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  • 1.
    Ahlman, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Brethouwer, Geert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Johansson, Arne
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    A numerical method for simulation of turbulence and mixing in a compressible wall-jet2007Report (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Ahlman, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Brethouwer, Geert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Johansson, Arne
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Direct numerical simulation of a plane turbulent wall-jet including scalar mixing2007In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 065102-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct numerical simulation is used to study a turbulent plane wall-jet including the mixing of a passive scalar. The Reynolds and Mach numbers at the inlet are Re=2000 and M=0.5, respectively, and a constant coflow of 10% of the inlet jet velocity is used. The passive scalar is added at the inlet enabling an investigation of the wall-jet mixing. The self-similarity of the inner and outer shear layers is studied by applying inner and outer scaling. The characteristics of the wall-jet are compared to what is reported for other canonical shear flows. In the inner part, the wall-jet is found to closely resemble a zero pressure gradient boundary layer, and the outer layer is found to resemble a free plane jet. The downstream growth rate of the scalar is approximately equal to that of the streamwise velocity in terms of the growth rate of the half-widths. The scalar fluxes in the streamwise and wall-normal direction are found to be of comparable magnitude. The scalar mixing situation is further studied by evaluating the scalar dissipation rate and the mechanical to mixing time scale ratio.

  • 3.
    Ahlman, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Brethouwer, Geert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Johansson, Arne
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Direct numerical simulation of a reacting turbulent wall-jet2007Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Ahlman, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Brethouwer, Geert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Johansson, Arne
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Direct numerical simulation of non-isothermal turbulent wall-jets2009In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 21, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct numerical simulations of plane turbulent nonisothermal wall jets are performed and compared to the isothermal case. This study concerns a cold jet in a warm coflow with an ambient to jet density ratio of ρa/ρj = 0.4, and a warm jet in a cold coflow with a density ratio of ρa/ρj = 1.7. The coflow and wall temperature are equal and a temperature dependent viscosity according to Sutherland’s law is used. The inlet Reynolds and Mach numbers are equal in all these cases. The influence of the varying temperature on the development and jet growth is studied as well as turbulence and scalar statistics. The varying density affects the turbulence structures of the jets. Smaller turbulence scales are present in the warm jet than in the isothermal and cold jet and consequently the scale separation between the inner and outer shear layer is larger. In addition, a cold jet in a warm coflow at a higher inlet Reynolds number was also simulated. Although the domain length is somewhat limited, the growth rate and the turbulence statistics indicate approximate self-similarity in the fully turbulent region. The use of van Driest scaling leads to a collapse of all mean velocity profiles in the near-wall region. Taking into account the varying density by using semilocal scaling of turbulent stresses and fluctuations does not completely eliminate differences, indicating the influence of mean density variations on normalized turbulence statistics. Temperature and passive scalar dissipation rates and time scales have been computed since these are important for combustion models. Except for very near the wall, the dissipation time scales are rather similar in all cases and fairly constant in the outer region.

  • 5.
    Ahlman, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Brethouwer, Gert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Johansson, Arne V.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Direct numerical simulation of mixing in a plane compressible and turbulent wall jet2005In: 4th International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena, 2005, p. 1131-1136Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used to simulate the mixing of a passive scalar in a plane compressible and turbulent wall jet. The Mach number of the jet is M = 0.5 at the inlet. The downstream development of the jet is studied and compared to experimental data. Mixing in the inner and outer shear layers of the wall jet is investigated through scalar fluxes, the probability density function of the scalar concentration and the joint probability density function of the wall normal velocity fluctuation and the scalar concentration

  • 6.
    Alvelius, Krister
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Johansson, Arne, V.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    LES computations and comparison with Kolmogorov theory for two-point pressure{velocity correlations and structure functions for globally anisotropic turbulence2000In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 403, p. 23-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new extension of the Kolmogorov theory, for the two-point pressure–velocity correlation, is studied by LES of homogeneous turbulence with a large inertial subrange in order to capture the high Reynolds number nonlinear dynamics of the flow. Simulations of both decaying and forced anisotropic homogeneous turbulence were performed. The forcing allows the study of higher Reynolds numbers for the same number of modes compared with simulations of decaying turbulence. The forced simulations give statistically stationary turbulence, with a substantial inertial subrange, well suited to test the Kolmogorov theory for turbulence that is locally isotropic but has significant anisotropy of the total energy distribution. This has been investigated in the recent theoretical studies of Lindborg (1996) and Hill (1997) where the role of the pressure terms was given particular attention. On the surface the two somewhat different approaches taken in these two studies may seem to lead to contradictory conclusions, but are here reconciled and (numerically) shown to yield an interesting extension of the traditional Kolmogorov theory. The results from the simulations indeed show that the two-point pressure–velocity correlation closely adheres to the predicted linear relation in the inertial subrange where also the pressure-related term in the general Kolmogorov equation is shown to vanish. Also, second- and third-order structure functions are shown to exhibit the expected dependences on separation.

  • 7. Aronsson, D.
    et al.
    Johansson, Arne, V.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Löfdahl, Lennart
    Shear-free turbulence near a wall1996In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 338, p. 363-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mean shear has a major influence on near-wall turbulence but there are also other important physical processes at work in the turbulence/wall interaction. In order to isolate these, a shear-free boundary layer was studied experimentally. The desired flow conditions were realized by generating decaying grid turbulence with a uniform mean velocity and passing it over a wall moving with the stream speed. It is shown that the initial response of the turbulence field can be well described by the theory of Hunt & Graham (1978). Later, where this theory ceases to give an accurate description, terms of the Reynolds stress transport (RST) equations were measured or estimated by balancing the equations. An important finding is that two different length scales are associated with the near-wall damping of the Reynolds stresses. The wall-normal velocity component is damped over a region extending roughly one macroscale out from the wall. The pressure–strain redistribution that normally would result from the Reynolds stress anisotropy in this region was found to be completely inhibited by the near-wall influence. In a thin region close to the wall the pressure–reflection effects were found to give a pressure–strain that has an effect opposite to the normally expected isotropization. This behaviour is not captured by current models.

