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  • 1. Adlercreutz, L.
    et al.
    Cronhjort, Andreas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Andersen, J.
    Ogink, R.
    Optimizing the Natural Gas Engine for CO2 reduction2016In: SAE Technical Papers, SAE International , 2016, Vol. 2016-April, no AprilConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With alternative fuels having moved more into market in light of their reduction of emissions of CO2 and other air pollutants, the spark ignited internal combustion engine design has only been affected to small extent. The development of combustion engines running on natural gas or Biogas have been focused to maintain driveability on gasoline, creating a multi fuel platform which does not fully utilise the alternative fuels' potential. However, optimising these concepts on a fundamental level for gas operation shows a great potential to increase the level of utilisation and effectiveness of the engine and thereby meeting the emissions legislation. The project described in this paper has focused on optimising a combustion concept for CNG combustion on a single cylinder research engine. The ICE's efficiency at full load and the fuels characteristics, including its knock resistance, is of primary interest - together with part load performance and overall fuel consumption. In the process of increasing the efficiency of the engine the following areas have been of primary interest, increased compression ratio, thermal load at high cylinder pressure and the use of EGR to further increase efficiency. The overall goal in the project was to reduce the CO2-emissions while maintaining the performance and characteristics of the engine. The ambition is to reduce specific tail-pipe CO2-emissions in g/kWh by 50% compared to a modern gasoline engine. The goal was close to being reached at 45% reduction at full load and 25-34% on part load. This was done by theoretically downsizing the engine and increasing the specific performance of the engine.

  • 2.
    Aghaali, Habib
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Exhaust Heat Utilisation and Losses in Internal Combustion Engines with Focus on the Gas Exchange System2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Exhaust gas energy recovery should be considered in improving fuel economy of internal combustion engines. A large portion of fuel energy is wasted through the exhaust of internal combustion engines. Turbocharger and turbocompound can, however, recover part of this wasted heat. The energy recovery depends on the efficiency and mass flow of the turbine(s) as well as the exhaust gas state and properties such as pressure, temperature and specific heat capacity. The exhaust gas pressure is the principal parameter which is required for the turbine energy recovery, but higher exhaust back-pressures on the engines create higher pumping losses. This is in addition to the heat losses in the turbochargers what makes any measurement and simulation of the engines more complex.

    This thesis consists of two major parts. First of all, the importance of heat losses in turbochargers has been shown theoretically and experimentally with the aim of including heat transfer of the turbochargers in engine simulations. Secondly, different concepts have been examined to extract exhaust heat energy including turbocompounding and divided exhaust period (DEP) with the aim of improved exhaust heat utilisation and reduced pumping losses.

    In the study of heat transfer in turbochargers, the turbocharged engine simulation was improved by including heat transfer of the turbocharger in the simulation. Next, the heat transfer modelling of the turbochargers was improved by introducing a new method for convection heat transfer calculation with the support of on-engine turbocharger measurements under different heat transfer conditions. Then, two different turbocharger performance maps were assessed concerning the heat transfer conditions in the engine simulation. Finally, the temperatures of turbocharger’s surfaces were predicted according to the measurements under different heat transfer conditions and their effects are studied on the turbocharger performance. The present study shows that the heat transfer in the turbochargers is very crucial to take into account in the engine simulations, especially in transient operations.

    In the study of exhaust heat utilisation, important parameters concerning turbine and gas exchange system that can influence the waste heat recovery were discussed. In addition to exhaust back-pressure, turbine speed and turbine efficiency, the role of the air-fuel equivalence ratio was demonstrated in details, because lower air-fuel equivalence ratio in a Diesel engine can provide higher exhaust gas temperature. The results of this study indicate that turbocompound engine efficiency is relatively insensitive to the air-fuel equivalence ratio.

    To decrease the influence of the increased exhaust back-pressure of a turbocompound engine, a new architecture was developed by combining the turbocompound engine with DEP. The aim of this study was to utilise the earlier phase (blowdown) of the exhaust stroke in the turbine(s) and let the later phase (scavenging) of the exhaust stroke bypass the turbine(s). To decouple the blowdown phase from the scavenging phase, the exhaust flow was divided between two different exhaust manifolds with different valve timing.

    According to this study, this combination improves the fuel consumption in low engine speeds and deteriorates it at high engine speeds. This is mainly due to long duration of choked flow in the exhaust valves because this approach is using only one of the two exhaust valves on each cylinder at a time.

    Therefore, the effects of enlarged effective flow areas of the exhaust valves were studied. Two methods were used to enlarge the effective flow area i.e. increasing the diameters of the blowdown and scavenging valves by 4 mm; and modifying the valve lift curves of the exhaust valves to fast opening and closing. Both methods improved BSFC in the same order even though they were different in nature. Fast opening and closing of the exhaust valves required shorter blowdown duration and longer scavenging duration. The modified lift curves provided less pumping losses, less available energy into the turbine and larger amplitude of the pulsating flow through the turbine.

    In order for defining a set of important parameters that should be examined in experimental studies, a sensitivity analysis was performed on the turbocompound DEP engine in terms of break specific fuel consumption to different parameters concerning the gas exchange such as blowdown valve timing, scavenging valve timing, blowdown valve size, scavenging valve size, discharge coefficients of blowdown and scavenging ports, turbine efficiency, turbine size and power transmission efficiency.

    Finally, to overcome the restriction in the effective flow areas of the exhaust valves, DEP was implemented externally on the exhaust manifold instead of engine exhaust valves, which is called externally DEP (ExDEP). This innovative engine architecture, which benefits from supercharging, turbocharging and turbocompounding, has a great fuel-saving potential in almost all load points up to 4%.

  • 3.
    Aghaali, Habib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Ångstrom, Hans-Erik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Demonstration of Air-Fuel Ratio Role in One-Stage Turbocompound Diesel Engines2013In: SAE Technical Papers, 2013, Vol. 11Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large portion of fuel energy is wasted through the exhaust of internal combustion engines. Turbocompound can, however, recover part of this wasted heat. The energy recovery depends on the turbine efficiency and mass flow as well as the exhaust gas state and properties such as pressure, temperature and specific heat capacity.

    The main parameter influencing the turbocompound energy recovery is the exhaust gas pressure which leads to higher pumping loss of the engine and consequently lower engine crankshaft power. Each air-fuel equivalence ratio (λ) gives different engine power, exhaust gas temperature and pressure. Decreasing λ toward 1 in a Diesel engine results in higher exhaust gas temperatures of the engine.  λ can be varied by changing the intake air pressure or the amount of injected fuel which changes the available energy into the turbine. Thus, there is a compromise between gross engine power, created pumping power, recovered turbocompound power and consumed compressor power.

    In this study, the effects of different λ values and exhaust back-pressure have been investigated on the efficiency of a heavy-duty Diesel engine equipped with a single-stage electric turbocompounding. A one-dimensional gas dynamics model of a turbocharged engine was utilized that was validated against measurements at different load points. Two configurations of turbocompound engine were made. In one configuration an electric turbocharger was used and the amount of fuel was varied with constant intake air pressure. In another configuration the turbocharger turbine and compressor were disconnected to be able to control the turbine speed and the compressor speed independently; then the compressor pressure ratio was varied with constant engine fuelling and the exhaust back-pressure was optimized for each compressor pressure ratio.

    At each constant turbine efficiency there is a linear relation between the optimum exhaust back-pressure and ideally expanded cylinder pressure until bottom dead center with closed exhaust valves. There is an optimum λ for the turbocharged engine with regard to the fuel consumption. In the turbocompound engine, this will be moved to a richer λ that gives the best total specific fuel consumption; however, the results of this study indicates that turbocompound engine efficiency is relatively insensitive to the air-fuel ratio.

  • 4.
    Aghaali, Habib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    Ångström, Hans-Erik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    A review of turbocompounding as a waste heat recovery system for internal combustion engines2015In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 49, p. 813-824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internal combustion engines waste a large amount of fuel energy through their exhausts. Various technologies have been developed for waste heat recovery such as turbocompounds, Rankine bottoming cycles, and thermoelectric generators that reduce fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. Turbocompounding is still not widely applied to vehicular use despite the improved fuel economy, lower cost, volume, and complexity higher exhaust gas recirculation driving capability and improved transient response. This paper comprehensively reviews the latest developments and research on turbocompounding to discover important variables and provide insights into the implementation of a high-efficiency turbocompound engine. Attention should be paid to the optimization of turbocompound engines and their configurations because the major drawback of this technology is additional exhaust back-pressure, which leads to higher pumping loss in the engines. Applying different technologies and concepts on turbocompound engines makes the exhaust energy recovery more efficient and provides more freedom in the design and optimization of the engines. Turbine efficiency plays an important role in the recovery of the wasted heat so turbine design is a crucial issue in turbocompounding. In addition, variability in geometry and rotational speed of power turbines allows for more efficient turbocompound engines in different operating conditions. The conclusion drawn from this review is that turbocompounding is a promising technology for reducing fuel consumption in the coming decades in both light- and heavy-duty engines.

  • 5.
    Aghaali, Habib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Ångström, Hans-Erik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Effects of Effective Flow Areas of Exhaust Valves on a Turbocompound Diesel Engine Combined With Divided Exhaust Period2014In: Proceedings from the FISITA 2014 World Automotive Congress, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research and /or Engineering Questions/Objective: Exhaust gas energy recovery in internal combustion engines is one of the key challenges in the future developments. The objective of this study is to reveal the fuel-saving potential of a turbocompound Diesel engine combined with divided exhaust period (DEP). The exhaust flow is provided for two different manifolds via separate valves, blowdown and scavenging, at different timings. The main challenge in this combination is choked flow through the exhaust valves due to the restricted effective flow areas. Therefore, the effects of enlarged effective flow areas of the exhaust valves are studied.

    Methodology: A commercial 1D gas dynamics code, GT-POWER, was used to simulate a turbocharged Diesel engine which was validated against measurements. Then the turbocharged engine model was modified to a turbocompound engine with DEP. Using statistical analysis in the simulation (design of experiment), the performance of this engine was studied at different sizes, lift curves and timings of the exhaust valves and turbine swallowing capacity.

