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  • 1.
    Abt, Cindy
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Space Technology.
    Development of a computational tool for thermal baffle sizing2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of a space thermal baffle and radiator builds a passive cooling system for space thermal control. This solution was investigated during the Preliminary Design Review of a satellite optical instrument at the Mechanical Design Office of Airbus Defence and Space, Toulouse. However, the thermal analysis in the baffle sizing process had time-consuming steps that could be automated. This report presents the internship and final Master’s degree project that resulted in the development of a computational tool helping size thermal baffles by automating the generation of the numerical thermal model of the baffle and the radiator sink temperature computation. The tool was designed to provide the necessary inputs and outputs required to carry out an optimization on the baffle geometry. Operational results were obtained thanks to the tool such as the impact of the baffle’s sunshield inclination and of the specularity of its inner coating on the radiator sink temperature. A preliminary work on the baffle geometry optimization was carried out but remaining tasks have to be performed in order to make the tool more robust to input and output changes. Additional work is required to find the optimal baffle geometry in the framework of the instrument project and for prospective projects with similar baffle sizing needs.

  • 2. Achi, L. M.
    et al.
    Tibert, G.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Hallgren, M.
    Wanted: A larger, different kind of box2016In: IABSE Congress Stockholm, 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative and Sustainable Built Environment, International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE) , 2016, p. 358-367Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To have the ability to "think outside the box" is generally regarded as something positive. At a moment in time when resources are scarce, and the problems facing us are many, innovation and professional excellence becomes a requirement, rather than a matter of choice. At the core of our attempts to come up with new, and better solutions are the digital technologies. Within the structural engineering context, the different types of off-the-shelf packages for finite element analysis play a central role. These "black-box" types of software packages exemplify how user friendliness may have harmful consequences within a field where knowledge and the successful mastery of relevant skills is key, and consequently- ignorance may lead to fatal results. These tools make any effort "venturing outside" difficult to achieve. A technical paradigm shift is called for that places learning and creative, informed exploration at the heart of the user experience.

  • 3.
    Adlercreutz, Ludvig
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    A Study of Automotive Composites and Optimisation for Chassis Implementation2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the quest of reducing emissions of passenger cars a trend in the car industry has recently been tointroduce lightweight composite materials to replace steel which has been the otherwise main materialto use. In this report the weight-optimising of a structural underbody for a passenger car using twodifferent manufacturing methods is described. The two methods are Advanced Sheet MouldingCompound (A-SMC) and Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM). A-SMC is characterised by a low cycle time andfast layup of the material resulting in lower cost. RTM is slower and thus more expensive but has bettermaterial properties which results in lower weight. The novel approach is to use A-SMC to construct thecomplete underbody as one piece which has not been done before. The geometry is FEM -optimised forminimum material thickness under a standard load case for torsional stiffness.The simulations showed that the underbody was not possible to be manufactured using A-SMC in itsoriginal shape without being reinforced. When reinforcing the structure it met the design constraintsand the weight was optimised to 53.9 kg with the possibility for further improvements. The RTMmethod resulted in 25.83 kg without any reinforcements but showed potential for further weightreduction by changing the geometrical design. A final analysis of the underbody combined the twomanufacturing methods and the weight was here optimised to 25.27 kg without any reinforcements.

  • 4.
    Af Klinteberg, Ludvig
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Wave Energy Propulsion forPure Car and Truck Carriers(PCTCs)2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wave Energy Propulsion for Pure Car and Truck Carriers (PCTC's)

    The development of ocean wave energy technology has in recent years seena revival due to increased climate concerns and interest in sustainable energy.This thesis investigates whether ocean wave energy could also beused for propulsion of commercial ships, with Pure Car and Truck Carriers(PCTC's) being the model ship type used. Based on current wave energyresearch four technologies are selected as candidates for wave energy propulsion:bow overtopping, thrust generating foils, moving multi-point absorberand turbine-tted anti-roll tanks.Analyses of the selected technologies indicate that the generated propulsivepower does not overcome the added resistance from the system at the shipdesign speed and size used in the study. Conclusions are that further waveenergy propulsion research should focus on systems for ships that are slowerand smaller than current PCTC's.

  • 5.
    Afshari, Davood
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Mechanical Properties of Resistance Spot Welds in Lightweight Applications2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate thesis is concerned with residual stresses in aluminum alloy 6061-T6 resistance spot welded joint. Several topics related to mechanical strength of welded structures are treated such as; nugget size and microhardness and microstructures of weld zone and their influence on mechanical strength of welded structure, failure load measurement using tensile-shear test, resistance spot welding simulation, residual stress measurement by X-ray diffraction method and analysis effect of welding parameters on the mechanical strength and the residual stresses.

    To investigate the effect of resistance spot weld parameters on mechanical strength of welded structures, various welding parameters e.g. welding current, welding time and electrode force are selected to produce welded joints with different quality. According to the failure mode, the empirical equation was used to prediction of failure load base on nugget size and hardness of failure line. Microstructure study has been carried out to investigate microstructural changes in the welded joints. Microhardness tests are done to find hardness profiles due to microstructural changes and determine the minimum hardness.

    In addition, an electro-thermal-structural coupled finite element model and X-ray diffraction residual stress measurement have been utilized to analyze residual stresses distribution in weld zone. The electrical and thermal contact conductance, as mandatory factors are applied in contact area between electrode-workpiece and workpiece-workpiece to resolve the complexity of the finite element model. The physical and mechanical properties of the material are defined as thermal-dependent in order to improve the accuracy of the model. Furthermore, the electrodes are removed after holding cycle using the birth and death elements method. Moreover, the effect of welding parameters on maximum residual stress is investigated and a regression model is proposed to predict maximum tensile residual stresses in terms of welding parameters.

    The results obtained from the finite element analysis have been used to build up two back-propagation artificial neural network models for the residual stresses and the nugget size prediction. The results revealed that the neural network models created in this study can accurately predict the nugget size and the residual stresses produced in resistance spot weld. Using a combination of these two developed models, the nugget size and the residual stresses can be predicted in terms of spot weld parameters with high speed and accuracy.

  • 6.
    Afshari, Davood
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. Iran University of Science and Technology, Iran.
    Sedighi, M.
    Karimi, M. R.
    Barsoum, Zuheir
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Prediction of residual stresses in resistance spot weld2016In: Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, ISSN 1748-8842, Vol. 88, no 4, p. 492-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to predict residual stresses in resistance spot weld of 2 mm thick aluminum 6061-T6 sheets. The joint use of finite element analysis and artificial neural networks can eliminate the high costs of residual stresses measuring tests and significantly shorten the time it takes to arrive at a solution. Design/methodology/approach - Finite element method and artificial neural network have been used to predict the residual stresses. Different spot welding parameters such as the welding current, the welding time and the electrode force have been used for the simulation purposes in a thermal-electrical-structural coupled finite element model. To validate the numerical results, a series of experiments have been performed, and residual stresses have been measured. The results obtained from the finite element analysis have been used to build up a back-propagation artificial neural network model for residual stresses prediction. Findings - The results revealed that the neural network model created in this study can accurately predict residual stresses produced in resistance spot weld. Using a combination of these two developed models, the residual stresses can be predicted in terms of spot weld parameters with high speed and accuracy. Practical implications - The paper includes implication for aircraft and automobile industries to predict residual stresses. Residual stresses can lower the strength and fatigue life of the spot-welded joints and determine the performance quality of the structure. Originality/value - This paper presents an approach to reduce the high costs and long times of residual stresses measuring tests.

  • 7.
    Afshari, Davood
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Sedighi, Mohammd
    Iran Univ Sci & Technol, Tehran, Iran.
    Barsoum, Zuhier
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Peng, Ru Lin
    Linkoping Tech Univ, Linkoping, Sweden .
    An approach in prediction of failure in resistance spot welded aluminum 6061-T6 under quasi-static tensile test2012In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part B, journal of engineering manufacture, ISSN 0954-4054, E-ISSN 2041-2975, Vol. 226, no B6, p. 1026-1032Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to predict the failure load in resistance spot welded aluminum 6061-T6 sheets with 2mm thickness under quasi-static tensile test. Various welding parameters, e. g. welding current, welding time and electrode force are selected to produce welded joints with different quality. The results show that for all the samples in this study only interfacial failure mode was observed in tensile-shear test and no pull-out mode was observed. According to the failure mode, an empirical equation was used for the prediction of failure load based on nugget size and hardness of failure line. Microstructure study has been carried out to investigate microstructural changes in the welded joints. For determination of the minimum hardness, microhardness tests have been carried out to find hardness profiles. The minimum hardness value was observed for a thin layer around the nugget with large and coarse grains. The results show that by using the presented empirical equation, the failure can be predicted with a good agreement only by measuring nugget size.