  • 8. Ballarotta, M.
    et al.
    Brodeau, L.
    Brandefelt, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Lundberg, P.
    Döös, K.
    Last Glacial Maximum world ocean simulations at eddy-permitting and coarse resolutions: do eddies contribute to a better consistency between models and palaeoproxies?2013In: Climate of the Past, ISSN 1814-9324, E-ISSN 1814-9332, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 2669-2686Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most state-of-the-art climate models include a coarsely resolved oceanic component, which hardly captures detailed dynamics, whereas eddy-permitting and eddy-resolving simulations are developed to reproduce the observed ocean. In this study, an eddy-permitting and a coarse resolution numerical experiment are conducted to simulate the global ocean state for the period of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, similar to 26 500 to 19 000 yr ago) and to investigate the improvements due to taking into account the smaller spatial scales. The ocean state from each simulation is confronted with a data set from the Multiproxy Approach for the Reconstruction of the Glacial Ocean (MARGO) sea surface temperatures (SSTs), some reconstructions of the palaeo-circulations and a number of sea-ice reconstructions. The western boundary currents and the Southern Ocean dynamics are better resolved in the high-resolution experiment than in the coarse simulation, but, although these more detailed SST structures yield a locally improved consistency between model predictions and proxies, they do not contribute significantly to the global statistical score. The SSTs in the tropical coastal upwelling zones are also not significantly improved by the eddy-permitting regime. The models perform in the mid-latitudes but as in the majority of the Paleo-climate Modelling Intercomparison Project simulations, the modelled sea-ice conditions are inconsistent with the palaeo-reconstructions. The effects of observation locations on the comparison between observed and simulated SST suggest that more sediment cores may be required to draw reliable conclusions about the improvements introduced by the high resolution model for reproducing the global SSTs. One has to be careful with the interpretation of the deep ocean state which has not reached statistical equilibrium in our simulations. However, the results indicate that the meridional overturning circulations are different between the two regimes, suggesting that the model parametrizations might also play a key role for simulating past climate states.

  • 9.
    Berger, Marit
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Modelling the early to mid-Holocene Arctic climate2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the recent past it has become evident that the Earth's climate is changing, and that human activity play a significant role in these changes. One of the regions where the ongoing climate change has been most evident is in the Arctic: the surface temperature has increased twice as much in this region as compared to the global average, in addition, a significant decline in the Arctic sea-ice extent has been observed in the past decades. Climate model studies of past climates are important tools to understand the ongoing climate change and how the Earth's climate may respond to changes in the forcing.

    This thesis includes studies of the Arctic climate in simulations of the early and mid-Holocene, 9 000 and 6 000 years before present. Changes in the Earth's orbital parameters resulted in increased summer insolation as compared to present day, especially at high northern latitudes. Geological data imply that the surface temperatures in the early to mid Holocene were similar to those projected for the near future. In addition, the geological data implies that the Arctic sea ice cover was significantly reduced in this period. This makes the early to mid-Holocene an interesting period to study with respect to the changes observed in the region at present.

    Several model studies of the mid-Holocene have been performed through the Paleoclimate Modeling Intercomparison Project (PMIP1 to PMIP3). The simulations have been performed with climate models of varying complexity, from atmosphere-only models in the first phase to fully coupled models with the same resolution as used for future climate simulations in the third phase. The first part of this thesis investigates the simulated sea ice in the pre-industrial and mid-Holocene simulations included in the PMIP2 and PMIP3 ensemble. As the complexity of the models increases, the models simulate smaller extents and thinner sea ice in the Arctic; the sea-ice extent suggested by the proxy data for the mid-Holocene is however not reproduced by the majority of the models.

    One possible explanation for the discrepancy between the simulated and reconstructed Arctic sea ice extent is missing or inadequate representations of important processes. The representation of atmospheric aerosol direct and indirect effects in past climates is a candidate process. Previous studies of deeper time periods have concluded that the representation of the direct and indirect effects of the atmospheric aerosols can influence the simulated climates, and reduce the equator to pole temperature gradient in past warm climates, in better agreement with reconstructions. The second part of the thesis investigates the influence of aerosol on the early Holocene climate. The indirect effect of reduced aerosol concentrations as compared to the present day is found to cause an amplification of the warming, especially in the Arctic region. A better agreement with reconstructed Arctic sea ice extent is thus achieved.

  • 10.
    Berger, Marit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brandefelt, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Nilsson, Johan
    Stockholm University.
    The sensitivity of the Arctic sea ice to orbitally induced insolation changes: a study of the mid-Holocene Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project 2 and 3 simulations2013In: Climate of the Past, ISSN 1814-9324, E-ISSN 1814-9332, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 969-982Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present work the Arctic sea ice in the mid-Holocene and the pre-industrial climates are analysed and compared on the basis of climate-model results from the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project phase 2 (PMIP2) and phase 3 (PMIP3). The PMIP3 models generally simulate smaller and thinner sea-ice extents than the PMIP2 models both for the pre-industrial and the mid-Holocene climate. Further, the PMIP2 and PMIP3 models all simulate a smaller and thinner Arctic summer sea-ice cover in the mid-Holocene than in the pre-industrial control climate. The PMIP3 models also simulate thinner winter sea ice than the PMIP2 models. The winter sea-ice extent response, i.e. the difference between the mid-Holocene and the pre-industrial climate, varies among both PMIP2 and PMIP3 models. Approximately one half of the models simulate a decrease in winter sea-ice extent and one half simulates an increase. The model-mean summer sea-ice extent is 11% (21 %) smaller in the mid-Holocene than in the pre-industrial climate simulations in the PMIP2 (PMIP3). In accordance with the simple model of Thorndike (1992), the sea-ice thickness response to the insolation change from the pre-industrial to the mid-Holocene is stronger in models with thicker ice in the pre-industrial climate simulation. Further, the analyses show that climate models for which the Arctic sea-ice responses to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations are similar may simulate rather different sea-ice responses to the change in solar forcing between the mid-Holocene and the pre-industrial. For two specific models, which are analysed in detail, this difference is found to be associated with differences in the simulated cloud fractions in the summer Arctic; in the model with a larger cloud fraction the effect of insolation change is muted. A sub-set of the mid-Holocene simulations in the PMIP ensemble exhibit open water off the north-eastern coast of Greenland in summer, which can provide a fetch for surface waves. This is in broad agreement with recent analyses of sea-ice proxies, indicating that beach-ridges formed on the north-eastern coast of Greenland during the early-to mid-Holocene.

  • 11.
    Berger, Marit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Struthers, Hamish
    Stockholm University.
    Brandefelt, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Ekman, Annica
    Stockholm University.
    Wei, Liang
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Pristine aerosol concentrations, cloud droplet size and early Holocene climateManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This work investigates how the simulated early Holocene climate is influenced by the representation of aerosols and their effect on the climate. The representations of the direct and first indirect aerosol effects in the Community Earth System Model, version1 (CESM1) are modified in two sensitivity experiments.

    In the first sensitivity experiment (CESM 9k R14), the first indirect effect on the simulated climate is modified by setting the cloud droplet effective radius, (Reff ) in the model to a constant value. This value is chosen to be representative for pristine conditions. In the second sensitivity experiment (CESM 9k CAMO), the representation of both the direct and first indirect effects is modified. An atmosphere-only model with interactive aerosols is used to simulate the early Holocene aerosol loading and the change in Reff due to the decrease in atmospheric aerosols.

    The changes in aerosol effects introduced in the two sensitivity experiments differ both in magnitude and spatial pattern. We find that despite the difference in the spatial pattern of the changes in the aerosol effects, the warming patterns in the two sensitivity experiments are similar; the surface temperature increases in both simulations, with an enhanced warming in the Arctic region. The warming is approximately twice as large in the CESM 9k R14 simulation than in the CESM 9k CAMO simulation.