    Results: In the paper the effects of the effective flow areas of the exhaust valves are presented on the break specific fuel consumption, pumping mean effective pressure and the turbine energy recovery by increasing the valve size and modifying valve lift curve to fast opening and closing. This has been done in a low engine speed and full load. The main finding is that the flow characteristics of the exhaust valves in the turbocompound DEP engine are very important for gaining the full efficiency benefit of the DEP concept.  The turbocompound DEP engine with modified valve lift shape of the exhaust valves could improve the overall brake specific fuel consumption by 3.44% in which 0.64% of the improvement is due to the valve lift curve. Modified valve lift curves contribute mainly in decreasing the period of choked flow through the exhaust valves.

    Limitations of this study: The simulations were not validated against measurements; however, the mechanical and geometrical limitations were tried to keep realistic when manipulating the valve flow area events.

    What does the paper offer that is new in the field in comparison to other works of the author: In addition to the novelty of the engine architecture that combines turbocompound with DEP, the statistical analysis and comparison presented in this paper is new especially with demonstrating the importance of crank angle coupled flow characteristics of the valves.

    Conclusion: To achieve full fuel-saving potential of turbocompound DEP engines, the flow characteristics of the exhaust valves must be considered. The effective flow areas of the exhaust valves play important roles in the choked flow through the valves, the pumping work and the brake specific fuel consumption of the engine.

  • 6.
    Aghaali, Habib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Ångström, Hans-Erik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Externally divided exhaust period on a turbocompound engine for fuel-saving2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve exhaust heat utilization of a turbocharged engine, divided exhaust period (DEP) and turbocompound are integrated. The DEP concept decreases pumping loss created by the turbocompound. In the DEP concept the exhaust flow is divided between two different exhaust manifolds, blowdown and scavenging. One of the two exhaust valves on each engine cylinder is opened to the blowdown manifold at the first phase of exhaust stroke and the other valve is opened to the scavenging manifold at the later phase of exhaust stroke. This leads to lower exhaust back pressure and pumping loss. The combination of turbocompound engine with DEP has been examined previously and the result showed that this combination reduces the fuel consumption in low engine speeds and deteriorates it in high engine speeds. The main restriction of this combination was the low effective flow areas of the exhaust valves at high engine speeds.

    To overcome this restriction and increase the effective flow areas of the exhaust valves, DEP is employed externally on the exhaust manifold instead of engine exhaust valves. In externally DEP (ExDEP), both exhaust valves will be opened and closed similar to the corresponding turbocharged engine and the exhaust flow is divided by flow splits on the exhaust manifold. Two valves on the outlet ports of each flow split are added. One of them is a non-return valve (check valve) and the other one is synchronized with the cam shaft.

    In this study, the fuel-saving potential of ExDEP is analysed on the turbocompound engine at different engine speeds and loads and compared with the corresponding turbocharged engine, turbocompound engine and turbocompound DEP engine equipped. The results show that ExDEP has a great fuel-saving potential in almost all load points.

    ExDEP concept, itself, is a novel concept that there is no available literature about it. Moreover, combination of this new gas exchange system with turbocompound engines is an innovative extension of combined turbocompound DEP engines.

  • 7.
    Aghaali, Habib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Ångström, Hans-Erik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Improving Turbocharged Engine Simulation by Including Heat Transfer in the Turbocharger2012In: 2012 SAE International, SAE international , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engine simulation based on one-dimensional gas dynamics is well suited for integration of all aspects arising in engine and power-train developments. Commonly used turbocharger performance maps in engine simulation are measured in non-pulsating flow and without taking into account the heat transfer. Since on-engine turbochargers are exposed to pulsating flow and varying heat transfer situations, the maps in the engine simulation, i.e. GT-POWER, have to be shifted and corrected which are usually done by mass and efficiency multipliers for both turbine and compressor. The multipliers change the maps and are often different for every load point. Particularly, the efficiency multiplier is different for every heat transfer situation on the turbocharger. The aim of this paper is to include the heat transfer of the turbocharger in the engine simulation and consequently to reduce the use of efficiency multiplier for both the turbine and compressor. A set of experiment has been designed and performed on a water-oil-cooled turbocharger, which was installed on a 2 liter GDI engine with variable valve timing, for different load points of the engine and different conditions of heat transfer in the turbocharger. The experiments were the base to simulate heat transfer on the turbocharger, by adding a heat sink before the turbine and a heat source after the compressor. The efficiency multiplier of the turbine cannot compensate for all heat transfer in the turbine, so it is needed to put out heat from the turbine in addition to the using of efficiency multiplier. Results of this study show that including heat transfer of turbocharger in engine simulation enables to decrease the use of turbine efficiency multiplier and eliminate the use of compressor efficiency multiplier to correctly calculate the measured gas temperatures after turbine and compressor.

  • 8.
    Aghaali, Habib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Ångström, Hans-Erik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Performance Sensitivity to Exhaust Valves and Turbine Parameters on a Turbocompound Engine with Divided Exhaust Period2014In: SAE International Journal of Engines, ISSN 1946-3936, E-ISSN 1946-3944, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 1722-1733Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Turbocompound can utilize part of the exhaust energy on internal combustion engines; however, it increases exhaust back pressure, and pumping loss.  To avoid such drawbacks, divided exhaust period (DEP) technology is combined with the turbocompound engine. In the DEP concept the exhaust flow is divided between two different exhaust manifolds, blowdown and scavenging, with different valve timings. This leads to lower exhaust back pressure and improves engine performance.

    Combining turbocompound engine with DEP has been theoretically investigated previously and shown that this reduces the fuel consumption and there is a compromise between the turbine energy recovery and the pumping work in the engine optimization. However, the sensitivity of the engine performance has not been investigated for all relevant parameters. The main aim of this study is to analyze the sensitivity of this engine architecture in terms of break specific fuel consumption to different parameters concerning the gas exchange such as blowdown valve timing, scavenging valve timing, blowdown valve size, scavenging valve size, discharge coefficients of blowdown and scavenging ports, turbine efficiency, turbine size and power transmission efficiency. This study presents the sensitivity analysis of the turbocompound DEP engine to these parameters and defines a set of important parameters that should be examined in experimental studies.

  • 9.
    Aghaali, Habib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Ångström, Hans-Erik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Temperature Estimation of Turbocharger Working Fluids and Walls under Different Engine Loads and Heat Transfer Conditions2013In: SAE Technical Papers, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Turbocharger performance maps, which are used in engine simulations, are usually measured on a gas-stand where the temperatures distributions on the turbocharger walls are entirely different from that under real engine operation. This should be taken into account in the simulation of a turbocharged engine. Dissimilar wall temperatures of turbochargers give different air temperature after the compressor and different exhaust gas temperature after the turbine at a same load point. The efficiencies are consequently affected. This can lead to deviations between the simulated and measured outlet temperatures of the turbocharger turbine and compressor. This deviation is larger during a transient load step because the temperatures of turbocharger walls change slowly due to the thermal inertia. Therefore, it is important to predict the temperatures of turbocharger walls and the outlet temperatures of the turbocharger working fluids in a turbocharged engine simulation.

    In the work described in this paper, a water-oil-cooled turbocharger was extensively instrumented with several thermocouples on reachable walls. The turbocharger was installed on a 2-liter gasoline engine that was run under different loads and different heat transfer conditions on the turbocharger by using insulators, an extra cooling fan, radiation shields and water-cooling settings. The turbine inlet temperature varied between 550 and 850 °C at different engine loads.

    The results of this study show that the temperatures of turbocharger walls are predictable from the experiment. They are dependent on the load point and the heat transfer condition of the turbocharger. The heat transfer condition of an on-engine turbocharger could be defined by the turbine inlet temperature, ambient temperature, oil heat flux, water heat flux and the velocity of the air around the turbocharger. Thus, defining the heat transfer condition and rotational speed of the turbocharger provides temperatures predictions of the turbocharger walls and the working fluids. This prediction enables increased precision in engine simulation for future work in transient operation.

  • 10.
    Aghaali, Habib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    Ångström, Hans-Erik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    The Exhaust Energy Utilization of a Turbocompound Engine Combined with Divided Exhaust Period2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To decrease the influence of the increased exhaust pressure of a turbocompound engine, a new architecture is developed by combining the turbocompound engine with divided exhaust period (DEP). The aim of this study is to utilize the earlier stage (blowdown) of the exhaust stroke in the turbine(s) and let the later stage (scavenging) of the exhaust stroke bypass the turbine(s). To decouple the blowdown phase from the scavenging phase, the exhaust flow is divided between two different exhaust manifolds with different valve timing. A variable valve train system is assumed to enable optimization at different load points. The fuel-saving potential of this architecture have been theoretically investigated by examining different parameters such as turbine flow capacity, blowdown valve timing and scavenging valve timing. Many combinations of these parameters are considered in the optimization of the engine for different engine loads and speeds.

    This architecture produces less negative pumping work for the same engine load point due to lower exhaust back pressure; however, the exhaust mass flow into the turbine(s) is decreased. Therefore, there is a compromise between the turbine energy recovery and the pumping work. According to this study, this combination shows fuel-saving potential in low engine speeds and limitations at high engine speeds. This is mainly due to the choked flow in the exhaust valves because this approach is using only one of the two exhaust valves at a time. To reveal the full potential of this approach, increasing the effective flow area of the valves should be studied.

