are trying to track and communicate about the social impacts of their products they are increasingly held accountable for the guidelines for social life cycle assessment arrive just in time to inform their efforts.

  • 32. Berggren, C
    et al.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Gullberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Jacobsson, S
    Kågesson, P
    Biltillverkare bör vara öppna kring utsläppen2015In: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 33. Blinge, Magnus
    et al.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Höijer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Isaksson, Karolina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Roth, Anders
    Sprei, Frances
    Sterner, Tomas
    Åkerman, Jonas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Trafikverket på kollisionskurs med klimatmålen2015In: Göteborgsposten, ISSN 1103-9345Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 34.
    Bohné, Ulrica
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Exploring the intersection of design, reflection and sustainable food shopping practices: The case of the EcoPanel2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Food production has been shown to have considerable negative impacts on the environment. A means to reduce this is to choose organic products when shopping for food.

    Through the case of the EcoPanel, a web application prototype that visualises the organic proportion of the household’s food shopping, the thesis explores the intersection between design, reflection and sustainable food shopping practices.

    In order to contextualise the role of the EcoPanel, the text discusses the concept of food shopping practice, both from the perspective of social practice theory (SPT), and the more focused food choice perspective. The studies show that it is fundamental to understand the complexity of choosing food, and the habitual aspect of practice, in order to understand the role of reflection in food shopping practice, and consequently the role of a tool for reflective decision-making, like the EcoPanel.

    We have used a research through design approach to develop the EcoPanel prototype. In an iterative process we probed how the EcoPanel could be designed to be as relevant and accessible for the users as possible. Essential in the process were the iterative user feedback sessions. The way in which the users answered the questions from the sessions formed the guiding principles for the development of the design.

    A central question in the thesis is to explore in what ways the users’ access to their individual sustainable grocery data provided by the EcoPanel affects their food shopping practices. The studies include monitoring sixty-five users of the EcoPanel over five months, a survey regarding aspects of lifestyle and attitudes to food, and interviews with ten of the users.

    The long-term study shows an increased organic purchase level (17%) for the EcoPanel users in comparison to the reference group. We also see that when the users receive feedback on their organic food purchases through the EcoPanel, they can make more reflective decisions. This is shown to be highly relevant and creates meaning for the users in several different ways. From this result, in combination with the result of the long-term study, we can conclude that the EcoPanel contributes with support for more sustainable food practices.

    The last question in the thesis is to understand how SPT can be useful for design practice. SPT shows a view that goes beyond the traditional interaction perspective, and points to the importance of approaching complex issues, such as sustainability challenges, with an awareness that also includes social and cultural aspects of the context. As well as this view being pertinent when approaching sustainability issues, it also provides value to designers in their emerging roles of dealing with more socially embedded concerns, such as social innovation and design for public policies.

  • 35.
    Bohné, Ulrica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Zapico, Jorge Luis
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Katzeff, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    The EcoPanel: Designing for reflection on greener grocery shopping practices2015In: PROCEEDINGS OF ENVIROINFO AND ICT FOR SUSTAINABILITY 2015, Atlantis Press , 2015, p. 221-228Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the purchases of organic food are increasing rapidly, it accounts for only a small fraction of the total consumption, and there is still a big gap between consumer values awareness and the actual consumption. This article explores how detailed personal feedback could help the households to gain insight and reflect on their consumption, the text presents the design process of developing a prototype, the EcoPanel, in collaboration with a major player on the food retail market. Based on the access to detailed tracking of purchase data, the aim of the design was to provide relevant feedback to facilitate for reflection on the user's own food choices. The design prototype is intended to serve as an instrument for insight and reflection and to bring unconscious aspects of grocery shopping to conscious awareness. Following a research through design approach, this article describes the interdependent steps in designing the EcoPanel and design decisions playing a role for users' critical reflection of their food choice practices. It discusses the intention of each module in providing insight. Finally, we discuss how a social practice perspective may be useful for identifying fruitful future research into the design for more sustainable grocery shopping practices