  • 12.
    Brandefelt, Jenny
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Kjellstrom, E
    Naslund, J O
    Strandberg, G
    Voelker, A H L
    Wohlfarth, B
    A coupled climate model simulation of Marine Isotope Stage 3 stadial climate2011In: Climate of the Past, ISSN 1814-9324, E-ISSN 1814-9332, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 649-670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a coupled global climate model (CGCM) simulation, integrated for 1500 yr to quasi-equilibrium, of a stadial (cold period) within Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3). The simulated Greenland stadial 12 (GS12; similar to 44 ka BP) annual global mean surface temperature (T-s) is 5.5 degrees C lower than in the simulated recent past (RP) climate and 1.3 degrees C higher than in the simulated Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; 21 ka BP) climate. The simulated GS12 is evaluated against proxy data and previous modelling studies of MIS3 stadial climate. We show that the simulated MIS 3 climate, and hence conclusions drawn regarding the dynamics of this climate, is highly model-dependent. The main findings are: (i) Proxy sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are higher than simulated SSTs in the central North Atlantic, in contrast to earlier simulations of MIS 3 stadial climate in which proxy SSTs were found to be lower than simulated SST. (ii) The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) slows down by 50% in the GS12 climate as compared to the RP climate. This slowdown is attained without freshwater forcing in the North Atlantic region, a method used in other studies to force an AMOC shutdown. (iii) El-Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) teleconnections in mean sea level pressure (MSLP) are significantly modified by GS12 and LGM forcing and boundary conditions. (iv) Both the mean state and variability of the simulated GS12 is dependent on the equilibration. The annual global mean T-s only changes by 0.10 degrees C from model years 500-599 to the last century of the simulation, indicating that the climate system may be close to equilibrium already after 500 yr of integration. However, significant regional differences between the last century of the simulation and model years 500-599 exist. Further, the difference between simulated and proxy SST is reduced from model years 500-599 to the last century of the simulation. The results of the ENSO variability analysis is also shown to depend on the equilibration.

  • 13.
    Brandefelt, Jenny
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Kornich, Heiner
    Northern Hemisphere Stationary Waves in Future Climate Projections2008In: Journal of Climate, ISSN 0894-8755, E-ISSN 1520-0442, Vol. 21, no 23, p. 6341-6353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The response of the atmospheric large-scale circulation to an enhanced greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing varies among coupled global climate model (CGCM) simulations. In this study, 16 CGCM simulations of the response of the climate system to a 1% yr(-1) increase in the atmospheric CO2 concentration to quadrupling are analyzed with focus on Northern Hemisphere winter. A common signal in 14 out of the 16 simulations is an increased or unchanged stationary wave amplitude. A majority of the simulations may be categorized into one of three groups based on the GHG-induced changes in the atmospheric stationary waves. The response of the zonal mean barotropic wind is similar within each group. Fifty percent of the simulations belong to the first group, which is categorized by a stationary wave with five waves encompassing the entire NH and a strengthening of the zonal mean barotropic wind. The second and third groups, respectively consisting of three and two simulations, are characterized by a broadening and a northward shift of the zonal mean barotropic wind, respectively. A linear model of barotropic vorticity is employed to study the importance of these mean flow changes to the stationary wave response. The linear calculations indicate that the GHG-induced mean wind changes explain 50%, 4%, and 37% of the stationary wave changes in each group, respectively. Thus, for the majority of simulations the zonal mean wind changes do significantly explain the stationary wave response.

  • 14.
    Brethouwer, Geert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    The effect of rotation on rapidly sheared homogeneous turbulence and passive scalar transport. Linear theory and direct numerical simulation2005In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 542, p. 305-342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of rotation on a homogeneous turbulent shear flow has been studied by means of a series of direct numerical simulations with different rotation numbers. The evolution of passive scalar fields with mean gradients in each of the three orthogonal directions in the flow was investigated in order to elucidate the effect of rotation on turbulent scalar transport. Conditions of the near-wall region of a boundary layer were approached by using a rapid shear and therefore, comparisons could be made with rapid distortion theory based on the linearized equations of the flow and scalar transport. Reynolds stresses, pressure-strain correlations and two-point velocity correlations were computed and turbulent structures were visualized. It is shown that rotation has a strong influence on the time development of the turbulent kinetic energy, the anisotropy of the flow and on the turbulent structures. Furthermore, rotation significantly affects turbulent scalar transport. The transport rate of the scalar and the direction of the scalar flux vector show large variations with different rotation numbers, and a strong alignment was observed between the scalar flux and the principal axes of the Reynolds stress tensor. The ratio of the turbulent and scalar time scales is influenced by rotation as well. The predictions of the linear theory of the turbulent one-point statistics and the scalar flux agreed fairly well with direct numerical simulation (DNS) results based on the full nonlinear governing equations. Nonetheless, some clear and strong nonlinear effects are observed in a couple of cases which significantly influence the development of the turbulence and scalar transport.

  • 15.
    Brethouwer, Geert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Billant, P.
    Lindborg, Erik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Chomaz, J. M.
    Scaling analysis and simulation of strongly stratified turbulent flows2007In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 585, p. 343-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct numerical simulations of stably and strongly stratified turbulent flows with Reynolds number Re >> 1 and horizontal Froude number F-h << 1 are presented. The results are interpreted on the basis of a scaling analysis of the governing equations. The analysis suggests that there are two different strongly stratified regimes according to the parameter R = ReFh2. When R >> 1, viscous forces are unimportant and l(v) scales as l(v) similar to U/N (U is a characteristic horizontal velocity and N is the Brunt-Vaisala frequency) so that the dynamics of the flow is inherently three-dimensional but strongly anisotropic. When R << 1, vertical viscous shearing is important so that l(v) similar to l(h)/Re-1/2 (l(h) is a characteristic horizontal length scale). The parameter R is further shown to be related to the buoyancy Reynolds number and proportional to (l(O)/eta)(4/3), where l(O) is the Ozmidov length scale and eta the Kolmogorov length scale. This implies that there are simultaneously two distinct ranges in strongly stratified turbulence when R >> 1: the scales larger than l(O) are strongly influenced by the stratification while those between l(O) and eta are weakly affected by stratification. The direct numerical simulations with forced large-scale horizontal two-dimensional motions and uniform stratification cover a wide Re and F-h, range and support the main parameter controlling strongly stratified turbulence being R. The numerical results are in good agreement with the scaling laws for the vertical length scale. Thin horizontal layers are observed independently of the value of R but they tend to be smooth for R < 1, while for R > 1 small-scale three-dimensional turbulent disturbances are increasingly superimposed. The dissipation of kinetic energy is mostly due to vertical shearing for R < 1 but tends to isotropy as R increases above unity. When R < 1, the horizontal and vertical energy spectra are very steep while, when R > 1, the horizontal spectra of kinetic and potential energy exhibit an approximate k(h)(-5/3)-power-law range and a clear forward energy cascade is observed.