  • 11.
    Aghaali, Habib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Ångström, Hans-Erik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Turbocharged SI-Engine Simulation with Cold and Hot-Measured Turbocharger Performance Maps2012In: Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2012, Vol 5, ASME Press, 2012, p. 671-679Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heat transfer within the turbocharger is an issue in engine simulation based on zero and one-dimensional gas dynamics. Turbocharged engine simulation is often done without taking into account the heat transfer in the turbocharger. In the simulation, using multipliers is the common way of adjusting turbocharger speed and parameters downstream of the compressor and upstream of the turbine. However, they do not represent the physical reality. The multipliers change the maps and need often to be different for different load points. The aim of this paper is to simulate a turbocharged engine and also consider heat transfer in the turbocharger. To be able to consider heat transfer in the turbine and compressor, heat is transferred from the turbine volute and into the compressor scroll. Additionally, the engine simulation was done by using two different turbocharger performance maps of a turbocharger measured under cold and hot conditions. The turbine inlet temperatures were 100 and 600°C, respectively. The turbocharged engine experiment was performed on a water-oil-cooled turbocharger (closed waste-gate), which was installed on a 2-liter gasoline direct-injected engine with variable valve timing, for different load points of the engine. In the work described in this paper, the difference between cold and hot-measured turbocharger performance maps is discussed and the quantified heat transfers from the turbine and to/from the compressor are interpreted and related to the maps.

  • 12.
    Aghaali, Habib
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    Ångström, Hans-Erik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    Serrano, Jose R
    Universitat Politècnica de València.
    Evaluation of different heat transfer conditions on an automotive turbocharger2014In: International Journal of Engine Research, ISSN 1468-0874, E-ISSN 2041-3149, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 137-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a combination of theoretical and experimental investigations for determining the main heat fluxes within a turbocharger. These investigations consider several engine speeds and loads as well as different methods of conduction, convection, and radiation heat transfer on the turbocharger. A one-dimensional heat transfer model of the turbocharger has been developed in combination with simulation of a turbocharged engine that includes the heat transfer of the turbocharger. Both the heat transfer model and the simulation were validated against experimental measurements. Various methods were compared for calculating heat transfer from the external surfaces of the turbocharger, and one new method was suggested.

    The effects of different heat transfer conditions were studied on the heat fluxes of the turbocharger using experimental techniques. The different heat transfer conditions on the turbocharger created dissimilar temperature gradients across the turbocharger. The results show that changing the convection heat transfer condition around the turbocharger affects the heat fluxes more noticeably than changing the radiation and conduction heat transfer conditions. Moreover, the internal heat transfers from the turbine to the bearing housing and from the bearing housing to the compressor are significant, but there is an order of magnitude difference between these heat transfer rates.

  • 13.
    Andrae, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Reaction Engineering.
    Johansson, David
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Reaction Engineering.
    Björnbom, Pehr
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Reaction Engineering.
    Risberg, Per
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Kalghatgi, Gautam
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Cooxidation in the auto-ignition of primary reference fuels and n-heptane/toluene blends2005In: Combustion and Flame, ISSN 0010-2180, E-ISSN 1556-2921, Vol. 140, no 4, p. 267-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Auto-ignition of fuel mixtures was investigated both theoretically and experimentally to gain further understanding of the fuel chemistry. A homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine was run under different operating conditions with fuels of different RON and MON and different chemistries. Fuels considered were primary reference fuels and toluene/n-heptane blends. The experiments were modeled with a single-zone adiabatic model together with detailed chemical kinetic models. In the model validation, co-oxidation reactions between the individual fuel components were found to be important in order to predict HCCI experiments, shock-tube ignition delay time data, and ignition delay times in rapid compression machines. The kinetic models with added co-oxidation reactions further predicted that an n-heptane/toluene fuel with the same RON as the corresponding primary reference fuel had higher resistance to auto-ignition in HCCI combustion for lower intake temperatures and higher intake pressures. However, for higher intake temperatures and lower intake pressures the n-heptane/toluene fuel and the PRF fuel had similar combustion phasing.

  • 14. Anton, N.
    et al.
    Genrup, M.
    Fredriksson, C.
    Larsson, P. -I
    Christiansen Erlandsson, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Axial turbine design for a twin-turbine heavy-duty turbocharger concept2018In: Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo, ASME Press, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the process of evaluating a parallel twin-turbine pulseturbocharged concept, the results considering the turbine operation clearly pointed towards an axial type of turbine. The radial turbine design first analyzed was seen to suffer from suboptimum values of flow coefficient, stage loading and blade-speed-ratio. Modifying the radial turbine by both assessing the influence of "trim" and inlet tip diameter all concluded that this type of turbine is limited for the concept. Mainly, the turbine stage was experiencing high values of flow coefficient, requiring a more high flowing type of turbine. Therefore, an axial turbine stage could be feasible as this type of turbine can handle significantly higher flow rates very efficiently. Also, the design spectrum is broader as the shape of the turbine blades is not restricted by a radially fibred geometry as in the radial turbine case. In this paper, a single stage axial turbine design is presented. As most turbocharger concepts for automotive and heavy-duty applications are dominated by radial turbines, the axial turbine is an interesting option to be evaluated for pulsecharged concepts. Values of crank-angle-resolved turbine and flow parameters from engine simulations are used as input to the design and subsequent analysis. The data provides a valuable insight into the fluctuating turbine operating conditions and is a necessity for matching a pulse-turbocharged system. Starting on a 1D-basis, the design process is followed through, resulting in a fully defined 3D-geometry. The 3Ddesign is evaluated both with respect to FEA and CFD as to confirm high performance and durability. Turbine maps were used as input to the engine simulation in order to assess this design with respect to "on-engine" conditions and to engine performance. The axial design shows clear advantages with regards to turbine parameters, efficiency and tip speed levels compared to a reference radial design. Improvement in turbine efficiency enhanced the engine performance significantly. The study concludes that the proposed single stage axial turbine stage design is viable for a pulse-turbocharged sixcylinder heavy-duty engine. Taking into account both turbine performance and durability aspects, validation in engine simulations, a highly efficient engine with a practical and realizable turbocharger concept resulted.

  • 15. Anton, N.
    et al.
    Genrup, M.
    Fredriksson, C.
    Larsson, P. -I
    Christiansen Erlandsson, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    On the choice of turbine type for a twin-turbine heavy-duty turbocharger concept2018In: Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo, ASME Press, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a fundamental approach to the choice of turbocharger turbine for a pulse-charged heavy-duty diesel engine is presented. A standard six-cylinder engine build with a production exhaust manifold and a Twin-scroll turbocharger is used as a baseline case. The engine exhaust configuration is redesigned and evaluated in engine simulations for a pulse-charged concept consisting of a parallel twin-turbine layout. This concept will allow for pulse separation with minimized exhaust pulse interference and low exhaust manifold volume. This turbocharger concept is uncommon, as most previous studies have considered two stage systems, various multiple entry turbine stages etc. Even more rare is the fundamental aspect regarding the choice of turbine type as most manufacturers tend to focus on radial turbines, which by far dominate the turbochargers of automotive and heavy-duty applications. By characterizing the turbine operation with regards to turbine parameters for optimum performance found in literature a better understanding of the limitations of turbine types can be achieved. A compact and low volume exhaust manifold design is constructed for the turbocharger concept and the reference radial turbine map is scaled in engine simulations to a pre-set AFRtarget at a low engine RPM. By obtaining crank-angle-resolved data from engine simulations, key turbine parameters are studied with regard to the engine exhaust pulse-train. At the energetic exhaust pressure pulse peak, the reference radial turbine is seen to operate with suboptimum values of Blade-Speed-Ratio, Stage Loading and Flow Coefficient. The study concludes that in order to achieve high turbine efficiency for this pulse-charged turbocharger concept, a turbine with efficiency optimum towards low Blade-Speed Ratios, high Stage Loading and high Flow Coefficient is required. An axial turbine of low degree of reaction-design could be viable in this respect.

  • 16. Anton, N.
    et al.
    Genrup, M.
    Fredriksson, C.
    Larsson, P. -I
    Erlandsson-Christiansen, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Exhaust volume dependency of turbocharger turbine design for a heavy duty otto cycle engine2017In: Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo: Turbomachinery Technical Conference and Exposition, GT 2017, ASME Press, 2017, Vol. 2C, article id V02CT44A015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is considering turbocharger turbine performance at "on-engine" conditions with respect to turbine design variables and exhaust manifold volume. The highly unsteady nature of the internal combustion engine will result in a very wide range of turbine operation, far from steady flow conditions. As most turbomachinery design work is conducted at steady state, the influence of the chosen turbine design variables on the crank-angle-resolved turbine performance will be of prime interest. In order to achieve high turbocharger efficiency with the greatest benefits for the engine, the turbine will need high efficiency at the energetic exhaust pressure pulse peak. The starting point for this paper is a target full load power curve for a heavy duty Otto-cycle engine, which will dictate an initial compressor and turbine match. Three radial turbine designs are investigated, differing with respect to efficiency characteristics, using a common compressor stage. The influence of the chosen turbine design variables considering a main contributor to unsteadiness, exhaust manifold volume, is evaluated using 1D engine simulation software. A discussion is held in conjunction with this regarding the efficiency potential of each turbine design and limitations of turbine types.

  • 17.
    Bernemyr, Hanna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Ångström, Hans-Erik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Characterization of Tailpipe Exhaust Particles using a Rotating Disc Diluter and a Volatility Tandem DMA (v-TDMA)2006In: SAE 2006 Transactions Journal of Fuels and Lubricants, 2006, Vol. 2006-01-3367Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A v-TDMA instrument has been used to study the tailpipe exhaust particles of a heavy-duty Diesel engine equipped with a continuously regenerating trap (CRT) running at two different steady state conditions: high speed / medium load and medium speed / high load. The sample was extracted directly out of the engine and conditioned by use of a rotating disc diluter. This paper deals with measurements where the parallel mode of the v-TDMA instrument was used. A temperature of 350 °C was applied in the heated section of the v-TDMA to study the thermal stability of the particles. Dilution between 86 and 1740 times were applied to see if the amount of dilution affected the particle behavior. The CRT reduces the number concentration of accumulation mode particles by 90%. When using the CRT, high numbers of nucleation mode particles are measured that can be volatilized at 350° in the v-TDMA instrument. For nucleation mode particles, changing the dilution from 86 to 386 times can suppress particle formation by up to 90%. The present work shows that the rotating disc diluter together with the v-TDMA instrument are promising tools for study of exhaust particles sampled directly out of the engine.