  • 8.
    Afshari, Davood
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Sedighi, Mohammd
    Iran Univ Sci & Technol, Tehran, Iran.
    Karimi, M. R.
    Barsoum, Zuhier
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    On Residual Stresses in Resistance Spot-Welded Aluminum Alloy 6061-T6: Experimental and Numerical Analysis2013In: Journal of materials engineering and performance (Print), ISSN 1059-9495, E-ISSN 1544-1024, Vol. 22, no 12, p. 3612-3619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, an electro-thermal-structural-coupled finite element (FE) model and x-ray diffraction residual stress measurements have been utilized to analyze distribution of residual stresses in an aluminum alloy 6061-T6 resistance spot-welded joint with 2-mm-thickness sheet. Increasing the aluminum sheet thickness to more than 1 mm leads to creating difficulty in spot-welding process and increases the complexity of the FE model. The electrical and thermal contact conductances, as mandatory factors are applied in contact areas of electrode-workpiece and workpiece-workpiece to resolve the complexity of the FE model. The physical and mechanical properties of the material are defined as thermal dependent to improve the accuracy of the model. Furthermore, the electrodes are removed after the holding cycle using the birth-and-death elements method. The results have a good agreement with experimental data obtained from x-ray diffraction residual stress measurements. However, the highest internal tensile residual stress occurs in the center of the nugget zone and decreases toward nugget edge; surface residual stress increases toward the edge of the welding zone and afterward, the area decreases slightly.

  • 9.
    Afshari, Davood
    et al.
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran .
    Sedighi, Mohammd
    Iran Univ Sci & Technol, Tehran, Iran.
    Karimi, M. R.
    Barsoum, Zuhier
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Prediction of the nugget size in resistance spot welding with a combination of a finite-element analysis and an artificial neural network2014In: Materiali in tehnologije, ISSN 1580-2949, E-ISSN 1580-3414, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 33-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this investigation is to predict the nugget size for a resistance spot weld of thick aluminum 6061-T6 sheets 2 mm. The quality and strength of spot welds determine the integrity of the structure, which depends thoroughly on the nugget size. In this study, the finite-element method and artificial neural network were used to predict the nugget size. Different spot welding parameters such as the welding current and the welding time were selected to be used for a coupled, thermal-electrical-structural finite-element model. In order to validate the numerical results a series of experiments were carried out and the nugget sizes were measured. The results obtained with the finite-element analysis were used to build up a back-propagation, artificial-neural-network model for the nugget-size prediction. The results revealed that a combination of these two developed models can accurately and rapidly predict the nugget size for a resistance spot weld.

  • 10.
    Afzal, Md
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Arteaga, I. Lopez
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Kari, Leif
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Kharyton, V.
    INVESTIGATION OF DAMPING POTENTIAL OF STRIP DAMPER ON A REAL TURBINE BLADE2016In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASME TURBO EXPO: TURBINE TECHNICAL CONFERENCE AND EXPOSITION, 2016, VOL 7A, AMER SOC MECHANICAL ENGINEERS , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the damping potential of strip dampers on a real turbine bladed disk. A 3D numerical friction contact model is used to compute the contact forces by means of the Alternate Frequency Time domain method. The Jacobian matrix required during the iterative solution is computed in parallel with the contact forces, by a quasi-analytical method. A finite element model of the strip dampers, that allows for an accurate description of their dynamic properties, is included in the steady-state forced response analysis of the bladed disk. Cyclic symmetry boundary conditions and the multiharmonic balance method are applied in the formulation of the equations of motion in the frequency domain. The nonlinear forced response analysis is performed with two different types of boundary conditions on the strip: (a) free-five and (b) elastic, and their influence is analyzed. The effect of the strip mass, thickness and the excitation levels on the forced response curve is investigated in detail.

  • 11.
    Afzal, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Structural and vibroacoustics.
    Numerical modelling and analysis of friction contact for turbine blades2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    High cycle fatigue failure of turbine and compressor blades due to resonance in the operating frequency range is one of the main problems in the design of gas turbine engines. To suppress excessive vibrations in the blades and prevent high cycle fatigue, dry friction dampers are used by the engine manufacturers. However, due to the nonlinear nature of friction contact, analysis of such systems becomes complicated.

    This work focuses on the numerical modelling of friction contact and a 3D friction contact model is developed. To reduce the computation time in the Newton-iteration steps, a method to compute the Jacobian matrix in parallel to the contact forces is proposed. The developed numerical scheme is successfully applied on turbine blades with shroud contact having an arbitrary 3D relative displacement. The equations of motion are formulated in the frequency domain using the multiharmonic balance method to accurately capture the nonlinear contact forces and displacements. Moreover, the equations of motion of the full turbine blade model are reduced to a single sector model by exploiting the concept of the cyclic symmetry boundary condition for a periodic structure.

    The developed 3D coupled numerical contact model is compared with a 3D contact model having uncoupled tangential motion and drawback of the uncoupled contact model is discussed. Furthermore, presence of higher harmonics in the nonlinear contact forces is analyzed and their effect on the excitation of the different harmonic indices (nodal diameters) of the bladed disk are systematically presented. Moreover, due to the quasi-analytical computation of the Jacobian matrix, the developed scheme is proved to be effective in solving the equations of motion and significant reduction in time is achieved without loss of accuracy.

     

     

     

  • 12.
    Afzal, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL. KTH.
    On efficient and adaptive modelling of friction damping in bladed disks2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This work focuses on efficient modelling and adaptive control of friction damping in bladed disks. To efficiently simulate the friction contact, a full-3D time-discrete contact model is reformulated and an analytical expression for the Jacobian matrix is derived that reduces the computation time drastically with respect to the classical finite difference method. The developed numerical solver is applied on bladed disks with shroud contact and the advantage of full-3D contact model compared to a quasi-3D contact model is presented. The developed numerical solver is also applied on bladed disks with strip damper and multiple friction contacts and obtained results are discussed. Furthermore, presence of higher harmonics in the nonlinear contact forces is analyzed and their effect on the excitation of the different nodal diameters of the bladed disk are systematically presented. The main parameters that influence the effectiveness of friction damping in bladed disks are engine excitation order,  contact stiffnesses,  friction coefficient, relative motion at the friction interface and the normal contact load. Due to variation in these parameters during operation, the obtained friction damping in practice may differ from the optimum value. Therefore, to control the normal load adaptively that will lead to an optimum damping in the system despite these variations, use of magnetostrictive actuator is proposed. The magnetostrictive material that develops an internal strain under the influence of an external magnetic field is employed to increase and decrease the normal contact load. A linearized model of the magnetostrictive actuator is used to characterize the magnetoelastic behavior of the actuator.  A nonlinear static contact analysis of the bladed disk reveals that a change of normal load more than 700 N can be achieved using a reasonable size of the actuator. This will give a very good control on friction damping once applied in practice.

  • 13.
    Afzal, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Arteaga, Ines Lopez
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL. Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Kari, Leif
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Numerical analysis of multiple friction contacts in bladed disks2018In: International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, ISSN 0020-7403, E-ISSN 1879-2162, Vol. 137, p. 224-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The damping potential of multiple friction contacts in a bladed disk is investigated. Friction contacts at tip shrouds and strip dampers are considered. It is shown that friction damping effectiveness can be potentially increased by using multiple friction contact interfaces. Friction damping depends on many parameters such as rotational speed, engine excitation order and mode family and therefore it is not possible to damp all the critical resonances using a single kind of friction contact interface. For example, a strip damper is more effective for the low nodal diameters, where blade/disk coupling is strong. The equations of motion of the bladed disk with multiple friction contacts are derived in the frequency domain for a cyclic structure with rotating excitations. A highly accurate method is used to generate the frequency response function (FRF) matrix. Furthermore, a finite element contact analysis is performed to compute the normal contact load and the contact area of the shroud interface at operating rotational speed. The multiharmonic balance method is employed in combination with the alternate frequency time domain method to find the steady state periodic solution. A low-pressure turbine bladed disk is considered and the effect of the engine excitation level, strip mass, thickness and the accuracy of FRF matrix on the nonlinear response curve are investigated in detail.

