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  • 1.
    A Asif, Farazee M
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Machine and Process Technology.
    Circular Manufacturing Systems: A development framework with analysis methods and tools for implementation2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The society today lives on the philosophy of ‘take-make-use-dispose.’ In the long run, this is not sustainable as the natural resources and the waste carrying capacity of the earth are limited. Therefore, it is essential to reduce dependency on the natural resources by decoupling the growth from the consumption. In this venture, both the society and the manufacturing industry have a vital role to play. The society needs to shift towards Circular Economy that rests upon the philosophy of ‘take-make-use-reuse’ and the manufacturing industry has to be a major stakeholder in this shift. Despite being proven to be both economically and environmentally beneficial, successful examples of circular systems are few today. This is primarily due to two reasons; firstly, there is a lack of systemic and systematic approach to guide industries and secondly, there is a lack of analysis methods and tools that are capable of assessing different aspects of circular manufacturing systems. Taking on to these challenges, the objective of this research is to bring forward a framework with methods and decision support tools that are essential to implement circular manufacturing systems. The initial conceptual framework with the systemic approach is developed based on extensive review and analysis of research, which is further adapted for industrial implementation. Systematic analysis methods, decision support and implementation tools are developed to facilitate this adaptation. This development has been supported by four cases from diverse manufacturing sectors. Behind each decision support tool, there are analysis methods built upon mainly system dynamics principles. These tools are based on simulation platforms called Stella and Anylogic. Among other things, these tools are capable of assessing the performance of closed-loop supply chains, consequences of resource scarcity, potential gains from resource conservation and overall economic and environmental performance of circular manufacturing systems.

  • 2.
    A Asif, Farazee M
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Machine and Process Technology.
    Rashid, Amir
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Machine and Process Technology.
    Bianchi, Carmine
    University of Palermo (ITALY) Faculty of Political Sciences - Department of International Studies .
    Nicolescu, Mihai
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Machine and Process Technology.
    Performance analysis of the closed loop supply chain2012In: Journal of Remanufacturing, ISSN 2210-4690, Vol. 2, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The question of resource scarcity and emerging pressure of environmental legislations has brought a new challenge for the manufacturing industry. On the one hand, there is a huge population that demands a large quantity of commodities; on the other hand, these demands have to be met by minimum resources and pollution. Resource conservative manufacturing (ResCoM) is a proposed holistic concept to manage these challenges. The successful implementation of this concept requires cross functional collaboration among relevant fields, and among them, closed loop supply chain is an essential domain. The paper aims to highlight some misconceptions concerning the closed loop supply chain, to discuss different challenges, and in addition, to show how the proposed concept deals with those challenges through analysis of key performance indicators (KPI).

    Methods

    The work presented in this paper is mainly based on the literature review. The analysis of performance of the closed loop supply chain is done using system dynamics, and the Stella software has been used to do the simulation. Findings The results of the simulation depict that in ResCoM; the performance of the closed loop supply chain is much enhanced in terms of supply, demand, and other uncertainties involved. The results may particularly be interesting for industries involved in remanufacturing, researchers in the field of closed loop supply chain, and other relevant areas. Originality The paper presented a novel research concept called ResCoM which is supported by system dynamics models of the closed loop supply chain to demonstrate the behavior of KPI in the closed loop supply chain.

  • 3.
    A Österman, Sami
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Kumar, Shirish
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Vattenskärning: Teknologin och dess tillämpningsområden2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Water jet cutting is generally considered to be a versatile processing technique with a variety of applications. Pure water jet cutting makes it possible to cut through soft materials like rubber, while an added abrasive allows cutting of including steel and ceramics. The cut leaves neither any residual stress nor heat stress in the material. In addition, the surface finish is often of high enough quality, making post treatment unnecessary. The process does not yield in any dangerous gases and is relatively environmentally friendly. The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the water jet technology, its current, as well as new application areas. The goal was also to compare the technique with alternative processing methods in order to clarify the advantages and disadvantages between them. This was done in order to investigate which technologies are most appropriate to use depending on properties such as material, material thickness and size of the produced series. This paper has been written together from Sweden and France and a choice was hence made to investigate if the uses of water jet cutting differ between the two countries. To meet the objective, three questions were used to investigate how to expand the application areas of water jet cutting, what advantages and disadvantages there are between water jet cutting and other processing methods and how the scope of its applications differs between France and Sweden. The main sources of information for the work have been interviews with manufacturing companies that use water jet cutting, suppliers of water jet cutting machines and research institutes. Research articles have been used in order to extend the range of gathered information. Among primary sources for this report were websites of companies in the processing industry. This thesis shows that water jet technology is applicable in many industries and application areas that differ between France and Sweden, in France, used water jets are mainly used in the food industry, while it is more widespread in the engineering industry in Sweden. Companies in the Swedish market are skeptical about the use of water jet cutters exceeding 400 MPa, although it suggests many advantages. The main limitation of the water jet cutting procedure is the thickness of the material. Cutting steel beyond 30 mm in thickness, can result in a stream lag by delaying the water jet and thereby induce non‐precise cutting. This problem may be solved by changing the cutting parameters such as cutting speed or by inclining the cutting nozzle. Following an evaluation of plasma, laser and water jet cutters, none of the methods is directly competing with one another, since each single cutting technique is best suited for their intended use. The techniques complement each other rather than competing with one another.

  • 4.
    Abdoli, Shiva
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    A holistic machining line behavior modeling using Finite State Machines2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Energy consumption of turning and milling operations are analyzed in this thesis profoundly. It is aimed to be able to employ analysis results in real production floors. So it is tried to investigate on most effective parameters on machine tool energy consumptions which are changeable in production floors. Due to existing limitations in predesigned manufacturing lines, cutting depth, feed rate and spindle speed, are chosen to analyze their effects on machine tools energy consumption. All other influencing parameters are presumed constant during research. Evaluating machine tools energy consumption shows increasing machining factors values reduces energy consumption in machining operation. Scrutinizing machining factors effect on energy consumption revealed that, increasing one machining factor when two other factors have constant low or constant high values has different effect on energy consumption. The main contribution of this research is proposing a mathematical model, based on material removal rate and machining time for estimating machine tools energy consumption. In addition, a methodology to find machine energy consumption profile based on MRR in a particular operation is proposed too. This enables to find critical breakpoints of MRR for energy consumption in machining operations. Subsidiary effect of increasing Machining factors, on machine energy consumption is analyzed too. To obtain integrative conclusion regarding the effect of machining factors on energy consumption, their influence should be studied in a production system, for long term. In addition machines experience different states with different profile of energy consumption. So energy consumption of machine tools in all states is considered as product associated energy consumption. These targets are achieved by modeling a production line and simulate it for long time. The results indicates for system energy efficiency, it worth’s to increase machining factors even if tool life and consequently machine utilization reduce. Effect of production planning such as batch mode production from energy consumption perspective in production system is evaluated. The results exhibit consistency between tool life, machine idle energy consumption and optimum batch size. The accomplishments can greatly help process planner to achieve optimum production system configuration to enhance energy efficiency.

  • 5.
    Abdoli, Shiva
    et al.
    KTH.
    Semere Tesfamariam, Daniel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Investigation on Machine Tools Energy Consumptions2014In: International Journal of Mechanical, Aerospace, Industrial and Mechatronics Engineering, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 1136-1143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several researches have been conducted to study consumption of energy in cutting process. Most of these researches are focusing to measure the consumption and propose consumption reduction methods. In this work, the relation between the cutting parameters and the consumption is investigated in order to establish a generalized energy consumption model that can be used for process and production planning in real production lines. Using the generalized model, the process planning will be carried out by taking into account the energy as a function of the selected process parameters. Similarly, the generalized model can be used in production planning to select the right operational parameters like batch sizes, routing, buffer size, etc. in a production line. The description and derivation of the model as well as a case study are given in this paper to illustrate the applicability and validity of the model.