  • 36. Bonanni, L.
    et al.
    Ebner, H.
    Hockenberry, M.
    Sayan, B.
    Brandt, N.
    Csikszentmihàlyi, N.
    Ishii, H.
    Turpeinen, M.
    Young, S.
    Zapico Lamela, Jorge Luis
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    The Open Sustainability Project: A Linked Data Approach to LCA2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The proprietary nature of LCA tools and information limits widespread adoption of sustainability measures. We introduce the Open Sustainability Project(OSP), a Linked Data resource for broadening access to LCA in an effort to increase the transparency and accuracy of environmental impact assessments(2, 9).The OSP applies Free and Open Source Software(FOSS) principles and Linked Data structures to LCA standards and reporting so that communities including students, SME’s and the general public can participate in the assessment and verification of sustainability practices(1,6). The highly flexible data format allows disparate data sources and assessments to be compared along an open standard compliant with ISO 14048 reporting(5, 8, 12).In addition, the OSP makes available a free database of Life Cycle Assessment data using an approach based on Linked Data and RESTful interfaces which supports the development of rich third-party applications for specific user groups and industries(7). This novel combination of linked data and web-based tools is inherently transparent so that LCA practices can be standardized, compared and verified by a broad community.The OSP is an international collaboration between academics, government and industry groups leveraging expertise in LCA, Open Data and web-based tools for sustainability(10). Our first Open Source and Open Data web sustainability tools have confirmed the potential to engage a wider audience, with over two thousand registered users, three thousand environmental assessments performed and over 330,000 page views from more than 75 countries since September 2009(3, 4, 11). The OSP aims to expand reach of LCA through a free and open Application Programming Interface(API) to support distributed development of third-party applications for sustainability assessment through the emerging metrics for social and environmental sustainability(a free LCA "App Store"). These applications are intended to disseminate LCA standards, encourage transparency in environmental reporting and leverage Collective Intelligence in the collection, publication and verification of LCA.The OSP aims to transform LCA into a collaborative process where data collection, analysis, assessment and reporting benefit from the feedback and ideas of a growing worldwide LCA community.

  • 37. Bonanni, L.
    et al.
    Ebner, Hannes
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media technology and interaction design, MID.
    Hockenberry, M.
    Sayan, B.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Csikszentmihàlyi, N.
    Ishii, H.
    Turpeinen, Marko
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Graphic Arts, Media (closed 20111231).
    Young, S.
    Zapico Lamela, Jorge Luis
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Sourcemap.org: First Application of Linked and Open LCA Data to Support Sustainability2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Boork, Magdalena
    et al.
    SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Gustafsson, Anton
    Interactive Swedish ICT.
    Dijkhuis, Sander
    TU Eindhoven.
    Katzeff, Cecilia
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. Interactive Swedish ICT.
    OfficeWise: Energy feedback in office workplaces2015In: Proceedings for ECEEE Summer study on Energy Efficiency 2015: First Fuel Now, ECEEE , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the approach, progress and intermediate results from a project on energy feedback in office workplaces. A system of three prototypes for energy visualization targeting office workers has been designed and implemented in an office workplace. Feedback is given both on individual basis (in a PC application) and on accumulated basis (on a screen in the reception and by an ambient representation in shape of a chandelier in the lunch room). A measurement system provides detailed data on individual electricity use, temperature, ventilation and presence. The project aims at engaging office workers to more energy efficient behaviour at work by supplying tools to raise the awareness and ability to take action, but also to implement energy feedback in organizational processes. The main goal is permanent behavioural changes, resulting in 50 % electricity reduction in individual office rooms. The project is built on a multidisciplinary and participatory approach. The visualization tools were designed and constructed in collaboration with the office workers, using interviews, culture probes, co-creation workshops etc. Designing new organizational strategies and action plans will include further workshops and co-creation with staff and management. In spring 2014, a one week challenge was conducted among the office workers to make a first estimation of the energy saving potential. The results show an average reduction of 32 percent compared to a representative ‘normal’ week. On an annual basis, the savings correspond to 65 kWh per office room or 17 percent of the total electricity use. In general, the participants found the challenge interesting and took the opportunity to look over their habits. Everyone claimed they changed their behaviour in one way or another, but also that some habits were not worth the effort. Throughout the project, office workers have stressed that the management lack focus on and appreciation for energy efficiency. The next step is therefore to analyse how energy feedback can be implemented in organizational processes to achieve long-term changes in energy-related routines and behaviour.