  • 16.
    Brethouwer, Geert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Lindborg, Erik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Divergent and rotational modes in stratified flows2007In: ADVANCES IN TURBULENCE XI / [ed] Palma, JMLM; Lopes, AS, SPRINGER-VERLAG BERLIN: BERLIN , 2007, Vol. 117, p. 720-720Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Brethouwer, Geert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Lindborg, Erik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Particle Diffusion in Stably Stratified Flows2010In: PROGRESS IN TURBULENCE III / [ed] Peinke, J.; Oberlack, M.; Talamelli, A., 2010, Vol. 131, p. 163-166Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerical simulations are used to study the vertical dispersion of fluid particles in homogeneous turbulent flows with a stable stratification. The results of direct numerical simulations are in good agreement with the relation for the long time fluid particle dispersion, = 2 epsilon(P)t / N-2, derived by [6], though with a small dependence on the buoyancy Reynolds number. Here, is the mean square vertical particle displacement, epsilon p is the dissipation of potential energy, t is time and N is the Brunt-Vaisala frequency. A simulation with hyperviscosicity is performed to verify the relation = (1 + pi C-PL)2 epsilon(P)t / N-2 for shorter times, also derived by [6]. The agreement is reasonable and we find that C-PL similar to 3. The onset of a plateau in is observed in the simulations at t similar to E-P / epsilon(P) which scales as 4E(P) / N-2, where E-P is the potential energy.

  • 18.
    Brethouwer, Geert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Lindborg, Erik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Passive scalars in stratified turbulence2008In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 35, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Statistics of a passive scalar (or tracer) with a horizontal mean gradient in randomly forced and strongly stratified turbulence are investigated by numerical simulations. We observe that horizontal isotropy of the passive scalar spectrum is satisfied in the inertial range. The spectrum has the form E-theta(k(h)) = C-theta epsilon theta epsilon(-1/3)(K) k(h)(-5/3), where epsilon(theta), epsilon(K) are the dissipation of scalar variance and kinetic energy respectively, and C-theta similar or equal to 0.5 is a constant. This spectrum is consistent with atmospheric measurements in the mesoscale range with wavelengths 1 - 500 km. We also calculate the fourth-order passive scalar structure function and show that intermittency effects are present in stratified turbulence.

  • 19.
    Brethouwer, Geert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Duguet, Yohann
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Johansson, Arne V.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Recurrent Bursts via Linear Processes in Turbulent Environments2014In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 112, no 14, p. 144502-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large-scale instabilities occurring in the presence of small-scale turbulent fluctuations are frequently observed in geophysical or astrophysical contexts but are difficult to reproduce in the laboratory. Using extensive numerical simulations, we report here on intense recurrent bursts of turbulence in plane Poiseuille flow rotating about a spanwise axis. A simple model based on the linear instability of the mean flow can predict the structure and time scale of the nearly periodic and self-sustained burst cycles. Poiseuille flow is suggested as a prototype for future studies of low-dimensional dynamics embedded in strongly turbulent environments.

  • 20.
    Brethouwer, Gert
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Lindborg, Erik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Numerical simulations of particle dispersion in stratified flows2009In: ADVANCES IN TURBULENCE XII: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 12TH EUROMECH EUROPEAN TURBULENCE CONFERENCE / [ed] Eckhardt, B., 2009, Vol. 132, p. 51-55Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21. Cimarelli, A.
    et al.
    De Angelis, E.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brethouwer, Geert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Talamelli, A.
    Casciola, C. M.
    Sources and fluxes of scale energy in the overlap layer of wall turbulence2015In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 771, p. 407-423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct numerical simulations of turbulent channel flows at friction Reynolds numbers (Re) of 550, 1000 and 1500 are used to analyse the turbulent production, transfer and dissipation mechanisms in the compound space of scales and wall distances by means of the Kolmogorov equation generalized to inhomogeneous anisotropic flows. Two distinct peaks of scale-energy source are identified. The first, stronger one, belongs to the near-wall cycle. Its location in the space of scales and physical space is found to scale in viscous units, while its intensity grows slowly with Re, indicating a near-wall modulation. The second source peak is found further away from the wall in the putative overlap layer, and it is separated from the near-wall source by a layer of significant scale-energy sink. The dynamics of the second outer source appears to be strongly dependent on the Reynolds number. The detailed scale-by-scale analysis of this source highlights well-defined features that are used to make the properties of the outer turbulent source independent of Reynolds number and wall distance by rescaling the problem. Overall, the present results suggest a strong connection of the observed outer scale-energy source with the presence of an outer region of turbulence production whose mechanisms are well separated from the near-wall region and whose statistical features agree with the hypothesis of an overlap layer dominated by attached eddies. Inner-outer interactions between the near-wall and outer source region in terms of scale-energy fluxes are also analysed. It is conjectured that the near-wall modulation of the statistics at increasing Reynolds number can be related to a confinement of the near-wall turbulence production due to the presence of increasingly large production scales in the outer scale-energy source region.

  • 22. Dangendorf, Soenke
    et al.
    Müller-Navarra, Sylvin
    Jensen, Juergen
    Schenk, Frederik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Wahl, Thomas
    Weisse, Ralf
    North Sea Storminess from a Novel Storm Surge Record since AD 18432014In: Journal of Climate, ISSN 0894-8755, E-ISSN 1520-0442, Vol. 27, no 10, p. 3582-3595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The detection of potential long-term changes in historical storm statistics and storm surges plays a vitally important role for protecting coastal communities. In the absence of long homogeneous wind records, the authors present a novel, independent, and homogeneous storm surge record based on water level observations in the North Sea since 1843. Storm surges are characterized by considerable interannual-to-decadal variability linked to large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns. Time periods of increased storm surge levels prevailed in the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries without any evidence for significant long-term trends. This contradicts with recent findings based on reanalysis data, which suggest increasing storminess in the region since the late nineteenth century. The authors compare the wind and pressure fields from the Twentieth-Century Reanalysis (20CRv2) with the storm surge record by applying state-of-the-art empirical wind surge formulas. The comparison reveals that the reanalysis is a valuable tool that leads to good results over the past 100 yr; previously the statistical relationship fails, leaving significantly lower values in the upper percentiles of the predicted surge time series. These low values lead to significant upward trends over the entire investigation period, which are in turn supported by neither the storm surge record nor an independent circulation index based on homogeneous pressure readings. The authors therefore suggest that these differences are related to higher uncertainties in the earlier years of the 20CRv2 over the North Sea region.