  • 6.
    Abdollahi, Arsam
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Misstags reducering vid internationell order: En utredande rapport om Eaton Corporation i Hengelo Nederländerna och GE Healthcare i Uppsala Sveriges åtgärder för misstags reducering på Front Office2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the special characteristics of a customer specified production in two companies, Eaton Corporation, Hengelo, The Netherlands and GE Healthcare, Uppsala Sweden. It includes a deep investigation of what the companies in question do to reduce mistakes in an international order. That meaning from the point that Sales department issues an order until order managers/project managers get it in their hands, all the steps in between. The fall pits in international orders are brought up e.g. knowledge gap from the sales department, non standardized documents for orders, customized solutions without modules in the ERP System, ERP Systems that are not systematically updated, customer specified products, regional budgeting templates, Restrictions in the ERP System, Communication protocols between the involved departments, the alignment between the involved departments and the customers involvement in the project. One thing that is noticeable throughout the report is that the companies are fully aware that mistakes are commonly made in the Front end but choose not to quantify nor do they analyze the mistakes. Instead they choose to implement procedures and protocols to reduce these mistakes, but this is done without any analysis of what the source for these mistakes are neither do they know how many are made or which ones that are the most critical. As a closure there is an analysis over the companies approach to reduce mistakes and recommendations of what that has to be done to further reduce the mistakes in the Front end.

  • 7.
    Abdullah Asif, Farazee M.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Machine and Process Technology.
    Information requirements and management for service based business models2014In: Swedish Production Symposium, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anticipated scarcity of natural resources and concern for the sustainable development forcing manufacturing industries to emphasise on conservation of resources on one hand. On the other hand high competition in the manufacturing industry is forcing companies to look for innovative value propositions. Service based business models are emerging business solutions that fulfil the functional needs of customers. Such business approach demands extensive and sophisticated information collection, sharing and management systems. However, there are evidences of knowledge gap when it comes to defining information requirements, information management and sharing systems needed to adopt such business models. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of research done in the area of service based business models in terms of information management and communication systems. The paper also includes result of two case studies done in two different manufacturing companies with the purposes to understand information requirements to adopt service based business models.

  • 8.
    Abdullah Asif, Farazee Mohammad
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Machine and Process Technology.
    Resource Conservative Manufacturing: New Generation of Manufacturing2011Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The question of resource scarcity and emerging pressure of environmentallegislations have put the manufacturing industry with a new challenge. On theone side, there is a huge population that demands a large quantity ofcommodities, on the other side, these demands have to be met by minimumresources and with permissible pollution that the earth’s ecosystem can handle.In this situation, technologic breakthrough that can offer alternative resourceshas become essential. Unfortunately, breakthroughs do not follow any rule ofthumb and while waiting for a miracle, the manufacturing industry has to findways to conserve resources. Within this research the anatomy of a large body ofknowledge has been performed to find the best available practices for resourceconservation. Critical review of the research revealed that none of the availablesolutions are compatible with the level of resource conservation desired by themanufacturing industry or by society. It has also been discovered that a largegap exists between the solutions perceived by the scientists and theapplicability of those solutions. Through careful evaluation of the state-of-theart,the research presented in this thesis introduced a solution of maximizingresource conservation i.e., material, energy and value added, as used inmanufacturing. The solutions emerged from the novel concept named asResource Conservative Manufacturing, which is built upon the concept ofMultiple Lifecycle of product. Unlike other research work, the researchdocumented in this thesis started with the identification of the problem andfrom which a ‘wish to do’ list was drawn. The seriousness of the problem andpotential of adopting the proposed concept has been justified with concreteinformation. A great number of arguments have been presented to show theexisting gaps in the research and from that, a set of solutions to conserveresources has been proposed. Finally, one of the prime hypotheses concerningclosed loop supply chain has been validated through the system dynamicsmodeling and simulation.

  • 9.
    Abdullah Asif, Farazee Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Lieder, Michael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Rashid, Amir
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Multi-method simulation based tool to evaluate economic and environmental performance of circular product systems2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 139, p. 1261-1281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The transition from linear to circular product systems is a big step for any organization. This may require an organization to change the way it does business, designs product and manages supply chain. As these three areas are interdependent, bringing change in one area will influence the others, for instance, changing the business model from conventional sales to leasing will demand changes in both product design and the supply chain. At the same time, it is essential for an organization to anticipate the economic and environmental impact of all changes before it may decide to implement the circular product systems. However, there is no tool available today that can assess economic and environmental performance of circular product systems. The purpose of this research is to develop a multi-method simulation based tool that can help to evaluate economic and environmental performance of circular product systems. Method: The conceptual models that are used to develop the tool have been formulated based on review of the state-of-the-art research. System Dynamics (SD) and Agent Based (AB) principles have been used to create the simulation model which has been implemented in Anylogic software platform. Originality: This research presents the first multi-method simulation based tool that can evaluate economic and environmental performance of circular product systems. Findings: Multi-method simulation technique is useful in designing dynamic simulation model that takes into consideration mutual interactions among critical factors of business model, product design and supply chain. It also allows predicting system's behaviour and its influence on the economic and environmental performance of circular product systems.

  • 10.
    Abdullah Asif, Farazee Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Machine and Process Technology.
    Nicolescu, Cornel Mihai
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Minimizing Uncertainty Involved in Designing the Closed-loop Supply Network for Multiple-lifecycle of Products2010In: Annals Of DAAAM for 2010 & Proceedings of 21st DAAAM Symposium: Intelligent Manufacturing and Automation / [ed] Branko Katalinic, Zadar: DAAAM International , 2010, p. 1055-1056Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To ensure multiple-lifecycle of products through remanufacturing intervention requires a well-functioning closed-loop supply network. Generally, the unpredictability of quantity, timing and quality (physical/functional) of the returned products and demand fluctuation of the remanufactured products are the main sources of uncertainty of closed-loop supply network. To some extent, efficient recollection strategies and separate distribution channels for remanufactured products can minimize the uncertainty. Nevertheless, efficient recollection does not necessarily close the loop if the recovered products do not enter into the main stream of the supply network. Beside, products that are distributed through separate channels create an open loop. Thus, the problem of uncertainty remains unsolved. The aim of this paper is to propose solutions to minimize the uncertainty involved in designing a well-functioning closed-loop supply network using the system dynamics principle and tool.

  • 11.
    Abdullah Asif, Farazee Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Rashid, Amir
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Machine and Process Technology.
    Bianchi, C.
    Nicolescu, Cornel Mihai
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    System dynamics models for decision making in product multiple lifecycles2015In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 101, p. 20-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main drivers for adopting product multiple lifecycles are to gain ecological and economic advantages. However, in most of the cases it is not straight forward to estimate the potential ecological and economic gain that may result from adopting product multiple lifecycles. Even though many researchers have concluded that product multiple lifecycles result in gain, there are examples which indicate that the gain is often marginal or even none in many cases. The purpose of this research is to develop system dynamics models that can assist decision makers in assessing and analysing the potential gain of product multiple lifecycles considering the dynamics of material scarcity. The foundation of the research presented in this paper is laid based on literature review. System dynamics principles have been used for modelling and simulations have been done on Stella iThink platform. The data used in the models have been extracted from different reports published by World Steel Association and U.S. Geological Survey. Some of the data have been assumed based on expert estimation. The data on iron ore reserves, iron and steel productions and consumptions have been used in the models. This research presents the first system dynamics model for decision making in product multiple lifecycles which takes into consideration the dynamics of material scarcity. Physical unavailability and price of material are the two main factors that would drive product multiple lifecycles approach and more sustainable decisions can be made if it is done by taking holistic system approach over longer time horizon. For an enterprise it is perhaps not attractive to conserve a particular type of material through product multiple lifecycles approach which is naturally abundant but extremely important if the material becomes critical. An enterprise could through engineering, proper business model and marketing may increase the share of multiple lifecycle products which eventually would help the enterprise to reduce its dependency on critical materials.

