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  • 1.
    Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Theoretical Physics, Theoretical & Computational Biophysics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Mattle, Daniel
    Sitsel, Oleg
    Nielsen, Anna Marie
    Lindahl, Erik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    White, Stephen H.
    Nissen, Poul
    Gourdon, Pontus
    Transport Pathway in Cu+ P-Type ATPases2014In: Biophysical Journal, ISSN 0006-3495, E-ISSN 1542-0086, Vol. 106, no 2, p. 427A-427AArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 2. Bagawath-Singh, Sunitha
    et al.
    Staaf, Elina
    Stoppelenburg, Arie Jan
    Spielmann, Thiemo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Kambayashi, Taku
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Johansson, Sofia
    Cytokines Induce Faster Membrane Diffusion of MHC Class I and the Ly49A Receptor in a Subpopulation of Natural Killer Cells2016In: Frontiers in Immunology, ISSN 1664-3224, E-ISSN 1664-3224, Vol. 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cytokines have the potential to drastically augment immune cell activity. Apart from altering the expression of a multitude of proteins, cytokines also affect immune cell dynamics. However, how cytokines affect the molecular dynamics within the cell membrane of immune cells has not been addressed previously. Molecular movement is a vital component of all biological processes, and the rate of motion is, thus, an inherent determining factor for the pace of such processes. Natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes, which belong to the innate immune system. By fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we investigated the influence of cytokine stimulation on the membrane density and molecular dynamics of the inhibitory receptor Ly49A and its ligand, the major histocompatibility complex class I allele H-2D(d), in freshly isolated murine NK cells. H-2D(d) was densely expressed and diffused slowly in resting NK cells. Ly49A was expressed at a lower density and diffused faster. The diffusion rate in resting cells was not altered by disrupting the actin cytoskeleton. A short-term stimulation with interleukin-2 or interferon- alpha + beta did not change the surface density of moving H-2D(d) or Ly49A, despite a slight upregulation at the cellular level of H-2D(d) by interferon-alpha + beta, and of Ly49A by IL-2. However, the molecular diffusion rates of both H-2D(d) and Ly49A increased significantly. A multivariate analysis revealed that the increased diffusion was especially marked in a subpopulation of NK cells, where the diffusion rate was increased around fourfold compared to resting NK cells. After IL-2 stimulation, this subpopulation of NK cells also displayed lower density of Ly49A and higher brightness per entity, indicating that Ly49A may homo-cluster to a larger extent in these cells. A faster diffusion of inhibitory receptors could enable a faster accumulation of these molecules at the immune synapse with a target cell, eventually leading to a more efficient NK cell response. It has previously been assumed that cytokines regulate immune cells primarily via alterations of protein expression levels or posttranslational modifications. These findings suggest that cytokines may also modulate immune cell efficiency by increasing the molecular dynamics early on in the response.

  • 3.
    Bergstrand, Jan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Rönnlund, Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Wennmalm, Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Scanning inverse fluorescence correlation spectroscopy2014In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 22, no 11, p. 13073-13090Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scanning Inverse Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (siFCS) is introduced to determine the absolute size of nanodomains on surfaces. We describe here equations for obtaining the domain size from cross-and auto-correlation functions, measurement simulations which enabled testing of these equations, and measurements on model surfaces mimicking membranes containing nanodomains. Using a confocal microscope of 270 nm resolution the size of 250 nm domains were estimated by siFCS to 257 +/- 12 nm diameter, and 40 nm domains were estimated to 65 +/- 26 nm diameter. Applications of siFCS for sizing of nanodomains and protein clusters in cell membranes are discussed.

  • 4.
    Bertilson, Michael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    von Hofsten, Olof
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Vogt, Ulrich
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Holmberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    Hertz, Hans M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics.
    High-resolution computed tomography with a compact soft x-ray microscope2009In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 17, no 13, p. 11057-11065Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computed tomography based on high-resolution soft x-ray microscopy utilizes the natural contrast for biological specimens provided by the water window (lambda = 2.4 - 4.4 nm) and the high resolving power of zone plate objectives. It is capable of revealing the 3D structure of biological specimens at sub-visible-microscopic resolution. To date, the technique has only been available at synchrotron-based microscopes, which limits the researchers access. In the present paper we demonstrate high-resolution soft x-ray tomography with a laboratory zone-plate-based soft x-ray microscope. The specimen, a diatom mounted on a glass capillary, was reconstructed from a tilt series of 53 images covering 180 using a filtered back projection algorithm. The resolution of the tomogram was estimated to a half period of 140 nm using a differential-phase-residual method. Cryo-fixation, increased source brightness and extended-depth-of-focus objectives are important for pushing the resolution of compact systems for biological samples.

  • 5.
    Blom, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Chmyrov, Andriy
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Hassler, Kai
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Davis, L.M.
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Triplet-State Investigations of Fluorescent Dyes at Dielectric Interfaces Using Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy2009In: Journal of Physical Chemistry A, ISSN 1089-5639, E-ISSN 1520-5215, Vol. 113, no 19, p. 5554-5566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The triplet-state kinetics of several fluorescent dyes used in ultrasensitive fluorescence microscopy are investigated using total internal reflection fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (TIR-FCS). A theoretical outline of the correlation analysis and the physical aspects of evanescent excitation and fluorescence emission at dielectric interfaces are given. From this analysis, the rates of intersystem crossing and triplet decay are deduced for fluorescein, ATTO 488, rhodamine 110, rhodamine 123, and rhodamine 6G in aqueous buffer solutions. All investigated dyes show slightly higher triplet rates at the dielectric interface compared to bulk solution measurements. We attribute this enhancement to possible modifications of the dyes’ photophysical properties near a dielectric interface. In the case of rhodamine 6G, the impact of changes in the dye concentration, ionic strength of the solvent, and potassium iodide concentration are also investigated. This leads to a better understanding of the influences of dye−dye, dye−solvent, and dye−surface interactions on the increased triplet intersystem crossing and triplet decay rates. The study shows that analysis of triplet-state kinetics by TIR-FCS not only results in a better understanding of how the photophysical properties of the dyes are affected by the presence of an interface, but also provides a means for probing the microenvironment near dielectric interfaces.

  • 6.
    Blom, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Hassler, Kai
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Chmyrov, Andriy
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Electrostatic Interactions of Fluorescent Molecules with Dielectric Interfaces Studied by Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy2010In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1422-0067, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 368-406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrostatic interactions between dielectric surfaces and different fluorophoresused in ultrasensitive fluorescence microscopy are investigated using objective-based TotalInternal Reflection Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (TIR-FCS). The interfacialdynamics of cationic rhodamine 123 and rhodamine 6G, anionic/dianionic fluorescein,zwitterionic rhodamine 110 and neutral ATTO 488 are monitored at various ionic strengthsat physiological pH. As analyzed by means of the amplitude and time-evolution of theautocorrelation function, the fluorescent molecules experience electrostatic attraction orrepulsion at the glass surface depending on their charges. Influences of the electrostaticinteractions are also monitored through the triplet-state population and triplet relaxationtime, including the amount of detected fluorescence or the count-rate-per-moleculeparameter. These TIR-FCS results provide an increased understanding of how fluorophoresare influenced by the microenvironment of a glass surface, and show a promising approachfor characterizing electrostatic interactions at interfaces.

  • 7.
    Blom, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Kastrup, L.
    Eggeling, C.
    Fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy in reduced detection volumes2006In: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, ISSN 1389-2010, E-ISSN 1873-4316, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 51-66Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy is a versatile technique applied to in vitro and in vivo investigations of biochemical processes Such as interactions, mobilities or densities with high specifity and sensitivity. The prerequisite of this dynamical fluorescence technique is to have, at a time, only few fluorescent molecules in the detection volume in order to generate significant fluorescence fluctuations. For Usual confocal fluorescence microscopy this amounts to a useful concentration in the nanomolar range. The concentration of many biomolecules in living cell or on cell membranes is, however, often quite high, usually in the micro- to the millimolar range. To allow fluctuation spectroscopy and track intracellular interaction or localization of single fluorescently labeled biomolecules ill Such crowded environments, development of detection volumes with nanoscale resolution is necessary. As diffraction prevents this in the case of light microscopy, new (non-invasive) optical concepts have been developed. In this mini-review article we present recent advancements, implemented to decrease the detection volume below that of normal fluorescence microscopy. Especially, their combination with fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy is emphasized.

