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  • 1.
    Abbasi, Abdul Ghafoor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Muftic, Sead
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    CryptoNET: Security Management Protocols2010In: ADVANCES IN DATA NETWORKS, COMMUNICATIONS, COMPUTERS / [ed] Mastorakis, NE; Mladenov, V, ATHENS: WORLD SCIENTIFIC AND ENGINEERING ACAD AND SOC , 2010, p. 15-20Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we describe several network security protocols used by various components of CryptoNET architecture. The protocols are based on the concept of generic security objects and on well-established security standards and technologies. Distinctive features of our security protocols are: (1) they are complete in terms of their functionality, (2) they are easy to integrate with applications, (3) they transparently handle security credentials and protocol-specific attributes using FIPS 201 (PIV) smart cards, and (4) they are based on generic security objects. These protocols are: remote user authentication protocol, single-sign-on protocol, SAML authorization protocol, and secure sessions protocol. Security protocols use our Security Provider as a collection of cryptographic engines implemented either in software or using FIPS 201 (NV) smart cards. It also manages protocols' attributes using security applets stored in Ply smart card.

  • 2.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    A comparison between particle characteristics between two railway brake pads2013Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    A study of nanostructured particles in railway tunnels2013Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Characterisation of airborne particles from rail traffic2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the investigation of wear particles in rail transport started in late-1910s, the high mass concentration of these particles has raised worries among researchers concerned with air quality. However, effective action has yet to be taken because of lack of relevant knowledge. This thesis provides applicable information for the airborne wear particles in rail transport. Some aspects of their characteristics such as diameter size, mass concentration, number concentration, and morphology of particles were investigated in field tests and laboratory tests.The effects on particle characterisations from different operational conditions in the field tests, and applying different braking materials, conducting tests in different applied loads or sliding velocities in the laboratory tests were studied. The main advantage of conducting laboratory tests was to focus on studying particles from one source. The possibility of repetition, using high sensitive instruments and conducting tests at low costs are the other advantages of laboratory studies. Paper A describes how a pin-on-disc machine was used to reproduce similar real operational conditions during mechanical braking in a train. The results were validated by comparing the field tests results with the laboratory studies. The particles morphology and size distribution were also studied.Paper B presents a summary of field tests results. The effects of curve negotiating and applying braking in different real conditions were investigated with an on-board measurement.The element composition of the particles and their potential sources were also investigated outside of the particles morphologies.Paper C presents comprehensive results from laboratory studies on airborne particles from different braking materials. The differences in the particle characteristics in similar test conditions were attributable to different material compositions and dominant wear mechanisms. A new index was introduced in this paper and is suggested to be used as a qualitative factor with regard to the airborne wear particle emission rate.Paper D is a review of the recent studies of exhaust emission and non-exhaust emission from rail vehicles. A summary of results, measurements, adverse health effects, and proposed or applied solutions are reviewed in this paper.

  • 5.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Nanostructured particles in/outside compartment of running train, an on board measurement2013Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Non-exhaust Nano particle emission in Rail traffic2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Towards elimination of airborne particles from rail traffic2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the investigation of wear particles from rail transport started in the late 1910s, the high mass concentrations of these particles have prompted concern among researchers interested in air quality. However, effective action has yet to be taken because relevant knowledge is still missing. This thesis provides knowledge of airborne wear particles originating from rail transport. Some aspects of their characteristic parameters, such as size, mass concentration, number concentration, and morphology, were investigated in the field and in laboratory tests. We also discuss means to mitigate non-exhaust emissions, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various test set-ups in the seven appended journal papers:Paper A reviews recent studies of exhaust and non-exhaust emissions from rail vehicles. The results, measurements, adverse health effects, and proposed or applied solutions presented in this literature are summarized in this paper.Paper B summarizes the results of field tests we conducted. The effects of curve negotiation and braking under different real conditions were investigated in a field test in which on-board measurements were made. The elemental composition and morphology of the particles emitted and their potential sources were also investigated.Paper C describes how a pin-on-disc machine can be used to reproduce real operating conditions during mechanical train braking in a controlled laboratory setting. The results were validated by comparing the field test results with the results of laboratory studies.Paper D presents comprehensive results of laboratory studies of airborne particles from different braking materials. A new index is introduced in this paper, which can be used as a quantitative metric for assessing airborne wear particle emission rates.Paper E describes the effects of using various friction modifiers and lubricants on the characteristics of airborne particles from wheel–rail contact under lubricated and unlubricated conditions.Paper F reports work to simulate thermoelastic instability in the cast-iron braking material. We simulated the fluctuation of the flash temperature by considering the temperature dependency of the material properties and the transformation of the contact state due to thermomechanical phenomena and wear.Paper G reviews new full- and sub-scale measurements of non-exhaust emissions from ground transport. The advantages and disadvantages of on-board measurements, pin-on-disc tests, dynamometer tests, and test rig studies are discussed in this paper.