  • 12.
    Abdullah Asif, Farazee Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Machine and Process Technology.
    Roci, Malvina
    KTH.
    Lieder, Michael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Production Systems.
    Rashid, Amir
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Machine and Process Technology. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Production Systems.
    Štimulak, M.
    Halvordsson, E.
    De Bruijckere, R.
    A practical ICT framework for transition to circular manufacturing systems2018In: Procedia CIRP, Elsevier, 2018, p. 598-602Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition towards a circular economy has become important. Manufacturing industry being a major stakeholder in this transition has started exploring the potential of this transition and challenges in implementation. Ambitious companies such as Gorenje d.d. has taken the circular economy transition seriously and aims to become a pioneer in implementing circular manufacturing systems. One vital step in this transition is the business model shift from the linear (sales model) to a circular model such as 'product as a service'. This brings new challenges to Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) that have never been experienced in their conventional businesses. One of the challenges is to establish an information communication and technology (ICT) infrastructure that enables information management and sharing as well as establishes a real-time communication between relevant stakeholders. Outlining such an ICT infrastructure is the objective of this paper.

  • 13.
    Abdullah Asif, Farazee Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Machine and Process Technology.
    Semere, Daniel Tesfamariam
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Nicolescu, Cornel Mihai
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Haumann, M.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    METHODS ANALYSIS OF REMANUFACTURING OPTIONS FOR REPEATED LIFECYCLE OF STARTERS AND ALTERNATORS2010In: 7th International DAAAM Baltic Conference"INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING"22-24 April 2010, Tallinn, Estonia / [ed] R. Kyttner, Estonia: Tallinn University of Technology , 2010, p. 340-345Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Design for Repeatedly Utilization (DFRU) is a proposed conceptto be used in the product realizationprocess to ensure optimum useable life (forinstance in terms of economy, resourceusage, environmental impact etc.) ofproducts or parts of products enablingmultiple lifecycle. In the DFRU approachproducts are restored as new like productsthrough remanufacturing processes. Theterm remanufacturing has been interpreteddifferently by different researchers and theindustries that are involved inremanufacturing business use differentapproaches to remanufacture theirproducts. In this paper the starter motorand alternator of automotives has beenused to demonstrate the novel concepts.The purpose of this paper is to expresswhat remanufacturing means in ourconcept, model their major lifecycleaspects and create a simulation modelfrom it. This is a preliminary work towardsdefining and specifying the processes,methods and design properties in DFRU.The work will be further extended to aholistic business model which can facilitateDFRU approach in an efficient way. Infuture the model will be developed andadopted to create new models for otherproducts appropriate for remanufacturingand eventually DFRU.

  • 14. Abele, Eberhard
    et al.
    Chryssolouris, George
    Sihn, Wilfried
    Metternich, Joachim
    ElMaraghy, Hoda
    Seliger, Guenther
    Franzén Sivard, Gunilla
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    ElMaraghy, Waguih
    Hummel, Vera
    Tisch, Michael
    Seifermann, Stefan
    Learning factories for future oriented research and education in manufacturing2017In: CIRP annals, ISSN 0007-8506, E-ISSN 1726-0604, Vol. 66, no 2, p. 803-826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning factories present a promising environment for education, training and research, especially in manufacturing related areas which are a main driver for wealth creation in any nation. While numerous learning factories have been built in industry and academia in the last decades, a comprehensive scientific overview of the topic is still missing. This paper intends to close this gap by establishing the state of the art of learning factories. The motivations, historic background, and the didactic foundations of learning factories are outlined. Definitions of the term learning factory and the corresponding morphological model are provided. An overview of existing learning factory approaches in industry and academia is provided, showing the broad range of different applications and varying contents. The state of the art of learning factories curricula design and their use to enhance learning and research as well as potentials and limitations are presented. Conclusions and an outlook on further research priorities are offered. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of CIRP.

  • 15.
    ABOUD, STEPHANIE
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    AL MANDLAWI, LINA
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Vilken påverkan har stora readagar på produktionen inom tillverkande företag?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Major sales days like Black Friday and Cyber Monday are today widely used and established phenomena around the world. During these days, customers are offered unique offers and strong price reductions on products. Periods like these become important for manufacturing companies as they face more demands in terms of high customer expectations and an increased demand for products.

    The purpose of this work is to investigate whether major sales days have an impact on the production within manufacturing companies. More specifically, it is investigated if the production is made more effective ahead of these days and what methods that are used to forecast demand and to avoid potential risks.

    The question is answered by conducting two studies, a literature and a field study. The literature study gives a theoretical basis for the report. The field study contributes with the practical part as it consists of interviews with two well-established manufacturing companies and also a survey for consumers to respond to. This then gives a better understanding of how companies handle major sales days and of consumers demands and expectations.

    Results from interviews shows that companies control their customers, the resellers, in a matter of how many products they should order on these sales days. Thus, they control their own demand which reduced the need to make the production more effective. In case of increased pressure on the production, companies also take other measures such as hiring extra labour. The companies do not consider the fact that they overproduce to be a problem as they are certain the products will be purchased later.

    The main results from the survey shows that the products sought by the customers during major sales days are often sold out. The majority of these customers’ lack understanding of this which indicates that there is a gap between companies supply and customers’ demands and expectations.

    A conclusion was drawn based on an analysis of the field study in relation to the literature. Companies choose to not directly affect their production or make it more effective ahead of major sales days. However, they are affected from an economic point of view as they take costly measures when faster handling within the production is needed. Furthermore, it was concluded that the customers’ actual demands and expectations are not met during these days, which suggests that companies should reevaluate some of their methods and strategies.

  • 16.
    Aboufazeli, N.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Production Systems.
    Semere, D.T.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Production Systems.
    Ease of Reconfigurability Index: For Evaluation of the Reconfigurable Machine Tools2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the latest developments in manufacturing systems is reconfigurable manufacturing systems in which reconfigurable machine tools are the heart of such systems. The aim of application of this type of machine tool is having rapid cost-effective responsiveness to changes in new product variants or volume in manufacturing companies because of different interests, needs and desires of customers in global competitive market. The important tools to implement this kind of systems are systematic methodologies and enablers like open architecture controllers, Interface standard and comprehensive and integrated software to make the couple of limited optimized configurations of the machine tool. To choose the best configuration among proposed configuration by the software we need some evaluation methods based on smart chosen criteria to choose the best modular machine tool structure. One of the important points to choose the best configuration is ease of reconfigurability. The aim of this paper is to introduce a flexible and practical index for different products in reconfigurable manufacturing systems. This Index is defined based on two important factors: number of the changeable modules and the complexity of the interfaces including mechanical, informational and power (hydraulic, pneumatic or electrical).Generally the more number of the modules and the more complex interfaces means the more difficult to reconfigure the machine tool structure.