  • 8.
    Blom, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Ronnlund, Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Scott, Lena
    Spicarova, Zuzana
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Bondar, Alexander
    Aperia, Anita
    Brismar, Hjalmar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics.
    Spatial distribution of Na+-K+-ATPase in dendritic spines dissected by nanoscale superresolution STED microscopy2011In: BMC neuroscience (Online), ISSN 1471-2202, E-ISSN 1471-2202, Vol. 12, p. 16-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Na+,K+-ATPase plays an important role for ion homeostasis in virtually all mammalian cells, including neurons. Despite this, there is as yet little known about the isoform specific distribution in neurons. Results: With help of superresolving stimulated emission depletion microscopy the spatial distribution of Na+,K+-ATPase in dendritic spines of cultured striatum neurons have been dissected. The found compartmentalized distribution provides a strong evidence for the confinement of neuronal Na+,K+-ATPase (alpha 3 isoform) in the postsynaptic region of the spine. Conclusions: A compartmentalized distribution may have implications for the generation of local sodium gradients within the spine and for the structural and functional interaction between the sodium pump and other synaptic proteins. Superresolution microscopy has thus opened up a new perspective to elucidate the nature of the physiological function, regulation and signaling role of Na+,K+-ATPase from its topological distribution in dendritic spines.

  • 9.
    Blom, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Rönnlund, Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Scott, L.
    Westin, L.
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Aperia, A.
    Brismar, Hjalmar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Spatial Distribution of DARPP-32 in Dendritic Spines2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 9, p. e75155-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The phosphoprotein DARPP-32 (dopamine and cyclic adenosine 3́, 5́-monophosphate-regulated phosphoprotein, 32 kDa) is an important component in the molecular regulation of postsynaptic signaling in neostriatum. Despite the importance of this phosphoprotein, there is as yet little known about the nanoscale distribution of DARPP-32. In this study we applied superresolution stimulated emission depletion microscopy (STED) to assess the expression and distribution of DARPP-32 in striatal neurons. Primary culture of striatal neurons were immunofluorescently labeled for DARPP-32 with Alexa-594 and for the dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) with atto-647N. Dual-color STED microscopy revealed discrete localizations of DARPP-32 and D1R in the spine structure, with clustered distributions in both head and neck. Dissected spine structures reveal that the DARPP-32 signal rarely overlapped with the D1R signal. The D1R receptor is positioned in an "aggregated" manner primarily in the spine head and to some extent in the neck, while DARPP-32 forms several neighboring small nanoclusters spanning the whole spine structure. The DARPP-32 clusters have a mean size of 52 +/- 6 nm, which is close to the resolution limit of the microscope and corresponds to the physical size of a few individual phosphoprotein immunocomplexes. Dissection of synaptic proteins using superresolution microscopy gives possibilities to reveal in better detail biologically relevant information, as compared to diffraction-limited microscopy. In this work, the dissected postsynaptic topology of the DARPP-32 phosphoprotein provides strong evidence for a compartmentalized and confined distribution in dendritic spines. The protein topology and the relatively low copy number of phosphoprotein provides a conception of DARPP-32's possibilities to fine-tune the regulation of synaptic signaling, which should have an impact on the performance of the neuronal circuits in which it is expressed.

  • 10.
    Blom, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Rönnlund, Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Scott, Lena
    Spicarova, Zuzana
    Rantanen, Ville
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Aperia, Anita
    Brismar, Hjalmar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics.
    Nearest neighbor analysis of dopamine D1 receptors and Na plus -K plus -ATPases in dendritic spines dissected by STED microscopy2012In: Microscopy research and technique (Print), ISSN 1059-910X, E-ISSN 1097-0029, Vol. 75, no 2, p. 220-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Protein localization in dendritic spines is the focus of intense investigations within neuroscience. Applications of super-resolution microscopy to dissect nanoscale protein distributions, as shown in this work with dual-color STED, generate spatial correlation coefficients having quite small values. This means that colocalization analysis to some extent looses part of its correlative impact. In this study we thus introduced nearest neighbor analysis to quantify the spatial relations between two important proteins in neurons, the dopamine D1 receptor and Na+,K+-ATPase. The analysis gave new information on how dense the D1 receptor and Na+,K+-ATPase constituting nanoclusters are located both with respect to the homogenous (self to same) and the heterogeneous (same to other) topology. The STED dissected nanoscale topologies provide evidence for both a joint as well as a separated confinement of the D1 receptor and the Na+,K+-ATPase in the postsynaptic areas of dendritic spines. This confined topology may have implications for generation of local sodium gradients and for structural and functional interactions modulating slow synaptic transmission processes. Microsc. Res. Tech., 2011.

  • 11.
    Blom, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cell Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    STED microscopy: towards broadened use and scope of applications2014In: Current opinion in chemical biology, ISSN 1367-5931, E-ISSN 1879-0402, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 127-133Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High resolution Stimulated Emission Depletion (STED) microscopy has been demonstrated for fundamental studies in cells, living tissue and organisms. Today, a major trend in the STED technique development is to make the instruments simpler and more user-friendly, without compromising performance. This has become possible by new low-cost, turn-key laser technology and by implementing specifically designed phase plates and polarization elements, extending and simplifying the shaping of the laser beam profiles. These simpler and cheaper realizations of STED are now becoming more broadly available. In parallel with the continuous development of sample preparation and fluorophore reporter molecules ultimately setting the limit of the image quality, contrast and resolution, we can thus expect a significant increase in the use of STED, in science as well as for clinical and drug development purposes.

  • 12.
    Blom, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Cellular Biophysics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Stimulated Emission Depletion Microscopy2017In: Chemical Reviews, ISSN 0009-2665, E-ISSN 1520-6890, Vol. 117, no 11, p. 7377-7427Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite its short history, diffraction-unlimited fluorescence microscopy techniques have already made a substantial imprint in the biological sciences. In this review, we describe how stimulated emission depletion (STED) imaging originally evolved, how it compares to other optical super-resolution imaging techniques, and what advantages it provides compared to previous golden-standards for biological microscopy, such as diffraction-limited optical microscopy and electron microscopy. We outline the prerequisites for successful STED imaging experiments, emphasizing the equally critical roles of instrumentation, sample preparation, and photophysics, and describe major evolving strategies for how to push the borders of STED imaging even further in life science. Finally, we provide examples of how STED nanoscopy can be applied, within three different fields with particular potential for STED imaging experiments: neuroscience, plasma membrane biophysics, and subcellular clinical diagnostics. In these areas, and in many more, STED imaging can be expected to play an increasingly important role in the future.

  • 13. Brodin, Petter
    et al.
    Lakshmikanth, Tadepally
    Mehr, Ramit
    Johansson, Maria H.
    Duru, Adil Doganay
    Achour, Adnane
    Salmon-Divon, Mali
    Karre, Klas
    Hoglund, Petter
    Johansson, Sofia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Natural Killer Cell Tolerance Persists Despite Significant Reduction of Self MHC Class I on Normal Target Cells in Mice2010In: PLOS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 5, no 10, p. e13174-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A major group of murine inhibitory receptors on Natural Killer (NK) cells belong to the Ly49 receptor family and recognize MHC class I molecules. Infected or transformed target cells frequently downmodulate MHC class I molecules and can thus avoid CD8(+) T cell attack, but may at the same time develop NK cell sensitivity, due to failure to express inhibitory ligands for Ly49 receptors. The extent of MHC class I downregulation needed on normal cells to trigger NK cell effector functions is not known. Methodology/Principal Findings: In this study, we show that cells expressing MHC class I to levels well below half of the host level are tolerated in an in vivo assay in mice. Hemizygous expression (expression from only one allele) of MHC class I was sufficient to induce Ly49 receptor downmodulation on NK cells to a similar degree as homozygous expression, despite a strongly reduced cell surface level of MHC class I. Co-expression of weaker MHC class I ligands in the host did not have any further effect on the degree of Ly49 downmodulation. Furthermore, a single MHC class I allele could downmodulate up to three Ly49 receptors on individual NK cells. Only when NK cells simultaneously expressed several Ly49 receptors and hemizygous MHC class I levels, a putative threshold for Ly49 downmodulation was reached. Conclusion: Collectively, our findings suggest that in interactions between NK cells and normal untransformed cells, MHC class I molecules are in most cases expressed in excess compared to what is functionally needed to ensure self tolerance and to induce maximal Ly49 downmodulation. We speculate that the reason for this is to maintain a safety margin for otherwise normal, autologous cells over a range of MHC class I expression levels, in order to ensure robustness in NK cell tolerance.