  • 14.
    Afzal, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Structural and vibroacoustics. kth.
    Lopez Arteaga, Ines
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Structural and vibroacoustics. Eindhoven University of Technology, the Netherlands.
    Kari, Leif
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Structural and vibroacoustics.
    A formulation of the Jacobian matrixfor 3D numerical friction contact model applied to turbine blade shroud contactIn: Journal of Sound and Vibration, ISSN 0022-460X, E-ISSN 1095-8568Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An analytical expression is formulated to compute the Jacobian matrix for 3D friction contact modelling that eciently evaluates the matrix while computing the friction contact forces in the time domain by means of the alternate frequency time domain approach. The developed expression is successfully used for thecalculation of the friction damping on a turbine blade with shroud contact interface having an arbitrary 3Drelative displacement. The analytical expression drastically reduces the computation time of the Jacobian matrix with respect to the classical finite dierence method, with many points at the contact interface. Therefore,it also significantly reduces the overall computation time for the solution of the equations of motion,since the formulation of the Jacobian matrix is the most time consuming step in solving the large set of nonlinear algebraic equations when a finite dierence approach is employed. The equations of motion are formulated in the frequency domain using the multiharmonic balance method to accurately capture the nonlinear contact forces and displacements. Moreover, the equations of motion of the full turbine blade model are reduced to a single sector model by exploiting the concept of cyclic symmetry boundary condition for aperiodic structure. Implementation of the developed scheme in solving the equations of motion is proved to be effective and significant reduction in time is achieved without loss of accuracy.

  • 15.
    Afzal, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Lopez Arteaga, Ines
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Kari, Leif
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    An analytical calculation of the Jacobian matrix for 3D friction contact model applied to turbine blade shroud contact2016In: Computers & structures, ISSN 0045-7949, E-ISSN 1879-2243, Vol. 177, p. 204-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An analytical expression is formulated to compute the Jacobian matrix for 3D friction contact modeling that efficiently evaluates the matrix while computing the friction contact forces in the time domain by means of the alternate frequency time domain approach. The developed expression is successfully used for the calculation of the friction damping on a turbine blade with shroud contact interface having an arbitrary 3D relative displacement. The analytical expression drastically reduces the computation time of the Jacobian matrix with respect to the classical finite difference method, with many points at the contact interface. Therefore, it also significantly reduces the overall computation time for the solution of the equations of motion, since the formulation of the Jacobian matrix is the most time consuming step in solving the large set of nonlinear algebraic equations when a finite difference approach is employed. The equations of motion are formulated in the frequency domain using the multiharmonic balance method to accurately capture the nonlinear contact forces and displacements. Moreover, the equations of motion of the full turbine blade model are reduced to a single sector model by exploiting the concept of cyclic symmetry boundary condition for a periodic structure. Implementation of the developed scheme in solving the equations of motion is proved to be effective and significant reduction in time is achieved without loss of accuracy.

  • 16.
    Afzal, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Lopez-Arteaga, Ines
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Kari, Leif
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Adaptive control of normal load at the friction interface of bladed disks using giant magnetostrictive materialIn: Journal of Vibration and Control, ISSN 1077-5463, E-ISSN 1741-2986Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel application of magnetostrictive actuators in underplatform dampers of bladed disks is proposed for adaptive control of the normal load at the friction interface in order to achieve the desired friction damping in the structure. Friction damping in a bladed disk depends on many parameters such as rotational speed, engine excitation order, nodal diameter, contact stiffness, friction coefficient and normal contact load. However, all these parameters have a fixed value at an operating point. On the other hand, the ability to vary some of these parameters such as the normal contact load is desirable in order to obtain an optimum damping in the bladed disk at different operating conditions. Under the influence of an external magnetic field, magnetostrictive materials develop an internal strain that can be exploited to vary the normal contact load at the friction interface, which makes them a potentially good candidate for this application. A commercially available magnetostrictive alloy, Terfenol-D is considered in this analysis that is capable of providing magnetostrain up to 0.002 under prestress and a blocked force over 1500 N. A linearized model of the magnetostrictive material, which is accurate enough for a DC application, is employed to compute the output displacement and the blocked force of the actuator. A nonlinear finite element contact analysis is performed to compute the normal contact load between the blade platform and the underplatform damper as a result of magnetostrictive actuation. The contact analysis is performed for different mounting configurations of the actuator and the obtained results are discussed. The proposed solution is potentially applicable to adaptively control vibratory stresses in bladed disks and consequently to reduce failure due to high-cycle fatigue. Finally, the practical challenges in employing magnetostrictive actuators in underplatform dampers are discussed.

  • 17.
    Afzal, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Lopez-Arteaga, Ines
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL. Eindhoven University of Technology.
    Kari, Leif
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL.
    Numerical analysis of multiple friction contacts in bladed disksIn: International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, ISSN 0020-7403, E-ISSN 1879-2162Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The damping potential of multiple friction contacts in a bladed disk, tip shroud and strip damper is investigated, showing that friction damping effectiveness can be potentially increased by using multiple friction contact interfaces. Friction damping depends on many parameters such as rotational speed, engine excitation order and mode family and therefore it is not possible to damp all the critical resonances using a single friction contact interface. For example, a strip damper is more effective for the low nodal diameters, where blade/disk coupling is strong. The equations of motion of the bladed disk with multiple friction contacts are derived in the frequency domain for a cyclic structure with rotating excitations and a highly accurate method is used to generate the frequency response function (FRF) matrix. Furthermore, a finite element contact analysis is performed to compute the normal contact load and the contact area of the shroud interface at operating rotational speed. The multiharmonic balance method is employed in combination with the alternate frequency time domain method to find the approximate steady state periodic solution. A low-pressure turbine bladed disk is considered and the effect of the engine excitation level, strip mass, thickness and the accuracy of FRF matrix on the nonlinear response curve are investigated in detail.

  • 18.
    Afzal, Muhammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Structural and vibroacoustics.
    Raza, R.
    Du, S.
    Lima, R.B.d
    Zhu, Bin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Structural and vibroacoustics. Hubei Univ, Fac Phys & Elect Technol, Hubei Collaborat Innovat Ctr Adv Organ Chem Mat, Wuhan 430062, Peoples R China.
    Synthesis of Ba0.3Ca0.7Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ composite material as novel catalytic cathode for ceria-carbonate electrolyte fuel cells2015In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 178, p. 385-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work reports a new composite BaxCa1-xCoyFe1-yO3-delta (BCCF) cathode material for advanced and low temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The BCCF-based composite material was synthesized by sol gel method and investigated as a catalytic cathode for low temperature (LT) SOFCs. XRD analysis of the as-prepared material revealed the dominating BCCF perovskite structure as the main phase accompanied with cobalt and calcium oxides as the secondary phases resulting into an overall composite structure. Structure and morphology of the sample was observed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM). In particular, the Ba0.3Ca0.7Co0.8Fe0.2O3-delta (BCCF37) showed a maximum conductivity of 143 S cm(-1) in air at 550 degrees C measured by DC 4 probe method. The BCCF at the optimized composition exhibited much higher electrical conductivities than the commercial Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-delta (BSCF) perovskite cathode material. A maximum power density of 325 mW cm(-2) at 550 degrees C is achieved for the ceria-carbonate electrolyte fuel cell with BCCF37 as the cathode material.

  • 19.
    Agebro, Markus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Driver Preferences of Steering Characteristics2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The future of vehicle steering systems lies within by-wire technology. With by-wire technology mechanical or hydraulic systems are replaced by electronic systems. Removal of the steering column and possibly other linkage and gears yields vast potential of further improvement of performance, comfort and safety. Steer-by-wire technology also enables the manufacturer to tailor the steering feel to better suit the individual drivers’ need and preference. Since a driver gains critical information about the vehicle from feedback through the steering wheel, steering feel will play a very important part in consumer acceptance of steer-by-wire systems. It will also be possible to customize steering characteristics to the individual driver.