  • 17.
    Aboufazeli, Nasser
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Reconfigurable Machine Tools Design Methodologies and Measuring Reconfigurability for Design Evaluation2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18.
    Abrahamsson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Optimering av bergtransporter i underjordsgruva2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis project was conducted at LKAB, a mineral group that manufactures and supplies iron ore products. The work was conducted for the company's underground mine in Malmberget and deals with the rock transport from the mine development. Development is the process which prepares new parts of the mine for iron ore mining. The goals of this work was to identify how the rock transport from the mine development is controlled and to quantify potential savings. If possible, improvement suggestions were to be presented. The basis for this study has been collected on the site of the mine in Malmberget through meetings and conversations with staff, own observations and review of internal documents. Details of the rock transport from the mine development have also been collected in the form of freight statistics and price information. To achieve the goals of the study, two different approaches were chosen. To identify how the transport of rock from the mine development is controlled, a process mapping effort was performed. To quantify the potential savings, I have sought the lowest possible transport cost and compared this with the actual outcome. The study shows that there is a gross potential to reduce transportation costs by 3060 kSEK per halfyear, corresponding to approximately 20 % of the total transport cost. Of this amount, underground transports account for 2041 kSEK (13 %) and transports out of the mine account for 1019 kSEK (6 %). However, the study's limitations makes the potential savings for transports out of the mine highly uncertain. If shafts are made available already in the development stage, there will be even further opportunities to reduce costs.

  • 19.
    Abramson, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Metrology and Optics.
    Article may have left false impression that light-in-flight method is new2008In: Laser Focus World, ISSN 1043-8092, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 10-10Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Abramson, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Metrology and Optics.
    FEMTOSECOND IMAGING Motion picture of short pulses2011In: Nature Photonics, ISSN 1749-4885, E-ISSN 1749-4893, Vol. 5, no 7, p. 389-390Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Abramson, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Holography, relativity and the spooky ellipsoids2006In: Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Display Holography: Advances In Display Holography / [ed] Bjelkhagen, HI, 2006, p. 228-235Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The further away from a house we move, the smaller it appears. We could say that we are in the centre of a "sphere of observation", which must reach the house before we can see it. The larger that sphere is, the smaller the house appears. This is natural to us and not difficult to understand. In Einstein's Special Relativity it is stated that the faster we move past a house, the shorter it appears. We state in this paper that this is because the faster we travel, the more our "sphere of observation" is elongated into an "ellipsoid of observation". The longer that ellipsoid is, the shorter the house appears. This contraction is not so natural to us, because to be observable the velocity has to be extremely high, almost close to the velocity of light. A similar phenomenon can, however, be studied when holography with ultrashort pulses is used for measurement. In this case the sphere of observation is also transformed into an ellipsoid of observation. Thus, according to our approach objects appear shorter because the definition of length (the metre) becomes longer, just as time moves slower because the definition of time (the second) becomes longer. The transformation of the sphere into an ellipsoid is however hidden to the observer both in the case of holography and in relativity. This spooky behaviour of the ellipsoid has resulted in a new mathematical theorem.

  • 22.
    Abramson, Nils
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Boman, J.
    Bonnevier, Björn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, Alfvén Laboratory Centre for Space and Fusion Plasma Physics.
    Plane intersections of rotational ellipsoids2006In: The American mathematical monthly, ISSN 0002-9890, E-ISSN 1930-0972, Vol. 113, no 4, p. 336-339Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Abramson, Nils H.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Metrology and Optics.
    Appearance of Objects at Relativistic Velocities, a Holographic Approach2010In: SEARCH FOR FUNDAMENTAL THEORY / [ed] Amoroso RL, Rowlands P, Jeffers S, MELVILLE, NY: AMER INST PHYSICS , 2010, Vol. 1316, p. 118-124Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A diagram borrowed from holographic interferometry has been applied to visualize phenomena in Special Relativity. It displays how a sphere of observation is by velocity elongated into an ellipsoid of observation and produces graphically all the well accepted equations of Einsteins Special Relativity. The Lorentz contraction, however, is explained as an elongation of the measuring rod, the meter, which by definition is based on either a specific number of wavelengths or the velocity of light multiplied by time. The diagram displays the total apparent object distortions including not only the Lorentz contraction but also larger apparent contractions and elongations caused by the classic Doppler Effect. The reasons of these deformations are the delays caused by variations in distance from observer to different parts of the moving object. In this paper we do not discuss the meaning of apparent, as compared to real, deformation.

  • 24.
    Abramson, Nils H.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Elliptic visualizing optical resolution and kinetic energy2017In: Applied Optics, ISSN 1559-128X, E-ISSN 2155-3165, Vol. 56, no 5, p. 1413-1416Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diffraction limited resolution as introduced by Abbe is well established, but interference limited resolution was not well known until holographic interferometry was introduced. The holodiagram is used to simplify holography and in a new way visualize the distribution, ratio, and relation among resolutions of different optical techniques, including relativistic phenomena. Resolution, when measured by optical methods based on the number of wavelengths of light, is defined in the following as the minimum distance between resolvable points, or the largest object needed to be resolved. Everywhere in the diagram this resolution is represented by two orthogonal diagonals of rhombs.

  • 25.
    Abramson, Nils H.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Metrology and Optics.
    Holodiagram: elliptic visualizing interferometry, relativity, and light-in-flight2014In: Applied Optics, ISSN 1559-128X, E-ISSN 2155-3165, Vol. 53, no 11, p. 2398-2404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In holographic interferometry, there is usually a static distance separating the point of illumination and the point of observation. In Special Relativity, this separation is dynamic and is caused by the velocity of the observer. The corrections needed to compensate for these separations are similar in the two fields. We use the ellipsoids of the holodiagram for measurement and in a graphic way to explain and evaluate optical resolution, gated viewing, radar, holography, three-dimensional interferometry, Special Relativity, and light-in-flight recordings. Lorentz contraction together with time dilation is explained as the result of the eccentricity of the measuring ellipsoid, caused by its velocity. The extremely thin ellipsoid of the very first light appears as a beam aimed directly at the observer, which might explain the wave or ray duality of light and entanglement. Finally, we introduce the concept of ellipsoids of observation.

  • 26.
    Abramson, Nils H.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Metrology and Optics.
    INSTANT RANDOM INFORMATION2010In: SEARCH FOR FUNDAMENTAL THEORY / [ed] Amoroso RL, Rowlands P, Jeffers S, MELVILLE, NY: AMER INST PHYSICS , 2010, Vol. 1316, p. 113-117Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information is carried by matter or by energy and thus Einstein stated that "no information can travel faster than light." He also was very critical to the "Spooky action at distance" as described in Quantum Physics. However, many verified experiments have proven that the "Spooky actions" not only work at distance but also that they travel at a velocity faster than light, probably at infinite velocity. Examples are Young's fringes at low light levels or entanglements. My explanation is that this information is without energy. In the following I will refer to this spooky information as exformation, where "ex-" refers to existence, the information is not transported in any way, it simply exists. Thus Einstein might have been wrong when he stated that no information can travel faster than light. But he was is right in that no detectable information can travel faster than light. Phenomena connected to entanglement appear at first to be exceptions, but in those cases the information can not be reconstructed until energy is later sent in the form of correlation using ordinary information at the velocity of light. In entanglement we see that even if the exformation can not be detected directly because its luck of energy it still can influence what happens at random, bemuse in Quantum Physics there is by definition no energy difference between two states that happen randomly.

  • 27.
    Abramson, Nils H.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Lorentz contraction, apparent or real2013In: Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings, Stockholm, Sweden, Aug. 12-15, 2013, 2013, p. 1547-1549Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Michelson Morley interference experiment of 1887 indicated that the velocity of light is independent of the velocities of source and observer. This surprising result was in conflict with earlier calculations. To make theory and experiment in agreement Lorentz stated a contraction of rigid objects parallel to velocity. We discuss if this contraction is real or caused by the interference method of measurement. Our approach is to introduce a sphere of observation based on ultra short light pulses combined to ultra short observations. When the experimenter travels at high velocity this sphere is according to Lorentz contracted into an oblate ellipsoid. According to our proposed theory the sphere is instead elongated into a prolate ellipsoid. The result of this effect is that stationary objects appear contracted. Our results are in full agreement to Einsteins Special Theory of Relativity. To support our statements we introduce a novel method to measure the length of a travelling object that is independent of interferometry.