  • 8.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Ekstrand-Hammarström, Barbara
    Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI),.
    Bergström, Ulrika
    Division of CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI),.
    Bucht, Anders
    Deptartment of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, 901 89, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Jansson, Anders
    Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Stockholm, 106 91, Sweden.
    Biological response in lung cells by brake dust from a novel set-up to generate one sourcewear particles2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Jansson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olander, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    A pin-on-disc study of the rate of airborne wear particle emissions from railway braking materials2012In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 284, p. 18-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study investigates the characteristics of particles generated from the wear of braking materials, and provides an applicable index for measuring and comparing wear particle emissions. A pin-on-disc tribometer equipped with particle measurement instruments was used. The number concentration, size, morphology, and mass concentration of generated particles were investigated and reported for particles 10 nm-32 mu m in diameter. The particles were also collected on filters and investigated using EDS and SEM. The effects of wear mechanisms on particle morphology and changes in particle concentration are discussed. A new index, the airborne wear particle emission rate (AWPER), is suggested that could be used in legislation to control non-exhaust emissions from transport modes, particularly rail transport.

  • 10.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Jansson, Anders
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Particle emissions from rail traffic: a literature review2013In: Critical reviews in environmental science and technology, ISSN 1064-3389, E-ISSN 1547-6537, Vol. 43, no 23, p. 2211-2244Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Particle emissions are a drawback of rail transport. This work is a comprehensive presentation of recent research into particle emissions from rail vehicles. Both exhaust and non-exhaust particle emissions are considered when examining particle characteristics such as  PM10, and PM2.5 concentration levels, size, morphology, composition, as well as adverse health effects, current legislation, and available and proposed solutions for reducing such emissions. High concentration levels in enclosed rail traffic environments are reported and some toxic effects of the particles. We find that only a few limited studies have examined the adverse health effects of non-exhaust particle emissions and that no relevant legislation exists. Thus further research in this area is warranted.

  • 11.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Moslemi, Kianoush
    A new approach for optimization of heating system in tank wagons2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olander, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Larsson, Christina
    Bombardier Transportation Sweden AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Jansson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    A field test study of airborne wear particles from a running regional train2012In: IMechE, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit, ISSN 0954-4097, Vol. 226, no 1, p. 95-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inhalable airborne particles have inverse health affect. In railways, mechanical brakes, the wheel–rail contact, current collectors, ballast, sleepers, and masonry structures yield particulate matter. Field tests examined a Swedish track using a train instrumented with particle measurement devices, brake pad temperature sensors, and speed and brake sensors. The main objective of this field test was to study the characteristics of particles generated from disc brakes on a running train with an on-board measuring set-up.

    Two airborne particle sampling points were designated, one near a pad–rotor disc brake contact and a second under the frame, not near a mechanical brake or the wheel–rail contact; the numbers and size distributions of the particles detected were registered and evaluated under various conditions (e.g. activating/deactivating electrical brakes or negotiating curves). During braking, three speed/temperature-dependent particle peaks were identified in the fine region, representing particles 280 nm, 350 nm, and 600 nm in diameter. In the coarse region, a peak was discerned for particles 3–6 μm in diameter. Effects of brake pad temperature on particle size distribution were also investigated. Results indicate that the 280 nm peak increased with increasing temperature, and that electrical braking significantly reduced airborne particle numbers. FESEM images captured particles sizing down to 50 nm. The ICP-MS results indicated that Fe, Cu, Zn, Al, Ca, and Mg were the main elements constituting the particles.

     

  • 13.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    A study of friction modifiers on airborne wear particles from wheel-rail contact2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wheel-rail contact and its wear process are crucial issues in maintenance and operating of rolling stocks. During wheel-rail contact, materials in mating faces are worn off and some of them transferred to airborne particles. Eventhough the wear process in wheel-rail contact are well-known, few studies have been conducted on the airborne particles from wheel-rail contact.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of using different friction modifier on the amount of airbotne particles from wheel-rail contact in a laboratory simulation. In this regard, a series laboratory tests were used by using round head pin (R=25mm) and dead weight 40 N in a pin-on-disc machine. This set-up simulates a contact pressure around 750 MPa on the pin head.

    The amount of airborne particles and their characteristics were investigated in dry-contact, and non-dry contacts whereas a lubricant, Binol rail 510 and a friction modifier, tramsilence were used. According to the results, the effects of using Binol rail to reduce the amount of airborne particles were considerable.

  • 14.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Airborne wear particles from train traffic2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Experiences of measuring airborne wear particles from braking materials and wheel-rail contact2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During braking both of the discs and pads of disc brakes are worn. Since disc brakes are not sealed, some of the generated wear particles can become airborne.  Wheel-rail is also subjected to wear process during braking as well as normal running. They also contribute to generate airborne particles. Several studies have found an association between adverse health effects and the concentration of particles in the atmosphere, so it is of interest to improve our knowledge of the airborne wear particles generated by disc brakes.