    This thesis presents a methodology for investigating steering characteristics through analysis of simulator experiments and to find the impact of specific steering characteristics on drivers of varying skill. There are many key aspects to consider when designing simulator experiments. A validated vehicle model is required. Evaluation criteria need to be well defined as well as concise and simple. The utilized scenario has to be able to capture the selected evaluation criteria. Recruitment of test subjects should represent the target population. How to utilize the available time in the simulator most effectively and how to analyze the results are also important. In this work three studies are performed. Paper A investigates how steering gear ratio and steering wheel effort of a passenger car affect preferences of high and low mileage drivers. Paper B is an extended study of Paper A, where the resolution is higher, speed dependence is investigated and performance of the drivers is also evaluated. In Paper C the impact of four important steering system characteristics on driver performance and preference is evaluated.

    The major conclusions drawn from this work are that variation of steering gear ratio has considerable impact on perceived steering feel and manoeuvrability as well as on driver performance. Variation in steering wheel effort affect perceived steering feel and stability, but no significant influence is detected in perceived manoeuvrability or driver performance. There are distinguishable differences in preferences of the investigated evaluation criteria between driver categories of varying skill. However, general trends of the preferences for the categories are fairly similar. Low skilled drivers prefer lower effort and higher ratio than high skilled drivers, especially at the highest investigated speed, 100 km/h.

    The developed methodology for performing simulator experiments to evaluate steering characteristics has proven satisfactory through findings of three different studies. This work also shows that there are several important steering characteristics that need to be considered when designing steering systems, particularly steering systems with by-wire applications and especially considering drivers of varying skill.

  • 20.
    Agebro, Markus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Four Steering Properties' Influence on Drivers' Performance and PreferencesArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Agebro, Markus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Impact of Varying Steering Ratio and Effort on Driver Preferences and Performance with Focus on Driving Skill.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Agebro, Markus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Nilsson, Andreas
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Driver preferences of steering gear ratio and steering wheel effort: A driving simulator study2006In: Proceedings of the FISITA World Automotive Congress, Yokohama, Japan 2006., 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When driving an automobile, the driver has to correct the course as a result of road curvature and external disturbances. In order to make the vehicle both controllable and comfortable to drive, it is important that the steering system is designed with different drivers in mind. In this work, driver preferences of steering system characteristics is investigated by comparing standard steering wheel settings with unconventional steering gear ratio and steering wheel effort. The investigation is made using 18 test subjects in a moving base driving simulator. The evaluation includes two scenarios. In the first scenario the driver is overtaking a bus at 110 km/h when meeting traffic in the opposite lane. In the second scenario the driver is doing a manoeuvre by following a cone track at 55 km/h. To investigate if there are differences in preference of drivers with varying experience of driving, the drivers are chosen to either be low or high mileage drivers. People that drive less than 5,000 km/year are considered to be low mileage drivers, and people that drive more than 25,000 km/year are considered to be high mileage drivers.

    The results show that original settings of a typical passenger car, which served as reference, prove to display favourable characteristics compared to the unconventional settings investigated. However, there might be settings within the investigated intervals that can be considered superior. A distinct trend in the results is that increasing effort will lead to increased perceived stability, independent of ratio. High mileage drivers find the setting with low ratio and reference effort to possess better qualities than the reference when evaluating the attributes steering wheel force and response and only slightly less favourable properties than the reference when evaluating the attribute stability. High mileage drivers display a more distinct opinion and a higher sensitivity when evaluating the attributes. Despite the differing setup of the scenarios, many similarities can be observed when studying the results. Even though there are similarities in the results both between the scenarios and the categories of drivers, a study of the individual test subjects´ preferences reveal that several drivers prefer other settings than the reference for the investigated scenarios. Therefore, it is clear that the driver-vehicle system would benefit from tailoring the steering characteristics to the situation and driver.

  • 23.
    Agrawal, Harshit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Gustafsson, Jacob
    Investigation of active anti-roll bars and development of control algorithm2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Active anti-roll bars have recently found greater acceptance among premium car manufacturers and optimal application of this technology has emerged as an important field of research. This thesis investigates the potential of implementing active anti-roll bars in a passenger vehicle with the purpose of increasing customer value. For active anti-roll bars, customer value is defined in terms of vehicle’s ride comfort and handling performance. The objective with this thesis is to demonstrate this value through development of a control algorithm that can reflect the potential improvement in ride comfort and handling. A vehicle with passive anti-roll bars is simulated for different manoeuvres to identify the potential and establish a reference for the development of a control algorithm and for the performance of active anti-roll bars. While ride is evaluated using single-sided cosine wave and single-sided ramps, handling is evaluated using standardized constant radius, frequency response and sine with dwell manoeuvres.The control strategy developed implements a combination of sliding mode control, feed forward and PI-controllers. Simulations with active anti-roll bars showed significant improvement in ride and handling performance in comparison to passive anti-roll bars. In ride comfort, the biggest benefit was seen in the ability to increase roll damping and isolating low frequency road excitations. For handling, most significant benefits are through the system’s ability of changing the understeer behaviour of the vehicle and improving the handling stability in transient manoeuvres. Improvement in the roll reduction capability during steady state cornering is also substantial. In conclusion, active anti-roll bars are undoubtedly capable of improving both ride comfort and handling performance of a vehicle. Although the trade-off between ride and handling performance is significantly less, balance in requirements is critical to utilise the full potential of active anti-roll bars. With a more comprehensive control strategy, they also enable the vehicle to exhibit different driving characteristics without the need for changing any additional hardware.

  • 24.
    Ahlmark, David
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Flight Dynamics.
    Trajectory Optimization for Aircraft Evasive Maneuvering2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work has been to identify hidden parameter value patterns during evasive maneuvering for a typical jet fighter. The work has created a performance model for a fighter aircraft and this model has then been combined with a missile model to simulate an enemy attack. By doing different kinds of simulations with a certain amount of predetermined scenarios, different outcomes could be evaluated when making small changes in the maneuvers during each specific scenario. The span of parameters that conducts a flying airplane’s trajectory is vast and the evaluation of different decisions that is up on the table for a pilot in a given situation might give new insights when optimizing tactical air fighting scenarios.After evaluating different scenarios with different input values in form of different turn and climb angles etc, it was clear that small changes resulted in vast differences regarding the outcome, when being chased by the missile. By analyzing the results, it can be concluded that there are underlying patterns regarding controllable parameter values when the airplane tries to get rid of the chasing missile. For example; one section in this work describes that by keeping a straight flight path for a certain amount of seconds after a specified value of turn angle - results in survival of the attack. Keeping level flight for too many seconds however has a lethal outcome. The results seem also to follow a continuous - non-randomized - pattern. This type of detailed analysis could be used to help a pilot to optimizise the performance of the maneuver.

  • 25.
    Ahlsén, David
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Naval Systems.
    Fartygsprojektering och Flytande havsbaserad vindkraft2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten behandlar tre områden anknutna till den gemensamma sektorn marina system. Inledningsvis beskrivs sjöfartsnäringens olika delar däribland olika typer av gods och fartygstyper samt sjöfartens aktörer och reglerande organ. Sjöfarten diskuteras med hänsyn till miljö och visar att godstransport till havs är relativt energieffektivt, men att alla typer av gods inte kan motiveras ur ett hållbart perspektiv.

    En inledande fartygsprojektering genomförs för ett transportscenario där 5500 ton kiwifrukt ska transporteras från Nya Zeeland till länder kring Östersjön inom en tidsrymd som garanterar att frukten håller god kvalitet. Fartygstypen är ett kylfartyg dimensionerat att rymma lasten, minimera motstånd och uppfylla stabilitetskriterier från IMO. För att uppfylla transportscenariot är fartyget designat för en marschfart på 20 knop, med ett deplacement på 12500 ton, en längd på 138 m, 21 m i bredd och ett djupgående på 7.7 m.

    Avslutningsvis identifieras kriterier och förutsättningar för flytande havsbaserad vindkraft. Detta med syfte genomföra en inledande projektering av en vindkraftpark stor nog att Gotland kan täcka sin elkonsumtion med endast förnybara energikällor. Parken anläggs längs en ny kabelanslutning mellan Gotland och fastlandet utom synhåll från såväl Gotland, Öland och fastlandet. Området uppfyller krav på vindförhållanden och utgörs av 24 vindkraftverk med kapacitet på 5 MW vardera.