  • 18. Binder, C.
    et al.
    Abou Nada, F.
    Richter, M.
    Cronhjort, Andreas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Norling, D.
    Heat Loss Analysis of a Steel Piston and a YSZ Coated Piston in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Using Phosphor Thermometry Measurements2017In: SAE International Journal of Engines, ISSN 1946-3936, E-ISSN 1946-3944, Vol. 10, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diesel engine manufacturers strive towards further efficiency improvements. Thus, reducing in-cylinder heat losses is becoming increasingly important. Understanding how location, thermal insulation, and engine operating conditions affect the heat transfer to the combustion chamber walls is fundamental for the future reduction of in-cylinder heat losses. This study investigates the effect of a 1mm-thick plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating on a piston. Such a coated piston and a similar steel piston are compared to each other based on experimental data for the heat release, the heat transfer rate to the oil in the piston cooling gallery, the local instantaneous surface temperature, and the local instantaneous surface heat flux. The surface temperature was measured for different crank angle positions using phosphor thermometry. The fuel was chosen to be n-heptane to facilitate surface temperature measurements during non-skip-fire, thermally stabilized operating conditions. Assuming one-dimensional heat transfer inside each piston, the local instantaneous surface heat flux was calculated using the heat transfer rate to the oil in the piston cooling gallery and the surface temperature measurements. The results from this study show that the surface temperature variation is similar for both pistons. The instantaneous heat flux during combustion is however significantly greater for the steel piston than the coated piston. The heat release analysis also indicates that combustion is slower for the piston with the yttria-stabilized zirconia coating.

  • 19.
    Crescenzo, Domenico
    et al.
    KTH.
    Olsson, Viktor
    KTH.
    Arco Sola, Javier
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Wu, Hongwen
    KTH.
    Cronhjort, Andreas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Lycke, E.
    Leufven, O.
    Stenlaas, O.
    Turbocharger Speed Estimation via Vibration Analysis2016In: SAE technical paper series, ISSN 0148-7191, Vol. 2016-April, no AprilArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to demanding legislation on exhaust emissions for internal combustion engines and increasing fuel prices, automotive manufacturers have focused their efforts on optimizing turbocharging systems. Turbocharger system control optimization is difficult: Unsteady flow conditions combined with not very accurate compressor maps make the real time turbocharger rotational speed one of the most important quantities in the optimization process. This work presents a methodology designed to obtain the turbocharger rotational speed via vibration analysis. Standard knock sensors have been employed in order to achieve a robust and accurate, yet still a low-cost solution capable of being mounted on-board. Results show that the developed method gives an estimation of the turbocharger rotational speed, with errors and accuracy acceptable for the proposed application. The method has been evaluated on a heavy duty diesel engine.

  • 20.
    Cronhjort, Andreas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Droplet Velocities in a Sliced Diesel Spray2001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives a summary of particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements performed in a sliced diesel spray. The slicing of the spray was necessary to achieve good image quality in the more dense regions of the spray. The images were double exposed to allow auto-correlation based velocimetry. The exposure time of each exposure was 100 ns, as that was the shortest possible exposure with the camera used. The illumination was achieved with a flashlight located at the opposite side of the spray, consequently the droplets were visible as dark shadows. The long exposure time limited the possibilities to measure high velocities, and therefore the velocities in the very rapidly moving spray core could not be measured, as the images were smeared out in the direction of the velocity. The resulting velocities were compared to velocities in the corresponding unsliced spray in the points where both sprays gave velocity data. The results were also compared with computer simulations. Some disagreements were found, and possible reasons for these are discussed.

  • 21.
    Cronhjort, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines. Scania CV AB.
    Dahlén, Lars
    Diesel Flame Studies in an Optical Engine2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A diesel engine with optical access through an extended piston has been developed. It is based on a heavy duty truck engine and the purpose is to generate calibration data for computer simulation of spray combustion, hereby facilitating reliable combustion prediction using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Conventional photography using a solid-state camera was adopted to image the combustion. As the upper surface of the glass window in the piston is flat, the compression ratio of the engine is reduced to 12:1, in order to avoid that the spray plumes hit the glass surface. To compensate for the lowered compression ratio, the inlet pressure as well as the inlet temperature were increased. As top dead center conditions regarding gas density and temperature are desired to be maintained, this approach results in an increased overall air-to-fuel ratio. Additionally, the cylinder pressure decay due to the piston movement becomes slower than it should be at the present engine speed. However, despite these drawbacks, the engine allows for spray combustion studies under realistic diesel engine conditions regarding pressure and temperature. In the preliminary study the inlet pressure was 400 kPa absolute and the temperature was 450 K, resulting in a compression pressure of about 8.6 MPa at top dead center when the engine runs at 1200 rpm. To predict the air mass in the cylinder as accurately as possible, the exhaust back pressure is always kept equal to the inlet pressure. To minimize the thermal load on the piston, fuel is injected only during cycles when an image is exposed. This is also beneficial when estimating the air mass in the cylinder, as the temperature of the rest gas from the preceding cycle is quite low. In the preliminary study a nozzle with eight orifices fitted to a common-rail injector was used to generate the sprays. The orifice diameter was 190 µm. The rail pressure was 160 MPa and the injected amount of fuel was 80 mg. The resulting combustion was dominated by diffusion flames.

  • 22.
    Cronhjort, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Konstanzer, Dennis
    Scania (CFD).
    Analysis of a Diesel Spray Using a Mechanical Slicing Device2001Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives a summary of image velocimetry measurements performed in a sliced diesel spray. The slicing of the spray was necessary to achieve sufficient image quality in the more dense regions of the spray. The images were double exposed to allow auto-correlation based velocimetry. The illumination was achieved with a xenon flashlight behind the spray and consequently the droplets were visible as dark shadows. Images were acquired from different points downstream from the nozzle, and a number of different radii were employed at every position. In the images the smaller droplets seem to be spherical, while the larger ones are distorted due to high weber numbers. Computer simulations indicate that large droplets may reach high weber numbers when passing through the slit, and that some of these large droplets break up.

  • 23. Dembinski, H.
    et al.
    Ängström, Hans-Erik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Swirl and injection pressure impact on after-oxidation in diesel combustion, examined with simultaneous combustion image velocimetry and two colour optical method2013In: SAE Technical Papers: Volume 2, 2013, S A E Inc , 2013, Vol. 2, p. 2013-01-0913-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After-oxidation in Heavy Duty (HD) diesel combustion is of paramount importance for emissions out from the engine. During diffusion diesel combustion, lots of particulate matter (PM) is created. Most of the PM are combusted during the after-oxidation part of the combustion. Still some of the PM is not, especially during an engine transient at low lambda. To enhance the PM oxidation in the late engine cycle, swirl together with high injection pressure can be implemented to increase in-cylinder turbulence at different stages in the cycle. Historically swirl is known to reduce soot particulates. It has also been shown, that with today's high injection pressures, can be combined with swirl to reduce PM at an, for example, engine transient. The mechanism why the PM engine out is reduced also at high injection pressures is however not so well understood. In this work flow field data during combustion and after-oxidation together with soot and temperature measurements was combined to examine how flow field affects soot formation and oxidation. Swirl number was varied together with injection pressure and the engine tests were done in a HD optical engine. The load was set to 10 bar & 20 bar IMEP at low lambda without EGR, typically transient load points. A high speed colour camera captures picture of the combustion seen through a glass piston-bowl. The flow field was extracted with combustion image velocimetry (CIV) that traces the glowing soot particulates (or the light luminosity difference) by cross correlation between two pictures from the high speed colour camera. From the same pictures the KL factor and flame temperature were simultaneously calculated with the 2-colour method. Both CIV and the 2-colour method are line of sight optical methods that catches flow, soot and temperature from the light observed through the piston. It was found that in the after-oxidation part of the cycle, the flow in the piston bowl deviates strongly from solid body rotation (that can be assumed to be the case before injection). With increased injection pressure this deviation from solid body rotation increased at constant swirl number. When swirl number was increased, the deviation from solid body rotation increased even further. This seems to be an important factor during the after-oxidation part of the combustion by amplifying the turbulence. The flame temperature together with KL factor (a measure of soot density inside the cylinder) was also influenced when the flow field in the cylinder was changed. With increased injection pressure, from 500 bar to 1000 bar, the maximum KL was amplified during combustion with 50%, but the measured tail pipe soot was decreasing from 1.22 FSN to 0.49 FSN. This together with increased solid body deviation for the 1000 bar case, at the after-oxidation part of the combustion, leads to the conclusion: The flow field during the late part of the cycle has strong impact on tail pipe soot emissions. What was created during the diffusion combustion has less impact on the tail pipe soot compared to the flow field effects during after-oxidation.

  • 24.
    Dembinski, Henrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Flow measurements using combustion image velocimetry in diesel engines2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This work shows the in-cylinder airflow, and its effects on combustion and emissions, in a modern, heavy-duty diesel engine. The in-cylinder airflow is examined experimentally in an optical engine and the flow field inside the cylinder is quantified and shown during combustion, crank angle resolved. Cross-correlation on combustion pictures, with its natural light from black body radiation, has been done to calculate the vector field during the injection and after-oxidation period. In this work, this technique is called combustion image velocimetry (CIV). The quantified in-cylinder flow is compared with simulated data, calculated using the GT-POWER 1-D simulation tool, and combined with single-cylinder emission measurements at various in-cylinder airflows. The airflow in the single cylinder, characterised by swirl, tumble and turbulent intensity, was varied by using an active valve train (AVT), which allowed change in airflow during the engine’s operation. The same operation points were examined in the single-cylinder engine, optical engine and simulated in GT-POWER.

    This work has shown that the in-cylinder airflow has a great impact on emissions and combustion in diesel engines, even at injection pressures up to 2,500 bar, with or without EGR and load up to 20-bar IMEP. Swirl is the strongest player to reduce soot emissions. Tumble has been shown to affect soot emissions negatively in combination with swirl. Tumble seems to offset the swirl centre and the offset is observed also after combustion in the optical engine tests. Injection pressure affects the swirl at late crank angle degrees during the after-oxidation part of the combustion. Higher injection pressure gives a higher measured swirl. This increase is thought to be created by the fuel spray flow interaction. The angular velocity in the centre of the piston bowl is significantly higher compared with the velocity in the outer region of the bowl. Higher injection pressure gives larger difference of the angular velocity.