  • 28.
    Abramson, Nils H.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Metrology and Optics.
    Optical resolution and the duality of light2008In: Applied Optics, ISSN 1559-128X, E-ISSN 2155-3165, Vol. 47, no 19, p. D1-D5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For 15 years, lensless microscopes have been constructed based on the use of holography, a digital CCD detector, and a computer for image reconstruction by use of, e.g., Fourier transformation. Thus, no lens is involved and therefore the conventional resolution limit of half the wavelength no longer applies. Instead of being limited by the wavelength, the resolution is in this case limited by how exact one can measure the phases of the light. It is remarkable that the interference-limited resolution is approximately 0.01X, whereas the diffraction-limited resolution is only of the order of 0.5X. It is my hope that by combining these two techniques it will be possible to increase the magnification in optical systems by at least an order of magnitude. The calculations at so indicate that information does not necessarily decrease with distance.

  • 29. Adamson, G.
    et al.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Holm, M.
    The state of the art of cloud manufacturing and future trends2013In: ASME 2013 International Manufacturing Science and Engineering Conference Collocated with the 41st North American Manufacturing Research Conference, MSEC 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cloud manufacturing has emerged as a new manufacturing paradigm, which combines technologies (such as Internet of Things, Cloud computing, semantic Web, virtualisation and service-oriented technologies) with advanced manufacturing models, information and communication technologies. It aims to be networked, intelligent, service-oriented, knowledge-based and energy efficient, and promises a variety of benefits and advantages by providing fast, reliable and secure on-demand services for users. It is envisioned that companies in all sectors of manufacturing will be able to package their resources and know-hows in the Cloud, making them conveniently available for others through pay-as-you-go, which is also timely and economically attractive. Resources, e.g. manufacturing software tools, applications, knowledge and fabrication capabilities, will then be made accessible to presumptive consumers on a worldwide basis. After surveying a vast array of available publications, this paper presents an up-to-date literature review together with future trends and research directions in Cloud manufacturing.

  • 30. Adamson, G.
    et al.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Holm, M.
    Moore, P.
    Adaptive robotic control in cloud environments2014In: FAIM 2014 - Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Flexible Automation and Intelligent Manufacturing: Capturing Competitive Advantage via Advanced Manufacturing and Enterprise Transformation, DEStech Publications Inc , 2014, p. 37-44Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing globalization is a trend which forces manufacturing industry of today to focus on more cost-effective manufacturing systems and collaboration within global supply chains and manufacturing networks. Cloud Manufacturing (CM) is evolving as a new manufacturing paradigm to match this trend, enabling the mutually advantageous sharing of resources, knowledge and information between distributed companies and manufacturing units. Providing a framework for collaboration within complex and critical tasks, such as manufacturing and design, it increases the companies' ability to successfully compete on a global marketplace. One of the major, crucial objectives for CM is the coordinated planning, control and execution of discrete manufacturing operations in a collaborative and networked environment. This paper describes the overall concept of adaptive Function Block control of manufacturing equipment in Cloud environments, with the specific focus on robotic assembly operations, and presents Cloud Robotics as "Robot Control-as-a-Service" within CM. © Copyright 2014 by DEStech Publications, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 31. Adamson, G.
    et al.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Holm, Magnus
    Moore, Philip
    Cloud Manufacturing – A Critical Review of Recent Development and Future Trends2017In: International journal of computer integrated manufacturing (Print), ISSN 0951-192X, E-ISSN 1362-3052, Vol. 30, no 4-5, p. 347-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an ongoing paradigm shift in manufacturing, in which the modern manufacturing industry is changing towards global manufacturing networks and supply chains. This will lead to the flexible usage of different globally distributed, scalable and sustainable, service-oriented manufacturing systems and resources. Combining recently emerged technologies, such as Internet of Things, Cloud Computing, Semantic Web, service-oriented technologies, virtualisation and advanced high-performance computing technologies, with advanced manufacturing models and information technologies, Cloud Manufacturing is a new manufacturing paradigm built on resource sharing, supporting and driving this change. It is envisioned that companies in all sectors of manufacturing will be able to package their resources and know-hows in the Cloud, making them conveniently available for others through pay-as-you-go, which is also timely and economically attractive. Resources, e.g. manufacturing software tools, applications, knowledge and fabrication capabilities and equipment, will then be made accessible to presumptive consumers on a worldwide basis. Cloud Manufacturing has been in focus for a great deal of research interest and suggested applications during recent years, by both industrial and academic communities. After surveying a vast array of available publications, this paper presents an up-to-date literature review together with identified outstanding research issues, and future trends and directions within Cloud Manufacturing.

  • 32. Adamson, Goran
    et al.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering. University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Holm, Magnus
    Moore, Philip
    ADAPTIVE ROBOT CONTROL AS A SERVICE IN CLOUD MANUFACTURING2015In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASME 10TH INTERNATIONAL MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING CONFERENCE, 2015, VOL 2, ASME Press, 2015, Vol. 2Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest for implementing the concept of Manufacturing-as-a-Service is increasing as concepts for letting the manufacturing shop-floor domain take advantage of the cloud appear. Combining technologies such as Internet of Things, Cloud Computing, Semantic Web, virtualisation and service-oriented technologies with advanced manufacturing models, information and communication technologies, Cloud Manufacturing is emerging as a new manufacturing paradigm. The ideas of on-demand, scalable and pay-for-usage resource-sharing in this concept will move manufacturing towards distributed and collaborative missions in volatile partnerships. This will require a control approach for distributed planning and execution of cooperating manufacturing activities. Without control based on both global and local environmental conditions, the advantages of Cloud Manufacturing will not be fulfilled. By utilising smart and distributable decision modules such as event-driven Function Blocks, run-time manufacturing operations in a. distributed environment may be adjusted to prevailing manufacturing conditions. Packaged in a cloud service for manufacturing equipment control, they will satisfy the control needs. By combining different resource types, such as hard, soft and capability resources, the cloud service Robot Control-as-a-Service can be realised. This paper describes the functional perspective and enabling technologies for a distributed control approach for robotic assembly tasks in Cloud Manufacturing.

  • 33. Adamson, Goran
    et al.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Holm, Magnus
    Moore, Philip
    FEATURE-BASED ADAPTIVE MANUFACTURING EQUIPMENT CONTROL FOR CLOUD ENVIRONMENTS2016In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASME 11TH INTERNATIONAL MANUFACTURING SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING CONFERENCE, 2016, VOL 2, AMER SOC MECHANICAL ENGINEERS , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ideas of on-demand, scalable and pay-for-usage resource-sharing in Cloud Manufacturing are steadily attracting more interest. For implementing the concept of Manufacturing as-a-Service in a cloud environment, description models and implementation language for resources and their capabilities are required. A standardized approach for systemived virtualization, servisilisation, retrieval, selection and composition into higher levels of functionality is necessary. For the collaborative sharing and use of networked manufacturing resources there is also a need for a control approach for distributed manufacturing equipment. In this paper, the technological perspective for an adaptive cloud service-based control approach is described, and a supporting information model for its implementation. The control is realized through the use of a network of intelligent and distributable Function Block decision modules, enabling run-time manufacturing activities to be performed according to actual manufacturing conditions. The control system's integration to the cloud service management functionality is described, as well as a feature-level capability model and the use of ontologies and the Semantic Web.