  • 26.
    Ahlén, Patrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Aerodynamics.
    Computation of the Aerodynamic Characteristics of Propellers Using the BEMT-method Including the Condition of Stalled Flow2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The flow around a propeller is complex in nature and has to date still not been completely understood. However, since predicting the aerodynamic characteristics of propellers is an important aspect of the design of aircraft, a number of methods have been devised that by using simplifying assumptions is able to predict the aerodynamic coefficients of interest. One such is the blade element momentum theory method (BEMT-method) which have been found to give accurate results at high advance ratios. At lower advance numbers, where the flow over at least part of the propeller blade is stalled, the theory has traditionally not been found to be as accurate. This report presents a program written in Matlab that, by using the BEMT-method, is capable of predicting the aerodynamic characteristics for a given propeller in the whole operating region, i.e. including low advance ratios. The report include a derivation of the BEMT-equations, as well as a more general discussion of the aerodynamic of propellers, especially focusing on the issues that are important at low advance ratios. The report presents the results from the calculations for a two bladed propeller used on a racing plane, and discuss the issues surrounding the accuracy of the results.

    The BEMT-method have also been used for the calculation of other types of rotors and as an example of this, this report also shows how the BEMT-method can be used for predicting the aerodynamic characteristics of a wind turbine and gives an example of a computation. The result from both of the performed computations shows that the results from the BEMT-method where the blades operate with attached flow has good agreement, while when the flow is stalled the accuracy is less good. Although not numerically in agreement, the results show somewhat of a qualitative agreement.

  • 27.
    Akbarpour, S.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Hallström, S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Metal reinforcement around fastener holes in composites2016In: ECCM 2016 - Proceeding of the 17th European Conference on Composite Materials, European Conference on Composite Materials, ECCM , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One way of improving the load capacity of bolted joints in composite components is to use metal inserts locally at the holes in order to reduce the bearing stress. In this paper an innovative local reinforcement concept is introduced where metal inserts are implemented in the form of stacked patches at the holes in order to improve the bearing strength of the composite. After doing some initial tests and a parameter study, some specimens with optimized stacked patch inserts were designed and tested. The specimens with optimized inserts show 50-60% improved bearing strength in pin-loaded tests which corresponds to a potential weight reduction of about 30%. These very promising results indicates that the efficiency of joints in composites can be improved significantly.

  • 28. Alam, M M
    et al.
    Barsoum, Zuheir
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Jonsen, P
    Kaplan, A F H
    Haggblad, H A
    Influence of defects on fatigue crack propagation in laser hybrid welded eccentric fillet joint2011In: Engineering Fracture Mechanics, ISSN 0013-7944, E-ISSN 1873-7315, Vol. 78, no 10, p. 2246-2258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fatigue cracking of laser hybrid welded eccentric fillet joints has been studied for stainless steel. Two-dimensional linear elastic fracture mechanics analysis was carried out for this joint geometry for four point bending load. The numerical simulations explain for the experimental observations why the crack propagates from the lower weld toe and why the crack gradually bends towards the root. Lack of fusion turned out to be uncritical for the initiation of cracks due to its compressive stress conditions. The linear elastic fracture mechanics analysis has demonstrated in good qualitative agreement with fatigue test results that lack of fusion slightly (<10%) reduces the fatigue life by accelerating the crack propagation. For the geometrical conditions studied here improved understanding of the crack propagation was obtained and in turn illustrated. The elaborated design curves turned out to be above the standard recommendations.

  • 29. Alam, M. M.
    et al.
    Barsoum, Zuheir
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Jonsén, P.
    Kaplan, A. F. H.
    Häggblad, H. A.
    The influence of surface geometry and topography on the fatigue cracking behaviour of laser hybrid welded eccentric fillet joints2010In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 256, no 6, p. 1936-1945Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laser hybrid welding of an eccentric fillet joint causes a complex geometry for fatigue load by 4-point bending. The weld surface geometry and topography were measured and studied in order to understand the crack initiation mechanisms. The crack initiation location and the crack propagation path were studied and compared to Finite Element stress analysis, taking into account the surface macro-and micro-geometry. It can be explained why the root and the upper weld toe are uncritical for cracking. The cracks that initiate from the weld bead show higher fatigue strength than the samples failing at the lower weld toe, as can be explained by a critical radius for the toe below which surface ripples instead determine the main stress raiser location for cracking. The location of maximum surface stress is related to a combination of throat depth, toe radius and sharp surface ripples along which the cracks preferably propagate.

  • 30. Alam, M. M.
    et al.
    Kaplan, A. F. H.
    Tuominen, J.
    Vuoristo, P.
    Miettinen, J.
    Poutala, J.
    Näkki, J.
    Junkala, J.
    Peltola, T.
    Barsoum, Zuheir
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Analysis of the stress raising action of flaws in laser clad deposits2013In: Materials and Design, ISSN 0261-3069, Vol. 46, p. 328-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fatigue cracking of laser clad cylindrical and square section bars depends upon a variety of factors. This paper presents Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the different macro stress fields generated as well as stress raisers created by laser cladding defects for four different fatigue load conditions. As important as the defect types are their locations and orientations, categorized into zero-, one- and two-dimensional defects. Pores and inclusions become critical close to surfaces. The performance of as-clad surfaces can be governed by the sharpness of surface notches and planar defects like hot cracks or lack-of-fusion (LOF) are most critical if oriented vertically, transverse to the bar axis. The combination of the macro stress field with the defect type and its position and orientation determines whether it is the most critical stress raiser. Based on calculated cases, quantitative and qualitative charts were developed as guidelines to visualize the trends of different combinations.

  • 31. Alam, Minhaj M
    et al.
    Barsoum, Zuheir
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Häggblad, Hans Åke
    Jonsén, Pär
    Kaplan, Alexander
    The Effects of Surface Topography and Lack of Fusion on The Fatigue Strength of Laser Hybrid Welds2009In: Congress proceedings: ICALEO, 28th International Congress on Applications of Lasers & Electro-Optics, 2009, p. 38-46Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The geometrical aspects of laser hybrid welds (before, during and after the process) differ from autonomous laser welding and from arc welding. When studying the fatigue behaviour of laser hybrid welded fillet joints we identified that the micro-topography (i.e. the surface ripples) can be more important than the macrogeometry of the weld surface or lack of fusion (LOF), which frequently was detected. The plastic replica method was applied to measure the toe radii at the weld edges while the micro-topography was identified by interferometric profilometry. From metallurgical analysis of the joint interface, the tendency to LOF can be explained. Stress analysis was carried out by Finite element analysis (FEA) for the complex joint geometry and a bending load situation, showing maximum stress on the weld toes, even when including LOF. It was shown that the position and value of the maximum stress depends on a non-trivial combination of the weld geometry, including possible LOF, and the surface micro-topography. Thus it can be explained that at compressive stress conditions LOF does not contribute significantly to the fatigue strength of laser hybrid welds while the surface topography does. Recommendations for defining and in turn avoiding critical geometrical aspects during the welding process are discussed.

  • 32. Alam, Minhaj M
    et al.
    Barsoum, Zuheir
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Jonsén, Pär
    Häggblad, Hans Åke
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Fatigue behaviour study of laser hybrid welded eccentric fillet joints – Part II: State-of-the-art of fracture mechanics and fatigue analysis of welded joints2009In: 12th NOLAMP proceeding 2009: Nordic Laser Materials Processing Conference / [ed] Erling Dam Mortensen, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Simplified fatigue and fracture mechanics based assessment methods are widely used by the industry to determine the structural integrity significance of postulated cracks, manufacturing flaws, service-induced cracking or suspected degradation of engineering components under normal and abnormal service loads. In many cases, welded joints are the regions most likely to contain original fabrication defects or cracks initiating and growing during service operation. The welded joints are a major component that is often blamed for causing a structure failure or for being the point at which fatigue or fracture problems initiate and propagate. Various mathematical models/techniques for various classes of welded joints are developed by analytically or by simulation software's that can be used in fatigue and fracture assessments. This literature survey compiled useful information on fracture and fatigue analysis of various welded joints. The present review is divided into two major sections- fracture mechanics and fatigue analysis with widely used models. A survey table is also introduced to get the outlook of research trend on fatigue and fracture over last 3 decades. Although tremendous research effort has been implemented on fatigue and fracture analysis of conventional welding, research on relatively new welding technology (laser welding, hybrid laser welding) is still limited and unsatisfactory. In order to give guarantee or make welding standard for new welding technology, further research is required in the field of fatigue and fracture mechanics including FEM and multi-scale modeling.