  • 23. Decremer, Damien
    et al.
    Chung, Chul E.
    Ekman, Annica M. L.
    Brandefelt, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Which significance test performs the best in climate simulations?2014In: Tellus. Series A, Dynamic meteorology and oceanography, ISSN 0280-6495, E-ISSN 1600-0870, Vol. 66, no 1, p. 23139-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change simulated with climate models needs a significance testing to establish the robustness of simulated climate change relative to model internal variability. Student's t-test has been the most popular significance testing technique despite more sophisticated techniques developed to address autocorrelation. We apply Student's t-test and four advanced techniques in establishing the significance of the average over 20 continuous-year simulations, and validate the performance of each technique using much longer (375-1000 yr) model simulations. We find that all the techniques tend to perform better in precipitation than in surface air temperature. A sizable performance gain using some of the advanced techniques is realised in the model Ts output portion with strong positive lag-1 yr autocorrelation (> +/- 0.6), but this gain disappears in precipitation. Furthermore, strong positive lag-1 yr autocorrelation is found to be very uncommon in climate model outputs. Thus, there is no reason to replace Student's t-test by the advanced techniques in most cases.

  • 24.
    Do-Quang, Minh
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Physicochemical Fluid Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Amberg, Gustav
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Physicochemical Fluid Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brethouwer, Gert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Johansson, Arne V.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Simulation of finite-size fibers in turbulent channel flows2014In: Physical Review E. Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics, ISSN 1539-3755, E-ISSN 1550-2376, Vol. 89, no 1, p. 013006-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamical behavior of almost neutrally buoyant finite-size rigid fibers or rods in turbulent channel flow is studied by direct numerical simulations. The time evolution of the fiber orientation and translational and rotational motions in a statistically steady channel flow is obtained for three different fiber lengths. The turbulent flow is modeled by an entropy lattice Boltzmann method, and the interaction between fibers and carrier fluid is modeled through an external boundary force method. Direct contact and lubrication force models for fiber-fiber interactions and fiber-wall interaction are taken into account to allow for a full four-way interaction. The density ratio is chosen to mimic cellulose fibers in water. It is shown that the finite size leads to fiber-turbulence interactions that are significantly different from earlier reported results for point like particles (e.g., elongated ellipsoids smaller than the Kolmogorov scale). An effect that becomes increasingly accentuated with fiber length is an accumulation in high-speed regions near the wall, resulting in a mean fiber velocity that is higher than the mean fluid velocity. The simulation results indicate that the finite-size fibers tend to stay in the high-speed streaks due to collisions with the wall. In the central region of the channel, long fibers tend to align in the spanwise direction. Closer to the wall the long fibers instead tend to toward to a rotation in the shear plane, while very close to the wall they become predominantly aligned in the streamwise direction.

  • 25.
    El Khoury, George K.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brethouwer, Geert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Johansson, Arne V.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Turbulent pipe flow: Statistics, Re-dependence, structures and similarities with channel and boundary layer flows2014In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 506, no 1, p. 012010-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct numerical simulation data of fully developed turbulent pipe flow are extensively compared with those of turbulent channel flow and zero-pressure-gradient boundary layer flow for Re-tau up to 1 000. In the near-wall region, a high degree of similarity is observed in the three flow cases in terms of one-point statistics, probability density functions of the wall-shear stress and pressure, spectra, Reynolds stress budgets and advection velocity of the turbulent structures. This supports the notion that the near-wall region is universal for pipe and channel flow. Probability density functions of the wall shear stress, streamwise turbulence intensities, one-dimensional spanwise/azimuthal spectra of the streamwise velocity and Reynolds-stress budgets are very similar near the wall in the three flow cases, suggesting that the three cauonical wall-bounded flows share wally features. In the wake region, the wean streamwise velocity and Reynolds stress budgets show smile expected differences.

  • 26.
    El Khoury, George K.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Noorani, Azad
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Fischer, Paul F.
    Brethouwer, Geert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Johansson, Arne V.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. KTH, Centres, SeRC - Swedish e-Science Research Centre.
    Direct Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Pipe Flow at Moderately High Reynolds Numbers2013In: Flow Turbulence and Combustion, ISSN 1386-6184, E-ISSN 1573-1987, Vol. 91, no 3, p. 475-495Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fully resolved direct numerical simulations (DNSs) have been performed with a high-order spectral element method to study the flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a smooth circular pipe of radius R and axial length 25R in the turbulent flow regime at four different friction Reynolds numbers Re (tau) = 180, 360, 550 and . The new set of data is put into perspective with other simulation data sets, obtained in pipe, channel and boundary layer geometry. In particular, differences between different pipe DNS are highlighted. It turns out that the pressure is the variable which differs the most between pipes, channels and boundary layers, leading to significantly different mean and pressure fluctuations, potentially linked to a stronger wake region. In the buffer layer, the variation with Reynolds number of the inner peak of axial velocity fluctuation intensity is similar between channel and boundary layer flows, but lower for the pipe, while the inner peak of the pressure fluctuations show negligible differences between pipe and channel flows but is clearly lower than that for the boundary layer, which is the same behaviour as for the fluctuating wall shear stress. Finally, turbulent kinetic energy budgets are almost indistinguishable between the canonical flows close to the wall (up to y (+) a parts per thousand aEuro parts per thousand 100), while substantial differences are observed in production and dissipation in the outer layer. A clear Reynolds number dependency is documented for the three flow configurations.

  • 27. Feser, F.
    et al.
    Barcikowska, M.
    Krueger, O.
    Schenk, Frederik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Weisse, R.
    Xia, L.
    Storminess over the North Atlantic and northwestern Europe: A review2015In: Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, ISSN 0035-9009, E-ISSN 1477-870X, Vol. 141, no 687, p. 350-382Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review assesses storm studies over the North Atlantic and northwestern Europe regarding the occurrence of potential long-term trends. Based on a systematic review of available articles, trends are classified according to different geographical regions, datasets, and time periods. Articles that used measurement and proxy data, reanalyses, regional and global climate model data on past and future trends are evaluated for changes in storm climate. The most important result is that trends in storm activity depend critically on the time period analysed. An increase in storm numbers is evident for the reanalyses period for the most recent decades, whereas most long-term studies show merely decadal variability for the last 100-150 years. Storm trends derived from reanalyses data and climate model data for the past are mostly limited to the last four to six decades. The majority of these studies find increasing storm activity north of about 55-60° N over the North Atlantic with a negative tendency southward. This increase from about the 1970s until the mid-1990s is also mirrored by long-term proxies and the North Atlantic Oscillation and constitutes a part of their decadal variability. Studies based on proxy and measurement data or model studies over the North Atlantic for the past which cover more than 100 years show large decadal variations and either no trend or a decrease in storm numbers. Future scenarios until about the year 2100 indicate mostly an increase in winter storm intensity over the North Atlantic and western Europe. However, future trends in total storm numbers are quite heterogeneous and depend on the model generation used.