    The present work includes results from full scale testing of rail vehicles. Particle size distribution, morphology and elemental contents are presented and discussed for different combinations of disc and pad materials. Due to high back ground concentration levels in field tests, dedicated laboratory test set ups on a reduced scale were designed and utilized for airborne particle studies with zero background level.

    Promising correlation between field test and the lab set up is identified. Different ways of using this test set up for evaluating how the composition of the airborne particles is classified with respect to their health effects are discussed. Furthermore, different ways of using the proposed method to rank and to quantify airborne particle emission factors are presented.

  • 16.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Lack of applicable criteria in non-exhaust emission legislation: AWPER index a practical solution2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olander, Lars
    A field investigation of the size and morphology and chemical composition of airborne particles in rail transport2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olander, Lars
    Larsson, christina
    A field investigation of the size, morphology and chemical composition of airborne particles in rail transport2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The health effects of inhalable airborne particles are well documented. In the European Union the European Council mandates that the level of airborne particles with a diameter smaller than 10 µm (PM10) must not exceed an annual average of 40 µg/m3. Examples of possible sources from rail transport are mechanical brakes, wheel rail contact, current collectors, ballast, sleepers and masonry structures. In this regard, a series of field tests have been conducted on a regular Swedish track using a regional train instrumented with: particle measurement devices, temperature sensors in brake pads and sensors to measure the magnitude of train speed and a GPS.

    Two sampling points for airborne particles were designated in the train under frame. One of the sampling points was near a pad to rotor disc brake contact and a second global sampling point was chosen under the frame, but not near a mechanical brake or the wheel-rail contact. The first one was highly influenced by brake pad wear debris and the other one was influenced by all of the brake pads, wheel and rail wear debris as well as re-suspension. In each sampling points, three tubes were linked to three particle measurement devices. Two sets of Ptrak, Dustrak and Grimm devices were used. The Ptrak 8525 was an optical particle measurement device which could measure particle diameter in the size interval of 20 nm up to 1 micrometer. The Dustrak was used to measure particle mass concentration. The Grimm 1.109 was an aerosol spectrometer which counted number of particles from 0.25 micrometer to 32 micrometer in 31 intervals. These two Grimm devices were equipped with Millipore filters in the devices outlets to capture particles for further studies on morphology and matter of particles.

    The total number and size distribution of the particles for these two sampling points were registered and evaluated in different situations such as activating and deactivating electrical brake or train curve negotiating.

    During braking, three peaks of 250 nm, 350 nm and 600 nm in diameter, with the 350 nm peak dominating were identified in the fine particle region. In the coarse particle region, a peak of around 3-6 µm in diameter was discovered. The brake pad temperature effects on particle size distribution were also investigated and the results showed that the peak around 250 nm increased. Furthermore, the activation of electrical braking significantly reduced the number of airborne particles.

    A SEM was used to capture the images from collected particles on filters. Furthermore, an ICP-Ms method was used to investigate the elemental contents of the particulates on the filter.  In this case the main contribution belonged to Fe, Si, Al, Ca, Cu, Zn. The higher amount of some elements weights such as calcium, silicon, sodium and aluminum in the global sampling point filters revealed that ballast and concrete sleepers were the main sources for these particles although some of them originated from rail, wheel, brake disc and brake pad as well.

  • 19.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Tritscher, Trosten
    TSI.
    Krinke, Thomas
    TSI.
    On-board study of nano- and micrometer-particle characteristics of a running electric train2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Zhu, Yi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Pin-on-disc study of the effects of railway friction modifiers on airborne wear particles from wheel-rail contact2013In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 60, p. 136-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of wheel–rail interaction is crucial to wheel and rail maintenance. In this interaction, some of theworn-off material is transformed into airborne particles. Although such wear is well understood, few studiestreat the particles generated. We investigated friction modifiers' effects on airborne particles characteristicsgenerated in wheel-rail contacts in laboratory conditions. Pin-on-disc machine testing with a round-head pinloaded by a dead weight load 40 N simulated maximum contact pressure over 550 MPa. Airborne particlecharacteristics were investigated in dry contacts and in ones lubricated with biodegradable rail grease andwater- and oil-based friction modifiers. The number of particles declined with the grease; the number ofultrafine particles increased with the water-based friction modifier, mainly due to water vaporization.

  • 21.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Particle emission from rail vehicles: A literature review2012In: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit, Sage Publications, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emission of airborne particles is a side effect from rail transport. This work reviews recent research on particle emissions from rail vehicles. Both exhaust and non-exhaust particle emissions are characterized by size, morphology, composition, and size distribution. Current legislation, knowledge of adverse health effects, and available and proposed solutions for emission reductions are also treated. There has been much focus on exhaust emissions, but only a few limited studies have investigated non-exhaust particle emissions, which contain a significant amount of metallic materials. A new method for measuring the airborne wear particle emission rate (AWPER) is proposed as a first step to guide new legislations and to focus further research on non-exhaust airborne emission, i.e., research on the generation mechanisms for particle emissions and their adverse health effects.