  • 14.
    Brändén, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Sandén, Tor
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Brzezinski, Peter
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Localized Proton Microcircuits at the Biological Membrane-Water Interface2006In: PNAS, ISSN 0027-8424, Vol. 103, no 52, p. 19677-19770Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellular processes such as nerve conduction, energy metabolism, and import of nutrients into cells all depend on transport of ions across biological membranes through specialized membrane-spanning proteins. Understanding these processes at a molecular level requires mechanistic insights into the interaction between these proteins and the membrane itself. To explore the role of the membrane in ion translocation we used an approach based on fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Specifically, we investigated exchange of protons between the water phase and the membrane surface, as well as diffusion of protons along membrane surfaces, at a single-molecule level. We show that the lipid head groups collectively act as a proton-collecting antenna, dramatically accelerating proton uptake from water to a membrane-anchored proton acceptor. Furthermore, the results show that proton transfer along the surface can be significantly faster than that between the lipid head groups and the surrounding water phase. Thus, ion translocation across membranes and between the different membrane protein components is a complex interplay between the proteins and the membrane itself, where the membrane acts as a proton-conducting link between membrane-spanning proton transporters

  • 15. Cebula, Marcus
    et al.
    Turan, Ilke Simsek
    Sjodin, Birgitta
    Thulasingam, Madhuranayaki
    Brock, Joseph
    Chmyrov, Volodymyr
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Abe, Hiroshi
    Mannervik, Bengt
    Haeggstrom, Jesper Z.
    Rinaldo-Matthis, Agnes
    Akkaya, Engin U.
    Morgenstern, Ralf
    Catalytic Conversion of Lipophilic Substrates by Phase constrained Enzymes in the Aqueous or in the Membrane Phase2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 38316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both soluble and membrane-bound enzymes can catalyze the conversion of lipophilic substrates. The precise substrate access path, with regard to phase, has however, until now relied on conjecture from enzyme structural data only (certainly giving credible and valuable hypotheses). Alternative methods have been missing. To obtain the first experimental evidence directly determining the access paths (of lipophilic substrates) to phase constrained enzymes we here describe the application of a BODIPY-derived substrate (PS1). Using this tool, which is not accessible to cytosolic enzymes in the presence of detergent and, by contrast, not accessible to membrane embedded enzymes in the absence of detergent, we demonstrate that cytosolic and microsomal glutathione transferases (GSTs), both catalyzing the activation of PS1, do so only within their respective phases. This approach can serve as a guideline to experimentally validate substrate access paths, a fundamental property of phase restricted enzymes. Examples of other enzyme classes with members in both phases are xenobiotic-metabolizing sulphotransferases/UDP-glucuronosyl transferases or epoxide hydrolases. Since specific GSTs have been suggested to contribute to tumor drug resistance, PS1 can also be utilized as a tool to discriminate between phase constrained members of these enzymes by analyzing samples in the absence and presence of Triton X-100.

  • 16. Chen, Xingqi
    et al.
    Shi, Chengxi
    Yammine, Samer
    Göndör, Anita
    Rönnlund, Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Fernandez-Woodbridge, Alejandro
    Sumida, Noriyuki
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Ohlsson, Rolf
    Chromatin in situ proximity (ChrISP): Single-cell analysis of chromatin proximities at a high resolution2014In: BioTechniques, ISSN 0736-6205, E-ISSN 1940-9818, Vol. 56, no 3, p. 117-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current techniques for analyzing chromatin structures are hampered by either poor resolution at the individual cell level or the need for a large number of cells to obtain higher resolution. This is a major problem as it hampers our understanding of chromatin conformation in single cells and how these respond to environmental cues. Here we describe a new method, chromatin in situ proximity (ChrISP), which reproducibly scores for proximities between two different chromatin fibers in 3-D with a resolution of similar to 170 angstrom in single cells. The technique is based on the in situ proximity ligation assay (ISPLA), but ChrISP omits the rolling circle amplification step (RCA). Instead, the proximities between chromatin fibers are visualized by a fluorescent connector oligonucleotide DNA, here termed splinter, forming a circular DNA.with another circle-forming oligonucleotide, here termed backbone, upon ligation. In contrast to the regular ISPLA technique, our modification enables detection of chromatin fiber proximities independent of steric hindrances from nuclear structures. We use this method to identify higher order structures of individual chromosomes in relation to structural hallmarks of interphase nuclei and beyond the resolution of the light microscope.

  • 17.
    Chmyrov, Andriy
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Photo-induced dark states influorescence spectroscopy – investigations & applications2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on investigations of transient dark states of fluorescentmolecules using spectroscopic techniques. The main purpose is to show andconvince the reader that transient dark states are not always a nuisance, butalso represent an additional source of information. Several studies with fluorescencecorrelation spectroscopy were performed, all related to non-fluorescentstates such as triplet state or isomerized states.Photobleaching is one of the main problems in virtually all of the fluorescencetechniques. In this thesis, mechanisms that retard photobleaching arecharacterized. Several compounds, antioxidants and triplet state quenchers,which decrease photobleaching, are studied, and guidelines for achieving optimalfluorescence brightness using these compounds are presented.Triplet state quenching by several compounds was studied. Detailed investigationsof the fluorescence quencher potassium iodide demonstratedthat for some of fluorophores, except of quenching, there is fluorescence enhancementmechanism present. In agreement with the first publication inthis thesis, antioxidative properties were found to play an important role inthe fluorescence enhancement. Quenching of the triplet state is proposedas a tool for monitoring diffusion mediated reactions over a wide range offrequencies.Specially designed fluorophores combining high triplet yields with reasonablefluorescence brightness and photostability were characterized forpossible applications in novel super-resolution imaging techniques based onfluorescence photoswitching. Except of benefits for imaging techniques, photoinducedswitching to non-fluorescent states could be used for monitoringmolecular diffusion, which was also demonstrated in this thesis.Studies of the triplet state kinetics of fluorophores close to dielectric interfaceswere performed using fluorescence spectroscopy. The analysis of thetriplet state kinetic can provide information about the local microenvironmentand electrostatic interactions near dielectric interfaces.

  • 18.
    Chmyrov, Andriy
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Arden-Jacob, J.
    Zilles, A.
    Drexhage, K. -H
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Characterization of new fluorescent labels for ultrahigh resolution microscopy2009In: Novel Techniques in Microscopy (NTM) 2009, Optical Society of America, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A set of modified dyes was investigated, of which several candidates combine prominent triplet state yield with reasonable photostability. They can be used to achieve ultrahigh optical resolution by photo-induced switching into dark (triplet) states.

  • 19.
    Chmyrov, Andriy
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Arden-Jacob, Jutta
    ATTO-TEC GmbH, Germany.
    Zilles, Alexander
    University of Siegen, Germany.
    Drexhage, Karl-Heinz
    University of Siegen, Germany.
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Characterization of new fluorescent labels for ultra-high resolution microscopy2008In: Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences, ISSN 1474-905X, E-ISSN 1474-9092, Vol. 7, no 11, p. 1378-1385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photo-induced switching of dyes into dark, long-lived states, such as a triplet state, has recently gained increasing interest, as a means to achieve ultra-high optical resolution. Additionally, these long lived states are often highly environment-sensitive and their photodynamics can thus offer additional independent fluorescence-based information. However, although providing a useful mechanism for photo-induced switching, the triplet state often appears as a precursor state for photobleaching, which potentially can limit its usefulness. In this work, a set of rhodamine and pyronin dyes, modified by substitution of heavy atoms and nitrogen within or close to the central xanthene unit of the dyes, were investigated with respect to their triplet state dynamics and photostabilities, under conditions relevant for ultra-high resolution microscopy. Out of the dyes investigated, in particular the rhodamine and pyronin dyes with a sulfur atom replacing the central oxygen atom in the xanthene unit were found to meet the requirements for ultra-high resolution microscopy, combining a prominent triplet state yield with reasonable photostability.