  • 28. Friedrich, R.
    et al.
    Johansson, Arne
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    FOREWORD TO SPECIAL ISSUE Seventh International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena2013In: Journal of turbulence, ISSN 1468-5248, E-ISSN 1468-5248, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 1-3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 29. Friedrich, R.
    et al.
    Johansson, Arne V.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Foreword to special issue: Eighth International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena (TSFP-8)2015In: Journal of turbulence, ISSN 1468-5248, E-ISSN 1468-5248, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 203-207Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 30. Friedrich, R.
    et al.
    Johansson, Arne V.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Sixth International Symposium on Turbulence and Shear Flow Phenomena FOREWORD TO SPECIAL ISSUE2011In: Journal of turbulence, ISSN 1468-5248, E-ISSN 1468-5248, Vol. 12, no 14, p. 1-2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 31. Girimaji, Sharath S.
    et al.
    Wallin, Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Closure modeling in bridging regions of variable-resolution (VR) turbulence computations2013In: Journal of turbulence, ISSN 1468-5248, E-ISSN 1468-5248, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 72-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimal utilization of computational resources mandates spatio-temporal variation in resolution for computing complex engineering flows. Closure modeling in regions bridging between different resolutions is rendered difficult due to changing interactions between resolved and unresolved fields. We develop a closure model for the bridging region based on energy conservation principles. Then we proceed to provide a proof of concept in decaying isotropic turbulence with temporally varying resolution. The simplicity of the flow permits a thorough examination of various aspects of the proposed closure not feasible in more complex flows. The results demonstrate the potential promise of the approach, but more validation studies need to be performed. While the present development is in the context of partially averaged Navier-Stokes (PANS) method, the closure principle should apply for other variable-resolution (VR) approaches.

  • 32. Goosse, H.
    et al.
    Roche, D. M.
    Mairesse, A.
    Berger, Marit
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Modelling past sea ice changes2013In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 79, p. 191-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A dominant characteristic of the available simulations of past sea ice changes is the strong link between the model results for modern and past climates. Nearly all the models have similar extent for pre-industrial conditions and for the mid-Holocene. The models with the largest extent at Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) are also characterized by large pre-industrial values. As a consequence, the causes of model biases and of the spread of model responses identified for present-day conditions appear relevant when simulating the past sea ice changes. Nevertheless, the models that display a relatively realistic sea-ice cover for present-day conditions often display contrasted response for some past periods. The difference appears particularly large for the LGM in the Southern Ocean and for the summer ice extent in the Arctic for the early Holocene (and to a smaller extent for the mid-Holocene). Those periods are thus key ones to evaluate model behaviour and model physics in conditions different from those of the last decades. Paleoclimate modelling is also an invaluable tool to test hypotheses that could explain the signal recorded by proxies and thus to improve our understanding of climate dynamics. Model analyses have been focused on specific processes, such as the role of atmospheric and ocean heat transport in sea ice changes or the relative magnitude of the model response to different forcings. The studies devoted to the early Holocene provide an interesting example in this framework as both radiative forcing and freshwater discharge from the ice sheets were very different compared to now. This is thus a good target to identify the dominant processes ruling the system behaviour and to evaluate the way models represent them.

  • 33.
    Grigoriev, Igor
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Turbulence modeling of compressible flows with large density variation2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we highlight the influence of mean dilatation and mean density gradient on the Reynolds stress modeling of compressible, heat-releasing and supercritical turbulent flows.Firstly, the modeling of the rapid pressure-strain correlation has been extended to self-consistently account for the influence of mean dilatation.Secondly, an algebraic model for the turbulent density flux has been developed and coupled to the tensor equationfor Reynolds stress anisotropy via a 'local mean acceleration',a generalization of the buoyancy force.

    We applied the resulting differential Reynolds stress model (DRSM) and the corresponding explicit algebraic Reynolds stress model (EARSM) to homogeneously sheared and compressed or expanded two-dimensional mean flows. Both formulations have shown that our model preserves the realizability of the turbulence, meaning that the Reynolds stresses do not attain unphysical values, unlike earlier approaches. Comparison with rapid distortion theory (RDT) demonstrated that the DRSM captures the essentials of the transient behaviour of the diagonal anisotropies and gives good predictions of the turbulence kinetic energy.

    A general three-dimensional solution to the coupled EARSM  has been formulated. In the case of turbulent flow in de Laval nozzle we investigated the influence of compressibility effects and demonstrated that the different calibrations lead to different turbulence regimes but with retained realizability. We calibrated our EARSM against a DNS of combustion in a wall-jet flow. Correct predictions of turbulent density fluxes have been achieved and essential features of the anisotropy behaviour have been captured.The proposed calibration keeps the model free of singularities for the cases studied. In addition,  we have applied the EARSM to the investigation of supercritical carbon dioxide flow in an annulus. The model correctly captured mean enthalpy, temperature and density as well as the turbulence shear stress. Hence, we consider the model as a useful tool for the analysis of a wide range of compressible flows with large density variation.

  • 34.
    Grigoriev, Igor A.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Wallin, Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brethouwer, Gert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Johansson, Arne V.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    A realizable explicit algebraic Reynolds stress model for compressible turbulent flow with significant mean dilatation2013In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 25, no 10, p. 105112-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The explicit algebraic Reynolds stress model of Wallin and Johansson [J. Fluid Mech. 403, 89 (2000)] is extended to compressible and variable-density turbulent flows. This is achieved by correctly taking into account the influence of the mean dilatation on the rapid pressure-strain correlation. The resulting model is formally identical to the original model in the limit of constant density. For two-dimensional mean flows the model is analyzed and the physical root of the resulting quartic equation is identified. Using a fixed-point analysis of homogeneously sheared and strained compressible flows, we show that the new model is realizable, unlike the previous model. Application of the model together with a K - omega model to quasi one-dimensional plane nozzle flow, transcending from subsonic to supersonic regime, also demonstrates realizability. Negative "dilatational" production of turbulence kinetic energy competes with positive "incompressible" production, eventually making the total production negative during the spatial evolution of the nozzle flow. Finally, an approach to include the baroclinic effect into the dissipation equation is proposed and an algebraic model for density-velocity correlations is outlined to estimate the corrections associated with density fluctuations. All in all, the new model can become a significant tool for CFD (computational fluid dynamics) of compressible flows.

  • 35.
    Grigoriev, Igor A.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Wallin, Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Sweden.
    Brethouwer, Geert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Johansson, Arne V.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Capturing turbulent density flux effects in variable density flow by an explicit algebraic model2015In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 27, no 4, article id 1.4917278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The explicit algebraic Reynolds stress model of Grigoriev et al. ["A realizable explicit algebraic Reynolds stress model for compressible turbulent flow with significant mean dilatation," Phys. Fluids 25, 105112 (2013)] is extended to account for the turbulent density flux in variable density flows. The influence of the mean dilatation and the variation of mean density on the rapid pressure-strain correlation are properly accounted for introducing terms balancing a so-called "baroclinic" production in the Reynolds stress tensor equation. Applying the weak-equilibrium assumption leads to a self-consistent formulation of the model. The model together with a K - ω model is applied to a quasi-one-dimensional plane nozzle flow transcending from subsonic to supersonic regimes. The model remains realizable with constraints put on the model parameters. When density fluxes are taken into account, the model is less likely to become unrealizable. The density variance coupled with a "local mean acceleration" also can influence the model acting to increase anisotropy. The general trends of the behaviour of the anisotropy and production components under the variation of model parameters are assessed. We show how the explicit model can be applied to two- and three-dimensional mean flows without previous knowledge of a tensor basis to obtain the general solution. Approaches are proposed in order to achieve an approximate solution to the consistency equation in cases when analytic solution is missing. In summary, the proposed model has the potential to significantly improve simulations of variable-density flows.