  • 22.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Technical note: Experiences of studying airborne wear particles from road and rail transport2013In: Aerosol and Air Quality Research, ISSN 1680-8584, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 1161-1169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Airborne particles and their adverse effects on air quality have been recognized by humans since ancient times. Current exhaust emission legislations increase the relative contribution of wear particles on the PM levels. Consequently, wearbased particle emissions from rail and road transport have raised concerns as ground transportation is developing quickly. Although scientific research on airborne wear-based particles started in 1909, there is almost no legislation that control the generation of wear-based particles. In addition, there is no accepted and approved standard measurement technique for monitoring and recording particle characteristics. The main objective of this study is to review recent experimental work in this field and to discuss their set-ups, the sampling methods, the results, and their limitations, and to propose measures for reducing these limitations.

  • 23.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements. Department of Mechanical engineering, Golpayegan University of Technology.
    Teimourimanesh, Shahab
    Chalmers.
    Vernersson, Tore
    Chalmers.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Lunden, Roger
    Chalmers.
    Temperature and Thermoelastic Instability at Tread Braking Using Cast Iron Friction Material2013In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 314, no 1–2, p. 171-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Braking events in railway traffic often induce high frictional heating and thermoelastic instability (TEI) at the interfacing surfaces. In the present paper, two approaches are adopted to analyse the thermomechanical interaction in a pin-on-disc experimental study of railway braking materials. In a first part, the thermal problem is studied to find the heat partitioning between pin and disc motivated by the fact that wear mechanisms can be explained with a better understanding of the prevailing thermal conditions. The numerical model is calibrated using the experimental results. In a second part, the frictionally induced thermoelastic instabilities at the pin-disc contact are studied using a numerical method and comparing them with the phenomena observed in the experiments. The effects of temperature on material properties and on material wear are considered. It is found from the thermal analysis that the pin temperature and the heat flux to the pin increase with increasing disc temperatures up to a transition stage. This agrees with the behaviour found in the experiments. Furthermore, the thermoelastic analysis displays calculated pressure and the temperature distributions at the contact interface that are in agreement with the hot spot behaviour observed in the experiments.

  • 24.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Teimourimanesh, Shahab
    Chalmers.
    Vernersson, Tore
    Chalmers.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Lunden, Roger
    Chalmers.
    Temperature and thermo-elastic instability of tread braking friction materials2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Abbasi, Saeed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Wahlström, Jens
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olander, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Services Engineering.
    Larsson, Christina
    Bombardier Transportation Sweden AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    A study of airborne wear particles generated from organic railway brake pads and brake discs2011In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 273, no 1, p. 93-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brake pads on wheel-mounted disc brakes are often used in rail transport due to their good thermal properties and robustness. During braking, both the disc and the pads are worn. This wear process generates particles that may become airborne and thus affect human health. The long term purpose of ‘Airborne particles in Rail transport’ project is to gain knowledge on the wear mechanisms in order to find means of controlling the number and size distribution of airborne particles. In this regard, a series of full-scale field tests and laboratory tests with a pin-on-disc machine have been conducted. The morphology and the matter of particles, along with their size distribution and concentration, have been studied. The validity of results from the pin-on-disc simulation has been verified by the field test results. Results show an ultra-fine peak for particles with a diameter size around 100 nm in diameter, a dominant fine peak for particles with a size of around 350 nm in diameter, and a coarse peak with a size of 3-7 μm in diameter. Materials such as iron, copper, aluminium, chromium, cobalt, antimony, and zinc have been detected in the nano-sized particles.

  • 26.
    Ahmad, Aftab
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Andersson, Kjell
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    An approach to stiffness analysis methodology for haptic devices2011In: 2011 3rd International Congress on Ultra Modern Telecommunications and Control Systems and Workshops (ICUMT), IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, , p. 8p. 1-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work a new methodology is proposed to model the static stiffness of a haptic device. This methodology can be used for other parallel, serial and hybrid manipulators. The stiffness model considers the stiffness of; actuation system; flexible links and passive joints. For the modeling of the passive joints a Hertzian contact model is introduced for both spherical and universal joints and a simply supported beam model for universal joints. For validation of the stiffness model a modified JP Merlet kinematic structure has been used as a test case. A parametric Ansys FEM model was developed for this test case and used to validate the resulting stiffness model. The findings in this paper can provide an additional index to use for multi-objective structural optimization to find an optimum compromise between a lightweight design and the stiffness performance for high precision motion within a larger workspace.