    Calculated swirl number from the CIV technique has also been compared with other calculation methods, GT-POWER and CFD-based method. The result from the CIV technique are in line with the other methods. CFD-based calculations, according to [62], has the best fit to the CIV method. The GT-POWER calculations shows the same trend at low swirl number, but at high swirl number the two methods differs significantly.

  • 25.
    Dembinski, Henrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    In-cylinder Flow Characterisation of Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Using Combustion Image Velocimetry2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In-cylinder flow in diesel engines has a large impact on combustion and emission formation. In this work, the flow is characterised with a new measurement method called combustion image velocimetry (CIV). This technique is used to explain how airflow introduced during induction affects soot emissions and interacts with injection pressures up to 2500 bar. The CIV measurements enable flow analysis during the combustion and post-oxidation phases. The flow velocities inside the cylinder of a heavy duty optical engine, was measured with a crank angle (CA) resolution of 0.17° at injection pressures of 200–2500 bar and up to nearly full load (20 bar indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP)), were investigated with this method. The flow field results were combined with optical flame temperature and soot measurements, calculated according to Planck’s black body radiation theory.

    At the high injection pressures typical of today’s production standard engines and with rotational in-cylinder flow about the cylinder axis, large deviations from solid-body rotational flow were observed during combustion and post-oxidation. The rotational flow, called swirl, was varied between swirl number (SN) 0.4 and 6.7. The deviation from solid-body rotational flow, which normally is an assumption made in swirling combustion systems, formed much higher angular rotational velocities of the air in the central region of the piston bowl than in the outer part of the bowl. This deviation has been shown to be a source for turbulent kinetic energy production, which has the possibility to influence soot burn-out during the post-oxidation period.

    The measured CIV data was compared to Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) CFD simulations, and the two methods produced similar results for the flow behaviour. This thesis describes the CIV method, which is closely related to particle image velocimetry (PIV). It was found in this work that the spatial plane in the cylinder evaluated with CIV corresponds to a mean depth of 3 mm from the piston bowl surface into the combustion chamber during combustion. During the post-oxidation phase of combustion, the measured spatial plane corresponds to a mean value of the total depth of the cylinder. The large bulk flow that contributes to the soot oxidation is thereby captured with the method and can successfully be analysed. The link between changes in in-cylinder flow and emissions is examined in this work.

  • 26.
    Dembinski, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Ångström, Hans-Erik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    An Experimental Study of the Influence of Variable In-Cylinder Flow, Caused by Active Valve Train, on Combustion and Emissions in a Diesel Engine at Low Lambda Operation2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spray and mixture formation in a compression ignition engine is of paramount importance for diesel combustion. In engine transient operation, when the load increases rapidly, the combustion system needs to handle low lambda (λ) operation while avoiding high particle emissions. Single cylinder tests were performed to evaluate the effect of differences in cylinder flow on combustion and emissions at typical low λ transient operation. The tests were performed on a heavy duty single cylinder test engine with Lotus Active Valve Train (AVT) controlling the inlet airflow. The required swirl number (SN) and tumble were controlled by applying different inlet valve profiles and opening either both inlet valves or only one or the other. The operating point of interest was extracted from engine transient conditions before the boost pressure was increased and investigated further at steady state conditions. The AVT enabled the resulting SN to be controlled at bottom dead centre (BDC) from ~0.3 to 6.8 and tumble from ~0.5 to 4. The fuel injection pressure was varied from 500 bar up to 2000 bar, with increments of 500 bar, for each SN and tumble setting. No exhaust gas recirculation was used in following tests. GT-POWER was used to calculate SN, tumble, and turbulent intensity with the different valve settings. The input data for the GT-POWER flow calculations were measured in a steady-state flow rig with honeycomb torque measurement.

    The main conclusion of this study was that the air flow structure in the cylinder, characterized by SN, tumble, and turbulent intensity, has a significant effect on the resulting engine combustion and emissions for the investigated range of fuel injection pressures. By increasing SN above 3, while maintaining tumble at low levels, the engine could be run with richer air/fuel mixtures without further increasing smoke emissions at injection pressures 1000 bar and above. Also, NO

    xemissions decreased at λ below 1.3; ignition delay time decreased at higher tumble and turbulent levels; and higher levels of swirl resulted in more rapid combustion, decreasing smoke emissions at injection pressures over 1000 bar. Smoke emissions increase at higher engine speeds (above 1200 rpm) and high SN (above 6). The results of this study demonstrate that the mixing process controlled by in-cylinder flow (swirl and tumble) has a dominant effect on combustion.

  • 27.
    Dembinski, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Ångström, Hans-Erik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Optical study of swirl during combustion in a CI engine with different injection pressures and swirl ratios compared with calculations2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spray and mixture formation in a compression-ignition engine is of paramount importance in the diesel combustion process. In an ngine transient, when the load increases rapidly, the combustion system needs to handle low operation without producing high NO x emissions and large amounts of particulate matter. By changing the in-cylinder flow, the emissions and engine efficiency are affected.

    Optical engine studies were therefore performed on a heavy-duty engine geometry at different fuel injection pressures and inlet airflow characteristics. By applying different inlet port designs and valve seat masking, swirl and tumble were varied. In the engine tests, swirl number was varied from 2.3 to 6.3 and the injection pressure from 500 to 2500 bar. To measure the in-cylinder flow around TDC, particle image velocimetry software was used to evaluate combustion pictures. The pictures were taken in an optical engine using a digital high-speed camera. Clouds of glowing soot particles were captured by the camera and traced with particle image velocimetry software. The velocity-vector field from the pictures was thereby extracted and a mean swirl number was calculated. The swirl number was then compared with 1D simulation program GT-POWER and CFD based correlations. The GT-POWER simulations and CFD based correlation calculations were initiated from steady-state flow bench data on tested cylinder heads.

    The main conclusions from this study were that the mean swirl numbers, evaluated with the PIV software from combustion pictures around TDC, agreed with CFD based correlations and the low swirl numbers also correlated with the 1D-simulation program. Most of the induced swirl motion survives the compression and combustion, while the induced tumble does not survive to the late combustion phase. The tumble however, disturbs the swirl motion and offsets the swirl centre. This offset survives the compression and combustion. The diesel sprays that are injected symmetrically in the combustion chamber are thereby exposed to the swirl asymmetrically. This study also shows that the angular velocity at different piston bowl radii deviates from solid body rotation. The angular velocity is higher closer to the centre and decreases to be at the lowest value at the outer piston bowl edge. When the injection pressure is increased, the deviation from solid body rotation increases due to spray effects.

  • 28.
    Dembinski, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Ångström, Hans-Erik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Swirl and Injection Pressure Effect on Post-Oxidation Flow Pattern Evaluated with Combustion Image Velocimetry, CIV, and CFD Simulation2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In-cylinder flow pattern has been examined experimentally in a heavy duty optical diesel engine and simulated with CFD code during the combustion and the post-oxidation phase. Mean swirling velocity field and its evolution were extracted from optical tests with combustion image velocimetry (CIV). It is known that the post-oxidation period has great impact on the soot emissions. Lately it has been shown in swirling combustion systems with high injection pressures, that the remaining swirling vortex in the post-oxidation phase deviates strongly from solid body rotation. Solid body rotation can only be assumed to be the case before fuel injection. In the studied cases the tangential velocity is higher in the centre of the piston bowl compared to the outer region of the bowl. The used CIV method is closely related to the PIV technique, but makes it possible to extract flow pattern during combustion at full load in an optical diesel engine. Injection pressure was varied from 200 up to 2500 bar at 1000 rpm without EGR. Swirl was varied between 1.2 and 6.4 at BDC. The CFD simulation was a sector simulation on the same in-cylinder geometry and boundary conditions as in the optical engine.

    The main findings show that with increased injection pressure, together with swirl, the angular velocity increases in the centre of the piston bowl meanwhile the angular velocity decreases slightly in the outer region. The total angular momentum decreases slightly when injection starts and the total rotational kinetic energy increases significantly. The redistribution of the angular velocity is caused by the driving force from the injection. When the swirling bulk flow acts on the injected spray/flame, its orbit is slightly directed to the leeward side of the swirl. When the flame is directed back to the cylinder centre, by the bowl, it has thereby an offset from where it is injected. This offset together with the high flow velocity from the flame increases the angular velocity in the central region of the combustion chamber. The angular velocity in the outer part of the bowl decreases slightly when angular momentum is moved into the centre of the bowl were the velocity increases. This deviation in angular velocity has been observed in both the CFD results and in the CIV results were it survives into the post-oxidation phase with slow dissipation during the expansion stroke. The dissipation is a source for late cycle turbulence generation that affects the soot oxidation.

  • 29.
    Dembinski, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Ångström, Hans-Erik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    The effects of injection pressure on swirl and flow pattern in diesel combustionIn: International Journal of Engine Research, ISSN 1468-0874, E-ISSN 2041-3149Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Dembinski, Henrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Ångström, Hans-Erik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Razzaq, H.
    In-Cylinder Flow Pattern Evaluated with Combustion Image Velocimetry, CIV, and CFD Calculations during Combustion and Post-Oxidation in a HD Diesel Engine2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In-cylinder flow pattern was evaluated during diesel combustion and post-oxidation in a heavy duty optical engine and compared with CFD calculations. In this work the recently developed optical method combustion image velocimetry (CIV) is evaluated. It was used for extracting the flow pattern during combustion and post-oxidation by tracing the glowing soot clouds in the cylinder. The results were compared with CFD sector simulation on the same heavy duty engine geometry. Load was 10 bar IMEP and injection pressure was varied in two steps together with two different swirl levels. The same variations were done in both the optical engine and in the CFD simulations.