  • 33. Alam, Minhaj M
    et al.
    Barsoum, Zuheir
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Jonsén, Pär
    Häggblad, Hans Åke
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Geometrical Aspects of The Fatigue Behaviour of Laser Hybrid Fillet Welds2009In: Proceedings of the Fatigue Design Conference, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34. Alam, Minhaj M
    et al.
    Barsoum, Zuheir
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Josén, Per
    Häggblad, Hans Åke
    kaplan, Alexander
    Fatigue Behaviour Study of Laser Hybrid Welded Eccentric Fillet Joints - Part I2009In: 12th NOLAMP proceeding 2009: Nordic Laser Materials Processing Conference / [ed] Erling Dam Mortensen, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Welded joints are a major component that is often responsible for causing a structure failure or for being the point at which fatigue cracking initiates and propagates. Despite tremendous research efforts, the understanding of fatigue behaviour is still limited, particularly for new techniques like laser hybrid welding. Beside a comprehensive state-of-the-art study, the paper presents a fatigue study of laser hybrid welded eccentric fillet joint of stainless steel of 10 mm thickness, with 5 mm displacement. Motivation is to study the influence of the surface geometry shape on fatigue performance under a four point bending test. 13 samples were produced, measuring the toe radii and testing under constant amplitude loading with stress ratio R=0. Different techniques have been used to measure local weld geometry, like plastic replica, a 3D optical profiler and a 3D-digitizer. The influence of the local weld geometry, like the toe radii, on the stress concentration was studied by FE-analysis. Occasionally lack of fusion was observed, which was taken into account in the FE-analysis. Based on the nominal stress approach, SN-curves were designed for laser hybrid welded eccentric fillet joints. Macro hardness tests were carried out and the crack surfaces were observed in order to detect crack initiation and propagation. Correlations between the toe radii, the corresponding stress maxima and crack initiation locations were studied between the different samples and even along the welds.

  • 35. Alberdi, A.
    et al.
    Gil-Negrete, N.
    Vinolas, J.
    Kari, Leif
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Nieto, F. J.
    Dynamic characterisation of different magneto-sensitive natural rubbers for application in vibration isolation2010In: Proceedings of ISMA 2010 - International Conference on Noise and Vibration Engineering, including USD 2010, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven , 2010, p. 227-231Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic properties of magneto-sensitive natural rubber components were experimentally studied. Different magneto-sensitive rubbers were manufactured, consisting of irregularly shaped micron-sized iron particles embedded in a natural rubber matrix, and the influence of the hardness of the matrix material and the particle volume concentration were analyzed. Vibration isolators consisting of magneto-sensitive elastomers promise to have more functionality than conventional isolators as they can change their dynamic stiffness rapidly, continuously and reversibly under the application of an external magnetic field. Experimental measurements on MS components show that a better performance may be obtained at applications where small amplitudes are required, using soft matrix materials and with concentration close to a critical particle volume fraction.

  • 36.
    Alberdi-Muniain, Ane
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Structural and vibroacoustics.
    Magneto-sensitive elastomers in vibration isolation2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vibration isolators made of rubber are used in numerous engineeringapplications to isolate structures from undesirable effects of vibrations.However, once a vibration isolator is installed in an application, it is not possible to modify its characteristics to adjust to changing conditions. An alternative to obtain more adaptive characteristics is touse magneto-sensitive (MS) elastomers. MS elastomers are a type of smart material consisting of an elastomer matrix, such as natural or synthetic rubber, to which iron particles are added displaying properties that vary rapidly, continuously and reversibly by applying an external magnetic field.The aim of this thesis is to investigate the possibility to use MS natural rubber in vibration isolation.Firstly, dynamic shear properties of MS natural rubber are experimentally studied at various frequencies, dynamic amplitudes and magnetic fields. In addition, the influence on the dynamic properties of adding carbon black and plasticisers to MS rubber is investigated. Carbon black is the most popular reinforcing filler that rubber usually contains in engineering applications to improve mechanical properties where as plasticisers simplify the filler blending process.Furthermore, the effectiveness of MS rubber applied in a vibration isolation system is experimentally investigated by measuring the energy flow into the foundation. The energy flow, including both force and velocity of the foundation, is a suitable measure of the effectiveness of a real vibration isolation system where the foundation is not perfectly rigid. The vibration isolation system in this study consists of a solid aluminium mass excitedby an electro-dynamic shaker and mounted upon four nonlinear frequency,amplitude and magnetic field dependent MS isolators being connected to a relatively stiff foundation. The energy flow through the MS isolators is directly measured by inserting a force transducer below each isolator andan accelerometer on the foundation close to each isolator. MS isolators are shown to be more useful than conventional rubber isolators since the dynamic stiffness varies with the application of an external magnetic field,thus resulting in more effective vibration isolation. In addition, the indirect technique is employed to measure the energy flow while requiring only accelerometers since it is usually difficult to directly measure the force in a real application. The indirect technique is validated by direct measurements.Finally, a model of the energy flow through the nonlinear frequency,amplitude and magnetic field dependent MS isolators is developed for the tested vibration isolation system. Vibration isolators are usually only a small connecting component within a more complex system. Hence, simple discrete models are frequently used to characterise the frequency and dynamic amplitude dependence of rubber. Recently, a model of this type has been modified to include magneto-sensitivity and thus model MS rubber. In this study, this novel MS rubber model is incorporated into the full system to model the MS isolators while the foundation is characterised by its driving-point and transfer inertances at and between the connection points.The energy flow model results are compared to those of measurements,showing good agreement. The developed energy flow model provides a basis to design vibration isolator systems made of MS isolators.

  • 37.
    Alberdi-Muniain, Ane
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Structural and vibroacoustics.
    Gil-Negrete, N.
    Department of Applied Mechanics, CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra).
    Kari, Leif
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Structural and vibroacoustics.
    Direct energy flow measurement in magneto-sensitive vibration isolator systems2012In: Journal of Sound and Vibration, ISSN 0022-460X, E-ISSN 1095-8568, Vol. 331, no 9, p. 1994-2006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effectiveness of highly nonlinear, frequency, amplitude and magnetic field dependent magneto-sensitive natural rubber components applied in a vibration isolation system is experimentally investigated by measuring the energy flow into the foundation. The energy flow, including both force and velocity of the foundation, is a suitable measure of the effectiveness of a real vibration isolation system where the foundation is not perfectly rigid. The vibration isolation system in this study consists of a solid aluminium mass supported on four magneto-sensitive rubber components and is excited by an electro-dynamic shaker while applying various excitation signals, amplitudes and positions in the frequency range of 20-200 Hz and using magneto-sensitive components at zero-field and at magnetic saturation. The energy flow through the magneto-sensitive rubber isolators is directly measured by inserting a force transducer below each isolator and an accelerometer on the foundation close to each isolator. This investigation provides novel practical insights into the potential of using magneto-sensitive material isolators in noise and vibration control, including their advantages compared to traditional vibration isolators. Finally, nonlinear features of magneto-sensitive components are experimentally verified.

  • 38.
    Alberdi-Muniain, Ane
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Structural and vibroacoustics.
    Gil-Negrete, N
    Kari, Leif
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Structural and vibroacoustics.
    Indirect energy flow measurement in magneto-sensitive vibration isolator systems2013In: Applied Acoustics, ISSN 0003-682x, ISSN 0003-682x, Vol. 74, no 4, p. 575-584Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The indirect energy flow measurement method is extended to cover highly nonlinear, frequency, amplitude and magnetic field dependent magneto-sensitive natural rubber isolators applied in a real vibration isolation system. Energy flow is an effective measure of vibration isolation while being a single quantity that considers both force and velocity. The use of the indirect technique is of interest while requiring only accelerometers since it is usually difficult to directly measure the force in a real application. The vibration isolation system is composed of four magneto-sensitive rubber isolators that are inserted under a vibrating source consisting of a solid aluminium mass excited by an electro-dynamic shaker. Magneto-sensitive rubber isolators are more useful than conventional rubber isolators since the dynamic stiffness varies with the application of an external magnetic field, thus resulting in more effective vibration isolation. Various approximations regarding the indirect technique are investigated, concluding that average stiffness of magneto-sensitive isolators can be used and auto-spectrum of the foundation velocity ignored. In addition, various error analyses are performed. Finally, the indirect measurement of the energy flow is validated by direct measurements, showing very good agreement.