  • 27. Alemani, Mattia
    et al.
    Nosko, Oleksii
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Metinoz, Ibrahim
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    A study on emission of airborne wear particles from car brake friction pairs2015In: SAE International Journal of Materials & Manufacturing, ISSN 1946-3979, E-ISSN 1946-3987, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 147-157, article id 2015-01-2665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emission of airborne wear particles from friction material / cast iron pairs used in car brakes was investigated, paying special attention to the influence of temperature. Five low-metallic materials and one non-asbestos organic material were tested using a pin-on-disc machine. The machine was placed in a sealed chamber to allow airborne particle collection. The concentration and size distribution of 0.0056 to 10 μm particles were obtained by a fast mobility particle sizer and an optical particle sizer. The temperature was measured by a thermocouple installed in the disc. The experiments show that as the temperature increases from 100 to 300 °C the emission of ultrafine particles intensifies while that of coarse particles decreases. There is a critical temperature at which the ultrafine particle emission rate rises stepwise by 4 to 6 orders of magnitude. For the friction pairs investigated, the critical temperature was found to be between 165 and 190 °C. Below the critical temperature, fine particles outnumber coarse and ultrafine particles, although coarse particles make up the bulk of the particulate matter mass. The friction pairs differ in the ultrafine particle emission rate by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude. Above the critical temperature, ultrafine particles constitute almost 100% of the total particle number and their relative mass contribution can exceed 50%. Analysis of the particle size distributions revealed peaks at 0.19-0.29, 0.9 and 1.7 μm. Above the critical temperature, one more peak appears in the ultrafine particle range at 0.011-0.034 μm.

  • 28. Alemani, Mattia
    et al.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Perricone, Guido
    Söderberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Wahlström, Jens
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Ciotti, Alessandro
    A study on the load level influence on particulate matter emissions from the sliding contact between a low steel friction material and cast iron2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29. Alemani, Mattia
    et al.
    Perricone, Guido
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Söderberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Wahlström, Jens
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Ciotti, Alessandro
    A proposed dyno bench test cycle to study particle emissions from disc brakes2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Alemani, Mattia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.). Brembo S.p.A, Stezzano, Italy.
    Wahlström, Jens
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Matějka, Vlastimil
    Metinöz, Ibrahim
    Söderberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Perricone, Guido
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.). Brembo S.p.A, Stezzano, Italy.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Scaling effects of measuring disc brake airborne particulate matter emissions – A comparison of a pin-on-disc tribometer and an inertia dynamometer bench under dragging conditions2018In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part J, journal of engineering tribology, ISSN 1350-6501, E-ISSN 2041-305XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important contributor to non-exhaust emissions in urban areas is airborne particulate matter originating from brake systems. A well-established way to test such systems in industry is to use inertia dynamometer benches; although they are quite expensive to run. Pin-on-disc tribometers, on the other hand, are relatively cheap to run, but simplify the real system. The literature indicates promising correlations between these two test stands with regard to measured airborne number distribution. Recent studies also show a strong dependency between the airborne number concentration and the disc temperature. However, a direct comparison that also takes into account temperature effects is missing. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to investigate how the transition temperature is affected by the different test scales, under dragging conditions, and the effects on total concentration and size distribution. New and used low-steel pins/pads were tested against cast iron discs/rotors on both the aforementioned test stands, appositely designed for particulate emission studies. A constant normal load and constant rotational velocity were imposed in both test stands. Results show that a transition temperature can always be identified. However, it is influenced by the test scale and the frictional pair status. Nevertheless, emissions are assessed similarly when an equivalent frictional pair status is analysed (e.g. run-in). Further investigations for fully run-in samples on the pin-on-disc should be performed in order to finally assess the possibility of using the tribometers for the initial assessment of different friction materials.

  • 31.
    Alemani, Mattia
    et al.
    KTH.
    Wahlström, Jens
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Applied Mechanical Engineering (KTH Södertälje). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    On the influence of car brake system parameters on particulate matter emissions2018In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 396, p. 67-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of car brake system parameters on particulate matter emissions was investigated using a pin-on-disc tribometer. Samples from a low-steel friction material and a cast iron disc were tested for different sliding velocities, nominal contact pressures and frictional powers. Disc temperatures were also measured. Their impact on total concentration, size distribution, particle coefficient and transition temperature was analysed. Results show that frictional power is the most significant brake system parameter. However, temperature, as a response parameter, is the most influential, inducing a shift towards the ultrafine particulate fraction and raising emissions. A transition temperature, independent of the system parameters, was identified.