    The main results in this work show that the CIV method and the CFD results catch the same flow pattern trends during combustion and post-oxidation. Evaluation of the CIV technique has been done on large scale swirl vortices and compared with the CFD results at different distances from the piston bowl surface. The flow field according to CIV is shown to resemble the flow quite near the optical piston bowl surface during the diffusion combustion period in the CFD results. During the after-oxidation period, the observed CIV data coincide with mean velocity data from CFD, calculated on the total depth from cylinder head to piston surface. Both methods indicate that the in-cylinder flow is strongly deviating from solid body rotation during the diffusion flame and after-oxidation period. This deviation is not so significant before injection. During the after-oxidation period, the deviation from solid body rotation increases with injection pressure.

  • 31.
    Ericsson, Gustav
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Ångström, Hans-Erik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Westin, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Optimizing the Transient of an SI-Engine Equipped with Variable Cam Timing and Variable Turbine2010In: SAE International Journal of Engines, ISSN 1946-3936, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 903-915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the engines of today decrease in displacement with unchanged power output, focus of today's research is on transient response. The trend of today is to use a turbocharger with high boost level. For SI-engines a regular WG turbocharger has been used, but in the future, when the boost level increases together with higher demand on the transient response, a Variable Nozzle Turbine (VNT) will be used together with Variable Valve Timing (VVT). As the degree of freedom increases, the control strategies during a transient load step will be more difficult to develop. A 1D simulation experiment has been conducted in GT Power where the transient simulation was "frozen" at certain time steps. The data from these time steps was put in a stationary simulation and the excessive energy was then bled off to obtain the same conditions for the engine in the stationary simulation as if the engine where in the middle of the transient. This method allows a faster and easier way to obtain a good control strategy for the VNT turbine and the VVT during a transient load step. The method can be used to find VNT/VVT settings strategies for the transient control with a good and robust result.

  • 32.
    Gundmalm, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Divided Exhaust Period on Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to growing concerns regarding global energy security and environmental sustainability it is becoming increasingly important to increase the energy efficiency of the transport sector. The internal combustion engine will probably continue to be the main propulsion system for road transportation for many years to come. Hence, much effort must be put in reducing the fuel consumption of the internal combustion engine to prolong a future decline in fossil fuel production and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

    Turbocharging and variable valve actuation applied to any engine has shown great benefits to engine efficiency and performance. However, using a turbocharger on an engine gives some drawbacks. In an attempt to solve some of these issues and increase engine efficiency further this thesis deals with the investigation of a novel gas exchange concept called divided exhaust period (DEP). The core idea of the DEP concept is to utilize variable valve timing technology on the exhaust side in combination with turbocharging. The principle of the concept is to let the initial high energy blow-down pulse feed the turbocharger, but bypass the turbine during the latter part of the exhaust stroke when back pressure dominates the pumping work. The exhaust flow from the cylinder is divided between two exhaust manifolds of which one is connected to the turbine, and one bypasses the turbine. The flow split between the manifolds is controlled with a variable valve train system.

    The DEP concept has been studied through simulations on three heavy-duty diesel engines; one without exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), one with short route EGR and one with long route EGR. Simulations show a potential improvement to pumping work, due to reduced backpressure, with increased overall engine efficiency as a result. Although, the efficiency improvement is highly dependent on exhaust valve size and configuration due to issues with choked flow in the exhaust valves. The EGR system of choice also proves to have a high impact on the working principle of the DEP application. Furthermore, the DEP concept allows better control of the boost pressure and allows the turbine to operate at higher efficiency across the whole load and speed range. The option of discarding both wastegate and variable geometry turbine is apparent, and there is little need for a twin-entry type turbine since pulse interference between cylinders is less of an issue.

  • 33.
    Gundmalm, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    Cronhjort, Andreas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    Ångström, Hans-Erik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    Divided Exhaust Period: Effects of Changing the Relation between Intake, Blow-Down and Scavenging Valve Area2013In: SAE International Journal of Engines, ISSN 1946-3936, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 739-750Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a previous paper we showed the effects of applying the Divided Exhaust Period (DEP) concept on two heavy-duty diesel engines, with and without Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). Main findings were improved fuel consumption due to increased pumping work, improved boost control and reduced residual gas content. However, some limitations to the concept were discovered. In the case of high rates of short route EGR, it was apparent that deducting the EGR flow from the turbine manifold impaired optimal valve timing strategies. Furthermore, for both of the studied engines it was clear that the size and ratio of blow-down to scavenging valve area is of paramount importance for engine fuel efficiency. In this paper, the DEP concept has been studied together with a long route EGR system. As expected it gave more freedom to valve timing strategies when driving pressure for EGR is no longer controlled with the valve timing, as in the short route case. However, when evaluating different combinations of intake, blow-down and scavenging valve area, the optimal relation proves to be strongly dependent on the current EGR system and EGR rates. Hence, for different engine setups the trade-off between total intake and total exhaust area needs to be re-evaluated for optimal engine fuel efficiency. This paper also presents general trends in how different valve timing strategies and EGR rates affect both pumping work and boost pressure.

  • 34.
    Gundmalm, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Cronhjort, Andreas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Ångström, Hans-Erik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Divided Exhaust Period: Effects of Changing the Relation between Intake, Blow-Down and Scavenging Valve Area2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a previous paper we showed the effects of applying the Divided Exhaust Period (DEP) concept on two heavy-duty diesel engines, with and without Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). Main findings were improved fuel consumption due to increased pumping work, improved boost control and reduced residual gas content. However, some limitations to the concept were discovered.  In the case of high rates of short route EGR, it was apparent that deducting the EGR flow from the turbine manifold impaired optimal valve timing strategies. Furthermore, for both of the studied engines it was clear that the size and ratio of blow-down to scavenging valve area is of paramount importance for engine fuel efficiency.

    In this paper, the DEP concept has been studied together with a long route EGR system. As expected it gave more freedom to valve timing strategies when driving pressure for EGR is no longer controlled with the valve timing, as in the short route case. However, when evaluating different combinations of intake, blow-down and scavenging valve area, the optimal relation proves to be strongly dependent on the current EGR system and EGR rates. Hence, for different engine setups the trade-off between total intake and total exhaust area needs to be re-evaluated for optimal engine fuel efficiency. This paper also presents general trends in how different valve timing strategies and EGR rates affect both pumping work and boost pressure.

  • 35.
    Gundmalm, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Cronhjort, Andreas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Ångström, Hans-Erik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Divided Exhaust Period on Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Divided Exhaust Period (DEP) has previously been studied on SI engines while results fromHD diesels are scarcer. In this paper the DEP concept has been numerically simulated on two HD dieselengines; one without EGR and one with high rates of short route EGR. The aim is to reduce fuelconsumption, residual gas content and to improve boost control, while current EGR rates are maintained.

    The central idea of the DEP concept is to let the initial high energy blow-down pulse feed theturbocharger, but bypass the turbine during the latter part of the exhaust stroke when back pressuredominates the pumping work. The exhaust flow from the cylinder is divided between two exhaust manifoldsof which one is connected to the turbine, and one bypasses the turbine. The flow split betweenthe manifolds is controlled with a variable valve train system.

    Results show a reduction of pumping losses for both engine configurations. In the non-EGRcase, the DEP concept offers the possibility to control the mass flow and pressure ratio over the turbine.This allows the turbocharger to operate in a high efficiency mode for a wide range of engine loadpoints. For the EGR case, there is less freedom in control of turbine mass flow, since the blow-downphase is used for both turbine work and EGR flow. Therefore the fuel consumption benefit is reduced.

    The conclusion of this paper is that the simulations of the DEP concept show improvements toengine performance and efficiency. In the case of high EGR rates it is shown that the EGR flow shouldnot be deducted from the blow-down phase.

  • 36.
    Hellström, Fredirk
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Renberg, Ulrica
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Westin, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Centre for Internal Cumbustion Engine Research Opus, CICERO (closed 20101231).
    Fuchs, Laszlo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Centre for Internal Cumbustion Engine Research Opus, CICERO (closed 20101231).
    Predictions of the Performance of a Radial Turbine with Different Modeling Approaches: Comparison of the Results from 1-D and 3-D CFD2010In: SAE technical paper series, ISSN 0148-7191, no 01-1223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the performance of a radial turbine working under pulsatile flow conditions is computed with two different modeling approaches, time resolved 1-dimensional (1-D) and 3-dimensional (3-D) CFD. The 1-D modeling approach is based on measured turbine maps which are used to compute the mass flow rate and work output from the turbine for a given expansion ratio and temperature at the inlet. The map is measured under non-pulsatile flow conditions, and in the 1-D method the turbine is treated as being a quasi-stationary flow device. In the 3-D CFD approach, a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) turbulence approach is used. The objective of LES is to explicitly compute the large scales of the turbulence while modeling the effects of the unresolved scales.

    Three different cases are considered, where the simplest case only consist of the turbine and the most complex case consist of an exhaust manifold and the turbine. Both time resolved data, such as pressure ratio, temperature and shaft torque and time mean data from the two different modeling approaches are compared. The results show that the computed time mean shaft power differs between the two different modeling approaches with as much as 100%. Since the considered operation point for the engine in this study is 1500 rpm with wide open throttle, the turbine operates in an area where the turbine map is extrapolated. Only by using a few operation points from CFD to extend the map, an improvement is achieved for the 1-D results, but still the deviation is large. Also, the pressure ratio and temperature drop over the turbine differs for the used modeling approaches. The causes for the deviations are assessed and discussed to get a better understanding of eventually limitations of the 1-D modeling approach.

