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  • 1.
    Aboode, Adam
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Utvärdering av prestanda hos ultraljudsmaskin2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this report is to try to evaluate the performance of an ultrasound scanner, which was bought by the applied physics department in 2014 for a relatively low price. By performing this evaluation we wish to answer the question if a scanner like this can be used to perform simple ultrasound examinations. Seeing that performance is such a broad concept we choose to limit ourselves in this report by focusing on the spatial resolution. The evaluation of spatial resolution was done experimentally by constructing multiple tissue-like phantoms and examining them. The results tell us that the scanner could probably be used on humans for simpler examinations such as estimation of the gestational age given that the scanner fulfils the safety requirements, something we do not investigate in this report.

  • 2. Abrahamsson, S.
    et al.
    Blom, Hans
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Agostinho, A.
    Jans, Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Jost, A.
    Müller, M.
    Nilsson, Linnea
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Bernhem, K.
    Lambert, T. J.
    Heintzmann, R.
    Brismar, Hjalmar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Multifocus structured illumination microscopy for fast volumetric super-resolution imaging2017In: Biomedical Optics Express, ISSN 2156-7085, E-ISSN 2156-7085, Vol. 8, no 9, p. 4135-4140, article id #294866Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We here report for the first time the synergistic implementation of structured illumination microscopy (SIM) and multifocus microscopy (MFM). This imaging modality is designed to alleviate the problem of insufficient volumetric acquisition speed in superresolution biological imaging. SIM is a wide-field super-resolution technique that allows imaging with visible light beyond the classical diffraction limit. Employing multifocus diffractive optics we obtain simultaneous wide-field 3D imaging capability in the SIM acquisition sequence, improving volumetric acquisition speed by an order of magnitude. Imaging performance is demonstrated on biological specimens.

  • 3. Ackermann, M.
    et al.
    Albert, A.
    Atwood, W. B.
    Baldini, L.
    Ballet, J.
    Barbiellini, G.
    Bastieri, D.
    Bellazzini, R.
    Bissaldi, E.
    Bloom, E. D.
    Bonino, R.
    Brandt, T. J.
    Bregeon, J.
    Bruel, P.
    Buehler, R.
    Caliandro, G. A.
    Cameron, R. A.
    Caragiulo, M.
    Caraveo, P. A.
    Cavazzuti, E.
    Cecchi, C.
    Charles, E.
    Chekhtman, A.
    Chiang, J.
    Chiaro, G.
    Ciprini, S.
    Cohen-Tanugi, J.
    Cutini, S.
    D'Ammando, F.
    de Angelis, A.
    de Palma, F.
    Desiante, R.
    Digel, S. W.
    Drell, P. S.
    Favuzzi, C.
    Ferrara, E. C.
    Focke, W. B.
    Franckowiak, A.
    Fusco, P.
    Gargano, F.
    Gasparrini, D.
    Giglietto, N.
    Giordano, F.
    Godfrey, G.
    Grenier, I. A.
    Grondin, M. -H
    Guillemot, L.
    Guiriec, S.
    Harding, A. K.
    Hill, A. B.
    Horan, D.
    Johannesson, G.
    Knoedlseder, J.
    Kuss, M.
    Larsson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics. Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Alba Nova, Sweden.
    Latronico, L.
    Li, J.
    Li, Liang
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics. Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Alba Nova, Sweden.
    Longo, F.
    Loparco, F.
    Lubrano, P.
    Maldera, S.
    Martin, P.
    Mayer, M.
    Mazziotta, M. N.
    Michelson, P. F.
    Mizuno, T.
    Monzani, M. E.
    Morselli, A.
    Murgia, S.
    Nuss, E.
    Ohsugi, T.
    Orienti, M.
    Orlando, E.
    Ormes, J. F.
    Paneque, D.
    Pesce-Rollins, M.
    Piron, F.
    Pivato, G.
    Porter, T. A.
    Raino, S.
    Rando, R.
    Razzano, M.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Romani, R. W.
    Sanchez-Conde, M.
    Schulz, A.
    Sgro, C.
    Siskind, E. J.
    Smith, D. A.
    Spada, F.
    Spandre, G.
    Spinelli, P.
    Suson, D. J.
    Takahashi, H.
    Thayer, J. B.
    Tibaldo, L.
    Torres, D. F.
    Tosti, G.
    Troja, E.
    Vianello, G.
    Wood, M.
    Zimmer, S.
    Deep view of the Large Magellanic Cloud with six years of Fermi-LAT observations2016In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 586, article id A71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context. The nearby Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) provides a rare opportunity of a spatially resolved view of an external star-forming galaxy in gamma-rays. The LMC was detected at 0.1-100 GeV as an extended source with CGRO/EGRET and using early observations with the Fermi-LAT. The emission was found to correlate with massive star-forming regions and to be particularly bright towards 30 Doradus. Aims. Studies of the origin and transport of cosmic rays (CRs) in the Milky Way are frequently hampered by line-of-sight confusion and poor distance determination. The LMC offers a complementary way to address these questions by revealing whether and how the gamma-ray emission is connected to specific objects, populations of objects, and structures in the galaxy. Methods. We revisited the gamma-ray emission from the LMC using about 73 months of Fermi-LAT P7REP data in the 0.2-100 GeV range. We developed a complete spatial and spectral model of the LMC emission, for which we tested several approaches: a simple geometrical description, template-fitting, and a physically driven model for CR-induced interstellar emission. Results. In addition to identifying PSR J0540-6919 through its pulsations, we find two hard sources positionally coincident with plerion N 157B and supernova remnant N 132D, which were also detected at TeV energies with H.E.S.S. We detect an additional soft source that is currently unidentified. Extended emission dominates the total flux from the LMC. It consists of an extended component of about the size of the galaxy and additional emission from three to four regions with degree-scale sizes. If it is interpreted as CRs interacting with interstellar gas, the large-scale emission implies a large-scale population of similar to 1-100 GeV CRs with a density of similar to 30% of the local Galactic value. On top of that, the three to four small-scale emission regions would correspond to enhancements of the CR density by factors 2 to 6 or higher, possibly more energetic and younger populations of CRs compared to the large-scale population. An alternative explanation is that this is emission from an unresolved population of at least two dozen objects, such as pulsars and their nebulae or supernova remnants. This small-scale extended emission has a spatial distribution that does not clearly correlate with known components of the LMC, except for a possible relation to cavities and supergiant shells. Conclusions. The Fermi-LAT GeV observations allowed us to detect individual sources in the LMC. Three of the newly discovered sources are associated with rare and extreme objects. The 30 Doradus region is prominent in GeV gamma-rays because PSR J0540-6919 and N 157B are strong emitters. The extended emission from the galaxy has an unexpected spatial distribution, and observations at higher energies and in radio may help to clarify its origin.