  • 39.
    Borggren, Clara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Pappersbok och elektronisk bok på läsplatta: en jämförande miljöbedömning2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 40.
    Borggren, Clara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Books from an environmental perspective - Part 1: Environmental impacts of paper books sold in traditional and internet bookshops2011In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 138-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The sale and distribution of books are activities that have changed through increased use of the internet. The main aim of this paper was to determine the potential environmental impacts of paper books and identify key issues determining the magnitude of those impacts. A second aim was to study the environmental difference between a paper book bought in a traditional bookshop and through an internet bookshop. In addition, areas with a lack of data and major uncertainties were to be noted.

    Materials and methods A screening life cycle assessment was performed on an average hardback novel produced and read in Sweden. The data used were general data from Ecoinvent 2.0 and site-specific data from companies participating in the study, whenever average data were not available.

    Results and discussion The results showed the most important processes to be pulp and paper production. However, if a substantial distance was travelled by car, to buy a book or collect it, this had a major influence on the environmental performance. Comparing the two bookshop alternatives, the results showed a slight benefit for the internet bookshop due to fewer books being returned to the publisher and the avoidance of energy use at the traditional bookshop. The buyer of a book could significantly influence the total impact by choosing to walk to the bookshop or to combine the trip with several other activities to decrease the impact of the travel per activity performed. When books ordered via the internet were sent by postal services directly to the end consumer, the climate change impact was lowered.

    Conclusions This study showed that, in addition to the paper used, the way books are bought and distributed, including possible personal transportation, can significantly affect the total environmental impact of paper books. The impact per book read can be significantly decreased by sharing books with others.

  • 41.
    Borggren, Clara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Moberg, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Räsänen, Minna
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Business meetings at a distance - decreasing greenhouse gas emissions and cumulative energy demand?2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 41, p. 126-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transportation, or rather access, is a major challenge in relation to achieving environmental goals and in striving for sustainable development. One potential means suggested to decrease the environmental impact related to accessibility is mediated meetings. However, few studies have quantified the potential environmental impacts with a life cycle perspective. With inspiration from a project involving four major Swedish media companies experiencing an increasing need for business travel and decreasing resources, this study assessed the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and cumulative energy demand (CED) related to different types of business meetings, using a life cycle perspective. The potential consequences for emissions of GHG and CED in two hypothetical companies introducing mediated meetings were also assessed. The results indicated that mediated meetings using personal computers can reduce GHG emissions and CED per meeting and that more advanced mediated solutions are preferable to meetings which require travel, if the equipment is frequently used to replace travel. However, advanced technology that is under-used may give similar or higher GHG emissions and CED than meetings traveled to by train. All mediated meeting alternatives studied here had lower GHG emissions and CED than meetings which required travel by plane or car. LCD screen manufacture contributed the main environmental impact of mediated meetings, but the meeting rooms needed, electricity use for equipment and internet use for data transmission were also important in some cases. As LCD screen manufacture and internet energy use were main issues and as the data on these issues are uncertain, they should be further assessed+ and updated in future studies. Introduction of mediated meetings in companies and organizations should involve a thorough consideration of needs and possible solutions to achieve the best possible environmental benefits through efficient use and replacement of travel.