  • 32.
    Andersson, Kjell
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Modular simulation models as a key enabler for a question-answer driven verification process2006In: 1st Nordic Conference on Product Lifecycle Management: NordPLM'06, 2006, p. 99-110Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Andersson, Kjell
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Sellgren, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Reality-driven virtual wheel loader operation2005In: Proceedings of Virtual Concept 2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Andersson, Sören
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Wear Simulation with a Focus on Mild Wear in Rolling and Sliding Contacts2011In: Friction, wear and wear protection: International Symposium on Friction, Wear and Wear Protection 2008, Aachen, German, 2011, p. 1-19Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of wear occurring in high-performance rolling and sliding contacts is often quite small, and such contact surfaces often become glossy. To obtain good contact conditions, it is necessary that the form and the topography of the surfaces be good, that the materials and treatments be properly chosen, and that the lubrication be adequate for the contact. Such advantageous conditions - often referred to as 'mild' - are what engineers normally strive to attain. Sometimes severe conditions may arise, however, creating rough or scored surfaces; severe wear conditions are normally unacceptable in any modern high-performance machine. Predicting the amount of mild wear is generally thought to be rather difficult and uncertain; this paper addresses this difficult task, outlining some possibilities for predicting mild wear in rolling and sliding contacts. Typical machine elements that include high-performance rolling and sliding contact surfaces are gears, cam mechanisms, and roller bearings. If the rolling and sliding contacts are moving under boundary or mixed lubricated conditions, the contact surfaces may be subject to mild wear. If the lubricants in the rolling and sliding contacts are contaminated with particles, wear may occur even if full-film conditions are predominant. In a rolling and sliding contact, the two interacting surfaces characteristically move at different speeds in a tangential direction. The Tribology Group at KTH Machine Design has worked on simulating wear in rolling and sliding contacts for a fairly long time. Themodelling principles the Group has successfully used are based on 1) the single-point observation method and 2) treating wear as an initial-value process. Two simple examples will be presented here, demonstrating how these principles can be used. As well, some of the Group's efforts at simulating mild wear in rolling and sliding contacts will be presented.

  • 35.
    Andersson, Sören
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    What characterises an attractive machine element?2008In: PROCEEDINGS OF NORDDESIGN 2008 / [ed] Roosimolder, L, TALLINN: TALLINN UNIV TECH , 2008, p. 348-357Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An attractive product is one that functions well, is easy to use and has 'it'. Both technical and interactive functions are important. In this paper, the functional surfaces of a product and of its elements are regarded as carriers of functions. Some general principles are outlined starting with these concepts. Initially standard vehicle wheels were studied to find out what makes machine elements attractive. One difference between an individual machine element and a machine element acting together with other elements in a product is the often hidden interfaces between elements. An interface is defined as an interaction relation between two functional surfaces belonging to different elements. Some machine elements are also covered by others in order to prevent harmful effects from or on the environment. Some classic machine elements are covered by styled elements, whose functions are mainly interactive. The conclusions drawn from this study are that future machines will probably have more attractive covering elements than today, the attractiveness of machines is often increased when the performances of some classic machine elements are improved, new technologies such as drive-by-wire and/or new propulsion systems Will probably improve the attractiveness and performances of vehicles, the attractiveness of a universal joint is mainly related to how well the technical functions are fulfilled during its life, gears will continue to contribute indirectly to the attractiveness of many types of machines by their technical behaviours and performances and they are seldom visible but can be made visible if alternative lubricants are used and/or if lower performances are accepted, rolling bearings are normally regarded as high performance elements, bushings for different types of sliding bearings are styled in order to attract engineers and others before being assembled in a product and finally education in Machine Elements should be supplemented by an education of styled covering elements.

  • 36.
    Andersson, Sören
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Björklund, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Söderberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Frictions models for sliding dry, boundary and mixed lubricated contacts2007In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 40, p. 580-587Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Friction, lubrication, and wear have a strong influence on the performance and behavior of mechanical systems. This paper deals with different friction models for sliding contacts running under different conditions. The models presented are suited to different situations, depending on the type of contact, running conditions, and the behavior of interest. The models will be discussed from simulation and tribological points of view. The different types of friction models considered are:

    center dot friction models for transient sliding under dry, boundary and mixed lubrication conditions,

    center dot friction models for micro-displacements of engineering surfaces subjected to transient sliding,

    center dot friction models often used in the simulation and control of technical systems,

    center dot combined friction models that represent physical behaviors fairly well but are also suitable for use in simulating systems,

    center dot friction models that take into account the stochastic nature of interacting surface asperities

  • 37.
    Andersson, Sören
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Söderberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    A random wear model for the interaction between a rough and a smooth surface2008In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 264, no 9-10, p. 763-769Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contact surfaces in many applications change form due to plastic and elastic deformation and to wear. This study focused on the plastic deformation and wear of the asperities on a rough surface rubbing against an opposite smooth, hard and wear-resistant surface. A stochastic model for the prediction of plastic deformations and wear of a rough surface is proposed. The surface roughness and the interaction between the surfaces are also represented by stochastic models. A single asperity is studied as it comes into contact and interacts with the opposite surface. Since the wear process is simulated as an initial-value problem, the proposed general wear model is formulated as a first order differential equation system representing events during the rubbing process at all of the asperities considered on a surface.