  • 34. Adamson, Göran
    et al.
    Holm, Magnus
    Moore, Philip
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering. Univ Skövde, Sweden.
    A cloud service control approach for distributed and adaptive equipment control in cloud environments2016In: RESEARCH AND INNOVATION IN MANUFACTURING: KEY ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE FACTORIES OF THE FUTURE - PROCEEDINGS OF THE 48TH CIRP CONFERENCE ON MANUFACTURING SYSTEMS, 2016, p. 644-649Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A developing trend within the manufacturing shop-floor domain is the move of manufacturing activities into cloud environments, as scalable, on-demand and pay-per-usage cloud services. This will radically change traditional manufacturing, as borderless, distributed and collaborative manufacturing missions between volatile, best suited groups of partners will impose a multitude of advantages. The evolving Cloud Manufacturing (CM) paradigm will enable this new manufacturing concept, and on-going research has described many of its anticipated core virtues and enabling technologies. However, a major key enabling technology within CM which has not yet been fully addressed is the dynamic and distributed planning, control and execution of scattered and cooperating shop-floor equipment, completing joint manufacturing tasks. In this paper, the technological perspective for a cloud service-based control approach is described, and how it could be implemented. Existing manufacturing resources, such as soft, hard and capability resources, can be packaged as cloud services, and combined to create different levels of equipment or manufacturing control, ranging from low-level control of single machines or devices (e.g. Robot Control-as-a-Service), up to the execution of high level multi-process manufacturing tasks (e.g. Manufacturing-as-a-Service). A multi-layer control approach, featuring adaptive decision-making for both global and local environmental conditions, is proposed. This is realized through the use of a network of intelligent and distributable decision modules such as event-driven Function Blocks, enabling run-time manufacturing activities to be performed according to actual manufacturing conditions. The control system's integration to the CM cloud service management functionality is also described.

  • 35. Adamson, Göran
    et al.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Holm, Magnus
    Moore, Philip
    Function Block Approach for Adaptive Robotic Control in Virtual and Real Environments2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many manufacturing companies are facing an increasing amount of changes and uncertainty, caused by both internal and external factors. Frequently changing customer and market demands lead to variations in manufacturing quantities, product design and shorter product life-cycles, and variations in manufacturing capability and functionality contribute to a high level of uncertainty. The result is unpredictable manufacturing system performance, with an increased number of unforeseen events occurring in these systems. Such events are difficult for traditional planning and control systems to satisfactorily manage. For scenarios like these, with a dynamically changing manufacturing environment, adaptive decision making is crucial for successfully performing manufacturing operations. Relying on real-time information of manufacturing processes and operations, and their enabling resources, adaptive decision making can be realized with a control approach combining IEC 61499 event-driven Function Blocks (FBs) with manufacturing features. These FBs are small decision-making modules with embedded algorithms designed to generate the desired equipment control code. When dynamically triggered by event inputs, parameter values in their data inputs are forwarded to the appropriate algorithms, which generate new events and data output as control instructions. The data inputs also include monitored real-time information which allows the dynamic creation of equipment control code adapted to the actual run-time conditions on the shop-floor. Manufacturing features build on the concept that a manufacturing task can be broken down into a sequence of minor basic operations, in this research assembly features (AFs). These features define atomic assembly operations, and by combining and implementing these in the event-driven FB embedded algorithms, automatic code generation is possible. A test case with a virtual robot assembly cell is presented, demonstrating the functionality of the proposed control approach.

  • 36. Adamson, Göran
    et al.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering. University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Moore, Philip
    Feature-based control and information framework for adaptive and distributed manufacturing in cyber physical systems2017In: Journal of manufacturing systems, ISSN 0278-6125, E-ISSN 1878-6642, Vol. 143, p. 305-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern distributed manufacturing within Industry 4.0, supported by Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs), offers many promising capabilities regarding effective and flexible manufacturing, but there remain many challenges which may hinder its exploitation fully. One major issue is how to automatically control manufacturing equipment, e.g. industrial robots and CNC-machines, in an adaptive and effective manner. For collaborative sharing and use of distributed and networked manufacturing resources, a coherent, standardised approach for systemised planning and control at different manufacturing system levels and locations is a paramount prerequisite. In this paper, the concept of feature-based manufacturing for adaptive equipment control and resource task matching in distributed and collaborative CPS manufacturing environments is presented. The concept has a product perspective and builds on the combination of product manufacturing features and event-driven Function Blocks (FB) of the IEC 61499 standard. Distributed control is realised through the use of networked and smart FB decision modules, enabling the performance of collaborative runtime manufacturing activities according to actual manufacturing conditions. A feature-based information framework supporting the matching of manufacturing resources and tasks, as well as the feature-FB control concept, and a demonstration with a cyber-physical robot application, are presented.

  • 37.
    Adane, Tigist
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Machine and Process Technology. KTH.
    Towards a Generic Framework for the Performance Evaluation of Manufacturing Strategy: An Innovative Approach2018In: Towards a Generic Framework for the Performance Evaluation of Manufacturing Strategy: An Innovative Approach, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 131-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To be competitive in a manufacturing environment by providing optimal performance in terms of cost-effectiveness and swiftness of system changes, there is a need for flexible production systems based on a well-defined strategy. Companies are steadily looking for methodology to evaluate, improve and update the performance of manufacturing systems for processing operations. Implementation of an adequate strategy for these systems’ flexibility requires a deep understanding of the intricate interactions between the machining process parameters and the manufacturing system’s operational parameters. This paper proposes a framework/generic model for one of the most common metal cuttingoperations—the boring process of an engine block machining system. A system dynamics modelling approach is presented for modelling the structure of machining system parameters of the boring process, key performance parameters and their intrinsic relationships. The model is based on a case study performed in a company manufacturing engine blocks for heavy vehicles. The approach could allow for performance evaluation of an engine block manufacturing system condition. The presented model enables a basis for other similar processes and industries producing discrete parts.

  • 38.
    Adane, Tigist Fetene
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Machine and Process Technology. KTH.
    Manufacturing Dynamics and Performance Evaluation2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing companies are striving to remain competitive in the market and maintain their economic growth and productivity. Uncertainties regarding the changes in product demand, workpiece material, product design, and technological advancement, have imposed pressure on manufacturing systems. Market uncertainties force manufacturing companies to be flexible and responsive in producing different parts, by adapting the existing system without the need for a substantial investment. The market is characterized by time variations in product quantities and varieties while manufacturing systems remain inherently fixed. To sustain competitive manufacturing, a company has to adopt to new production requirements and be responsive to market changes quickly. Conscious decisions have to be made for a system to respond to market fluctuations. In order to respond to the dynamic changes, there is a need for developing methodologies that analyse, evaluate and control performance of manufacturing system at the system and/or process levels.

    The primary focus of the thesis is to develop a novel generic framework for modelling and controlling manufacturing systems intending for improvement of the performance of manufacturing and make companies more competitive. The framework incorporates the complex interrelations between the process and system parameters, i.e., the dynamics of the system. Thus, provides a quantitative and qualitative analysis for performance evaluation and for optimizing performance of manufacturing system. The generic framework can further be adapted for studying specific manufacturing systems in discrete manufacturing. Three case studies are presented. The case studies are performed in an automotive company where the effect of various levels of control is investigated in manufacturing systems configured as transfer line or as a flexible manufacturing system.

    Two aspects of the dynamic nature of manufacturing system are investigated in this thesis: (1) The engineering nature of the system, i.e., the selection of appropriate process parameters to manufacture a product according to the design specification, and (2) The business nature of the system, i.e., the selection of system parameters with respect to the way the product is manufactured. At the process level, the parameters are controlled within the process capability limits to adapt to the changes of the system parameters in response to the market dynamics. At the system level, operational parameters are controlled to satisfy performance criteria.

    A case study for resource use analysis during primary processes has also been investigated and presented. The critical operations and the operations that have the highest energy consumptions and the potential for energy savings have been identified.

    The methodology developed for analysing the performance of the dynamic manufacturing system is based on a system dynamics modelling approach. Results obtained from different modelling approaches are presented and compared based on the selected performance metrics.