  • 4. Agostinho, A.
    et al.
    Kouznetsova, A.
    Hernández-Hernández, A.
    Bernhem, Kristoffer
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Blom, Hans
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biophysics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Brismar, Hjalmar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biophysics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Höög, C.
    Sexual dimorphism in the width of the mouse synaptonemal complex2018In: Journal of Cell Science, ISSN 0021-9533, E-ISSN 1477-9137, Vol. 131, no 5, article id jcs212548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual dimorphism has been used to describe morphological differences between the sexes, but can be extended to any biologically related process that varies between males and females. The synaptonemal complex (SC) is a tripartite structure that connects homologous chromosomes in meiosis. Here, aided by superresolution microscopy techniques, we show that the SC is subject to sexual dimorphism, in mouse germ cells. We have identified a significantly narrower SC in oocytes and have established that this difference does not arise from a different organization of the lateral elements nor from a different isoform of transverse filament protein SYCP1. Instead, we provide evidence for the existence of a narrower central element and a different integration site for the C-termini of SYCP1, in females. In addition to these female-specific features, we speculate that post-translation modifications affecting the SYCP1 coiled-coil region could render a more compact conformation, thus contributing to the narrower SC observed in females.

  • 5. Agostinho, Ana
    et al.
    Manneberg, Otto
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    van Schendel, Robin
    Hernandez-Hernandez, Abrahan
    Kouznetsova, Anna
    Blom, Hans
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Brismar, Hjalmar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Höög, Christer
    High density of REC8 constrains sister chromatid axes and prevents illegitimate synaptonemal complex formation2016In: EMBO Reports, ISSN 1469-221X, E-ISSN 1469-3178, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 901-913Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During meiosis, cohesin complexes mediate sister chromatid cohesion (SCC), synaptonemal complex (SC) assembly and synapsis. Here, using super-resolution microscopy, we imaged sister chromatid axes in mouse meiocytes that have normal or reduced levels of cohesin complexes, assessing the relationship between localization of cohesin complexes, SCC and SC formation. We show that REC8 foci are separated from each other by a distance smaller than 15% of the total chromosome axis length in wild-type meiocytes. Reduced levels of cohesin complexes result in a local separation of sister chromatid axial elements (LSAEs), as well as illegitimate SC formation at these sites. REC8 but not RAD21 or RAD21L cohesin complexes flank sites of LSAEs, whereas RAD21 and RAD21L appear predominantly along the separated sister-chromatid axes. Based on these observations and a quantitative distribution analysis of REC8 along sister chromatid axes, we propose that the high density of randomly distributed REC8 cohesin complexes promotes SCC and prevents illegitimate SC formation.

  • 6.
    Ahmadi, Mazaher
    et al.
    Bu Ali Sina Univ, Fac Chem, Hamadan, Iran..
    Moein, Mohammad Mahdi
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Psychiat Res, Dept Clin Neurosci, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Cty Council, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Madrakian, Tayyebeh
    Bu Ali Sina Univ, Fac Chem, Hamadan, Iran..
    Afkhami, Abbas
    Bu Ali Sina Univ, Fac Chem, Hamadan, Iran..
    Bahar, Soleiman
    Univ Kurdistan, Fac Sci, Dept Chem, Sanandaj, Iran..
    Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Materials and Nanophysics. Karolinska Inst, Ctr Psychiat Res, Dept Clin Neurosci, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Cty Council, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Reduced graphene oxide as an efficient sorbent in microextraction by packed sorbent: Determination of local anesthetics in human plasma and saliva samples utilizing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry2018In: Journal of chromatography. B, ISSN 1570-0232, E-ISSN 1873-376X, Vol. 1095, p. 177-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Herein, reduced graphene oxide (RGO) has been utilized as an efficient sorbent in microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS). The combination of MEPS and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been used to develop a method for the extraction and determination of three local anesthetics (i.e. lidocaine, prilocaine, and ropivacaine) in human plasma and saliva samples. The results showed that the utilization of RGO in MEPS could minimize the matrix effect so that no interfering peaks at the retention times of the analytes or internal standard was observed. The high extraction efficiency of this method was approved by mean recoveries of 97.26-106.83% and 95.21-105.83% for the studied analytes in plasma and saliva samples, respectively. Intra- and inter-day accuracies and precisions for all analytes were in good accordance with the international regulations. The accuracy values (as percentage deviation from the nominal value) of the quality control samples were between - 2.1 to 13.9 for lidocaine, - 4.2 to 11.0 for prilocaine and between - 4.5 to - 2.4 for ropivacaine in plasma samples while the values were ranged from - 4.6 to 1.6 for lidocaine, from - 4.2 to 15.5 for prilocaine and from - 3.3 to - 2.3 for ropivacaine in human saliva samples. Lower and upper limit of quantification (LLOQ, ULOQ) were set at 5 and 2000 nmol L-1 for all of the studied drugs. The correlation coefficients values were >= 0.995. The limit of detection values were obtained 4 nmol L-1 for lidocaine and prilocaine, and 2 nmol L-1 for ropivacaine.

  • 7.
    Akan, Rabia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Parfeniukas, Karolis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Vogt, Carmen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Toprak, M. S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Vogt, Ulrich
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Reaction control of metal-assisted chemical etching for silicon-based zone plate nanostructures2018In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 8, no 23, p. 12628-12634Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) reaction parameters were investigated for the fabrication of specially designed silicon-based X-ray zone plate nanostructures using a gold catalyst pattern and etching solutions composed of HF and H2O2. Etching depth, zone verticality and zone roughness were studied as a function of etching solution composition, temperature and processing time. Homogeneous, vertical etching with increasing depth is observed at increasing H2O2 concentrations and elevated processing temperatures, implying a balance in the hole injection and silica dissolution kinetics at the gold-silicon interface. The etching depth decreases and zone roughness increases at the highest investigated H2O2 concentration and temperature. Possible reasons for these observations are discussed based on reaction chemistry and zone plate design. Optimum MACE conditions are found at HFH2O2 concentrations of 4.7 M:0.68 M and room temperature with an etching rate of ≈0.7 μm min-1, which is about an order of magnitude higher than previous reports. Moreover, our results show that a grid catalyst design is important for successful fabrication of vertical high aspect ratio silicon nanostructures. 

  • 8.
    Akan, Rabia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Parfeniukas, Karolis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics. KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Vogt, Carmen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Toprak, Muhammet S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Vogt, Ulrich
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Reaction control of metal-assisted chemical etching for silicon-based zone plate nanostructuresManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) reaction parameters were investigated for the fabrication of specially designed silicon-based x-ray zone plate nanostructures using a gold catalyst pattern and etching solutions composed of HF and H2O2. Etching depth, zone verticality and zone roughness were studied as a function of etching solution composition, temperature and processing time. Homogeneous, vertical etching with increasing depth is observed at increasing H2O2 concentrations and elevated processing temperatures, implying a balance in the hole injection and silica dissolution kinetics at the gold-silicon interface. The etching depth decreases and zone roughness increases at the highest investigated H2O2 concentration and temperature. Possible reasons for these observations are discussed based on reaction chemistry and zone plate design. Optimum MACE conditions are found at HF:H2O2 concentrations of 4.7 M:0.68 M and room temperature with an etching rate of 0.7 micrometers per minute, which is about an order of magnitude higher than previous reports. Moreover, our results show that a grid catalyst design is important for successful fabrication of vertical high aspect ratio silicon nanostructures.