  • 38. Bergea, Ola
    et al.
    Karlsson, Reine
    Hedlund-Åström, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Jacobsson, Per
    Luttropp, Conrad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Education for sustainability as a transformative learning process: a pedagogical experiment in EcoDesign doctoral education2006In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 14, no 15-16, p. 1431-1442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents details about a doctoral-level EcoDesign course, as an education for sustainable development experience, in relation to pedagogic theory. The aim was to promote transformative learning in order to facilitate more productive use of environmental knowledge in product and business development. The course included interdisciplinary dialogue founded in real world experiences presented by lecturers from business, government and NGOs, as well as study visits and group work on the drafting of journal papers. The key pedagogical objective was to widen the perspective to embrace more humanly engaging concerns and to enhance the student's overall understanding about relations between sustainable development priorities and product design practices. @ 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 39.
    Bergseth, Ellen
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Influence of gear surface roughness, lubricant viscosity and quality level on ISO 6336 calculation of surface durability2009Report (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Bergseth, Ellen
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    On tribological design in gear tooth contacts2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The correct tribological design will have a considerable effect on a gear’s service life and efficiency. The purpose of this thesis is to clarify the impact of variation in the gear tooth flank tribological system on the gear contact load capacity – to increase the understanding of how surface topography and lubricant interact.

    In this thesis the variation in surface topography inherent in the manufacturing method has been shown, by experimental work and computer simulations, to be an important factor for the contact condition in the early life of gears. Surface analysis revealed that the formation and composition of surface boundary layers depends strongly on the chemical composition of the lubricant, but also on pre-existing surface boundary layers. Additionally, surface boundary layers play a major role in frictional behaviour, wear and in allowing the lubricant to react properly with the surfaces.

    Paper A presents the current ISO 6336 calculation of surface durability. A robust design approach was used to investigate the extent to which the current standard for calculation of surface durability allows for manufacturing variations and the choice of lubricant.

    Paper B investigates the extent to which a logarithmical profile modification can increase gear contact pressure robustness compared to traditional lead profiles for gears.

    Paper C compares different gear manufacturing methods and their as-manufactured (fresh unworn) surface topographies, using measured surface topographies as input to a contact simulation program.

    Paper D examines surface boundary layer formation and the corresponding wear in relation to different anti-wear additives in an environmentally adapted base oil.

    Papers E and F make use of specimens with surface topographies imitating two gear manufacturing methods (grinding and superfinishing) to be used in a twin-disc and barrel-on-disc machine respectively. The contacts are analysed by friction measurements and simulations combined with methods for surface analysis.

  • 41.
    Bergseth, Ellen
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Virtual Hobbing2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Hobbing is a widely used machining process to generate high precision external spur and helical gears. The life of thehob is determined by wear and other surface damage. In this report, a CAD approach is used to simulate the machiningprocess of a gear tooth slot. Incremental removal of material is achieved by identifying contact lines. The paper presentsan example of spur gear generation by means of an unworn and a worn hob. The two CAD-generated gear surfaces arecompared and showed form deviations.

  • 42.
    Bergseth, Ellen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Björklund, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Logarithmical Crowning for Spur Gears2010In: Strojniski vestnik, ISSN 0039-2480, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 239-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gear tooth modifications, such as lead crowning, are often recommended to compensate for misalignment (e.g. assembly deviations). Lead crowning means that the tooth centre is slightly thicker than the tooth edges and is usually described as a circular arc profile. The use of crowning shifts the peak load from the tooth flank edges and, therefore, reduces the risk for high contact pressures at the edges, which can otherwise result in a shortened service life. In this study a logarithmical lead profile was compared with traditional lead profile modifications for gears. The profiles were applied on a spur gear pair and a numerical method for contact analysis was used to calculate the contact pressure distribution at the pitch diameter. All lead profiles were optimised with respect to low contact pressure at a specific normal load, a specified maximum misalignment in the plane of action and a tooth flank edge contact criteria. The results show that the logarithmical profile responds differently to misalignments compared to the traditional lead profile modifications. The logarithmical profile resulted in lower maximum contact pressures for small misalignments and is, therefore, of further interest in terms of achieving a robust gear design. (C) 2010 Journal of Mechanical Engineering. All rights reserved.

  • 43.
    Bergseth, Ellen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, U
    Lewis, R
    Lewis, S
    Effect of gear surface and lubricant interaction on mild wear2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Bergseth, Ellen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Lewis, Roger
    Sheffield University, UK.
    Lewis, Stephen
    Sheffield University, UK.
    Effect of Gear Surface and Lubricant Interaction on Mild Wear2012In: Tribology letters, ISSN 1023-8883, E-ISSN 1573-2711, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 183-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a twin-disc test machine was used to simulate a rolling/sliding gear contact for three surface finishes, each run with two types of lubricants, thus seeking to develop insight into the tooth flank/lubricant tribological system. The test disc surfaces were case-carburised before the surfaces were produced by: transverse grinding followed by a mechanical abrasive polishing process; transverse grinding only; and transverse grinding followed by preheating as a final finishing step (intended to enhance the build-up of an easily sheared surface boundary layer using a sulphur additive). The twin-disc contact was lubricated with an ester-based environmentally adapted lubricant or a polyalphaolefin-based commercial heavy truck gearbox lubricant. To obtain information about the composition of chemically reacted surface layers, the specimens used were analysed using glow discharge-optical emission spectroscopy. The results indicate that the interactions between different surface finishes and lubricants have different impacts on friction behaviour, wear and the reacted surface boundary layer formed by the lubricant. Running a smooth (polished) surface with the appropriate lubricant drastically reduces the friction. Surface analysis of the ground surfaces gives clear differences in lubricant characteristics. The commercial lubricant does not seem to react chemically with the surface to the same extent as the EAL does. Micropitting was found on all ground discs with both lubricants, though at different rates. The highest amount of wear but less surface damage (i.e. micropits) was found on the preheated surface run with the commercial lubricant.