  • 20.
    Chmyrov, Andriy
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Sandén, Tor
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Iodide as a Fluorescence Quencher and Promoter-Mechanisms and Possible Implications2010In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 114, no 34, p. 11282-11291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) was used to investigate the effects of potassium iodide (KI) on the electronic-state population kinetics of a range of organic dyes in the visible wavelength range. Apart from a heavy atom effect promoting intersystem crossing to the triplet states in all dyes, KI was also found to enhance the triplet-state decay rate by a charge-coupled deactivation. This deactivation was only found for dyes with excitation maximum in the blue range, not for those with excitation maxima at wavelengths in the green range or longer. Consequently, under excitation conditions sufficient for triplet state formation, KI can promote the triplet state buildup of one dye and reduce it for another, red-shifted dye. This anticorrelated, spectrally separable response of two different dyes to the presence of one and the same agent may provide a useful readout for biomolecular interaction and microenvironmental monitoring studies. In contrast to the typical notion of KI as a fluorescence quencher, the FCS measurements also revealed that when added in micromolar concentrations KI can act as an antioxidant, promoting the recovery of photo-oxidized fluorophores. However, in millimolar concentrations KI also reduces intact, fluorescently viable fluorophores to a considerable extent. In aqueous solutions, for the dye Rhodamine Green, an optimal concentration of KI of approximately 5 mM can be defined at which the fluorescence signal is maximized. This concentration is not high enough to allow full triplet state quenching. Therefore, as a fluorescence enhancement agent, it is primarily the antioxidative properties of KI that play a role.

  • 21.
    Chmyrov, Andriy
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Sandén, Tor
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Iodide as a Triplet State Promoter and Quencher –Mechanisms and Possible ImplicationsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy(FCS) was used to investigate the effects of potassium iodide(KI) on the electronic state population kinetics of arange of organic dyes in the visible wavelength range. Apartfrom a heavy atom effect promoting intersystem crossing tothe triplet states in all dyes, KI was also found to enhancethe triplet state decay by a charge-coupled deactivation.This deactivation was only found for dyes with excitationmaximum in the blue range, not for those with excitationmaxima at wavelengths in the green range or longer. Consequently,under excitation conditions sufficient for tripletstate formation, KI can promote the triplet state build-up ofone dye and reduce it for another, red-shifted dye. The anticorrelated,spectrally separable responses of two dyes to thepresence of one and the same agent are likely to provide auseful readout for biomolecular interaction and micro-environmentalmonitoring studies. In contrast to the typicalnotion of KI as a fluorescence quencher, the FCS measurementsalso revealed that when added in micromolar concentrationsKI can act as an anti-oxidant, promoting the recoveryof photo-oxidized fluorophores. However, in millimolarconcentrations KI also reduces intact, fluorescently viablefluorophores to a considerable extent. In aqueous solutions,an optimal concentration of KI of approximately 5 mM canbe defined at which the fluorescence signal is maximized.This concentration is not high enough to allow full tripletstate quenching. Therefore, as a fluorescence enhancementagent, it is primarily the anti-oxidative properties of KI thatplay a role.

  • 22.
    Chmyrov, Andriy
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Sandén, Tor
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Recovery of Photoinduced Reversible Dark States Utilized for Molecular Diffusion Measurements2010In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 82, no 24, p. 9998-10005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For a spatially restricted excitation volume, the effective modulation of the excitation in time is influenced by the passage times of the molecules through the excitation volume. By applying an additional time-modulated excitation, the buildup of photoinduced reversible dark states in fluorescent molecules can be made to vary significantly with their passage times through the excitation volume. The variations in the dark state populations are reflected by the time-averaged fluorescence intensity, which thus can be used to characterize the mobilities of the molecules. The concept was experimentally verified by measuring the fluorescence response of freely diffusing cyanine fluorophores (Cy5), undergoingtrans-cis isomerization when subject to time-modulated excitation in a focused laser beam. From the fluorescence response, and by applying a simple photodynamic model, the transition times of the Cy5 molecules could be well reproduced when applying different laminar flow speeds through the detection volume. The presented approach puts no constraints on sample concentration, no requirements for high time resolution or sensitivity in the detection, nor requires a high fluorescence brightness of the characterized molecules. This can make the concept useful for a broad range of biomolecular mobility studies.

  • 23.
    Chmyrov, Volodymyr
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Fluorescence- based approach for bio-membrane studies2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis the isomerization process of the Merocyanine 540 fluorophore is studied. The presence of that process, when the dye is attached to the lipid membrane, was not reported before, and thus become a main interest of this work. For the further investigation: the reaction of the isomerization dynamics to the different properties of the membrane was studied. The influence of such membrane’s parameters as the size, polarity and fluidity were checked.

    It was revealed that the isomerization of the MC 540 is present inside the lipid membranes, and its dynamics is changed with the membrane’s polarity and viscosity. So the MC 540 could be in use as a probe for the investigation ofthe membrane’s properties.

    The isomerization process was studied with the help of the fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) which is a powerful technique for the single molecule studies.

  • 24.
    Chmyrov, Volodymyr
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Fluorescence fluctuation studies of biomolecular interactions in solutions, biomembranes and live cells2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging have a very broad spectrum of applicationswithin the life sciences, in particular for detection and characterization ofbiomolecular dynamics and interactions in different environments. This thesis comprisesprojects that strive to further expand the information content extracted fromthe detected fluorescence, leading to sensitive readout parameters for studies ofbiomolecular dynamics and interactions. Two major strategies are presented toachieve this aim. The first strategy is based on the expansion of the availablereadout parameters beyond the "traditional" fluorescence parameters: intensity,wavelength, polarization and fluorescence lifetime. The additional parameters arebased on blinking properties of fluorescent labels. In particular on transitions betweensinglet and triplet states, and transitions between the trans- and cis-isomersof fluorophores. Two publications in the thesis are based on this strategy (paperI and IV). The second strategy is based on the utilization of fluorescence intensityfluctuations in order to detect the oligomerization mechanisms of fluorescentlylabeled peptides and proteins. This strategy combines the intensity fluctuationanalysis and the readout of distance dependent energy transfer between fluorescentmolecules together with the correlation analysis of fluorescence from two labeledproteins emitting at different wavelengths. Another two publications presented inthe thesis are based on the second comprehensive strategy (papers II and III).The work presented in this thesis shows that the blinking kinetics of fluorescentlabels contain significant information that can be exploited by a combination of fluctuationsanalysis with distance dependent excitation energy transfer between thefluorescent molecules, or by analysis of fluorescence covariance between moleculesthat emit at different wavelengths. These fluorescence-based methods have a significantpotential for molecular interaction studies in the biomedical field.

  • 25.
    Chmyrov, Volodymyr
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Spielmann, Thiemo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Hevekerl, Heike
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Trans-Cis isomerization of lipophilic dyes probing membrane microviscosity in biological membranes and in live cells2015In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 87, no 11, p. 5690-5697Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Membrane environment and fluidity can modulate the dynamics and interactions of membrane proteins and can thereby strongly influence the function of cells and organisms in general. In this work, we demonstrate that trans-cis isomerization of lipophilic dyes is a useful parameter to monitor packaging and fluidity of biomembranes. Fluorescence fluctuations, generated by trans-cis isomerization of the thiocarbocyanine dye Merocyanine 540 (MC540), were first analyzed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) in different alcohol solutions. Similar isomerization kinetics of MC540 in lipid vesicles could then also be monitored, and the influence of lipid polarity, membrane curvature, and cholesterol content was investigated. While no influence of membrane curvature and lipid polarity could be observed, a clear decrease in the isomerization rates could be observed with increasing cholesterol contents in the vesicle membranes. Finally, procedures to spatially map photoinduced and thermal isomerization rates on live cells by transient state (TRAST) imaging were established. On the basis of these procedures, MC540 isomerization was studied on live MCF7 cells, and TRAST images of the cells at different temperatures were found to reliably detect differences in the isomerization parameters. Our studies indicate that trans-cis isomerization is a useful parameter for probing membrane dynamics and that the TRAST imaging technique can provide spatial maps of photoinduced isomerization as well as both photoinduced and thermal back-isomerization, resolving differences in local membrane microviscosity in live cells.