  • 9.
    Akkuratov, Evgeny E.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biophysics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. St Petersburg State Univ, Inst Translat Biomed, St Petersburg, Russia.
    Gelfand, Mikhail S.
    Skolkovo Inst Sci & Technol, Ctr Data Intens Biomed & Biotechnol, Moscow, Russia.;Russian Acad Sci, Inst Informat Transmiss Problems, Moscow, Russia.;Natl Res Univ, Higher Sch Econ, Fac Comp Sci, Moscow, Russia.;MM Lomonosov Moscow State Univ, Dept Bioengn & Bioinformat, Moscow, Russia..
    Khrameeva, Ekaterina E.
    Skolkovo Inst Sci & Technol, Ctr Data Intens Biomed & Biotechnol, Moscow, Russia.;Russian Acad Sci, Inst Informat Transmiss Problems, Moscow, Russia..
    Neanderthal and Denisovan ancestry in Papuans: A functional study2018In: Journal of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, ISSN 0219-7200, E-ISSN 1757-6334, Vol. 16, no 2, article id 1840011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sequencing of complete nuclear genomes of Neanderthal and Denisovan stimulated studies about their relationship with modern humans demonstrating, in particular, that DNA alleles from both Neanderthal and Denisovan genomes are present in genomes of modern humans. The Papuan genome is a unique object because it contains both Neanderthal and Denisovan alleles. Here, we have shown that the Papuan genomes contain different gene functional groups inherited from each of the ancient people. The Papuan genomes demonstrate a relative prevalence of Neanderthal alleles in genes responsible for the regulation of transcription and neurogenesis. The enrichment of specific functional groups with Denisovan alleles is less pronounced; these groups are responsible for bone and tissue remodeling. This analysis shows that introgression of alleles from Neanderthals and Denisovans to Papuans occurred independently and retention of these alleles may carry specific adaptive advantages.

  • 10.
    Akpe, Victor
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics.
    Photophysical and Chemical Approaches to Cellular Biophysics2008Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The central theme in this thesis is reversibility. Two main attempts has been made to approach reversibility in cellular systems from both chemical and physical points of view. Reversibility of immunolabeling of proteins on the cell surface has been adressed by development of new fluorescent substances optimized for CALI (Chromophore-Assisted Laser Inactivation of protein). Aluminum phthalocyanine (AlPc) is here identified to be a good candidate for a new generation of fluorophores for efficient hydroxyl radical generation. It is shown that cells can be reversibly labeled with antibody-AlPc conjugates. In experiments on living cells the AlPcs were not only active as classic fluorophores but also as photocatalytic substances with destaining properties. Reversibility of cell immobilization is also reported, where cells cultured in microstructures were immobilized and 3D supported using hydrogels. Hydrogel formulation and application was optimized to achieve a system where both viability and ease of use was satisfied. Gel reversibility was actualized with pH and enzyme treatment. The developped method offers the possibility of stop flow culturing cells in controlled and reusable 3D environments.

  • 11.
    Akpe, Victor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics.
    Brismar, Hjalmar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics.
    Nyokong, Tebello
    Osadebe, P. O.
    Photophysical and photochemical parameters of octakis (benzylthio) phthalocyaninato zinc, aluminium and tin: Red shift index concept in solvent effect on the ground state absorption of zinc phthalocyanine derivatives2010In: Journal of Molecular Structure, ISSN 0022-2860, E-ISSN 1872-8014, Vol. 984, no 1-3, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the synthesis of octa-substituted benzylthio metallophthalocyanines (OBTMPcs) that contain the central metal ions of Zn2+, Al3+ and Sn4+. The ground state absorption of ZnPc(SR)(8) (OBTZnPc) along with the ZnPc derivatives, well documented in literature were used to study a new concept called the red shift index (RsI). The concept is based on the empirical values of RsI of the different complexes in solvent media. Unequivocally, parameters used in this paper show strong correlations that are consistent with the results obtained. For instance, 12,1 of the complexes tend to increase as the refractive index, n(D), and solvent donor, DN, of solvent increases. Photodegradation (photobleaching) quantum yield, phi(d) measurements of these compounds show that they are highly photostable, phi(d) (0.03-0.33 x 10(-5)). The triplet quantum yield, phi(T) (0.40-0.53) and the triplet lifetime, tau(T) (610-810 mu s) are within the typical range for metallophthalocyanines in DMSO. The photosensitisation efficiency. S-Delta, is relatively high for all the molecules (0.74-0.90). (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Akpe, Victor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics.
    Nyokong, Tebello
    Brismar, Hjalmar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics.
    Photophysics and photochemistry of zinc, aluminium and tin octakis (benzylthio) phthalocyanines2008Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Akpe, Victor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics.
    Ogunsipe, Abimbola
    Madu, Christian
    Brismar, Hjalmar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics.
    Red-Shift Index Concept in Solvent Effects of Chromophore-Substituted Metallophthalocyanines: A Look at the Empirical Relationship of the Macroscopic Properties of the Solute-Solvent Interactions2015In: Journal of Solution Chemistry, ISSN 0095-9782, E-ISSN 1572-8927, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 307-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solvent effects on the UV/vis spectra of metallopthalocyanines (MPcs) have been interpreted using the red-shift index concept (R (s) I). The concept connects empirically, direct, experimental, easily accessible optical spectral data, which are explained by considering the differential behavior of the solute-solvent interactions at the ground state and excited state using the spectral values of MPcs along with the derived concept, called the associated solvation energy (ASE). R (s) I is formulated from three fundamental parameters, which are: ground state electronic absorption spectrum, polarization red-shift and a scaling factor of MPc (N (dye)) in the respective solvents. The R (s) I is a reflection of the index value of the chromophore substituent of MPc in the solvent; thus, the concept can be used as a solvatochromic parameter to study a wide range of supramolecular and heterocyclic compounds that can be modified at their periphery or 'handles'. Particularly, in this study, the concept has been used to rank MPc candidates by using the statistical mean performance of the solvatochromic parameters, which are red shift index, polarizability efficiency and ASE. We hereby review the solvent effects on the UV/vis spectra of substituted and unsubstituted MPcs.

  • 14.
    Akpe, Victor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics.
    Vernet, Erik
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Molecular Biotechnology.
    Gräslund, Torbjörn
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Molecular Biotechnology.
    Brismar, Hjalmar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics.
    Characterization studies of aluminum phthalocyanine binding to antibodies from SKBR 3 cell line2008Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Akpe, Victor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Vernet, Erik
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Protein Technology.
    Madu, Christian
    Obirai, Joseph C.
    Brismar, Hjalmar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics.
    Understanding the Photochemical Pathway of In Vitro Target Delivery of Aluminium Phthalocyanine: A Mechanistic Approach Using Radical Reaction Chemistry2014In: ChemPlusChem, ISSN 2192-6506, Vol. 79, no 5, p. 671-679Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A classical dye, aluminium phthalocyanine (AlPc), is used to study the photochemical processes involved in the chromophore-assisted laser inactivation technique. Both cell-free and cell-based systems are investigated by novel methods and radical reaction chemistry. Findings on the photochemical pathways in two models representing cell-free and a cell-based systems are reported. In the cell-free system, the unsubstituted, free, fluorescence-active photosensitiser AlPc recovers its fluorescence signal by means of phosphorescence through a reversible photobleaching process. In the cell-based system, photoactivation of substituted AlPc conjugated to an antibody results in the loss of fluorescence signal at the area examined. Reinjection of the AlPc-conjugated antibodies restores the fluorescence signal.