  • 39.
    Adane, Tigist Fetene
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Mapping Energy Usage in Casting Process for Cylinder Head Production: Using System Dynamic Modeling and Simulation2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Daily life of our societies is strongly linked with the usage of natural resources. However, the vital resources of our planet especially energy is a limited resource. The energy consumption in the manufacturing industry is increasing and becoming noticeable; moreover it is being consumed in ways that can’t be sustained. There is great concern about minimizing the consumption of energy usage in the manufacturing industry and sustaining the natural carrying capacity of the ecosystem as well. This is one of the important challenges in today’s industrial world.

    This research work looks into one of the energy intensive manufacturing processes i.e. the casting process in automotive industry. Here the casting process for cylinder head manufacturing at one of the manufacturing plant in Europe is studied for identifying the most energy intensive steps namely melting, holding and pouring. Parameters that influence these steps and the relationships for energy consumption and dissipation have also been identified through extensive literature survey. By applying system dynamics modeling and simulation approach the interaction between each parameter in the overall process is analyzed in regard to energy consumption. By varying values of the parameters that have the highest impact in the process, the breakthrough opportunities that might dramatically reduce energy consumption during melting and holding have been explored, and potentially energy-saving areas based on the findings have also been identified. The output from this research work enables the company to identify potential avenues to optimize energy usage in the production and hence sustain its manufacturing.

  • 40.
    Adane, Tigist Fetene
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Machine and Process Technology. KTH.
    Bianchi, Maria Floriana
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Archenti, Andreas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Machine and Process Technology. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Design and Management of Manufacturing Systems, DMMS.
    Nicolescu, Mihai
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Machine and Process Technology.
    Performance evaluation of machining strategy for engine-block manufacturing2015In: Performance evaluation of machining strategy for engine-block manufacturing, ISSN 1895-7595, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 81-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will introduce a novel methodology for the performance evaluation of machining strategies of engine block manufacturing. The manufacturing of engine components is vital to the automotive and vehicle manufacturing industries. Machining is critical processes in the production of these parts. To survive and excel in the competitive manufacturing environment, companies need to improve as well as update their machining processes and evaluate the performance of their machining lines. Moreover, the lines and processes have to be robust in handling different sources of variation over time that include such examples as demand fluctuations, work-piece materials or even any changes in design specifications. A system dynamics modelling and simulation approach has been deployed to develop a methodology that captures how machining system parameters from the machining process are interacted with each other, how these connections drive performance and how new targets affect process and machine tool parameters through time. The developed model could provide an insight of how to select the crucial machining system parameters and to identify the effect of those parameters on the output of the system. In response to such an analysis, this paper provides (offers) a framework to examine machining strategies and has presented model that is useful as a decision support system for the evaluation and selection of machining strategies. Here a system dynamics methodology for modelling is applied to the milling operation and the model is based on an actual case study from the engine-block manufacturing industry.

  • 41.
    Adane, Tigist Fetene
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Machine and Process Technology.
    Nafisi, Mariam
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Machine and Process Technology.
    Asif, Farazee M. A.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Machine and Process Technology.
    Semere, Daniel T.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Machine and Process Technology.
    Nicolescu, Mihai
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Machine and Process Technology.
    System dynamics analysis of energy usage: Case studies in automotive manufacturing2012In: SPS12 conference proceedings, 2012, p. 1-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our life is strongly linked with the usage of natural resources. Energy is a necessity in everyday life and is often generated using non-renewable natural resources which are finite. Energy consumption in manufacturing industry is increasing and the way it is consumed is not sustainable. There is great concern about minimizing consumption of energy in manufacturing industry to sustain the natural carrying capacity of the ecosystem. This is one of the challenges in today’s industrial world.In this paper two case studies have been carried out in crankshaft machining and cylinder head casting processes. The outcome of this research enables the company to identify potential avenues to optimize energy usage and offers a decision support tool.

  • 42.
    Adane, Tigist Fetene
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Machine and Process Technology. KTH.
    Nicolescu, Mihai
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Machine and Process Technology.
    System dynamics analysis of energy usage: Case studies in automotive manufacturing2014In: International Journal of Manufacturing Research, ISSN 1750-0591, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 131-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our life is strongly linked with the usage of natural resources. With increase in world population and welfare there is an increasing global demand for raw material. Energy is a necessity in everyday life and is often generated using non-renewable natural resources which are finite. Manufacturing is one of the largest energy and material resource consumers. There is great concern about minimising consumption of energy in manufacturing industry to sustain the natural carrying capacity of the ecosystem. This is one of the challenges in today’s industrial world. The paper presents the application of system dynamics theory for modelling and simulation of complex manufacturing processes. The simulations help to understand the intricate nature of the interrelation of process parameter and to make sound decision about minimising the energy losses. Two case studies are presented, one in cylinder head casting processes and the other in crankshaft machining. The developed models provide an insight into how to select critical operations and to identify the effect of various parameters on the energy consumption. Also, the models help to understand how changes of parameters over time affect the behaviour of energy changes. The outcome of this research enables the company to identify potential avenues to minimise energy usage and offers a decision support tool.

  • 43.
    Adane, Tigist Fetene
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Machine and Process Technology.
    Nicolescu, Mihai
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering, Machine and Process Technology.
    System dynamics as a decision support system for machine tool selection2016In: Journal of Machine Engineering, ISSN 1895-7595, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 102-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The worldwide competitive economy, the increase in sustainable issue and investment of new production line is demanding companies to choose the right machine from the available ones. An improper selection can negatively affect the overall performance of the manufacturing system like productivity, quality, cost and company’s responsive manufacturing capabilities. Thus, selecting the right machine is desirable and substantial for the company to sustain competitive in the market. The ultimate objective of this paper is to formulate a framework for machining strategy and also provide methodology for selecting machine tool from two special purpose machine tools in consideration of interaction of attributes. A decision support system for the selection of machine tool is developed. It evaluates the performance of the machining process and enhances the manufacturer (decision maker) to select the machine with respect to the performance and the pre-chosen criteria. Case study was conducted in a manufacturing company. A system dynamics modelling and simulation techniques is demonstrated towards efficient selection of machine tool that satisfy the future requirement of engine-block production.

  • 44.
    Adelander, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Kousay, Samir
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Beslutsverktyg för återtillverkningav cyklar2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

     

    The increased demand for products caused by the increasing world population means better ways to improve manufacturing is needed. The purpose of this report is to introduce a method to compare and make conclusions about how to remanufacture standard bicycles. This is made to help the implementation of remanufacturing in the bicycle production industry.

     A model for calculations including the cost and reusability of different components is presented and discussed as well as two different ways of implementation

    . The first implementation allows for choosing between different product configurations and the other helps to decide whether a product should go through remanufacturing or is to be dissembled. Data was collected through three different interviews with bicycle manufacturers in Sweden. The results show that some manufacturers ignore the possibilities of remanufacturing yet others have implemented them without much of a problem.

     

     

    With easy or no reconfiguration the tool can be used in many other product categories and other products.

    Analysis of the decision model showed that it is limited to product in the same price range. Further work could result in improving the model to implement materials and their environmental impact as well as use of energy and transportation.

  • 45.
    af Klintberg, Janine
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Brodin, Philip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Kommunikation inom projekt: En analys av projektledarrollen utifrån en beteendevetenskaplig metod2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many issues within project management emerge due to insufficient communication. If such missteps can be avoided companies will be able to save both time and recourses.An analysis of how project managers communicate has been conducted based upon a behavioural model. Evaluated questions are:

    1. How can project managers communicate as individual-based as possible?

    2. Which problems exist with individual-based communication?

    The scientific method used in this project includes an extensive literature review, which has been followed by an interview with an expert within the chosen theoretical framework. IPU profilanalys is a method, which categorises human behaviour in a pedagogical way. The human behaviours are divided into four categories commonly known as Dominance, Influence, steadiness and conscientiousness. Three interviews have been conducted to achieve an empirical foundation within the chosen subject as well as to compare the theory with reality. Three project managers from Ericsson, The National Maritime Museums, and Scania have been interviewed. The questions were semi-structured and were based on an imaginable project. Common ways for the interviewed project manager to handle communication were discussed as well as his or her view upon technical devices. The purpose was to evaluate if the project managers deliberately adapted their communication towards the individuals within the organisation. The answers were then compared to the chosen theory to determine if individual-based communication were used and if so, how much it occurs. By adjusting the communication from the project manager to surrounding groups several factors are to be considered closely. They are:

    • Mutual goals,
    • Diversified communications,
    • Give project members time to prepare.