  • 26.
    Chmyrov, Volodymyr
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Spielmann, Thiemo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Hevekerl, Heike
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Trans-cis isomerization of lipophilic dyes provides a measure of membrane microviscosity in biological membranes and in live cellsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Chmyrov, Volodymyr
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Tornmalm, Johan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Piguet, Joachim
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Monitoring of NBD-probes and their location in lipid membranes via their triplet state parametersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By a combination of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and transient state (TRAST)imaging, the triplet state kinetics of the membrane fluorophore 7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole-4-yl(NBD) was studied in small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs). It was shown that spin-labels, included inSUV membranes together with the NBD-labeled lipids, induce prominent effects on the triplet statekinetics of NBD. The relative effects on the triplet state kinetics are considerably larger than thoseobserved in traditional fluorescence quenching studies, and can provide information about thelocalization and the interactions between the lipids in the SUVs, using considerably lowerconcentrations of spin-labeled lipids in the membranes. From the effects of the spin labels on thetriplet state kinetics of NBD, we revisited the folding behavior of NBD-labeled phospholipid chains inthe membranes. Our results indicate that the NBD probe on the acyl chain of the phospholipids do notunambiguously loop back towards the membrane surface, as previously reported, but may alternatebetween a straight and a folded acyl chain, with the NBD label at the surface, or deep into themembrane bilayer. Our study suggests that the triplet state parameters of NBD can provide anadditional set of orthogonal parameters, which can increase accuracy and precision of fluorescencebasedmolecular dynamics and interaction studies with NDB as a probe molecule.

  • 28. Cristovao, Michele
    et al.
    Sisamakis, Evangelos
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Hingorani, Manju M.
    Marx, Andreas D.
    Jung, Caroline P.
    Rothwell, Paul J.
    Seidel, Claus A. M.
    Friedhoff, Peter
    Single-molecule multiparameter fluorescence spectroscopy reveals directional MutS binding to mismatched bases in DNA2012In: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 40, no 12, p. 5448-5464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mismatch repair (MMR) corrects replication errors such as mismatched bases and loops in DNA. The evolutionarily conserved dimeric MMR protein MutS recognizes mismatches by stacking a phenylalanine of one subunit against one base of the mismatched pair. In all crystal structures of G:T mismatch-bound MutS, phenylalanine is stacked against thymine. To explore whether these structures reflect directional mismatch recognition by MutS, we monitored the orientation of Escherichia coli MutS binding to mismatches by FRET and anisotropy with steady state, pre-steady state and single-molecule multiparameter fluorescence measurements in a solution. The results confirm that specifically bound MutS bends DNA at the mismatch. We found additional MutS-mismatch complexes with distinct conformations that may have functional relevance in MMR. The analysis of individual binding events reveal significant bias in MutS orientation on asymmetric mismatches (G:T versus T:G, A:C versus C:A), but not on symmetric mismatches (G:G). When MutS is blocked from binding a mismatch in the preferred orientation by positioning asymmetric mismatches near the ends of linear DNA substrates, its ability to authorize subsequent steps of MMR, such as MutH endonuclease activation, is almost abolished. These findings shed light on prerequisites for MutS interactions with other MMR proteins for repairing the appropriate DNA strand.

  • 29. Doerr, Denis
    et al.
    Sandrin, Deborah
    Kalinin, Stanislav
    Kuehnemuth, Ralf
    Overmann, Sebastian
    Pfiffi, Daniela
    Schaper, Klaus
    Seidel, Claus A. M.
    Mueller, Thomas J. J.
    Chmyrov, Andriy
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Bier, Brigitte A.
    Maximizing the Fluorescence Signal and Photostability of Fluorophores by Quenching Dark-States2014In: Biophysical Journal, ISSN 0006-3495, E-ISSN 1542-0086, Vol. 106, no 2, p. 196A-196AArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Du, Zhixue
    et al.
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Chem & Chem Engn, State Key Lab Met Matrix Composites, 800 Dongchuan Rd, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China..
    Yu, Jing
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Life Sci & Biotechnol, State Key Lab Microbial Metab, 800 Dongchuan Rd, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China..
    Li, Fucai
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Chem & Chem Engn, State Key Lab Met Matrix Composites, 800 Dongchuan Rd, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China..
    Deng, Liyun
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Chem & Chem Engn, State Key Lab Met Matrix Composites, 800 Dongchuan Rd, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China..
    Wu, Fang
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Shanghai Ctr Syst Biomed, Minist Educ, Key Lab Syst Biomed, 800 Dongchuan Rd, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China..
    Huang, Xiangyi
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Chem & Chem Engn, State Key Lab Met Matrix Composites, 800 Dongchuan Rd, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China..
    Bergstrand, Jan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Dong, Chaoqing
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Chem & Chem Engn, State Key Lab Met Matrix Composites, 800 Dongchuan Rd, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China..
    Ren, Jicun
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Chem & Chem Engn, State Key Lab Met Matrix Composites, 800 Dongchuan Rd, Shanghai 200240, Peoples R China..
    In Situ Monitoring of p53 Protein and MDM2 Protein Interaction in Single Living Cells Using Single-Molecule Fluorescence Spectroscopy2018In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 90, no 10, p. 6144-6151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Protein-protein interactions play a central role in signal transduction, transcription regulations, enzymatic activity, and protein synthesis. The p53 protein is a key transcription factor, and its activity is precisely regulated by the p53-MDM2 interaction. Although the p53-MDM2 interaction has been studied, it is still not clear how p53 structures and external factors influence the p53-MDM2 interaction in living cells. Here, we developed a direct method for monitoring the p53-MDM2 interaction in single living cells using single-molecule fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy with a microfluidic chip. First, we labeled p53 and MDM2 proteins with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and mCherry, respectively, using lentivirus infection. We then designed various mutants covering the three main domains of p53 (tetramerization, transactivation, and DNA binding domains) and systematically studied effects of p53 protein primary, secondary, and quaternary structures on p53 MDM2 binding affinity in single living cells. We found that p53 dimers and tetramers can bind to MDM2, that the binding affinity of p53 tetramers is higher than that of p53 dimers, and that the affinity is closely correlated to the helicity of the p53 transactivation domain. The hot-spot mutation R175H in the DNA-binding domain reduced the binding of p53 to MDM2. Finally, we studied effects of inhibitors on p53-MDM2 interactions and dissociation dynamics of pS3-MDM2 complexes in single living cells. We found that inhibitors Nutlin 3 alpha and MI773 efficiently inhibited the pS3-MDM2 interaction, but RITA did not work in living cells. This study provides a direct way for quantifying the relationship between protein structure and protein protein interactions and evaluation of inhibitors in living cells.

  • 31. Eggeling, C.
    et al.
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Brand, L.
    Schaffer, J.
    Felekyan, S.
    Seidel, C. A. M.
    Analysis of photobleaching in single-molecule multicolor excitation and forster resonance energy transfer measurement2006In: Journal of Physical Chemistry A, ISSN 1089-5639, E-ISSN 1520-5215, Vol. 110, no 9, p. 2979-2995Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    we investigated the influence of photobleaching in fluorescence experiments applying multicolor laser as well as Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) mediated excitation using several red-emitting dyes frequently used in multicolor experiments or as FRET acceptors. The chosen dyes (cyanine 5 (Cy5), MR121, Alexa660, Alexa680, Atto647N, Atto655) have chemically distinct chromophore systems and can be excited at 650 nm. Several fluorescence analysis techniques have been applied to detect photobleaching and to disclose the underlying photophysics, all of which are based on single-molecule detection: (1) fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) of bulk solutions, (2) fluorescence cross-correlation of single-molecule trajectories, and (3) multiparameter fluorescence detection (MFD) of single-molecule events. The maximum achievable fluorescence signals as well as the survival times of the red dyes were markedly reduced under additional laser irradiation in the range of 500 nm. Particularly at excitation levels at or close to saturation, the 500 nm irradiation effectively induced transitions to higher excited electronic states on already excited dye molecules, leading to a pronounced bleaching reactivity. A theoretical model for the observed laser irradiance dependence of the fluorescence brightness of a Cy5 FRET acceptor dye has been developed introducing the full description of the underlying photophysics. The model takes into account acceptor as well as donor photobleaching from higher excited electronic states, population of triplet states, and energy transfer to both the ground and excited states of the acceptor dye. Also, photoinduced reverse intersystem crossing via higher excited triplet states is included, which was found to be very efficient for Cy5 attached to DNA. Comparing continuous wave (cw) and pulsed donor excitation, a strong enhancement of acceptor photobleaching by a factor of 5 was observed for the latter. Thus, in the case of fluorescence experiments utilizing multicolor pulsed laser excitation, the application of the appropriate timing of synchronized green and red laser pulses in an alternating excitation mode can circumvent excessive photobleaching. Moreover, important new single-molecule analysis diagnosis tools are presented: (1) For the case of excessive acceptor photobleaching, cross-correlation analysis of single-molecule trajectories of the fluorescence signal detected in the donor and acceptor detection channels and vice versa shows an anticorrelated exponential decay and growth, respectively. (2) The time difference, T-g - T-r of the mean observation times of all photons detected for the donor and acceptor detection channels within a single-molecule fluorescence burst allows one to identify and exclude molecules with an event of acceptor photobleaching. The presented single-molecule analysis methods can be constrained to, for example, FRET-active subpopulations, reducing bias from FRET-inactive molecules. The observations made are of strong relevance for and demand a careful choice of laser action in multicolor and FRET experiments, in particular when performed at or close to saturation.