  • 39.
    Alberdi-Muniain, Ane
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Structural and vibroacoustics.
    Gil-Negrete, N.
    Department of Applied Mechanics, CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra).
    Kari, Leif
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Structural and vibroacoustics.
    Influence of carbon black and plasticisers on dynamic properties of isotropic magnetosensitive natural rubber2012In: Plastics, rubber and composites, ISSN 1465-8011, E-ISSN 1743-2898, Vol. 41, no 7, p. 310-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamic shear modulus of magnetosensitive (MS) natural rubber composites is experimentallystudied, where influences of carbon black, plasticiser and iron particle concentrations areinvestigated at various dynamic shear strain amplitudes and external magnetic fields within thelower structure borne frequency range. The iron particles embedded in natural rubber areirregularly shaped and randomly distributed; the plasticisers simplify the iron particle blendingprocess, while carbon black reduces the production costs and improves the mechanicalproperties. The results show that the relative MS effect on the shear modulus magnitude increaseswith increased plasticiser and iron particle concentration and decreases with increased carbonblack concentration. Furthermore, their relative contributions are quantified. Consequently, thestudy provides a basis for optimising the composition of MS natural rubber to meet a variety ofrequirements, including those of vibration isolation, a promising application area for MS materials.

  • 40.
    Alberdi-Muniain, Ane
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Structural and vibroacoustics.
    Gil-Negrete, N
    Kari, Leif
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Structural and vibroacoustics.
    Modelling energy flow through magneto-sensitive vibration isolators2013In: International Journal of Engineering Science, ISSN 0020-7225, E-ISSN 1879-2197, Vol. 65, p. 22-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A highly nonlinear model of the energy flow in a magneto-sensitive (MS) vibration isolation system is developed where it is possible to investigate the influences of MS rubber material parameters; magnetic field strength; MS isolator dimension and position; excitation force magnitude, position and frequency; engine mass, inertia and dimension and, finally, foundation inertance. The MS vibration isolation system consists of an engine modelled by a solid mass, excited by a vertical force and mounted upon four MS isolators being connected to a relatively stiff foundation characterised by its driving-point and transfer inertances at and between the connection points. The energy flow into the foundation is the most appropriate indicator of the effectiveness of a real vibration isolation system while considering both foundation velocity and force. The MS isolator model applied is a nonlinear MS rubber model including frequency, dynamic amplitude and magnetic field dependence. The energy flow model results are compared to those of measurements, showing good agreement. Finally, parameter studies are carried out. The developed energy flow model provides a basis for designing MS vibration isolation systems to meet specific requirements.

  • 41.
    Alberdi-Muniain, Ane
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Structural and vibroacoustics.
    Gil-Negrete, N.
    Department of Applied Mechanics, CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra).
    Nieto, F.J.
    Department of Applied Mechanics, CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra).
    Kari, Leif
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Structural and vibroacoustics.
    Vinolas, J.
    Department of Applied Mechanics, CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra).
    An experimental study of magneto-sensitive natural rubber components applied in a vibration isolation system2009In: CONSTITUTIVE MODELS FOR RUBBER VI / [ed] Gert Heinrich, Michael Kaliske, Alexander Lion, London: Taylor & Francis, 2009, p. 99-104Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effectiveness of magneto-sensitive natural rubber components applied in a vibration isolation system is experimentally investigated, where influences of excitation position, amplitude, frequency and magnetic field are examined. The magneto-sensitive elastomer consists of micron-sized, irregularly shaped iron particles blended in soft natural rubber at a concentration close to the critical particle volume fraction, shown to be the most favorable composition for optimum behaviour. A rigid aluminium mass supported on four vibration isolators is excited by an electro-dynamic shaker. Each component of this vibration isolation system is composed of two thin, square shaped, symmetrically positioned magneto-sensitive elements excited in simple shear with a magnetic field applied perpendicularly to the motion by an electromagnet. The magnetic field is varied by applying different intensities through the coil. The excitation position is either on the centre or on the edge of the surface of the mass, using step-sine excitation of various amplitudes in the frequency range of 0 to 300 Hz. The results show that it is possible to use magneto-sensitive rubber for vibration control purposes.

  • 42. Albertson, F.
    et al.
    Boden, Hans
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Gilbert, J.
    Comparison of different methods to couple nonlinear source descriptions in the time domain to linear system descriptions in the frequency domain - Application to a simple valveless one-cylinder cold engine2006In: Journal of Sound and Vibration, ISSN 0022-460X, E-ISSN 1095-8568, Vol. 291, no 05-mar, p. 963-985Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In duct acoustics the fundamental sound generating mechanisms must often be described by nonlinear time domain models. A linear frequency domain model is in many cases sufficient for describing the sound propagation in the connected duct system. This applies both for fluid machines such as IC-engines and compressors and for musical wind instruments. Methods for coupling a nonlinear source description to a linear system description have been proposed by several authors. In this paper some of those methods are compared concerning accuracy, calculation time and the possibility to perform parametric studies. The model problem used is a simple piston-restriction system connected to a linear system with varying complexity. The piston and restriction are considered as the source part and are modelled nonlinearly.

  • 43. Albinsson, A.
    et al.
    Bruzelius, F.
    Jacobson, B.
    Gustafsson, T.
    Jonasson, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. Volvo Cars, Sweden.
    Identification of tyre characteristics using active force excitation2016In: The Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks - Proceedings of the 24th Symposium of the International Association for Vehicle System Dynamics, IAVSD 2015, CRC Press, 2016, p. 501-510Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of the maximum tyre-road friction coefficient can improve active safety systems by defining actuator boundaries and adaptable intervention thresholds. Estimation of the coefficient of friction based on tyre response measurements requires large level of force excitation. Under normal driving conditions, manoeuvres with large tyre utilizations are rare. This study investigates a method where wheel torques with opposite signs are applied to the front and rear axle simultaneously. This procedure allows for an intervention with large tyre excitations without disturbing the motion of the vehicle. The intervention is evaluated in simulations and experiments. Further, a method is proposed which does not require measurement of the vehicle longitudinal velocity. The results show that it is possible to estimate the current friction coefficient with the proposed method, although the assumption made in the proposed method makes the friction estimate sensitive to measurement noise on the wheel speed signal.

  • 44. Albinsson, Anton
    et al.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Pettersson, Pierre
    Jonasson, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering. Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Jacobson, Bengt
    Estimation of the inertial parameters of vehicles with electric propulsion2016In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part D, journal of automobile engineering, ISSN 0954-4070, E-ISSN 2041-2991, Vol. 230, no 9, p. 1155-1172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More accurate information about the basic vehicle parameters can improve the dynamic control functions of a vehicle. Methods for online estimation of the mass, the rolling resistance, the aerodynamic drag coefficient, the yaw inertia and the longitudinal position of the centre of gravity of an electric hybrid vehicle is therefore proposed. The estimators use the standard vehicle sensor set and the estimate of the electric motor torque. No additional sensors are hence required and no assumptions are made regarding the tyre or the vehicle characteristics. Consequently, all information about the vehicle is available to the estimator. The estimators are evaluated using both simulations and experiments. Estimations of the mass, the rolling resistance and the aerodynamic drag coefficient are based on a recursive least-squares method with multiple forgetting factors. The mass estimate converged to within 3% of the measured vehicle mass for the test cases with sufficient excitation that were evaluated. Two methods to estimate the longitudinal position of the centre of gravity and the yaw inertia are also proposed. The first method is based on the equations of motion and was found to be sensitive to the measurement and parameter errors. The second method is based on the estimated mass and seat-belt indicators. This estimator is more robust and reduces the estimation error in comparison with that obtained by assuming static parameters. The results show that the proposed method improves the estimations of the inertial parameters. Hence, it enables online non-linear tyre force estimators and tyre-model-based tyre-road friction estimators to be used in production vehicles.