  • 16.
    Aktas, O.
    et al.
    Univ Southampton, Optoelect Res Ctr, Southampton SO17 1BJ, Hants, England..
    Ren, H.
    Univ Southampton, Optoelect Res Ctr, Southampton SO17 1BJ, Hants, England..
    Runge, A. F. J.
    Univ Southampton, Optoelect Res Ctr, Southampton SO17 1BJ, Hants, England..
    Peacock, A. C.
    Univ Southampton, Optoelect Res Ctr, Southampton SO17 1BJ, Hants, England..
    Hawkins, T.
    Clemson Univ, COMSET, Clemson, SC 29634 USA.;Clemson Univ, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Clemson, SC 29634 USA..
    Ballato, J.
    Clemson Univ, COMSET, Clemson, SC 29634 USA.;Clemson Univ, Dept Mat Sci & Engn, Clemson, SC 29634 USA..
    Gibson, U. J.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics. Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Phys, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Interfacing Telecom Fibers and Silicon Core Fibers with Nano-Spikes for In-Fiber Silicon Devices2018In: 2018 Optical Fiber Communications Conference and Exposition, OFC 2018 - Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report fabrication of tapered silicon core fibers with nano-spikes enabling efficient optical coupling into the core, as well as their seamless integration with single mode fibers. A proof-of-concept integrated in-fiber silicon device is demonstrated.

  • 17. Aktas, O.
    et al.
    Ren, H.
    Runge, A. F. J.
    Peacock, A. C.
    Hawkins, T.
    Ballato, J.
    Gibson, Ursula J.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Interfacing telecom fibers and silicon core fibers with nano-spikes for in-fiber silicon devices2018In: Optics InfoBase Conference Papers, Optics Info Base, Optical Society of America, 2018, article id u12d3i3mConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report fabrication of tapered silicon core fibers with nano-spikes enabling efficient optical coupling into the core, as well as their seamless integration with single mode fibers. A proof-of-concept integrated in-fiber silicon device is demonstrated. © OSA 2018.

  • 18.
    Al-attar, N.
    et al.
    Iraq.
    Al-Shammari, R. M.
    Ireland.
    Manzo, Michele
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Gallo, Katia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Rodriguez, B. J.
    Ireland.
    Rice, J. H.
    Ireland.
    Wide-field surface-enhanced Raman scattering from ferroelectrically defined Au nanoparticle microarrays for optical sensing2018In: Optics InfoBase Conference Papers, OSA - The Optical Society , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The acquisition-time in optical sensors using SERS is vital value. Wide-field SERS is used to perform high-density of hot-spots of GNPs photodeposition on a periodically-protonexchanged- LiNbO3 which, leads to increase the sensitivity at ultralow probe concentrations.

  • 19.
    Alcusa-Saez, E. P.
    et al.
    ICMUV, Dept Fis Aplicada & Electromagnetismo, Dr Moliner 50, Burjassot 46100, Spain..
    Diez, A.
    ICMUV, Dept Fis Aplicada & Electromagnetismo, Dr Moliner 50, Burjassot 46100, Spain..
    Margulis, W.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics. Acreo AB, Dept Fiber Photon, Elect 236, S-16440 Kista, Sweden..
    Norin, L.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics. Acreo AB, Dept Fiber Photon, Elect 236, S-16440 Kista, Sweden..
    Andres, M. V.
    ICMUV, Dept Fis Aplicada & Electromagnetismo, Dr Moliner 50, Burjassot 46100, Spain..
    Acousto-optic interaction in polyimide coated optical fibers2017In: 2017 CONFERENCE ON LASERS AND ELECTRO-OPTICS EUROPE & EUROPEAN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS CONFERENCE (CLEO/EUROPE-EQEC), IEEE , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20. Alcusa-Saez, E. P.
    et al.
    Diez, A.
    Rivera-Perez, E.
    Margulis, Walter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Norin, Lars
    ACREO.
    Andres, M. V.
    Acousto-optic interaction in polyimide coated optical fibers with flexural waves2017In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 25, no 15, p. 17167-17173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acousto-optic coupling in polyimide-coated single-mode optical fibers using flexural elastic waves is demonstrated. The effect of the polyimide coating on the acoustooptic interaction process is analyzed in detailed. Theoretical and experimental results are in good agreement. Although the elastic attenuation is significant, we show that acousto-optic coupling can be produced with a reasonably good efficiency. To our knowledge, it is the first experimental demonstration of acousto-optic coupling in optical fibers with robust protective coating.

  • 21. Alcusa-Saez, E. P.
    et al.
    Diez, A.
    Rivera-Perez, E.
    Margulis, Walter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Norin, Lars
    Andres, M. V.
    All-fiber acousto-optic tunable filter in polyimide coated optical fibers2017In: 2017 19th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), IEEE Computer Society, 2017, article id 8025093Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the experimental demonstration of in-fiber acousto-optic coupling in a polyimide-coated optical fiber. Although the presence of the polyimide coating increases is significantly the attenuation of the acoustic wave, we show that acousto-optic interaction can still be produced with reasonable efficiency. The effect of the polyimide coating on the acousto-optic interaction process is analyzed in detailed. Theoretical and experimental results are in good agreement. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental demonstration of acousto-optic coupling in optical fibers with robust protective coating.

  • 22. Alcusa-Sáez, E. P.
    et al.
    Di´ez, A.
    Margulis, Walter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Norin, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Andre´s, M. V.
    Acousto-optic interaction in polyimide coated optical fibers2017In: Optics InfoBase Conference Papers, OSA - The Optical Society , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23. Al-Hinai, Muna H.
    et al.
    Sathe, Priyanka
    Al-Abri, Mohammed Z.
    Dobretsov, Sergey
    Al-Hinai, Ashraf T.
    Dutta, Joydeep
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Antimicrobial Activity Enhancement of Poly(ether sulfone) Membranes by in Situ Growth of ZnO Nanorods2017In: ACS OMEGA, ISSN 2470-1343, Vol. 2, no 7, p. 3157-3167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Composite poly(ether sulfone) membranes integrated with ZnO nanostructures either directly blended or grown in situ have enhanced antibacterial activity with improved functionality in reducing the biofouling in water treatment applications. The pore structure and surface properties of the composite were studied to investigate the effect of the addition of ZnO nanostructures. The hydrophilicity of the blended membranes increased with a higher content of ZnO nanoparticles in the membrane (2-6%), which could be further controlled by varying the growth conditions of ZnO nanorods on the polymer surface. Improved water flux, bovine serum albumin rejection, and inhibition of Escherichia coli bacterial growth under visible light irradiation was observed for the membranes decorated with ZnO nanorods compared to those in the membranes simply blended with ZnO nanoparticles. No regrowth of E. coli was recorded even 2 days after the incubation.