  • 32.
    Egnell, Liv
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Transient State Monitoring and Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy of Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many human diseases including cancer have been associated with altered cellular metabolism and a changed oxygen consumption in cells. Fluorophores are sensitive to their local environment due to their long life times in transient dark states. A recent study successfully utilized this sensitivity to image differences in oxygen concentrations in cells using transient state (TRAST) microscopy together with fluorescent labels [1]. A natural continuation of this study is to investigate the possibilities of using this method with natural fluorophores already present in cells and thereby avoid articial labeling.

    Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) is an auto fluorescent coenzyme that is naturally present in cells and involved in cellular metabolism. This project is an exploratory pilot study for cellular measurements with the aim to investigate if FAD can be used to probe oxygen concentrations in aqueous solution using transient state monitoring and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). This thesis includes the results from FCS and TRAST experiments on FAD in aqueous solutions with different oxygen concentrations as well as different ascorbic acid concentrations. The performed experiments showed that FAD monitored with TRAST is sensitive to differences in oxygen concentrations for the aqueous solutions used in this study.

  • 33. Fridberger, A.
    et al.
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    de Monvel, J. B.
    Measuring hearing organ vibration patterns with confocal microscopy and optical flow2004In: Biophysical Journal, ISSN 0006-3495, E-ISSN 1542-0086, Vol. 86, no 1, p. 535-543Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new method for visualizing vibrating structures is described. The system provides a means to capture very fast repeating events by relatively minor modi. cations to a standard confocal microscope. An acousto-optic modulator was inserted in the beam path, generating brief pulses of laser light. Images were formed by summing consecutive frames until every pixel of the resulting image had been exposed to a laser pulse. Images were analyzed using a new method for optical flow computation; it was validated through introducing artificial displacements in confocal images. Displacements in the range of 0.8 to 4 pixels were measured with 5% error or better. The lower limit for reliable motion detection was 20% of the pixel size. These methods were used for investigating the motion pattern of the vibrating hearing organ. In contrast to standard theory, we show that the organ of Corti possesses several degrees of freedom during sound-evoked vibration. Outer hair cells showed motion indicative of deformation. After acoustic overstimulation, supporting cells contracted. This slowly developing structural change was visualized during simultaneous intense sound stimulation and its speed measured with the optical flow technique.

  • 34. Gad, Annica K. B.
    et al.
    Rönnlund, Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Spaar, Alexander
    Savchenko, Andrii A.
    Petranyi, Gabor
    Blom, Hans
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Szekely, Laszlo
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Aspenström, Pontus
    Rho GTPases link cellular contractile force to the density and distribution of nanoscale adhesions2012In: The FASEB Journal, ISSN 0892-6638, E-ISSN 1530-6860, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 2374-2382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of cells to adhere and to exert contractile forces governs their capacity to move within an organism. The cytoskeletal regulators of the Rho GTPase proteins are involved in control of the contractile forces of cells. To elucidate the basis of cell migration, we analyzed contractile forces and nanoscale adhesion-related particles in single cells expressing constitutively active variants of Rho GTPases by using traction-force microscopy and ultra-high-resolution stimulated emission depletion microscopy, respectively. RhoAV14 induced large increases in the contractile forces of single cells, with Rac1L61 and RhoDV26 having more moderate effects. The RhoAV14- and RhoDV26-induced forces showed similar spatial distributions and were accompanied by reduced or unaltered cell spreading. In contrast, the Rac1L61-induced force had different, scattered, force distributions that were linked to increased cell spreading. All three of these Rho GTPase activities caused a loss of thick stress fibers and focal adhesions and a more homogenous distribution of nanoscale adhesion-related particles over the ventral surface of the cells. Interestingly, only RhoAV14 increased the density of these particles. Our data suggest a Rac1-specific mode for cells to generate contractile forces. Importantly, increased density and a more homogenous distribution of these small adhesion-related particles promote cellular contractile forces.-Gad, A. K. B., Ronnlund, D., Spaar, A., Savchenko, A. A., Petranyi, G., Blom, H., Szekely, L., Widengren, J., Aspenstrom, P. Rho GTPases link cellular contractile force to the density and distribution of nanoscale adhesions.

  • 35. Geissbuehler, M.
    et al.
    Spielmann, Thiemo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Formey, A.
    Märki, I.
    Leutenegger, M.
    Hinz, B.
    Johnsson, K.
    Van De Ville, D.
    Lasser, T.
    Triplet imaging of oxygen consumption during the contraction of a single smooth muscle cell (A7r5)2012In: Oxygen Transport to Tissue XXXIII / [ed] Wolf, M; Bucher, HU; Rudin, M; VanHuffel, S; Wolf, U; Bruley, DF; Harrison, DK, Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2012, Vol. 737, p. 263-268Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Triplet imaging is a novel optical technique that allows investigating oxygen metabolism at the single cell and the sub-cellular level. The method combines high temporal and spatial resolutions which are required for the monitoring of fast kinetics of oxygen concentration in living cells. Calibration and validation are demonstrated with a titration experiment using l-ascorbic acid with the enzyme ascorbase oxidase. The method was applied to a biological cell system, employing as reporter a cytosolic fusion protein of β-galactosidase with a SNAP-tag labeled with tetramethylrhodamine. Oxygen consumption in single smooth muscle cells A7r5 during an [Arg8]-vasopressin- induced contraction is measured. The triplet lifetime images over time can be related to an intracellular oxygen consumption corresponding to a mono-exponentially decaying intracellular oxygen concentration. This is in good agreement with previously reported measurements of oxygen consumption in skeletal muscle fibers.

  • 36. Geissbuehler, Matthias
    et al.
    Spielmann, Thiemo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Formey, Aurlie
    Maerki, Iwan
    Leutenegger, Marcel
    Hinz, Boris
    Johnsson, Kai
    Van De Ville, Dimitri
    Lasser, Theo
    Triplet Imaging of Oxygen Consumption during the Contraction of a Single Smooth Muscle Cell (A7r5)2010In: Biophysical Journal, ISSN 0006-3495, E-ISSN 1542-0086, Vol. 98, no 2, p. 339-349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The measurement of tissue and cell oxygenation is important for understanding cell metabolism. We have addressed this problem with a novel optical technique, called triplet imaging, that exploits oxygen-induced triplet lifetime changes and is compatible with a variety of fluorophores. A modulated excitation of varying pulse widths allows the extraction of the lifetime of the essentially dark triplet state using a high-fluorescence signal intensity. This enables the monitoring of fast kinetics of oxygen concentration in living cells combined with high temporal and spatial resolution. First, the oxygen-dependent triplet-state quenching of tetramethylrhodamine is validated and then calibrated in an L-ascorbic acid titration experiment demonstrating the linear relation between triplet lifetime and oxygen concentration according to the Stern-Volmer equation. Second, the method is applied to a biological cell system, employing as reporter a cytosolic fusion protein of beta-galactosidase with SNAP-tag labeled with tetramethylrhodamine. Oxygen consumption in single smooth muscle cells A7r5 during an [Arg(8)]-vasopressin-induced contraction is measured. The results indicate a consumption leading to an intracellular oxygen concentration that decays monoexponentially with time. The proposed method has the potential to become a new tool for investigating oxygen metabolism at the single cell and the subcellular level.