  • 45.
    Bergseth, Ellen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Sjöberg, Sören
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Björklund, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Influence of real surface topography on the contact area ratio in differently manufactured spur gears2012In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 56, p. 72-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface topography measurements from spur gears produced using four different manufacturing methods were used as input to a contact analysis programme. All test gears were case-hardened, two gears were machined in the hardened state using honing and grinding respectively, and two gears were machined in the non-hardened state using hobbing and hobbing followed by green-shaving respectively. The results show that the surface topography caused by the manufacturing methods has a large influence on the real contact area in the early life of the gear. The green-shaved gear surfaces and the honed gear surfaces have the highest contact area ratio after manufacturing (as-manufactured), which could be advantageous for future gear life with respect to e.g. the running-in process.

  • 46.
    Bergseth, Ellen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Sosa, Mario
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Andersson, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Investigation of pitting resistance in ultra clean IQ-Steel vs commonly used conventional steel; 158Q vs 16MnCr5: Back-to-back pitting tests2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    KTH Machine Design has conducted pitting tests on gears made out of two different types of steel in a standard back-to-back pitting test rig (FZG). The tested gears were produced from Ovako’s IQ-Steel in grade 158Q and compared to the behaviour of a reference steel, commonly used conventional steel in grade 16MnCr5 (reference steel, RS). The test method is a mechanical test procedure generally used to determine the pitting load capacity of gear transmission lubricants, but in this study the purpose was to compare the pitting load capacity of the two steel types. The report is based on the test procedure described in FVA – Information sheet Research Project No. 371 (Practice Relevant Pitting Test) with minor changes. Time to failure and photographs of the fatigue damages are presented in this report. One gear tooth from each steel type was analysed using SEM. The results, which are based on six tests in total (three gear pairs IQ-Steel and three RS-steel), indicate that the IQ-Steel has better surface durability than the reference steel. To better understand the mechanisms involved, further tests are suggested.

  • 47.
    Bergseth, Ellen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Torbacke, M.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Wear in environmentally adapted lubricants with AW technology2008In: Journal of Synthetic Lubrication, ISSN 1557-6841, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 137-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to examine the tribofilm formation and the corresponding wear occurring in the boundary lubrication regime in environmentally adapted lubricants, i.e. when using synthetic ester base fluids with different anti-wear additives. AW additives of the following types were studied: phosphorus, sulphur–phosphorus and sulphur–nitrogen together with an additive based on carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen chemistry. In addition, the base fluid itself was tested.Wear was studied in a pin-on-disc-machine giving the wear coefficient. The surfaces were analysed by glow discharge-optical emission spectroscopy, revealing the surface reactions formed by the additives. The results indicate that the wear number decreases with increasing reacted surface layer depth as well as with increasing oxide layer depth. Also, the results indicate that a highly polar base fluid give relatively low wear numbers even without additives.

  • 48.
    Bergseth, Ellen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Torbacke, M.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Tribologi.
    Wear in environmentally adapted lubricants with AW/EP technology2008In: Tech. Akad. Esslingen Int. Tribol. Colloq. Proc., 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mineral oil based lubricants are dominating the market still. However, there is now a broad range of environmentally adapted lubricants (EAL) based on both natural and synthetic esters. Wear was studied in a pin-on-disc-machine giving the wear coefficient. The surface reactions formed by the additives were examined. The studied lubricants were formulated with a complex ester as the base fluid. The wear number decreased with increasing reacted surface layer depth as well as with increasing oxide layer. A highly polar base fluid gave relatively low wear numbers even without additives. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 16th International Colloquium Tribology Lubricants Materials and Lubrication Engineering (Stuttgart/Ostfildern, Germany 1/15-17/2008).

  • 49.
    Bergseth, Ellen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Zhu, Yi
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Olofsson, Ulf
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    Study of surface roughness and surface orientation onfriction in rolling/sliding contacts: barrel-on-disc versustwin-discManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Börjesson, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Elements.
    A Systematic Qualitative Comparison of Five Approaches to Modularity2010In: International Design Conference: Design 2010, 2010, p. 147-156Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An approach to modularity is used to mean the method by which a modular architecture is defined. This paper presents a method by which such approaches can be compared, incorporating both academic and experience-based criteria. The proposed method, based on dendrograms, is applied on MFD, Component-based DSM, Heuristics, and two derived approaches. Derived approaches seem to offer improvements, but also introduce new disadvantages which are absent in the methods on which they build.

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