    The problems with individual-based communication mainly occurred when facing tight schedules. It also showed that individual-based communication is not always possible to use.

  • 46.
    Afshari, Arsham
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Li, John-Ting
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Product Development: The theory and its applicability in practice2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a qualitative research to understand how well the theoretical methods of product development are applied in practice. A comparison between the theory and methods the companies are using is done in order to get an insight of the current situation. Value analysis, Quality Function Deployment, Failure Mode and Effects Analysis, Design for Assembly, and Modular Function Deployment that is brought up in this thesis are all well-known methods in the theory which assist companies to achieve a higher degree and effectiveness with their development. These methods answer fundamental problems that may occur in every company, and touches on areas such as the economical perspectives and customer related inquiries. It also finds solutions on uncertainties that might arise during product development. After interviewing ABB, Scania and Atlas Copco, we learned that some of the theoretical methods were in fact utilized to a certain degree. However, there are instances where the enterprises establish their own principles to rationalize product development. After a thorough comparison made between the methods used by the companies and the theory, we discovered many similarities between them. The foundations of these methods are very much based on the existing theories. We concluded that even though the theoretical methods aren’t applicable to all situations, the fundamentals are widely accepted and the philosophies behind them are commonly applied in companies’ own methods. The theory does not only act as a backbone for effective product development but also serves as an important tool for further method customization suitable to the uniqueness of each enterprise. Lack of knowledge in the actual theories can therefore undermine the companies’ capability in achieving efficient methods which ultimately will only disfavor themselves in terms of time and money. Companies spend a lot of time to discover methods to facilitate their development processes. They can instead collaborate with academic institutes and universities to exchange information since theories already exist out there that are able to answer and solve most the companies’ current situation and their requirements. However, there are occasions in real life circumstances where things doesn’t necessary go as smooth as depicted in literatures and theories. Therefore a balance between practice and theory where they complement each other will yield the optimal outcome.

  • 47.
    Ahmed, Sabih Zeb
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Reduction of vibrations during horizontal milling of aluminum parts: An Experimental and Numerical Study 2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims at vibration problem during milling operation. Vibration sets in at tool- workpiece interface if certain conditions are achieved. Research has been carried out try to reduce or eliminate chatter. Chatter decreases the dimensional accuracy and surface finish of workpiece.

    Main objective is to examine the source of vibration and provide as solution to problem based on the findings. CAD Model of workpiece and clamping has been developed as close to real system as possible. Experimental modal analysis and Finite Element analysis is done to obtain system behaviour during vibration. Natural frequencies are determined and then compared with possible sources of excitation.

    Modal testing and computer simulations are done before and after Final cutting operations to map out complete behaviour of system. Both forced excitation and self-excited vibrations are taken in consideration during measurements. Finally calculations are done to determine the solution and give recommendations. Suggestions for future work in this area are also provided that could enable SAAB to analyse and improve machining of all parts.

  • 48.
    Ahrén, Jesper
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Bühlman, Carl
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Lean Production: Redogörelse av Lean och jämförelse med Scanias produktionssystem2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The aim of this report was to cover and explain the basis of Lean production, how it’s implemented in the industry and to compare how lean in theory and practice is interlaced. Lean production is a further spinoff from TPS (Toyota production system), to make a company more resource effective. Developed by Toyota as a result of studies on how to approach and process flaws.

    To get a good hold of lean we chose to look specifically at lean in the vehicle industry. To better understand the industry today and how lean is used we interviewed an employed at Scania. The theoretical part of our work was done by studies of literature, KTH databases search and homepages. Scania has developed their own lean philosophy SPS (Scania Production System) which is a result of a cooperation with Toyota.

    There are several different strategies a company can take to identify and improve imperfections/weaknesses. Lean aims for eliminating waste but also how to use resources in the most efficient way, giving more concrete improvement-­‐suggestions while TPS is more about priorities throughout the company. The Toyota Production system is based out of 14 principles while Lean Production has its base build on five principles but there are also more interpretations.

    During the work we have found that a key factor for a successful Lean implementation is to get the entire organization to see and to believe in the concept, but one must also pretty quickly be able to demonstrate results and improvements. In order to achieve this goal, a clear presentation of results and good leaders is important key factors. In order not to fall back into old habits we have found that a standardized approach which creates opportunities for employees to constantly improve their situation is a must.

    For Scania, the Lean implementation resulted in increased quality and productivity, better attendance, lower energy consumption and better profitability than its competitors. It has created a good organization for the society, customers and its employees, which has been necessary for Scania's survival.

  • 49.
    Ajani, Altinay
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Karaömer, Ahmed
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Hur samlar Skanska in information vid kalkylering?2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today's industrialized society projects are considered as the obvious model for development. The first step in projects where information plays an essential role is in calculations. This is where the projects future is decided. Here it is important to be clear about the information compiled and making sure that the storage of the information is easily accessed for the project members. Without a proper flow of information, the organization will have difficulty adapting to changes and problems that arise. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the calculation is made in theory and in practice to get an understanding of how the flow of information plays its role.The theoretical framework was based on the theories that were found in a search among KTHB databases and Google Scholar. The information flow has been divided into three parts, presentation, transport and storage of information. Also studied are a number of different calculation methods. To obtain a complementary picture of how this is applied in practice, a case study has been conducted at Skanska Sverige AB. This study includes three interview occasions and continuous contact with a purchasing manager at Skanska. The calculation methods that were examined were ABC - calculation, product calculation and production calculation. Later examined were which of these calculation methods is used at Skanska Sweden AB. Calculations are made from the company's information management system and Skanska use a custom developed system, Spik. It was further examined which type of information that has the greatest impact on the modeling of the calculations and which factors that are crucial. The theory studies are compared with the empirical studies through discussion about the flow of informations role in the development of calculations at Skanska. Later discussed are the recommendations on how the information flow could be improved in the development of calculations.

  • 50.
    Akhter, Tasmiah
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Mohsin, Mael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Lean produktion i två olika branscher: - En jämförelse mellan sjukvård och industri2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Lean production is a well-known concept in the industry that aims to become resource efficient and improved with a customer focus. In lean production there are several methods and philosophies to consider and this report deals with 5S method, seven wastes and commitment in an organization. The success of lean production in manufacturing has led to implementation across several different industries, especially health care. This implementation has been met with varying opinions.

    The purpose of this report is to examine if the implementation of lean production in health care can be just as effective as in industry. The implementation of Lean in health care has partially been proved successful, but often the set goals are not achieved. With the aid of three sub-questions, the main question can be answered: Can the implementation of lean production be as effective in the health care as in the industry?

    Through field trips and interviews from both health care and industry, empirical data will be gathered to gain an understanding of how the implementation is today. Karolinska University Hospital in Huddinge represents the health care and Scania represents the industry. After these interviews a comparison was created between health care and industry implementations and a score-table is formed to see how well the organizations meets lean production according to the theory.

    The comparison between the health care and the industry resulted in the conclusion that health care can be just as effective as the industry with its implementation of lean production. The efficiency potential was seen in the majority of the steps of the methods concerned. In seven of the ten steps there are scope for rationalization, where the health care can apply lean as well as the industry.

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