  • 37.
    Gräslund, Astrid
    et al.
    Stockholm University, dept Biochem and Biophys.
    Rigler, RudolfEPFL, Lausanne.Widengren, JerkerKTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Single Molecule Spectroscopy in Chemistry, Physics and Biology: Nobel symposium2010Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 38. Gunasekera, S.
    et al.
    Fernandes-Cerqueira, C.
    Wennmalm, Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics. KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Wähämaa, H.
    Sommarin, Y.
    Catrina, A. I.
    Jakobsson, P. -J
    Göransson, U.
    Stabilized Cyclic Peptides as Scavengers of Autoantibodies: Neutralization of Anticitrullinated Protein/Peptide Antibodies in Rheumatoid Arthritis2018In: ACS Chemical Biology, ISSN 1554-8929, E-ISSN 1554-8937, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 1525-1535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence of autoantibodies is a hallmark of rheumatoid arthritis, specifically those autoantibodies targeting proteins containing the arginine-derived amino acid citrulline. There is strong evidence showing that the occurrence of anticitrullinated protein/peptide antibodies (ACPA) are involved in disease progression, and ACPA was recently shown to induce pain in animals. Here, we explore a novel concept useful for research, diagnostics, and possibly therapy of autoimmune diseases, namely, to directly target and neutralize autoantibodies using peptide binders. A high-affinity peptide-based scavenger of ACPA was developed by grafting a citrullinated epitope derived from human fibrinogen into a naturally occurring stable peptide scaffold. The best scavenger comprises the truncated epitope α-fibrinogen, [Cit573]fib(566-580), grafted into the scaffold sunflower trypsin inhibitor-1, SFTI-1. The final peptide demonstrates low nanomolar apparent affinity and superior stability.

  • 39. Hassler, Kai
    et al.
    Rigler, Per
    Blom, Hans
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Rigler, Rudolf
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Lasser, Theo
    Dynamic disorder in horseradish peroxidase observed with total internal reflection fluorescence correlation spectroscopy2007In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 15, no 9, p. 5366-5375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the application of objective-type total internal reflection fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (TIR-FCS) to the study of the kinetics of immobilized horseradish peroxidase on a single molecule level. Objective-type TIR-FCS combines the advantages of FCS with TIRF microscopy in a way that allows for simultaneous ultra-sensitive spectroscopic measurements using a single-point detector and convenient localization of single molecules on a surface by means of parallel imaging.

  • 40.
    Hevekerl, Heike
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Fluorescence-based methods to probe long-lived transient states for biomolecular studies2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging are wide-spread tools in life science. Themain read-out parameters are still fluorescence intensity and wavelength, but given thebenefits of multi-parameter characterization there are also good reasons to consideradditional fluorescence-based read-out parameters. A major focus of this thesis is toextend the use of transient, non-fluorescent states as additional parameters forbiomolecular studies. To-date, such states (including mainly triplet states, isomerizedstates and photo-ionized states) have been exploited to a very limited extent for thispurpose. Their use has been limited because they show very weak, or no luminescence atall, and absorption measurements require relatively complex instrumentation which aretypically not applicable for studies under biologically relevant conditions. Moreover, thelong lifetime of these transient states make any readout signal very sensitive to changes inthe micro-environment, e.g. presence of small amounts of quenchers, like oxygen. Thosetransient states can be accessed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and thenewly developed transient state (TRAST) monitoring technique. In this thesis, FCS andTRAST have been applied to demonstrate the use of transient state monitoring forbiomolecular studies.

    In Paper I, we demonstrated that due to the low brightness requirements ofTRAST, also autofluorescent molecules like tryptophan can be studied, making externallabeling of molecules redundant. The photo-physical transient states of tryptophan andtryptophan-containing proteins could be analyzed and were found to provide informationabout protein conformational states and about the influence of pH and buffers on singletryptophan molecules. In Paper II investigations of the transient states of theoligothiophene p-FTAA with FCS as well as with dynamic light scattering andspectrofluorimetry revealed a pH dependent aggregation behavior and a very efficientfluorescence quenching by oxygen could be identified and analyzed. In Paper III, FCSand TRAST were used to monitor the isomerization kinetics of Merocyanine 540incorporated in lipid membranes. Because isomerization of cyanine dyes strongly dependson the viscosity of the local environment, the isomerization kinetics could be used tocharacterize membrane fluidity in artificial lipid vesicles and in cellular membranes. InPaper IV, a new approach was developed, based on a combination of TRAST and FCS todetermine the stoichiometry of a fluorescently labeled sample. Finally, in Paper V, FCSand TRAST were employed to demonstrate that triplet states of fluorophores can provide auseful readout for Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) reflecting intra- orivintermolecular distances between two fluorophores. The sensitivity of the triplet statemade it possible to monitor distances larger than 10 nm, which is often stated as the upperlimit of FRET interactions.

    Taken together, the studies presented in this thesis show that there is a wealth ofinformation that can be revealed by studying long-lived transient states. Both FCS andTRAST combine a sensitive readout via the fluorescence signal with the sensitivity of thelong-lived transient states monitored via the fluorescence changes. It can therefore bepredicted that these approaches will find additional applications in the future.

  • 41.
    Hevekerl, Heike
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Spielmann, Thiemo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Chmyrov, Andriy
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Forster Resonance Energy Transfer beyond 10 nm: Exploiting the Triplet State Kinetics of Organic Fluorophores2011In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 115, no 45, p. 13360-13370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inter- or intramolecular distances of biomolecules can be studied by Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET). For most FRET methods, the observable range of distances is limited to 1-10 nm, and the labeling efficiency has to be controlled carefully to obtain accurate distance determinations, especially for intensity-based methods. In this study, we exploit the triplet state of the acceptor fluorophore as a FRET readout using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and transient state monitoring. The influence of donor fluorescence leaking into the acceptor channel is minimized by a novel suppression algorithm for spectral bleed-through, thereby tolerating a high excess (up to 100-fold) of donor-only labeled samples. The suppression algorithm and the high sensitivity of the triplet state to small changes in the fluorophore excitation rate make it possible to extend the observable range of FRET efficiencies by up to 50% in the presence of large donor-only populations. Given this increased range of FRET efficiencies, its compatibility with organic fluorophores, and the low requirements on the labeling efficiency and instrumentation, we foresee that this approach will be attractive for in vitro and in vivo FRET-based spectroscopy and imaging.

  • 42.
    Hevekerl, Heike
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Tornmalm, Johan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Fluorescence-based characterization of non-fluorescent transient states of tryptophan - prospects for protein conformation and interaction studies2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 35052Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tryptophan fluorescence is extensively used for label-free protein characterization. Here, we show that by analyzing how the average tryptophan fluorescence intensity varies with excitation modulation, kinetics of tryptophan dark transient states can be determined in a simple, robust and reliable manner. Thereby, highly environment-, protein conformation- and interaction-sensitive information can be recorded, inaccessible via traditional protein fluorescence readouts. For verification, tryptophan transient state kinetics were determined under different environmental conditions, and compared to literature data. Conformational changes in a spider silk protein were monitored via the triplet state kinetics of its tryptophan residues, reflecting their exposure to an air-saturated aqueous solution. Moreover, tryptophan fluorescence anti-bunching was discovered, reflecting local pH and buffer conditions, previously observed only by ultrasensitive measurements in highly fluorescent photo-acids. Taken together, the presented approach, broadly applicable under biologically relevant conditions, has the potential to become a standard biophysical approach for protein conformation, interaction and microenvironment studies.

  • 43.
    Hevekerl, Heike
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Characterization of non-fluorescent transient states of tryptophan by fluorescence relaxation: Influence of buffers, additives and prospects for protein studiesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Hevekerl, Heike
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Determination of molecular stoichiometry without reference samples by analysing fluorescence blinking with and without excitation synchronizationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Stoichiometry of molecular complexes plays a crucial role in biology. Moreover, for quantitative fluorescence studies, it is often useful to know the number of fluorophores labeled onto the molecules studied. In this work, we propose an approach to determine the number of independent fluorescence emitters on fluorescent molecules based on fluorescence blinking caused by photo-induced triplet state formation, photo-isomerization or charge transfer. The fluorescence blinking is measured under two different excitation regimes, on the same setup, and in one and the same sample. By comparing the fluorescence fluctuations under continuous excitation using Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS), when all the fluorophores are blinking independently of each other, with those occurring under square-pulsed excitation using Transient State (TRAST) spectroscopy, when all fluorophores are blinking in a synchronized manner, the number of fluorophores per molecule can be determined. No calibration sample is needed and the approach is independent of experimental conditions and of the specific environment of the molecules under study.

    The approach was experimentally validated by labeling double stranded DNA (dsDNA) with different concentrations of the intercalating dye YOYO-1 Iodide. The sample was then measured consecutively by TRAST and FCS and the number of fluorophores per molecule was calculated. The determined numbers were found to agree well with the number of fluorophores per dsDNA, as determined from FCS measurements using additional calibration samples.