  • 45.
    Alenius, Emma
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Flow acoustics.
    CFD of Duct Acoustics for Turbocharger Applications2010Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The search for quieter internal combustion engines drives the quest for a better understanding of the acoustic properties of engine duct components. In this work the main focus is the turbocharger compressor and a discussion of turbocharger acoustics and earlier work within the area is presented, giving an insight into its sound generating mechanisms and the damping effect it has on pressure pulses, i.e. incoming waves. However, despite the fact that turbo-charging was developed during the first part of the 20th century, there is not much research results available within the area of centrifugal compressor acoustics.

    To improve the understanding of the acoustics of engine duct components, methods based on compressible Large Eddy Simulation (LES) are explored. With these methods it is possible to capture both the complex flow, with sound generating mechanisms, and acoustic - flow interactions. It is also possible to get a detailed insight into some phenomena by access to variables and/or areas where it is difficult to perform measurements. In order to develop these methods the linear scattering of low frequency waves by an orifice plate have been studied, using an acoustic two-port model. This simple geometry was chosen since the flow has several of the characteristics seen in a compressor, like unsteady separation, vortex generation and shock waves at high Mach numbers. Furthermore the orifice plate is in itself interesting in engine applications, where constrictions are present in the ducts. The results have been compared to measurements with good agreement and the sensitivity to different parameters has been studied, showing an expected dependence on inlet Mach number and difficulties to simultaneously keep the amplitude low enough for linearity and high enough to suppress flow noise with the short times series available in LES. 

    During the development of new engines the industry uses 1D engine CFD tools. These tools are developed to give performance data, but sometimes also the acoustic pulsations are studied. The duct components are modelled and the turbocharger is often modelled with a map, representing its fluid mechanical properties measured under steady state conditions. An aim in this work has been to study the limitations of the models available in the commercial software GT-Power. The scattering of incoming waves was simulated and the results were compared to measurements, showing a large discrepancy for the compressor and a significant discrepancy for the orifice plate.

  • 46.
    Alenius, Emma
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Flow acoustics.
    Flow Duct Acoustics: An LES Approach2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The search for quieter internal combustion engines drives the quest for a better understanding of the acoustic properties of engine duct components. Simulations are an important tool for enhanced understanding; they give insight into the flow-acoustic interaction in components where it is difficult to perform measurements. In this work the acoustics is obtained directly from a compressible Large Eddy Simulation (LES). With this method complex flow phenomena can be captured, as well as sound generation and acoustic scattering.

    The aim of the research is enhanced understanding of the acoustics of engine gas exchange components, such as the turbocharger compressor.In order to investigate methods appropriate for such studies, a simple constriction, in the form of an orifice plate, is considered. The flow through this geometry is expected to have several of the important characteristics that generate and scatter sound in more complex components, such as an unsteady shear layer, vortex generation, strong recirculation zones, pressure fluctuations at the plate, and at higher flow speeds shock waves.

    The sensitivity of the scattering to numerical parameters, and flow noise suppression methods, is investigated. The most efficient method for reducing noise in the result is averaging, both in time and space. Additionally, non-linear effects were found to appear when the amplitude of the acoustic velocity fluctuations became larger than around 1~\% of the mean velocity, in the orifice.

    The main goal of the thesis has been to enhance the understanding of the flow and acoustics of a thick orifice plate, with a jet Mach number of 0.4 to 1.2. Additionally, we evaluate different methods for analysis of the data, whereby better insight into the problem is gained. The scattering of incoming waves is compared to measurements with in general good agreement. Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) is used in order to find significant frequencies in the flow and their corresponding flow structures, showing strong axisymmetric flow structures at frequencies where a tonal sound is generated and incoming waves are amplified.The main mechanisms for generating plane wave sound are identified as a fluctuating mass flow at the orifice openings and a fluctuating force at the plate sides, for subsonic jets. This study is to the author's knowledge the first numerical investigation concerning both sound generation and scattering, as well as coupling sound to a detailed study of the flow.With decomposition techniques a deeper insight into the flow is reached. It is shown that a feedback mechanism inside the orifice leads to the generation of strong coherent axisymmetric fluctuations, which in turn generate a tonal sound.

  • 47.
    Alenius, Emma
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Flow acoustics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    Sound Generating Flow Structures in a Thick Orifice Plate Jet2014In: Progress in Turbulence V: Proceedings of the iTi Conference in Turbulence 2012, Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2014, p. 201-204Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of thiswork is to study sound generating flowstructures in a thickcircular orifice plate jet, placed in a circular duct. Large eddy simulations (LES)are performed for two jet Mach numbers, 0.4 and 0.9. Characteristic frequenciesin the flow, and their corresponding flow structures, are identified with dynamicmode decomposition (DMD). The results show that a tonal noise is generated atfrequencies where the jet displays strong ring vortices, in the plane wave range.The main sound generating mechanisms seems to be a fluctuating mass flow at theorifice opening and a fluctuating surface force at the plate sides, caused by the ringvortices. The frequencies are believed to be chosen, and strengthened, by a feedbackmechanism between the orifice in- and outlet.

  • 48.
    Alenius, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Flow acoustics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    Åbom, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Flow acoustics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    Fuchs, Laszlo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    Large eddy simulations of acoustic-flow interaction at an orifice plate2015In: Journal of Sound and Vibration, ISSN 0022-460X, E-ISSN 1095-8568, Vol. 345, p. 162-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The scattering of plane waves by an orifice plate with a strong bias flow, placed in a circular or square duct, is studied through large eddy simulations and dynamic mode decomposition. The acoustic-flow interaction is illustrated, showing that incoming sound waves at a Strouhal number of 0.43 trigger a strong axisymmetric flow structure in the orifice in the square duct, and interact with a self-sustained axisymmetric oscillation in the circular duct orifice. These structures then generate a strong sound, increasing the acoustic energy at the frequency of the incoming wave. The structure triggered in the square duct is weaker than that present in the circular duct, but stronger than structures triggered by waves at other frequencies. Comparing the scattering matrix with measurements, there is a good agreement. However, the results are found to be sensitive to the inflow, where the self-sustained oscillation in the circular duct simulation is an artefact of an axisymmetric, undisturbed inflow. This illustrates a problem with using an undisturbed inflow for studying vortex-sound effects, and can be of interest when considering musical instruments, where the aim is to get maximum amplification of specific tones. Further, it illustrates that at the frequency where an amplification of acoustic energy is found for the orifice plate, the flow has a natural instability, which is suppressed by non-axisymmetry and incoming disturbances.

  • 49.
    Alenius, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Flow acoustics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    Åbom, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Flow acoustics.
    Fuchs, Laszlo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    LES of Acoustic-Flow Interaction at an Orifice Plate2012In: 18th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference (33rd AIAA Aeroacoustics Conference), 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The scattering of plane waves by a thick orifice plate, placed in a circular or square duct with flow, is studied through Large Eddy Simulation. The scattering matrix is computed and compared to measurements, showing reasonably good agreement except around one frequency ($St \approx 0.4$). Here a stronger amplification of acoustic energy is observed in the circular duct simulations than in the measurements and the square duct simulations. In order to improve the understanding of the interaction between an incoming wave, the flow, and the plate, a few frequencies are studied in more detail. A Dynamic Mode Decomposition is performed to identify flow structures at significant frequencies. This shows that the amplification of acoustic energy occurs at the frequency where the jet in the circular duct has an axisymmetric instability. Furthermore, the incoming wave slightly amplifies this instability, and suppresses background flow fluctuations.

  • 50.
    Alenius, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Flow acoustics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    Åbom, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, MWL Flow acoustics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    Fuchs, Laszlo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Competence Center for Gas Exchange (CCGEx).
    Scattering of Plane Waves by a Constriction2011In: Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2011, Vol 7, Parts A-C, American Society Of Mechanical Engineers , 2011, p. 1043-1052Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Liner scattering of low frequency waves by an orifice plate has been studied using Large Eddy Simulation and an acoustic two-port model. The results have been compared to measurements with good agreement for waves coming from the downstream side. For waves coming from the upstream side the reflection is over-predicted, indicating that not enough of the acoustic energy is converted to vorticity at the upstream edge of the plate. Furthermore, the sensitivity to the amplitude of the acoustic waves has been studied, showing difficulties to simultaneously keep the amplitude low enough for linearity and high enough to suppress flow noise with the relatively short times series available in LES.

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