  • 36.
    Grigoriev, Igor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Brethouwer, Geert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Wallin, Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Sweden.
    Johansson, Arne V.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Unified explicit algebraic Reynolds stress model for compressible, heat-releasing and supercritical flowswith large density variation2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An explicit algebraic model (EARSM) for variable denstiy turbulent flow developed by Grigoriev et al. [Phys. Fluids (2015)] is revisited here. We apply it to a quasi one-dimensional nozzle flow, a wall-jet flow with combustion and large density variation and a supercritical flow of carbon dioxide with heat transfer and buoyancy. It is confirmed that the coupling between strong mean density gradient due to high speed, heat release or thermodynamic variations and the 'local mean acceleration' of the flow produces strong turbulent density and heat fluxes, which strongly affect the turbulence. The possible calibration branches are identified and analyzed. We show that a simple and unified calibration of the model gives good predictions for all cases considered. Therefore, the model is a reliable tool for the computation of compressible flows with large density variation.

  • 37.
    Grigoriev, Igor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Lazeroms, Werner M.J.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW. Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Direct solution for the anisotropy tensor in explicit algebraic Reynolds stress models2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A direct solution to a tensorial equation which constitutes a basis for explicit algebraic Reynolds stress models is derived. We consider equations linear and quasilinear in the strain tensor and show how the independent tensor groups emerge. Solution of an extended model with a linearly coupled active scalar, governed by a linear in anisotropy tensor equation, is also outlined.

  • 38.
    Grigoriev, Igor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Wallin, Stefan
    Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brethouwer, Geert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Grundestam, Olof
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Johansson, Arne V.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Algebraic Reynolds stress modeling of turbulence subject to rapid homogeneous and non-homogeneous compression or expansion2016In: Physics of fluids, ISSN 1070-6631, E-ISSN 1089-7666, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 026101-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A recently developed explicit algebraic Reynolds stress model (EARSM) by Grigoriev et al. ["A realizable explicit algebraic Reynolds stress model for compressible turbulent flow with significant mean dilatation," Phys. Fluids 25(10), 105112 (2013)] and the related differential Reynolds stress model (DRSM) are used to investigate the influence of homogeneous shear and compression on the evolution of turbulence in the limit of rapid distortion theory (RDT). The DRSM predictions of the turbulence kinetic energy evolution are in reasonable agreement with RDT while the evolution of diagonal components of anisotropy correctly captures the essential features, which is not the case for standard compressible extensions of DRSMs. The EARSM is shown to give a realizable anisotropy tensor and a correct trend of the growth of turbulence kinetic energy K, which saturates at a power law growth versus compression ratio, as well as retaining a normalized strain in the RDT regime. In contrast, an eddy-viscosity model results in a rapid exponential growth of K and excludes both realizability and high magnitude of the strain rate. We illustrate the importance of using a proper algebraic treatment of EARSM in systems with high values of dilatation and vorticity but low shear. A homogeneously compressed and rotating gas cloud with cylindrical symmetry, related to astrophysical flows and swirling supercritical flows, was investigated too. We also outline the extension of DRSM and EARSM to include the effect of non-homogeneous density coupled with "local mean acceleration" which can be important for, e.g., stratified flows or flows with heat release. A fixed-point analysis of direct numerical simulation data of combustion in a wall-jet flow demonstrates that our model gives quantitatively correct predictions of both streamwise and cross-stream components of turbulent density flux as well as their influence on the anisotropies. In summary, we believe that our approach, based on a proper formulation of the rapid pressure-strain correlation and accounting for the coupling with turbulent density flux, can be an important element in CFD tools for compressible flows.

  • 39.
    Grundestam, Olof
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Wallin, Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Johansson, Arne V.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Direct numerical simulations of rotating turbulent channel flow2008In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, Vol. 598, p. 177-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fully developed rotating turbulent channel flow has been studied, through direct numerical simulations, for the complete range of rotation numbers for which the flow is turbulent. The present investigation suggests that complete flow laminarization occurs at a rotation number Ro = 2 Omega delta/U-b <= 3.0, where Omega denotes the system rotation, U-b is the mean bulk velocity and 3 is the half-width of the channel. Simulations were performed for ten different rotation numbers in the range 0.98 to 2.49 and complemented with earlier simulations (done in our group) for lower values of Ro. The friction Reynolds number Re-tau = u(tau)delta/v (where u(tau) is the wall-shear velocity and v is the kinematic viscosity) was chosen as 180 for these simulations. A striking feature of rotating channel flow is the division into a turbulent (unstable) and an almost laminarized (stable) side. The relatively distinct interface between these two regions was found to be maintained by a balance where negative turbulence production plays an important role. The maximum difference in wall-shear stress between the two sides was found to occur for a rotation number of about 0.5. The bulk flow was found to monotonically increase with increasing rotation number and reach a value (for Re-tau = 180) at the laminar limit (Ro = 3.0) four times that of the non-rotating case.

  • 40. Hallbäck, M.
    et al.
    Henningson, Dan S.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    Johansson, Arne, V.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Alfredsson, Henrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics.
    The basics of turbulence modelling1996In: Turbulence and Transition Modelling, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1996, p. 81-154Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 41. Ishida, Takahiro
    et al.
    Brethouwer, Geert
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Duguet, Yohann
    Tsukahara, Takahiro
    Laminar-turbulent patterns with rough walls2017In: Physical Review Fluids, ISSN 2469-990X, Vol. 2, no 7, article id 073901Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oblique large-scale laminar-turbulent patterns are found near the onset of turbulence in subcritical planar shear flows. Their robustness to the introduction of wall roughness is investigated numerically in plane Couette flow as a function of the Reynolds number and the roughness height. The effect of roughness is considered on either one or two walls and is modeled numerically using a parametric model suggested recently [Busse and Sandham, J. Fluid Mech. 712, 169 (2012)]. In the case of two rough walls, the patterns are robust for a mean roughness height up to 10% of the wall gap, but the flow shows larger turbulent fractions with increasing roughness height. In the case of one rough wall only, the trend is similar, but the onset Reynolds number decreases faster with increasing roughness height. Roughness height levels above 15% of the wall gap give rise to new coherent structures, including turbulent bands with nonoblique interfaces. The energetic efficiency of the various regimes is investigated by monitoring the friction factor versus the friction Reynolds number. The mechanisms allowing for streamwise localization of the stripe patterns are discussed, with or without roughness, in the light of various low-order models.