  • 24.
    Almlöf, Jonas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Quantum error correction2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantum error correction is the art of protecting quantum states from the detrimental influence from the environment. To master this art, one must understand how the system interacts with the environment and gives rise to a full set of quantum phenomena, many of which have no correspondence in classical information theory. Such phenomena include decoherence, an effect that in general destroys superpositions of pure states as a consequence of entanglement with the environment. But decoherence can also be understood as “information leakage”, i.e., when knowledge of an encoded code block is transferred to the environment. In this event, the block’s information or entanglement content is typically lost.

    In a typical scenario, however, not all types of destructive events are likely to occur, but only those allowed by the information carrier, the type of interaction with the environment, and how the environment “picks up” information of the error events. These characteristics can be incorporated into a code, i.e., a channel-adapted quantum error-correcting code.

    Often, it is assumed that the environment’s ability to distinguish between error events is small, and I will denote such environments “memory-less”. But this assumption is not always valid, since the ability to distinguish error events is related to the temperature of the environment, and in the particular case of information coded onto photons, kBTR «ℏω typically holds, and one must then assume that the environment has a “memory”. In the thesis I describe a short quantum error-correction code adapted for photons interacting with a “cold” reservoir, i.e., a reservoir which continuously probes what error occurred in the coded state.

    I also study other types of environments, and show how to distill meaningful figures of merit from codes adapted for these channels, as it turns out that resource-based figures reflecting both information and entanglement can be calculated exactly for a well-studied class of channels: the Pauli channels. Starting from these resource-based figures, I establish the notion of efficiency and quality and show that there will be a trade-off between efficiency and quality for short codes. Finally I show how to incorporate, into these calculations, the choices one has to make when handling quantum states that have been detected as incorrect, but where no prospect of correcting them exists, i.e., so-called detection errors.

  • 25.
    Almlöf, Jonas
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Quantum error correction2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis intends to familiarise the reader with quantum error correction, and also show some relations to the well known concept of information - and the lesser known quantum information. Quantum information describes how information can be carried by quantum states, and how interaction with other systems give rise to a full set of quantum phenomena, many of which have no correspondence in classical information theory. These phenomena include decoherence, as a consequence of entanglement. Decoherence can also be understood as "information leakage", i.e., knowledge of an event is transferred to the reservoir - an effect that in general destroys superpositions of pure states.

    It is possible to protect quantum states (e.g., qubits) from interaction with the environment - but not by amplification or duplication, due to the "no-cloning" theorem. Instead, this is done using coding, non-demolition measurements, and recovery operations. In a typical scenario, however, not all types of destructive events are likely to occur, but only those allowed by the information carrier, the type of interaction with the environment, and how the environment "picks up" information of the error events. These characteristics can be incorporated into a code, i.e., a channel-adapted quantum error-correcting code. Often, it is assumed that the environment's ability to distinguish between error events is small, and I will denote such environments "memory-less".

     This assumption is not always valid, since the ability to distinguish error events is related to the \emph{temperature} of the environment, and in the particular case of information coded onto photons,  typically holds, and one must then assume that the environment has a "memory". In this thesis, I describe a short quantum error-correcting code (QECC), adapted for photons interacting with a cold environment, i.e., this code protects from an environment that continuously records which error occurred in the coded quantum state.

    Also, it is of interest to compare the performance of different QECCs - But which yardstick should one use? We compare two such figures of merit, namely the quantum mutual information and the quantum fidelity, and show that they can not, in general, be simultaneously maximised in an error correcting procedure. To show this, we have used a five-qubit perfect code, but assumed a channel that only cause bit-flip errors. It appears that quantum mutual information is the better suited yardstick of the two, however more tedious to calculate than quantum fidelity - which is more commonly used.

  • 26.
    Almlöf, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Björk, Gunnar G. E.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Fidelity as a figure of merit in quantum error correction2013In: Quantum information & computation, ISSN 1533-7146, Vol. 13, no 1-2, p. 0009-0020Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We discuss the fidelity as a figure of merit in quantum error correction schemes. We show that when identifiable but uncorrectable errors occur as a result of the action of the channel, a common strategy that improves the fidelity actually decreases the transmitted mutual information. The conclusion is that while the fidelity is simple to calculate and therefore often used, it is perhaps not always a recommendable figure of merit for quantum error correction. The reason is that while it roughly speaking encourages optimisation of the "mean probability of success", it gives no incentive for a protocol to indicate exactly where the errors lurk. For small error probabilities, the latter information is more important for the integrity of the information than optimising the mean probability of success.

  • 27.
    Almlöf, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Björk, Gunnar G. E.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    On the efficiency of quantum error correction codes for the depolarising channelManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Al-Naamani, Laila
    et al.
    Sultan Qaboos Univ, Dept Marine Sci & Fisheries, POB 34, Muscat 123, Oman.;Minist Municipal & Water Resources, Muscat 112, Oman..
    Dutta, Joydeep
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Dobretsov, Sergey
    Sultan Qaboos Univ, Dept Marine Sci & Fisheries, POB 34, Muscat 123, Oman.;Sultan Qaboos Univ, Ctr Excellence Marine Biotechnol, POB 50, Muscat 123, Oman..
    Nanocomposite Zinc Oxide-Chitosan Coatings on Polyethylene Films for Extending Storage Life of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus)2018In: NANOMATERIALS, ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 8, no 7, article id 479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficiency of nanocomposite zinc oxide-chitosan antimicrobial polyethylene packaging films for the preservation of quality of vegetables was studied using okra Abelmoschus esculentus. Low density polyethylene films (LDPE) coated with chitosan-ZnO nanocomposites were used for packaging of okra samples stored at room temperature (25 degrees C). Compared to the control sample (no coating), the total bacterial concentrations in the case of chitosan and nanocomposite coatings were reduced by 53% and 63%, respectively. The nanocomposite coating showed a 2-fold reduction in total fungal concentrations in comparison to the chitosan treated samples. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of the nanocomposite coatings for the reduction of fungal and bacterial growth in the okra samples after 12 storage days. The nanocomposite coatings did not affect the quality attributes of the okra, such as pH, total soluble solids, moisture content, and weight loss. This work demonstrates that the chitosan-ZnO nanocomposite coatings not only maintains the quality of the packed okra but also retards microbial and fungal growth. Thus, chitosan-ZnO nanocomposite coating can be used as a potential coating material for active food packaging applications.