  • 42.
    Broms, Loove
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Product and Service Design. School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC, Green Leap.
    Storyforming: Experiments in creating discursive engagements between people, things and environments2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis introduces and critically reflects on a design programme, Storyforming, that explores ways to design objects and places to enrich daily life narratives. Using an experimental design approach, the goal is to exemplify and explore this idea with discursive artefacts that, through their physical and temporal form, act as catalysts in the construction of meaningful experiences.

    In the current sustainability discourse, behavioural change has been pointed out as a key factor in achieving a sustainable society. Historically, design has been very effective in increasing production and consumption behaviours by creating new types of needs and, in a way, manufacturing desire (Forty, 1986). Drawing on this, the overarching aim of this thesis is the investigation of the ways design, through a suggested programme, can afford alternative types of meaningful experiences in contrast to the prevailing consumer culture.

    The empirical work reported in the thesis stems from several research projects looking into the matter of energy use in relation to design. In addition, two of the projects have been carried out in the author’s own design practice. Some concepts are explored more in-depth—involving events such as field studies, situated interviews, workshops, prototype building, design interventions in the form of domestication probes, and contextual studies ranging from a few weeks up to a year—while other concepts exist only as sketches or photo montages. The diversity of these concepts, the design experiments, helps span a design space becoming a new provisional design programme. The idea for this programme has evolved from observations and reflections made throughout the experiments presented in the thesis.

    The general results are the suggested approach of Storyforming, which focuses on the design of artefacts supporting daily narratives that can be used to create engagement, meaning, and alternative values applicable to the discourse of sustainable behaviour.

    Specific contributions are the selection of design experiments. In the thesis, the experiments have first been examined from the perspective of stories and forming as a basis for the new programme formulation. Through this articulation of the programme, the experiments are revisited through three leitmotifs, part of the provisional programme focusing on different properties related to the aspect of forming. From the perspective of the user, these themes—seeing and accessing designs, exploring and expressing complexity, and sharing experiences and negotiating use—are finally elaborated on in relation to other theoretical concepts as well as their implications for future research.

  • 43.
    Börjesson Rivera, Miriam
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    A passage to carsharing: The case of implementing a municipal carsharing schemeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Carsharing is a transportation mode that has existed for a long time but that has been rapidly growing the last decades, mainly due to the ongoing digitisation of society. Carsharing has qualities that places it within the intersection of sustainable mobility and the sharing economy. Carsharing is therefore often proposed in policies and planning documents as a measure to facilitate sustainable mobility. But what does the transition from theoretical solution to actual implemented service, accessible to users actually look like?

    This paper presents the findings of qualitative study that describes and analyses the case of Täby, a Swedish municipality in the Stockholm region, that decided to address its set sustainability targets and business travel practices by procuring a carsharing service and installing an in-house bicycle pool for officials. The study, that draws findings from document studies and semi-structured interviews, applies an actor-network theory inspired approach. The analysis of the process, show how the involved actors, both human and non-human, together drove the process forward, and eventually led to the implementation of a carsharing scheme for the officials.

    The paper concludes that carsharing as a program of action, was translated from an in-house carsharing open to citizens, to a procured service for the officials, and that the move to new premises acted as obligatory passage point for this process. The paper also concludes that during the process, the program of action was associated with policy documents such as the environmental goals and the Climate and Energy Strategy who served in a legitimising way and thus helped to fend of anti-programs such as cost efficiency, which otherwise was a prevalent managerial and operational strategy. 

  • 44.
    Börjesson Rivera, Miriam
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Practice makes perfect?: Sustainable practices with ICT and daily travel2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis shows how practice theory can be applied in different ways when exploring how daily life can be supported to become more environmentally sustainable. Ultimately the thesis aims to contribute to new knowledge on how to design policies and interventions that aim at facilitating environmentally sustainable practices.  This thesis argues that practice theory is useful in the field of sustainability research since it offers as point of departure a perspective on human everyday life which decentres focus from individual behaviour and instead looks at how social practices are constructed by integrating and combining material, bodily and mental elements.