  • 42.
    Johansson, Arne
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Engineering Turbulence Models and their Development, with Emphasis on Explicit Algebraic Reynolds Stress Models2002In: Theories of Turbulence: CISM Courses and Lectures no. 442 / [ed] M. Oberlack and F. Busse, Springer-Verlag New York, 2002, p. 253-300Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Johansson, Arne, V.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Explicit algebraic Reynolds stress and Reynolds flux modelling: A review of current activities at KTH1999In: ERCOFTAC Series, ISSN 1382-4309, no 40, p. 39-45Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Johansson, Arne, V.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Alvelius, K
    LES computations and comparisons with Kolmogorov theory for two-point pressure-velocity correlations and structure functions for globally anisotropic turbulence2000In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, ISSN 0022-1120, E-ISSN 1469-7645, no 403, p. 23-36Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Johansson, Arne, V.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Burden, A.D
    Transition, Turbulence and Combustion Modelling: An introduction to turbulence modelling1999In: Transition, Turbulence and Combustion Modelling: ERCOFTAC Series, Springer Publishing Company, 1999, vol. 6, p. 159-242Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Johansson, Arne, V.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Wikström, Petra, M.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    DNS and modelling of passive scalar transport in turbulent channel flow with a focus on scalar dissipation rate modelling2000In: Flow Turbulence and Combustion, ISSN 1386-6184, E-ISSN 1573-1987, ISSN 1573-1987, no 63, p. 223-245Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47. Karlsson, Bengt
    et al.
    Lindquist, Ch.
    Johansson, Arne, V.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Steiner, L.
    Risk of hemorrhage in cerebral arteriovenous malformations1997In: Minimally Invasive Neurosurgery, ISSN 0946-7211, E-ISSN 1439-2291, Vol. 40, p. 40-46Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48. Kjellström, Erik
    et al.
    Brandefelt, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, Linné Flow Center, FLOW.
    Näslund, Jens-Ove
    Smith, Ben
    Strandberg, Gustav
    Voelker, Antje H. L.
    Wohlfarth, Barbara
    Simulated climate conditions in Europe during the Marine Isotope Stage 3 stadial2010In: Boreas, ISSN 0300-9483, E-ISSN 1502-3885, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 436-456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    State-of-the-art climate models were used to simulate climate conditions in Europe during Greenland Stadial (GS) 12 at 44 ka BP. The models employed for these simulations were: (i) a fully coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate model (AOGCM), and (ii) a regional atmospheric climate model (RCM) to dynamically downscale results from the global model for a more detailed investigation of European climate conditions. The vegetation was simulated off-line by a dynamic vegetation model forced by the climate from the RCM. The resulting vegetation was then compared with the a priori vegetation used in the first simulation. In a subsequent step, the RCM was rerun to yield a new climate more consistent with the simulated vegetation. Forcing conditions included orbital forcing, land-sea distribution, ice-sheet configuration, and atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations representative for 44 ka BP. The results show a cold climate on the global scale, with global annual mean surface temperatures 5 degrees C colder than the modern climate. This is still significantly warmer than temperatures derived from the same model system for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Regional, northern European climate is much colder than today, but still significantly warmer than during the LGM. Comparisons between the simulated climate and proxy-based sea-surface temperature reconstructions show that the results are in broad agreement, albeit with a possible cold bias in parts of the North Atlantic in summer. Given a prescribed restricted Marine Isotope Stage 3 ice-sheet configuration, with large ice-free regions in Sweden and Finland, the AOGCM and RCM model simulations produce a cold and dry climate in line with the restricted ice-sheet configuration during GS 12. The simulated temperature climate, with prescribed ice-free conditions in south-central Fennoscandia, is favourable for the development of permafrost, but does not allow local ice-sheet formation as all snow melts during summer.

  • 49.
    Kleusberg, Elektra
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Mikkelsen, Robert
    Danish Technical University .
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Ivanell, Stefan
    Uppsala University.
    Henningson, Dan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    High-order numerical simulations of wind turbine wakes2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous attempts to describe the structure of wind turbine wakes and their mutual interaction were mostly limited to large-eddy and Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations using finite volume solvers. We employ the higher-order spectral element code Nek5000 to study the influence of numerical aspects on the prediction of the wind turbine wake structure and the wake interaction between two turbines. The spectral element method enables an accurate representation of the vortical structures, with much lower numerical dissipation than the more commonly used finite volume codes. The blades are modeled as body forces using the actuator line method (ACL) in the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. Both tower and nacelle are represented with appropriate body forces. An inflow boundary condition is used which emulates the homogeneous isotropic turbulence of wind tunnel flows. We validate the implementation with results from experimental campaigns undertaken at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, investigate parametric influences and compare computational aspects with the existing finite volume codes. The results show good agreement between the experiments and the numerical simulations.

  • 50.
    Kleusberg, Elektra
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Schlatter, Philipp
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Turbulence.
    Henningson, Dan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mechanics, Stability, Transition and Control.
    Parametric study of the actuator line method in high-order codes2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The high accuracy of spectral element methods combined with low computationalcost and a high level of parallelization, makes them appealing for large-scale investigations of wind turbines and wind turbine interaction using the state-of-the-art actuator line method by Sørensen & Shen (2002). While the spectral element code Nek5000 has already been used for wind turbine simulations by e.g. Peet et al. (2013), Chatterjee & Peet (2015), Chatterjee & Peet (2016) and Kleusberg et al. (2016) for investigations of wind turbine wakes and wake interaction, the implications of the actuator line method in a high-order code and the effect of the involved parameters have not been studied in detail. This paper investigates the constant circulation turbine in the fixed and rotatingframe of reference. In the rotating frame of reference several wake parameters previously discussed e.g. by Ivanell et al. (2009) and Sarmast (2013) are revisitedand analyzed. Further, parametric studies are conducted in the fixed frame ofreference to investigate an observed instablility related to the spectral element width. The instablity is not a property of the spectral element discretization as it is also observed in other research using finite volume techniques. However, the decreased numerical dissipation and the non-equidistant grid used in spectral element methods leads to amplification of the instability. The parameters are investigated on a reduced two-dimensional test case and the conclusions transfered to the full actuator line setup. It is established that a Gaussian width of approximately five times the average grid spacing is necessary to reduce the effect of the instability related to the spectral element width when investigating sensitive flow cases. A force projection method proposed by Pinelli et al. (2010) is investigated as an alternative to the typically used Gaussian kernel. Finally, the influence of this instability is investigated when perturbations are applied tothe flow. Both small-scale perturbations that are introduced at the blade tips and low inflow turbulence which is imposed as an inlet condition are investigated.It is shown that when perturbations are introduced to the flow the large-scale wake behavior in the rotating and fixed frame of reference are similar and a Gaussian width which is 2.4 times the averaged grid spacing is sufficient.

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