  • 37.
    Holmberg, Ted
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Cronhjort, Andreas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Stenlaas, O.
    Pressure Amplitude Influence on Pulsating Exhaust Flow Energy Utilization2018In: SAE technical paper series, ISSN 0148-7191, Vol. 2018-AprilArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A turbocharged Diesel engine for heavy-duty on-road vehicle applications employs a compact exhaust manifold to satisfy transient torque and packaging requirements. The small exhaust manifold volume increases the unsteadiness of the flow to the turbine. The turbine therefore operates over a wider flow range, which is not optimal as radial turbines have narrow peak efficiency zone. This lower efficiency is compensated to some extent by the higher energy content of the unsteady exhaust flow compared to steady flow conditions. This paper experimentally investigates the relationship between exhaust energy utilization and available energy at the turbine inlet at different degrees of unsteady flow. A special exhaust manifold has been constructed which enables the internal volume of the manifold to be increased. The larger volume reduces the exhaust pulse amplitude and brings the operating condition for the turbine closer to steady-flow. The operating points are defined by engine speed and boost pressure. From these values the isentropic turbine work is calculated and with the measured compressor work the mean turbine efficiency is estimated. The results show that more energy has to be provided to the turbine at larger exhaust manifold volumes to maintain a constant boost pressure, indicating that the efficiency of the turbine decreases. 

  • 38.
    Holmberg, Ted
    et al.
    KTH.
    Cronhjort, Andreas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Stenlaas, O.
    Pressure Ratio Influence on Exhaust Valve Flow Coefficients2017In: SAE technical paper series, ISSN 0148-7191, Vol. 2017-March, no MarchArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In one dimensional engine simulation software, flow losses over complex geometries such as valves and ports are described using flow coefficients. It is generally assumed that the pressure ratio over the valve has a negligible influence on the flow coefficient. However during the exhaust valve opening the pressure difference between cylinder and port is large which questions the accuracy of this assumption. In this work the influence of pressure ratio on the exhaust valve flow coefficient has been investigated experimentally in a steady-flow test bench. Two cylinder heads, designated A and B, from a Heavy-Duty engine with different valve shapes and valve seat angles have been investigated. The tests were performed with both exhaust valves open and with only one of the two exhaust valves open. The pressure ratio over the exhaust port was varied from 1.1:1 to 5:1. For case A1 with a single exhaust valve open, the flow coefficient decreased significantly with pressure ratio. This trend was not replicated for the other single valve case B1, as pressure ratio only had a small influence on the flow coefficient. For the twin valve case A2, the pressure ratio influence was confined to the lower range of valve lifts as the limiting factor was the exhaust port outlet at higher valve lifts. The flow coefficient for the twin valve case B2 increased with pressure ratio in the mid-range of valve lifts.

  • 39. Kerres, B.
    et al.
    Cronhjort, Andreas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Mihaescu, Mihai
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Stenlaas, O.
    A Comparison of On-Engine Surge Detection Algorithms using Knock Accelerometers2017In: SAE technical paper series, ISSN 0148-7191, Vol. 2017-OctoberArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On-engine surge detection could help in reducing the safety margin towards surge, thus allowing higher boost pressures and ultimately low-end torque. In this paper, experimental data from a truck turbocharger compressor mounted on the engine is investigated. A short period of compressor surge is provoked through a sudden, large drop in engine load. The compressor housing is equipped with knock accelerometers. Different signal treatments are evaluated for their suitability with respect to on-engine surge detection: the signal root mean square, the power spectral density in the surge frequency band, the recently proposed Hurst exponent, and a closely related concept optimized to detect changes in the underlying scaling behavior of the signal. For validation purposes, a judgement by the test cell operator by visual observation of the air filter vibrations and audible noises, as well as inlet temperature increase, are also used to diagnose surge. The four signal treatments are compared with respect to their reliability as surge indicator and the time delay between surge onset and indication. Results show that the signal power in the surge frequency band has reasonably good properties as surge indicator. The normal Hurst exponent is problematic, since periodic vibrations from engine firing dominate the scaling behavior. Root mean square and the above mentioned scaling exponent do not measure vibrations caused by surge directly, but rather the reduction in housing vibrations due to the engine load drop. Nevertheless, it was found to be possible to design an indicator that gives good results based on the change in scaling behavior.

  • 40.
    Kerres, Bertrand
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Fischer, Katharina
    Fraunhofer Institute for Wind Energy and Energy System Technology IWES.
    Madlener, Reinhard
    Institute for Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior (FCN), School of Business and Economics/E.ON Energy Research Center, RWTH Aachen University.
    Economic evaluation of maintenance strategies for wind turbines: a stochastic analysis2015In: IET Renewable Power Generation, ISSN 1752-1416, E-ISSN 1752-1424, Vol. 9, no 7, p. 766-774Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors develop a stochastic model for assessing the life-cycle cost and availability of wind turbinesresulting from different maintenance scenarios, with the objective to identify the most cost-effective maintenancestrategy. Using field-data-based reliability models, the wind turbine – in terms of reliability – is modelled as a serialconnection of the most critical components. Both direct cost for spare parts, labour and access to the turbine, as wellas indirect cost from production losses are explicitly taken into account. The model is applied to the case of a VestasV44–600 kW wind turbine. Results of a reliability-centred maintenance analysis of this wind turbine are used to selectthe most critical wind turbine components and to identify possible maintenance scenarios. This study reveals thatcorrective maintenance is the most cost-effective maintenance strategy for the gearbox and the generator of the V44turbine, while the cost benefit of condition-based maintenance using online condition-monitoring systems increaseswith higher electricity price, turbine capacity and remoteness of sites.

  • 41.
    Kerres, Bertrand
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Optics and Photonics, OFO.
    Nair, Vineeth
    KTH.
    Cronhjort, Andreas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Mihaescu, Mihai
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx). KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Analysis of the Turbocharger Compressor Surge Margin Using a Hurst-Exponent-based Criterion2016In: SAE International Journal of Engines, ISSN 1946-3936, E-ISSN 1946-3944, Vol. 9, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Turbocharger compressors are limited in their operating range at low mass flows by compressor surge, thus restricting internal combustion engine operation at low engine speeds and high mean effective pressures. Since the exact location of the surge line in the compressor map depends on the whole gas exchange system, a safety margin towards surge must be provided. Accurate early surge detection could reduce this margin. During surge, the compressor outlet pressure fluctuates periodically. The Hurst exponent of the compressor outlet pressure is applied in this paper as an indicator to evaluate how close to the surge limit the compressor operates. It is a measure of the time-series memory that approaches zero for anti-persistence of the time series. That is, a Hurst exponent close to zero means a high statistical preference that a high value is followed by a low value, as during surge. Maps of a passenger-car sized turbocharger compressor with inlet geometries that result in different surge lines are measured on a cold gas stand. It is demonstrated that the Hurst exponent in fact decreases as the compressor moves towards surge, and that a constant value of the Hurst exponent can be used as a threshold for stable operation. Transient pressure signals of the compressor entering surge are analyzed in order to evaluate the time lag until surge can be detected using the Hurst exponent. Two surge cycles are usually needed to detect unstable operation. However, since the amplitude of these oscillations is relatively small for the first cycles, detection is possible before the oscillations grow into deep surge.

  • 42. Königsson, F.
    et al.
    Risberg, Per
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Ångström, Hans-Erik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Nozzle Coking in CNG-Diesel Dual Fuel Engines2014In: SAE technical paper series, ISSN 0148-7191, Vol. October, article id 2014-01-2700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nozzle coking in diesel engines has received a lot of attention in recent years. High temperature in the nozzle tip is one of the key factors known to accelerate this process. In premixed CNG-diesel dual fuel, DDF, engines a large portion of the diesel fuel through the injector is removed compared to regular diesel operation. This can result in very high nozzle temperatures. Nozzle hole coking can therefore be expected to pose a significant challenge for DDF operation. In this paper an experimental study of nozzle coking has been performed on a DDF single cylinder engine. The objective was to investigate how the rate of injector nozzle hole coking during DDF operation compares to diesel operation. In addition to the nozzle tip temperature, the impact of other parameters on coking rate was also of interest. Start of injection, , diesel substitution ratio and common rail pressure were varied in two levels starting from a common baseline case, resulting in a total of 10 operating cases. These cases were run for three and a half hours in steady-state, using standard injectors and zinc contaminated diesel to accelerate the coking process. The zinc was added in form of zinc neodecanoate, similar to the practice in the standardized tests used to study nozzle coking in diesel engines. After the tests the injectors were disassembled and the steady state flow through the injector nozzles was measured to isolate the effect of nozzle hole coking. The results show significant coking from only a few hours of testing. The most challenging case was the combination of high nozzle tip temperature from DDF operation with low injection pressure. The flow loss from operation in DDF mode was far more severe compared to diesel operation. Elemental analysis of the deposits shows similar composition resulting from diesel and DDF operation. In the DDF deposits higher concentrations of elements from the engine oil were found in addition to higher carbon content. It is concluded that injector nozzle coking is a challenge which requires appropriate attention when developing DDF engines.

  • 43.
    Königsson, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Advancing the Limits of Dual Fuel Combustion2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing interest in alternative transport fuels. There are two underlying reasons for this interest; the desire to decrease the environmental impact of transports and the need to compensate for the declining availability of petroleum. In the light of both these factors the Diesel Dual Fuel, DDF, engine is an attractive concept. The primary fuel of the DDF engine is methane, which can be derived both from renewables and from fossil sources. Methane from organic waste; commonly referred to as biomethane, can provide a reduction in greenhouse gases unmatched by any other fuel. The DDF engine is from a combustion point of view a hybrid between the diesel and the otto engine and it shares characteristics with both.

    This work identifies the main challenges of DDF operation and suggests methods to overcome them. Injector tip temperature and pre-ignitions have been found to limit performance in addition to the restrictions known from literature such as knock and emissions of NOx and HC. HC emissions are especially challenging at light load where throttling is required to promote flame propagation. For this reason it is desired to increase the lean limit in the light load range in order to reduce pumping losses and increase efficiency. It is shown that the best results in this area are achieved by using early diesel injection to achieve HCCI/RCCI combustion where combustion phasing is controlled by the ratio between diesel and methane. However, even without committing to HCCI/RCCI combustion and the difficult control issues associated with it, substantial gains are accomplished by splitting the diesel injection into two and allocating most of the diesel fuel to the early injection. HCCI/RCCI and PPCI combustion can be used with great effect to reduce the emissions of unburned hydrocarbons at light load.