  • 29. Al-Sabahi, J.
    et al.
    Bora, T.
    Claereboudt, M.
    Al-Abri, M.
    Dutta, Joydeep
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Visible light photocatalytic degradation of HPAM polymer in oil produced water using supported zinc oxide nanorods2018In: Chemical Engineering Journal, ISSN 1385-8947, E-ISSN 1873-3212, Vol. 351, p. 56-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polymer flooding displacement ability during petroleum extraction from the earth's crust plays an important role in enhanced oil recovery processes. Produced water, as a byproduct, still contain high concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons and partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) which is a serious environmental concern. Remediating produced water economically is a big challenge for meeting the permissible discharge limits leading to failure in the effectiveness of the conventional water treatment technologies. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are playing increasing role in the treatment of polluted water and is receiving much attention in recent times as a green and safer water treatment technology. Here we report a new approach to use vertically aligned zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) supported on substrates engineered for improving their visible light harvesting capacity for effective solar photocatalytic degradation of HPAM. The viscosity of collected oilfield produced water containing HPAM were found to be reduced dramatically when the samples are photocatalytically degraded using ZnO nanorod catalysts irradiated with simulated solar light showing a reduction of 51% within 6 h. With high pressure liquid chromatography 68, 62, 56 and 45% removal of 25, 50, 100 and 150 ppm HPAM, respectively, was demonstrated. The pH of the solution was observed to move to acidic region due to acetamide, nitrate, propionamide and acetic acid which are the intermediate byproducts formed during degradation as determined by mass spectrometry. Zinc oxide nanorod coatings showed about 74% removal efficiency over 5 cycles with less than 1.2% removal of zinc ions after 6 h of light irradiation.

  • 30. Al-Sabahi, Jamal
    et al.
    Bora, Tanujjal
    Al-Abri, Mohammed
    Dutta, Joydeep
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Efficient visible light photocatalysis of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) in aqueous solutions using supported zinc oxide nanorods2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 12, article id e0189276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) are some of the common environmental pollutants originating mainly from oil and gas industries, which are toxic to human as well as other living organisms in the ecosystem. Here we investigate photocatalytic degradation of BTEX under visible light irradiation using supported zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorods grown on glass substrates using a microwave assisted hydrothermal method. ZnO nanorods were characterized by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), specific surface area, UV/visible absorption and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Visible light photocatalytic degradation products of BTEX are studied for individual components using gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). ZnO nanorods with significant amount of electronic defect states, due to the fast crystallization of the nanorods under microwave irradiation, exhibited efficient degradation of BTEX under visible light, degrading more than 80% of the individual BTEX components in 180 minutes. Effect of initial concentration of BTEX as individual components is also probed and the photocatalytic activity of the ZnO nanorods in different conditions is explored. Formation of intermediate byproducts such as phenol, benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde and benzoic acid were confirmed by our HPLC analysis which could be due to the photocatalytic degradation of BTEX. Carbon dioxide was evaluated and showed an increasing pattern over time indicating the mineralization process confirming the conversion of toxic organic compounds into benign products.

  • 31. Al-Shammari, R. M.
    et al.
    Alattar, N.
    Manzo, Michele
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Gallo, Katia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Laser Physics.
    Rodriguez, B. J.
    Rice, J. H.
    Label-free cell membrane detection by Raman spectroscopy using biocompatible gold nanostructure microscale arrays on a ferroelectric template2017In: Optics InfoBase Conference Papers, OSA - The Optical Society , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Al-Shammari, Rusul M.
    et al.
    Univ Coll Dublin, Sch Phys, Dublin D04 N2E5, Ireland.;Univ Coll Dublin, Conway Inst Biomol & Biomed Res, Dublin D04 N2E5, Ireland..
    Al-Attar, Nebras
    Univ Coll Dublin, Sch Phys, Dublin D04 N2E5, Ireland.;Univ Technol Baghdad, Laser & Optoelect Engn Dept, Baghdad 10066, Iraq..
    Manzo, Michele
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Gallo, Katia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Rodriguez, Brian J.
    Univ Coll Dublin, Sch Phys, Dublin D04 N2E5, Ireland.;Univ Coll Dublin, Conway Inst Biomol & Biomed Res, Dublin D04 N2E5, Ireland..
    Rice, James H.
    Univ Coll Dublin, Sch Phys, Dublin D04 N2E5, Ireland..
    Single-Molecule Nonresonant Wide-Field Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering from Ferroelectrically Defined Au Nanoparticle Microarrays2018In: ACS OMEGA, ISSN 2470-1343, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 3165-3172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Single-molecule detection by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a powerful spectroscopic technique that is of interest for the sensor development field. An important aspect of optimizing the materials used in SERS-based sensors is the ability to have a high density of "hot spots" that enhance the SERS sensitivity to the single-molecule level. Photodeposition of gold (Au) nanoparticles through electric-field-directed self-assembly on a periodically proton-exchanged lithium niobate (PPELN) substrate provides conditions to form well-ordered microscale features consisting of closely packed Au nanoparticles. The resulting Au nanoparticle microstructure arrays (microarrays) are plasmon-active and support nonresonant single-molecule SERS at ultralow concentrations (<10(-9)-10(-13) M) with excitation power densities <1 x 10(-3) W cm(-2) using wide-field imaging. The microarrays offer excellent SERS reproducibility, with an intensity variation of <7.5% across the substrate. As most biomarkers and molecules do not support resonance enhancement, this work demonstrates that PPELN is a suitable template for high-sensitivity, nonresonant sensing applications.

  • 33. Al-Shammari, Rusul M.
    et al.
    Baghban, Mohammad Amin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Al-attar, Nebras
    Gowen, Aoife
    Gallo, Katia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Rice, James H.
    Rodriguez, Brian J.
    Photoinduced Enhanced Raman from Lithium Niobate on Insulator Template2018In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 10, no 36, p. 30871-30878Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photoinduced enhanced Raman spectroscopy from a lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI)−silver nanoparticle template is demonstrated both by irradiating the template with 254 nm ultraviolet (UV) light before adding an analyte and before placing the substrate in the Raman system (substrate irradiation) and by irradiating the sample in the Raman system after adding the molecule (sample irradiation). The photoinduced enhancement enables up to an ∼sevenfold increase of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering signal strength of an analyte following substrate irradiation, whereas an ∼threefold enhancement above the surface-enhanced signal is obtained for sample irradiation. The photoinduced enhancement relaxes over the course of ∼10 h for a substrate irradiation duration of 150 min before returning to initial signal levels. The increase in Raman scattering intensity following UV irradiation is attributed to photoinduced charge transfer from the LNOI template to the analyte. New Raman bands are observed following UV irradiation, the appearance of which is suggestive of a photocatalytic reaction and highlight the potential of LNOI as a photoactive surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrate.