    The thesis discusses the following questions: i) How can the role of ICT in everyday life be conceptualized from a practice perspective?, ii) How can practice theory be used in order to describe and assess second order environmental effects? and iii) What are the key considerations from a practice perspective when designing social/physical interventions for sustainable mobility?

    The papers in this thesis all use practice theory as point of departure but with different outcomes. Practice theory is thus used conceptually, methodologically and analytically. The main conclusions of the thesis are:  Changes in practices due to ICT usage will inevitably have environmental impacts, both negative and positive, and for policy-makers it is imperative to take this into consideration when planning for the future and actively support and facilitate sustainable social practices. Looking at changes in practices due to new ICT usage can be one way to include second order effects in environmental assessments, in this way contributing to a discussion of potential environmental impacts from implementing a new product, application or service.

    Interventions, such as a cargo bike pool or restrictive work travel policies, have the potential to change existing practices. However, the potential of these changes, depend on a variety of different factors which are more or less difficult to influence for the individual practitioner such as work location, time schedules, availability of transportation means and modes. Further, it is difficult to foresee exactly how such changes will look and if they sustain in the long run. Finally, it is not necessarily so that an intervention will have the desired outcome that was intended, the outcome might be something else, consequently this means that interventions need to be analysed and assessed from other perspectives, one being a practice perspective.

  • 45.
    Börjesson Rivera, Miriam
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Cupitt, Rebekah
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Henriksson, Greger
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Meetings, practice and beyond: Environmental sustainability in meeting practices at work2013In: Nachhaltigkeit in der Wirtschaftskommunikation / [ed] Martin Nielsen, Iris Rittenhofer, Marianne Grove Ditlevsen, Sophie Esmann Andersen, Irene Pollach, Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden , 2013, p. 159-190Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study shows how the employees at a large transnational telecom company understand and accommodate the implemented travel and meeting policies that regulate business communication. This involves looking at employee decisions on when, how and why to hold meetings. The subsequent understandings of meetings and their practice is formed through negotiation and the formation of a ‘social matrix of workplace communication (meetings)’(Bateson & Reusch 2009). This social matrix and its contexts are analysed from the perspective of environmental sustainability of office work practice. The basis for this is the recent implementation of company-wide restrictions on travel aiming to encourage the use of mediated meetings instead of travel for face-to-face meetings. Some issues that emerge are shared meanings of meetings, more specifically the perceived importance of the physical meeting in a workplace where telephone meetings were the norm. This shows that even if the technological possibilities for mediated meetings and by extension a more flexible work practice exist, they are not regarded as default but seen as complementary to conventional work practices. The need to find a balance in between mediated and physical meetings comes across as a recurring theme in both interviews and policy documents.  As a result the ongoing negotiation of which meetings are deemed necessary to be held in person and thereby requiring travel, is embedded within TeliaSonera employees' notions that face-to-face meetings are better and more efficient than mediated meetings. Subsequently the collective view that mediated meetings are not as successful as face-to-face meetings becomes a central to the character of workplace communication. This negotiation is carried out on an individual level as well as on a more organisational level. When carried out on an organisational level these negotiations occur in policy documents which can sometimes contradict employee perspectives and are equally subject to contextual factors (cf. Kogg 2002). Other related issues present in the empirical data are the blurring of the divide between work and home in relation to the changes in work practices and information and communication technology (ICT).