    At high load, the challenges that need to be overcome are mostly related to heat. Injector tip temperatures need to be observed since the cooling effect of diesel flow through the nozzle is largely removed. Through investigation and modeling it is shown that the cooling effect of the diesel fuel occurs as the fuel resides injector between injections and not during the actual injection event. For this reason; fuel residing close to the tip absorbs more heat and as a result the dependence of tip temperature on diesel substitution rate is highly non-linear. The problem can be reduced greatly by improved cooling around the diesel injector. Knock and preignitions are limiting the performance of the engine and the behavior of each and how they are affected by gas quality needs to be determined. Based on experiences from this project where pure methane has been used as fuel; preignitions impose a stricter limit on engine operation than knock.

  • 44.
    Königsson, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    On Combustion in the CNG-Diesel Dual Fuel Engine2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently there is a large interest in alternative transport fuels. There are two underlying reasons for this interest: the desire to decrease the environmental impact of transports and the need to compensate for the declining availability of petroleum. In the light of both these factors, the CNG-diesel dual fuelengine is an attractive concept. The primary fuel of the dual fuel engine is methane, which can be derived both from renewables and from fossil sources. Methane from organic waste, commonly referred to as biomethane, can provide a reduction in greenhouse gases unmatched by any other fuel. Furthermore, fossil methane, natural gas, is one of the most abundant fossil fuels.Thedual fuelengine is, from a combustion point of view, a hybridof the diesel and theOtto-engineand it shares characteristics with both.

    From a market standpoint, the dual fuel technology is highly desirable; however, from a technical point of view it has proven difficult to realize. The aim of this project was to identify limitations to engine operation, investigate these challenges, and ,as much as possible, suggest remedies. Investigations have been made into emissions formation, nozzle-hole coking, impact of varying in-cylinder air motion, behavior and root causes of pre-ignitions, and the potential of advanced injection strategies and unconventional combustion modes. The findings from each of these investigations have been summarized, and recommendations for the development of a Euro 6 compliant dual fuel engine have been formulated. Two key challenges must be researched further for this development to succeed: an aftertreatment system which allows for low exhaust temperatures must be available, and the root cause of pre-ignitions must be found and eliminated.

  • 45.
    Königsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Dembinski, Henrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Ångström, Hans-Erik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    The Influence of In-Cylinder Flows on Emissions and Heat Transfer from Methane-Diesel Dual Fuel Combustion2013In: SAE International Journal of Engines, ISSN 1946-3936, Vol. 6, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order for premixed methane diesel dual fuel engines to meet current and future legislation, the emissions of unburned hydrocarbons must be reduced while high efficiency and high methane utilization is maintained. This paper presents an experimental investigation into the effects of in cylinder air motion, swirl and tumble, on the emissions, heat transfer and combustion characteristics of dual fuel combustion at different air excess ratios. Measurements have been carried out on a single cylinder engine equipped with a fully variable valve train, Lotus AVT. By applying different valve lift profiles for the intake valves, the swirl was varied between 0.5 and 6.5 at BDC and the tumble between 0.5 and 4 at BDC. A commercial 1D engine simulation tool was used to calculate swirl number and tumble for the different valve profiles. Input data for the simulation software was generated using a steady-state flow rig with honeycomb torque measurements. To measure heat transfer, thermocouples were fitted in the cylinder head and heat exchangers on the coolant circuit and the engine oil. The study shows that swirl has a strong effect on the heat transfer; increasing the swirl from 0.5 to 6.5 increases the heat transfer to the coolant by 50%. With regards to emissions; swirl has the effect of increasing oxidation of hydrocarbons returning from crevices. For this reason a 20% reduction of hydrocarbon emissions can be achieved by increasing the swirl from 0.4 to 3. At high λ of 1.9, combustion is very sensitive to mixing between the gas and the air. The mixing is affected by the turbulence generated over the intake valves. A difference in engine out HC emissions by a factor of two can be achieved by varying the valve lift curve and hence varying the turbulence generated during the intake event. The timing of the gas injection can also improve mixing and achieve similar results. Compared to SI, dual fuel combustion is relatively insensitive to tumble.

  • 46.
    Königsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Kuyper, Johannes
    Stalhammar, Per
    Ångström, Hans Erik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    The Influence of Crevices on Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Diesel-Methane Dual Fuel Engine2013In: SAE International Journal of Engines, ISSN 1946-3936, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 751-765Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emissions of unburned methane are the Achilles heel of premixed gas engines whether they are spark ignited or diesel pilot ignited. If the engine is operated lean, lower temperatures prevail in the combustion chamber and several of the mechanisms behind the hydrocarbon emissions are aggravated. This paper presents an experimental investigation of the contribution from combustion chamber crevices and quenching to the total hydrocarbon emissions from a diesel-methane dual fuel engine at different operating conditions and air excess ratios. It is shown that the sensitivity to a change in topland crevice volume is greater at lean conditions than at stoichiometry. More than 70% of hydrocarbon emissions at air excess ratios relevant to operation of lean burn engines can be attributed to crevices.

  • 47.
    Königsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Risberg, Per
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Ångström, Hans-Erik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Nozzle Coking in CNG-Diesel Dual Fuel Engines: 2014-01-27002014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nozzle coking in diesel engines has received a lot of attention in recent years. High temperature in the nozzle tip is one of the key factors known to accelerate this process. In premixed CNG-diesel dual fuel, DDF, engines a large portion of the diesel fuel through the injector is removed compared to regular diesel operation. This can result in very high nozzle temperatures. Nozzle hole coking can therefore be expected to pose a significant challenge for DDF operation.In this paper an experimental study of nozzle coking has been performed on a DDF single cylinder engine. The objective was to investigate how the rate of injector nozzle hole coking during DDF operation compares to diesel operation. In addition to the nozzle tip temperature, the impact of other parameters on coking rate was also of interest.Start of injection, λ, diesel substitution ratio and common rail pressure were varied in two levels starting from a common baseline case, resulting in a total of 10 operating cases. These cases were run for three and a half hours in steady-state, using standard injectors and zinc contaminated diesel to accelerate the coking process. The zinc was added in form of zinc neodecanoate, similar to the practice in the standardized tests used to study nozzle coking in diesel engines.After the tests the injectors were disassembled and the steady state flow through the injector nozzles was measured to isolate the effect of nozzle hole coking. The results show significant coking from only a few hours of testing. The most challenging case was the combination of high nozzle tip temperature from DDF operation with low injection pressure. The flow loss from operation in DDF mode was far more severe compared to diesel operation. Elemental analysis of the deposits shows similar composition resulting from diesel and DDF operation. In the DDF deposits higher concentrations of elements from the engine oil were found in addition to higher carbon content. It is concluded that injector nozzle coking is a challenge which requires appropriate attention when developing DDF engines.

  • 48.
    Königsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Stålhammar, Per
    Ångström, Hans-Erik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Characterization and Potential of Dual FuelCombustion in a Modern Diesel Engine2011In: SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-2223, SAE International , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diesel Dual Fuel, DDF, is a concept which promises the possibility to utilize CNG/biogas in a compression ignition engine maintaining a high compression ratio, made possible by the high knock resistance of methane, and the resulting benefits in thermal efficiency associated with Diesel combustion.

    A series of tests has been carried out on a single cylinder lab engine, equipped with a modern common rail injection system supplying the diesel fuel and two gas injectors, placed in the intake runners. One feature of port injected Dual Fuel is that full diesel functionality is maintained, which is of great importance when bringing the dual fuel technology to market. The objective of the study was to characterize and investigate the potential for dual fuel combustion utilizing all degrees of freedom available in a modern diesel engine.

    Increased diesel pilot proved efficient at reducing NOx emissions at low λ. Advanced combustion phasing has the potential to extend the lean limit for operation. Stoichiometric operation using high levels of EGR is identified as a promising field in conjunction with raised inlet temperature.

  • 49.
    Königsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Stålhammar, Per
    AVL Sweden.
    Ångström, Hans-Erik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Combustion Modes in a Diesel-CNG Dual Fuel Engine2011In: SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-1962, 2011, Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan, Inc , 2011, p. 2387-2398Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diesel Dual Fuel, DDF, is a concept where a combination of methane and diesel is used in a compression ignited engine, maintaining the high compression ratio of a diesel engine with the resulting benefits in thermal efficiency.

    One benefit of having two fuels on board the vehicle is the additional degree of freedom provided by the ratio between the fuels. This additional degree of freedom enables control of combustion phasing for combustion modes such as Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition, HCCI, and Partly Premixed Compression Ignition, PPCI. These unconventional combustion modes have great potential to limit emissions at light load while maintaining the low pumping losses of the base diesel engine.

    A series of tests has been carried out on a single cylinder lab engine, equipped with a modern common rail injection system supplying the diesel fuel and two gas injectors, placed in the intake runners. Four load points are investigated and three different types of combustion are evaluated.

    The study confirmed the desirable emission characteristics of HCCI and PPCI combustion and demonstrated the potential to control the combustion phasing by utilizing all degrees of freedom provided by a common rail injection system and two fuels.

  • 50.
    Königsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Internal Combustion Engines.
    Stålhammar, Per
    Ångström, Hans-Erik
    Controlling the Injector Tip Temperature in a DieselDual Fuel Engine2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diesel Dual Fuel, DDF, is a concept where a combination of methane and diesel is used in a compression ignited engine, maintaining the high compression ratio of a diesel engine with the resulting benefits in thermal efficiency. Attention has recently been drawn to the fact that the tip of the diesel injector may reach intolerable temperatures. The high injector tip temperatures in the DDF engine are caused by the reduction in diesel flow through the injector. For dual fuel operation, as opposed to diesel, high load does not necessarily imply a high flow of diesel through the injector nozzle.

    This research investigated the factors causing high injector tip temperatures in a DDF engine and the underlying mechanisms which transfer heat to and from the injector tip. Parameter sweeps of each influential parameter were carried out and evaluated. In addition to this, a simple and useful model was constructed based on the heat balance of the injector tip.

    Decreasing the thermal resistance between the injector tip and the cooling water by inserting a copper sleeve around the injector tip has the potential to greatly reduce the injector tip temperature and effectively remove it as a limiting factor.

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