  • 45.
    Hevekerl, Heike
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Determination of molecular stoichiometry without reference samples by analyzing fluorescence blinking with and without excitation synchronization2015In: METHODS AND APPLICATIONS IN FLUORESCENCE, ISSN 2050-6120, Vol. 3, no 2, article id 025001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stoichiometry of molecular complexes plays a crucial role in biology. Moreover, for quantitative fluorescence studies, it is often useful to know the number of fluorophores labeled onto the molecules studied. In this work, we propose an approach to determine the number of independent fluorescence emitters on fluorescent molecules based on fluorescence blinking caused by photo-induced triplet state formation, photo-isomerization or charge transfer. The fluorescence blinking is measured under two different excitation regimes, on the same setup, and in one and the same sample. By comparing the fluorescence fluctuations under continuous excitation using Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS), when all the fluorophores are blinking independently of each other, with those occurring under square-pulsed excitation using Transient State (TRAST) spectroscopy, when all fluorophores are blinking in a synchronized manner, the number of fluorophores per molecule can be determined. No calibration sample is needed and the approach is independent of experimental conditions and of the specific environment of the molecules under study. The approach was experimentally validated by labeling double stranded DNA (dsDNA) with different concentrations of the intercalating dye YOYO-1 Iodide. The sample was then measured consecutively by TRAST and FCS and the number of fluorophores per molecule was calculated. The determined numbers were found to agree well with the number of fluorophores per dsDNA, as determined from FCS measurements using additional calibration samples.

  • 46.
    Hevekerl, Heike
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Wigenius, Jens
    Persson, Gustav
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Dark states in ionic oligothiophene bioprobes-evidence from fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering2014In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 118, no 22, p. 5924--5933Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Luminescent conjugated polyelectrolytes (LCPs) can upon interaction with biological macromolecules change their luminescent properties, and thereby serve as conformation- and interaction-sensitive biomolecular probes. However, to exploit this in a more quantitative manner, there is a need to better understand the photophysical processes involved. We report studies of the conjugated pentameric oligothiophene, derivative p-FTAA, which changes optical properties with different p-FTAA concentrations in aqueous buffers, and in a pH and oxygen saturation dependent manner. Using dynamic light scattering, luminescence spectroscopy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we find evidence for a monomer dimer equilibrium, for the formation of large clusters of p-FTAA in aqueous environment, and can couple aggregation to changed emission properties of oligothiophenes. In addition, we observe the presence of at least two dark transient states, one presumably being a triplet state. Oxygen was found to statically quench the p-FTAA fluorescence but also to promote molecular fluorescence by quenching dark transient states of the p-FTAA molecules. Taken together, this study provides knowledge of fluorescence and photophysical features essential for applying p-FTAA and other oligothiophene derivatives for diagnostic purposes, including detection and staining of amyloid aggregates.

  • 47. Iovino, Federico
    et al.
    Engelen-Lee, Joo-Yeon
    Brouwer, Matthijs
    van de Beek, Diederik
    van der Ende, Arie
    Seron, Merche Valls
    Mellroth, Peter
    Muschiol, Sandra
    Bergstrand, Jan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Widengren, Jerker
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Henriques-Normark, Birgitta
    pIgR and PEC AM-1 bind to pneumococcal adhesins RrgA and PspC mediating bacterial brain invasion2017In: Journal of Experimental Medicine, ISSN 0022-1007, E-ISSN 1540-9538, Vol. 214, no 6, p. 1619-1630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the main cause of bacterial meningitis, a life-threating disease with a high case fatality rate despite treatment with antibiotics. Pneumococci cause meningitis by invading the blood and penetrating the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Using stimulated emission depletion (STED) super-resolution microscopy of brain biopsies from patients who died of pneumococcal meningitis, we observe that pneumococci colocalize with the two BBB endothelial receptors: polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1). We show that the major adhesin of the pneumococcal pilus-1, RrgA, binds both receptors, whereas the choline binding protein PspC binds, but to a lower extent, only pIgR. Using a bacteremia-derived meningitis model and mutant mice, as well as antibodies against the two receptors, we prevent pneumococcal entry into the brain and meningitis development. By adding antibodies to antibiotic (ceftriaxone)-treated mice, we further reduce the bacterial burden in the brain. Our data suggest that inhibition of pIgR and PECAM-1 has the potential to prevent pneumococcal meningitis.

  • 48. Kalinin, Stanislav
    et al.
    Sisamakis, Evangelos
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Magennis, Steven W.
    Felekyan, Suren
    Seidel, Claus A. M.
    On the Origin of Broadening of Single-Molecule FRET Efficiency Distributions beyond Shot Noise Limits2010In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 114, no 18, p. 6197-6206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Single-molecule FRET experiments on freely diffusing rigid molecules frequently show FRET efficiency (E) distributions broader than those defined by photon statistics. It is often unclear whether the observed extra broadening can be attributed to a physical donor-acceptor distance (R-DA) distribution. Using double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) labeled with Alexa488 and Cy5 (or Alexa647) as a test system, we investigate various possible contributions to the E distribution width. On the basis of simultaneous analysis of donor and acceptor intensities and donor lifetimes, we conclude that dsDNA chain dynamics can be ruled out as a possible reason for the observed E distribution broadening. We applied a set of tools to demonstrate that complex acceptor dye photophysics can represent a major contribution to the E distribution width. Quantitative analysis of the correlation between FRET efficiency and donor fluorescence lifetime in 2D multiparameter histograms allows one to distinguish between broadening due to distinct FRET or dye species. Moreover, we derived a simple theory, which predicts that the apparent distance width due to acceptor fluorescence quantum yield variations increases linearly with physical donor-acceptor distance. This theory nicely explains the experimentally observed FRET broadening of a series of freely diffusing labeled dsDNA and dsRNA molecules. Accounting for multiple acceptor states allowed the fitting of experimental E distributions, assuming a single fixed donor-acceptor distance.

  • 49. Kastrup, L.
    et al.
    Blom, Hans
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Eggeling, C.
    Hell, S. W.
    Fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy in subdiffraction focal volumes2005In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 94, no 17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We establish fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy (FFS) with nanoscale detection volumes generated by stimulated emission depletion. Our method applies fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence intensity distribution analysis to extract molecular information about mobilities and fluorescence emission in solution. The combination of correlation analysis with that of photon intensity distributions reveals a fivefold squeezing of the detection volume over current diffraction-limited systems, which is in full agreement with the simultaneously demonstrated 25-fold reduction in (axial) focal transit time. Our method significantly extends the potential of far-field FFS, including for the noninvasive investigation of molecular reactions at higher concentrations.

  • 50. Krmpot, Aleksandar J.
    et al.
    Nikolic, Stanko N.
    Vitali, Marco
    Papadopoulos, Dimitrios K.
    Oasa, Sho
    Thyberg, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Experimental Biomolecular Physics.
    Tisa, Simone
    Kinjo, Masataka
    Nilsson, Lennart
    Gehring, Walter J.
    Terenius, Lars
    Rigler, Rudolf
    Vukojevic, Vladana
    Quantitative confocal fluorescence microscopy of dynamic processes by multifocal fluorescence correlation spectroscopy2015In: ADVANCED MICROSCOPY TECHNIQUES IV; AND NEUROPHOTONICS II, 2015, Vol. 9536, article id 95360OConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantitative confocal fluorescence microscopy imaging without scanning is developed for the study of fast dynamical processes. The method relies on the use of massively parallel Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (mpFCS). Simultaneous excitation of fluorescent molecules across the specimen is achieved by passing a single laser beam through a Diffractive Optical Element (DOE) to generate a quadratic illumination matrix of 32x32 light sources. Fluorescence from 1024 illuminated spots is detected in a confocal arrangement by a matching matrix detector consisting of the same number of single-photon avalanche photodiodes (SPADs). Software was developed for data acquisition and fast auto- and cross-correlation analysis by parallel signal processing using a Graphic Processing Unit (GPU). Instrumental performance was assessed using a conventional single-beam FCS instrument as a reference. Versatility of the approach for application in biomedical research was evaluated using ex vivo salivary glands from Drosophila third instar larvae expressing a fluorescently-tagged transcription factor Sex Combs Reduced (Scr) and live PC12 cells stably expressing the fluorescently tagged mu-opioid receptor (MOPeGFP). We show that quantitative mapping of local concentration and mobility of transcription factor molecules across the specimen can be achieved using this approach, which paves the way for future quantitative characterization of dynamical reaction-diffusion landscapes across live cells/tissue with a sub-millisecond temporal resolution (presently 21 mu s/frame) and single-molecule sensitivity.

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