  • 46.
    Börjesson Rivera, Miriam
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Eriksson, Elina
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Wangel, Josefin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    ICT practices in smart sustainable cities: In the intersection of technological solutions and practices of everyday life2015In: Proceedings of EnviroInfo and ICT for Sustainability 2015: Building the knowledge base for environmental action and sustainability / [ed] Vivian Kvist Johannsen, Stefan Jensen, Volker Wohlgemuth, Chris Preist, Elina Eriksson, Copenhagen: Atlantis Press , 2015, p. 317-324Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ICT, information and communications technology,has radically transformed our world and is now an inextricable partof what it means to live a normal life as a citizen, at least in highincomecountries. This has led to a situation where ICT has becomeso taken for granted that it has lost its visibility. While thisdevelopment to a large extent has been driven by businessopportunities, there is now also an increasing recognition of ICT as apossible solution to sustainability problems. There are however twomajor pitfalls of using ICT as a tool for sustainability that need to beaddressed for its potentials to be realized. The first pitfall isenvironmental impacts of ICT, as well as the risk of lock-in effectsand an increasing vulnerability. The second pitfall concerns theunderstanding of ICT as a neutral solution, rather than recognizingthat ICT, as all technology, carries implicit values. Taken together,these two pitfalls imply a need for replacing the atomized and technobiasedunderstandings of ICT with an approach that recognize thelarger socio-material, political and economic structure in which ICTis (thought to be) part. With the aim of contributing to such a shift,this paper proposes a practice-oriented perspective in order toexplore the potential of ICT to contribute to sustainability, using thesmart sustainable city discourse as our example. We define theconcept ICT practices and discuss it from an interdisciplinaryperspective and in relation to the sustainable smart city. We arguethat by using ICT practices as a conceptual starting-point foranalysis, both the technological and the socio-cultural components ofthe smart sustainable city discourse can become elicited, enabling amore explicit analysis of what assumptions this discourse rests on.

  • 47.
    Börjesson Rivera, Miriam
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Henriksson, Greger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Björn, Michael
    Lund School of Economics and Management.
    Eriksson, Elina
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Why share?: An outline of a policy framework for sharing.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     The sharing economy has received much attention in recent years, partly because it carries a promise of reducing environmental impacts. This decrease is expected to take place through higher utilization of raw materials and energy when physical products are shared to a greater extent . However, our reading of current literature on sharing suggests that such environmental impacts have rarely been assessed at the societal level, e.g. nationally or along a supply chain. Neither are definitions and classifications of sharing found in literature, in general, particularly helpful for estimating environmental potentials and risks. We argue that there is a need for a framework supporting policy to clarify the importance of policy when it comes to the final effects of sharing.

    The aim of this paper is to outline a policy framework for environmental potentials and risks of the sharing economy. We have here delimited this paper to discuss levels of energy use as an example of environmental impact, but argue that the tentative policy framework presented can be used for any sustainability factor. In the paper we populate the policy framework with a spectrum of sharing initiatives and discuss the possible changes in energy use connected to these initiatives. Furthermore, we also discuss in what areas research on the environmental impacts of sharing initiatives could be specifically important, based on the outcome of populating the policy framework for potentials and risks.

  • 48.
    Börjesson Rivera, Miriam
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Henriksson, Greger
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Åkerlund, Maria
    Getting there and back again: Commuting and ICT in six cities across the globe2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ericsson ConsumerLab performed a qualitative exploratory study of how people experience daily commuting in three different countries. This report aims to present the outcome of the study in such a way that the data can be useful for further analyses and studies of commuting in relation to ICT use and environmental sustainability. Based on the study’s findings this report will present analytical data on: i) how ICT can be linked to everyday travel in order to facilitate commuting from the user’s point of view; and ii) how ICT solutions can enable commuting in an environmentally more sustainable way.

    The study, which had an ethnographic approach, showed that in general, commuters would like their commuting time to be, or at least seem, as short as possible. The respondents spend hours commuting every week and often claim to consider it a waste of time. Regardless of means of transport, they would like to get the most out of their commuting time (working, socialising, relaxing etc.), which implies that there is a demand for further technological improvements in this area (voice recognition services in cars, privacy settings in public transport, connectivity in public transport, etc.). An aspect that adds to how people perceive their commuting time concerns the extent to which its duration is predictable – even if the time cannot be shortened, commuters at least want to know how much time they will spend on their daily commute, so that they can plan their day with more certainty.