  • 34. Al-Shammari, Rusul M.
    et al.
    Manzo, Michele
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Gallo, Katia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Rice, James H.
    Rodriguez, Brian J.
    Tunable Wettability of Ferroelectric Lithium Niobate Surfaces: The Role of Engineered Microstructure and Tailored Metallic Nanostructures2017In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 121, no 12, p. 6643-6649Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important aspect of optimizing micro- and optofluidic devices for lab on -a-chip systems is the ability to engineer materials properties including surface structure and charge to control wettability. Biocompatible ferroelectric lithium niobate (LN), which is well-known for acoustic and nonlinear optical applications, has recently found potential micro- and optofluidic applications. However, the tunable wettability of such substrates has yet to be explored in detail. Here, we show that the contact angle of LN substrates can be reproducibly tailored between similar to 7 degrees and similar to 421 degrees by controlling the surface topography and chemistry at the nano- and micrometer scale via ferroelectric domain and polarization engineering and polarization-directed photoassisted deposition of metallic nanostructures.

  • 35.
    Alvelid, Jonatan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Investigation of the Photophysical Properties of Quantum Dots for Super-Resolution Imaging2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 36. Amaya, Andrew J.
    et al.
    Pathak, Harshad
    Modak, Viraj P.
    Laksmono, Hartawan
    Loh, N. Duane
    Sellberg, Jonas A.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Sierra, Raymond G.
    McQueen, Trevor A.
    Hayes, Matt J.
    Williams, Garth J.
    Messerschmidt, Marc
    Boutet, Sebastien
    Bogan, Michael J.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Stan, Claudiu A.
    Wyslouzil, Barbara E.
    How Cubic Can Ice Be?2017In: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, ISSN 1948-7185, E-ISSN 1948-7185, Vol. 8, no 14, p. 3216-3222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using an X-ray laser, we investigated the crystal structure of ice formed by homogeneous ice nucleation in deeply supercooled water nanodrops (r approximate to 10 nm) at similar to 225 K The nanodrops were formed by condensation of vapor in a supersonic nozzle, and the ice was probed within 100 mu s of freezing using femtosecond wide-angle X-ray scattering at the Linac Coherent Light Source free-electron X-ray laser. The X-ray diffraction spectra indicate that this ice has a metastable, predominantly cubic structure; the shape of the first ice diffraction peak suggests stacking-disordered ice with a cubicity value, chi, in the range of 0.78 +/- 0.05. The cubicity value determined here is higher than those determined in experiments with micron-sized drops but comparable to those found in molecular dynamics simulations. The high cubicity is most likely caused by the extremely low freezing temperatures and by the rapid freezing, which occurs on a similar to 1 mu s time scale in single nanodroplets.

  • 37.
    Anand, Srinivasan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Desieres, Y.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics. CEA LETI MINATEC, Grenoble, France.
    Visser, D.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Chen, D-Y
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Optical Coatings and Films Based on Photonic Semiconductor Nanostructure Assemblies2017In: 2017 19TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON TRANSPARENT OPTICAL NETWORKS (ICTON), IEEE , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photonic semiconductor nanostructure assemblies offer unique possibilities for light manipulation as well as for tailoring light-matter interaction by appropriate choice of their geometrical and material properties. The material-structure combination offers a variety of options for wavelength specific applications, deriving from the electronic properties of semiconductors and optical properties of individual and assemblies of nanostructures (particles, disks, pillars/wires etc.). We present an overview of our research on optical coatings based on semiconductor nanostructure assemblies focusing on their optical properties, different fabrication technologies and selected application examples. Design and simulations of the optical coatings are performed by finite difference time domain calculations, and are used as a guideline for fabrication. We discuss different routes for fabrication of nanostructured optical films/coatings including directed assembly and patterning of nanoparticles from solution phase, solution synthesis, combination of dry etching and colloidal lithography, transfer printing, and generation of flexible polymer films with embedded nanostructures. The fabricated films are validated by optical measurements and some device specific properties such as omni-directional broad-band anti-reflection in solar cells and efficient light extraction in light emitting diodes are demonstrated.

  • 38.
    Andersson, Gustav
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Circuit quantum electrodynamics with a transmon qubit in a 3D cavity2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 39.
    Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Material- och nanofysik.
    Delin, Anna
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Material- och nanofysik.
    A quality process for assessing mathematics in a study programme2018In: Proceedings från 6:e utvecklingskonferensen för Sveriges ingenjörsutbildningar / [ed] Lena Petersson, Kristina Edström, Oskar Gedda, Fredrik Georgsson, Liselott Lycke och Marie Arehag, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present two methodologies to assess the use of mathematics in a study programme. Firstly, we use a relatively simple methodology to assess how students show their ability to use mathematics in their degree project reports. Secondly, we present a methodology to assess how mathematics is used during a study programme. We have applied the first methodology on the mathematics content in 114 randomly chosen bachelor degree reports from 6 different study programmes within the fields of electrical engineering and computer engineering at KTH. For the 3-year bachelor degree programmes in computer engineering, we find clear deficits in the way students use mathematics in their bachelor degree reports as compared to the other programmes in our study. Through the second methodology, we were able to relate the deficits in the bachelor degree reports to a programme structure where skills in mathematics have not been sufficiently demanded in the engineering courses of the programme. 

  • 40.
    Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Theoretical Physics, Theoretical & Computational Biophysics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Mattle, Daniel
    Sitsel, Oleg
    Nielsen, Anna Marie
    Lindahl, Erik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    White, Stephen H.
    Nissen, Poul
    Gourdon, Pontus
    Transport Pathway in Cu+ P-Type ATPases2014In: Biophysical Journal, ISSN 0006-3495, E-ISSN 1542-0086, Vol. 106, no 2, p. 427A-427AArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Andersson, Mauritz
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Berglind, Eilert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Björk, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Quantum Electronics and Quantum Optics, QEO.
    Orbital angular momentum modes do not increase the channel capacity in communication links2015In: New Journal of Physics, ISSN 1367-2630, E-ISSN 1367-2630, Vol. 17, article id 043040Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The orbital momentum of optical or radio waves can be used as a degree of freedom to transmit information. However, mainly for technical reasons, this degree of freedom has not been widely used in communication channels. The question is if this degree of freedom opens up a new, hitherto unused 'communication window' supporting 'an infinite number of channels in a given, fixed bandwidth' in free space communication as has been claimed? We answer this question in the negative by showing that on the fundamental level, the mode density, and thus room for mode multiplexing, is the same for this degree of freedom as for sets of modes lacking angular momentum. In addition we show that modes with angular momentum are unsuitable for broadcasting applications due to excessive crosstalk or a poor signal-to-noise ratio.

  • 42.
    Andersson, Petter
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Measuring a three-dimensional parabolic flow profile inside a microchannel using the General defocusing particle tracking laboratory2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 43.
    Andersson, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Nanostructure Physics.
    Spin-diode effect and thermally controlled switching in magnetic spin-valves2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis demonstrates two new device concepts that are based on the tunneling and giant magnetoresistance effects. The first is a semiconductor-free asymmetric magnetic double tunnel junction that is shown to work as a diode, while at the same time exhibiting a record high magnetoresistance. It is experimentally verified that a diode effect, with a rectification ratio of at least 100, can be obtained in this type of system, and that a negative magnetoresistance of nearly 4000% can be measured at low temperature. The large magnetoresistance is attributed to spin resonant tunneling, where the parallel and antiparallel orientation of the magnetic moments shifts the energy levels in the middle electrode, thereby changing their alignment with the conduction band in the outer electrodes. This resonant tunneling can be useful when scaling down magnetic random access memory; eliminating the need to use external diodes or transistors in series with each bit.