    Irrespective of means of transport, two major frustrations for commuters are lack of flow and the presence and behaviour of other people. People seem to lack good real-time information enabling them to avoid interruptions in their commute and much of their frustration relates to poor infrastructure conditions and management. Frustration with other people derives from their conduct in traffic contributing to inconveniences, congestion or hazards, or from noise, smell or littering on public transport.

    The greatest motivators for commuting by car are a feeling of independence in relation to other people, schedule and choice of route, and the private space the car offers. This means that the car provides flexibility in terms of when and how people travel, while also providing a private space both mentally (“in the car you can do whatever you want”) and physically (“you don’t have to hustle with others on the bus or train”). The major frustration when commuting by car is the need to focus on driving, so drivers cannot utilise time as they would wish.

    People generally justify their choice of public transport by anti-car arguments, which include difficulty in finding a parking space at work, expensive parking, fear of driving, lack of driving licence etc., but can also motivate their choice as giving them ‘me-time’ without having to focus on driving. The major frustration with commuting by public transport is dependency on time schedules and the shortcomings of the public transport network. This is exacerbated by a lack of relevant information or available options. However, commuting can be improved in a variety of ways for car and public transport users with the help of ICT. From a sustainability perspective, it is important to exploit the potential of ICT solutions to facilitate more environmentally friendly practices.

    Many of the ICT (Information Communication Technology) solutions identified in this report require reliable access to the internet and/or mobile phone network. The mobile phone is currently the single most important internet device while commuting, thus perhaps being the point of departure for many of the solutions, such as travel planner, ticketing options, etc, but for car users mobile phone services need to be adapted through better in-car voice recognition technologies, since the focus needs to be on driving. Current information services could be more personalised and contextualised in order to better suit the individual driver and most of these ICT solutions and services are also applicable to public transport commuters, but an additional function for such commuters could be some kind of ‘emergency button’ on mobile phones to increase their sense of security in travel.

    Home office solutions are a way of avoiding the frustrations of commuting altogether. While working from home is regarded by some with ambivalence and is impossible for many, there are ways of refining these solutions.

  • 49.
    Börjesson Rivera, Miriam
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Svenfelt, Åsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Including second order effects in environmental assessments of ICT2014In: Environmental Modelling & Software, ISSN 1364-8152, E-ISSN 1873-6726, Vol. 56, p. 105-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can have both negative and positive impacts on the environment. Immediate negative environmental impacts arise due to the production, use and disposal of ICT products, while positive effects can arise because ICT products and services replace other products. Other, more indirect consequences of introducing new technologies include e.g. that money saved by reducing costs due to ICT-induced energy efficiency, is being used in consumption of other goods and services that also need energy in their production. Such effects are examined within different disciplines under headings such as rebound effects, indirect effects, second order effects and ripple effects. This paper presents a review and discussion of different second order effects that can be linked to ICT usage in general, using e-commerce as an example. This is a first necessary step in developing methods which include second order effects when analysing the environmental impacts of ICT.

  • 50.
    Cano Viktorsson, Carlos
    School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    From Fixed, Mobile to Complex: The Social Shaping of ICT for Sustainable Travel2013In: ICT4S 2013: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies for Sustainability, ETH Zurich, February 14-16, 2013, ETH Zurich, 2013, , p. 6p. 197-202Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper looks at the changing shape of mobile connectivity and how it has influenced the potential for informing on sustainable travel. It examines the role mobile connectivity has had for an ICT based service informing on traffic and transport in order to trace what role social practices of interconnecting through mobile media may have had for such an enterprise. The paper looks at two historical examples of ICT based traffic and travel information services in Stockholm, Sweden in order to discuss what role mobile connectivity may have for promoting sustainable travel through ICT.

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