    The second device concept is a thermally controlled spin-switch; a novel way to control the free-layer switching and magnetoresistance in spin-valves. By exchange coupling two ferromagnetic films through a weakly ferromagnetic Ni-Cu alloy, the coupling is controlled by changes in temperature. At room temperature, the alloy is weakly ferromagnetic and the two films are exchange coupled through the alloy. At a temperature higher than the Curie point, the alloy is paramagnetic and the two strongly ferromagnetic films decouple. Using this technique, the read out signal from a giant magnetoresistance element is controlled using both external heating and internal Joule heating. No degradation of device performance upon thermal cycling is observed. The change in temperature for a full free-layer reversal is shown to be 35 degrees Celsius for the present Ni-Cu alloy. It is predicted that this type of switching theoretically can lead to high frequency oscillations in current, voltage, and temperature, where the frequency is controlled by an external inductor or capacitor. This can prove to be useful for applications such as voltage controlled oscillators in, for example, frequency synthesizers and function generators. Several ways to optimize the thermally controlled spin switch are discussed and conceptually demonstrated with experiments.

  • 44.
    Andersson, Sebastian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Nanostructure Physics.
    Korenivski, Vladislav
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Nanostructure Physics.
    Exchange coupling and magnetoresistance in CoFe/NiCu/CoFe spin valves near the Curie point of the spacer2010In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 107, no 9, p. 09D711-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal control of exchange coupling between two strongly ferromagnetic layers through a weakly ferromagnetic Ni-Cu spacer and the associated magnetoresistance is investigated. The spacer, having a Curie point slightly above room temperature, can be cycled between its paramagnetic and ferromagnetic states by varying the temperature externally or using joule heating. It is shown that the giant magnetoresistance vanishes due to a strong reduction in the mean free path in the spacer at above similar to 30% Ni concentration-before the onset of ferromagnetism. Finally, a device is proposed which combines thermally controlled exchange coupling and large magnetoresistance by separating the switching and the readout elements.

  • 45.
    Andersson, Sebastian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Nanostructure Physics.
    Korenivski, Vladislav
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Nanostructure Physics.
    Thermoelectrically Controlled Spin-Switch2010In: IEEE transactions on magnetics, ISSN 0018-9464, E-ISSN 1941-0069, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 2140-2143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The search for novel spintronic devices brings about new ways to control switching in magnetic thin-films. In this work we experimentally demonstrate a device based on thermoelectrically controlled exchange coupling. The read out signal from a giant magnetoresistance element is controlled by exchange coupling through a weakly ferromagnetic Ni-Cu alloy. This exchange coupling is shown to vary strongly with changes in temperature, and both internal Joule heating and external heating is used to demonstrate magnetic switching. The device shows no degradation upon thermal cycling. Ways to further optimize the device performance are discussed. Our experimental results show a new way to thermoelectrically control magnetic switching in multilayers.

  • 46. Andreoni, Alessio
    et al.
    Sen, Saptaswa
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics. Leiden Institute of Physics, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon
    Buma, Wybren J.
    Aartsma, Thijs J.
    Canters, Gerard W.
    Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy of Labeled Azurin Reveals Photoinduced Electron Transfer between Label and Cu Center2018In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 646-654Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluorescent labeling of biomacromolecules enjoys increasing popularity for structural, mechanistic, and microscopic investigations. Its success hinges on the ability of the dye to alternate between bright and dark states. Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is an important source of fluorescence modulation. Photo-induced electron transfer (PET) may occur as well, but is often considered only when donor and acceptor are in van der Waals contact. In this study, PET is shown between a label and redox centers in oxidoreductases, which may occur over large distances. In the small blue copper protein azurin, labeled with ATTO655, PET is observed when the label is at 18.5 angstrom, but not when it is at 29.1 angstrom from the Cu. For Cu-II, PET from label to Cu occurs at a rate of (4.8 +/- 0.3) x 10(4) s(-1) and back at (0.7 +/- 0.1) x 10(3) s(-1). With Cu-I the numbers are (3.3 +/- 0.7) x 10(6) s(-1) and (1.0 +/- 0.1) x 10(4) s(-1). Reorganization energies and electronic coupling elements are in the range of 0.8-1.2 eV and 0.02-0.5 cm(-1), respectively. These data are compatible with electron transfer (ET) along a through-bond pathway although transient complex formation followed by ET cannot be ruled out. The outcome of this study is a useful guideline for experimental designs in which oxidoreductases are labelled with fluorescent dyes, with particular attention to single molecule investigations. The labelling position for FRET can be optimized to avoid reactions like PET by evaluating the structure and thermodynamics of protein and label.

  • 47.
    Andrews, Adam
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Design av laborationsstudie: UNDERSÖKNING AV ELEKTROMAGNETISM OCH INDUKTION2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this project was to design an experimental study for students studying the course Classical Physics at KTH. In order to understand what the new labs needed to improve upon a survey investigation was conducted amongst the students studying this year's course on Classical Physics. The new study is planned to replace the current "RL-labben" and thus will focus on the area of electromagnetism. The central equipment was chosen to be a commercial induction cooker with which the students will investigate several electromagnetic phenomena. The lab instructions were divided into three sections, where the first and the third section dealt with physical understanding of the equipment and the second part handled lab data analysis. The results from the survey investigation showed that pupils wished to see clearer lab instructions and more preparatory exercises, amongst other points. The evaluation of the project mentioned some issues with the survey investigation as well as strengths and weaknesses of the laboratory study.

  • 48. Aperia, Anita Chatarina
    et al.
    Akkuratov, Evgeny E
    Fontana, Jacopo Maria
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics.
    Brismar, Hjalmar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics.
    Na+, K+-ATPase, a new class of plasma membrane receptors2016In: American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology, ISSN 0363-6143, E-ISSN 1522-1563, Vol. 310, no 7, p. C491-C495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Na(+), K(+)-ATPase (NKA) differs from most other ion transporters not only in its capacity to maintain a steep electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane but also as a receptor for a family of cardiotonic steroids, to which ouabain belongs. Studies from many groups, performed during the last fifteen years, have demonstrated that ouabain, a member of the cardiotonic steroid family, can activate a network of signaling molecules and that NKA will also serve as a signal transducer that can provide a feed back loop between NKA and the mitochondria. This brief review summarizes the current knowledge and controversies with regard to the understanding of NKA signaling.

  • 49.
    Apostolakis, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Voltage K+ Channel Modulation by Resin Acid Derivatives: A Computational Approach to Characterize the Molecular Determinants of Binding2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 50.
    Apostolakis, Panagiotis
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics.
    Voltage K+ Channel Modulation by Resin Acid Derivatives: A Computational Approach to Characterize the Molecular Determinants of Binding2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
1234567 1 - 50 of 2310
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