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  • 1. Ahmed, Zara
    et al.
    Benque, David
    Berezin, Sergey
    Dahl, Anna Caroline E.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Technology in Medicine and Health, CTMH.
    Fisher, Jasmin
    Hall, Benjamin A.
    Ishtiaq, Samin
    Nanavati, Jay
    Piterman, Nir
    Riechert, Maik
    Skoblov, Nikita
    Bringing LTL Model Checking to Biologists2017In: VMCAI 2017: Verification, Model Checking, and Abstract Interpretation / [ed] Bouajjani, A Monniaux, D, Springer, 2017, Vol. 10145, p. 1-13Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The BioModelAnalyzer (BMA) is a web based tool for the development of discrete models of biological systems. Through a graphical user interface, it allows rapid development of complex models of gene and protein interaction networks and stability analysis without requiring users to be proficient computer programmers. Whilst stability is a useful specification for testing many systems, testing temporal specifications in BMA presently requires the user to perform simulations. Here we describe the LTL module, which includes a graphical and natural language interfaces to testing LTL queries. The graphical interface allows for graphical construction of the queries and presents results visually in keeping with the current style of BMA. The Natural language interface complements the graphical interface by allowing a gentler introduction to formal logic and exposing educational resources.

  • 2.
    Almén, Lena
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Design Measures for Construction Site Safety2012In: The Conference of the Nordic Ergonomics Society, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract:Since the 1st of January 2009, all Clients in Sweden are required to appoint a Health and Safety Coordinator for the design and planning phase of their building projects. Telephone interviews were carried out with the Coordinators of 42 building projects during 2010. They were asked to give examples of occupational hazards in the projects and to report how these were handled in the design and planning phase. Trauma risks as well as MSD-risks were identified in the design and planning phase. The hazards were mostly generally described and seldomly taken care of by design changes.

  • 3.
    Almén, Lena
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Projekteringens möjligheter att minska risken för arbetsskador i byggproduktionen.: En fallstudie av säkerhetsstyrning i två byggprojekt.2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Arbetsolycksfrekvensen bland bygg ‐ och anläggningsarbetare är högre, och pensionsåldern lägre, än genomsnittet i det svenska arbetslivet.

    Tidigare studier visar att projektörer har möjligheter att påverka arbetsmiljön i produktionen, ju tidigare i byggprocessen desto större är påverkansmöjligheterna.

    Enligt svensk lag har projektörer och byggherrar ansvar för arbetsmiljön i produktion. Den 1 januari 2009 skärptes Arbetsmiljölagen så att deras ansvar blev tydligare.

    Två byggprojekt, båda projekterade för januari 2009, studerades. I båda projekten var det en totalentreprenör som ansvarade för att projektera och producera flerbostadshus.

    Syftet med studien var att finna samband mellan arbetsmiljörisker i produktionen och beslut tagna under projekteringsskedet.

    Hantverkare och tjänstemän i produktionen identifierade riskfyllda arbetsmoment, vilka eventuellt hade varit möjliga att förebygga under projekteringsfasen. Fallen dokumenterades och presenterades för dem som hade deltagit i projekteringen av byggnaden. För vart och ett av fallen, ombads projektörerna att beskriva bakgrunden, vilka beslut som hade tagits och varför. I föreliggande rapport presenteras de riskfyllda arbetsmomenten och varför dessa uppstod. Analyser av fallen gjorde det möjligt att förstå vad projektörer kan göra för att förhindra arbetsskador i produktionen, och varför det ibland inte är möjligt.

    Studien visar att projektörer i många fall, inte var medvetna om arbetsmiljökonsekvenserna, och saknade rutiner för att identifiera, eliminera och hantera arbetsmiljörisker under projekteringsskedet. Krav från byggherre, lagar, stadsbyggnadskontor och bransch har begränsat projektörernas handlingsutrymme. Det har även funnits begränsningar vid inköp av produkter, på grund av svårigheter att få tag i produkter och material som är bra ur arbetsmiljösynpunkt samt restriktioner kopplade till avtal. Det har också varit problem med samordning och styrning av konsulter och underentreprenörer.

    Byggherren har ett viktigt ansvar för arbetsmiljön i byggprojekt. Det är av stor vikt att byggherren prioriterar säker arbetsmiljö genom hela byggprojektet, från det tidiga projekteringsskedet tills byggnaden är färdigställd.

    I varje skede av ett byggprojekt behövs rutiner för att samtliga aktörer ska beakta arbetsmiljökonsekvenser av sina beslut, parallellt med konsekvenser för produktivitet och produkt.

    För att åstadkomma förbättrad säkerhetsstyrning i byggprocessen, måste byggföretagen prioritera arbetsmiljöfrågan. Totalentreprenörer har, genom sitt ansvar för både projektering och produktion, goda möjligheter till arbetsmiljöstyrning. Det behövs rutiner för riskanalys i projekteringen, liksom på företagets olika avdelningar, och tillräcklig kompetens inom företaget. Centrala riktlinjer bör tas fram för att stimulera att erfarenheter och säkerhetsinsikter hos individer i hela produktionskedjan tas till vara inför framtida projekt.

    Projekteringens möjligheter att minska risken för arbetsskador i byggproduktionen 2009 6

    För att kunna identifiera, eliminera och hantera arbetsmiljörisker krävs både arbetsmiljökompetens och kompetens om produktionsmetoder. Kunniga hantverkare och tjänstemän från produktionen bör delta under projekteringen och i förberedelserna inför produktionsstart.

    Tillverkare av byggprodukter och byggelement behöver ta arbetsmiljöfrågan i beaktande i högre grad, för att utveckla produkter som är lätta att hantera och möjliga att montera utan risk för arbetsskada.

    Lagstiftningen har initierat förbättringar av säkerhetsstyrningen i byggprocessen. Genom användande av säkerhetsledningssystem kan det ske en ytterligare utveckling mot en säkrare arbetsmiljö i byggproduktionen. Riskfaktorerna som har identifierats i studien kan utgöra en grund för relevanta bedömningskriterier för intern och extern arbetsmiljörevision.

  • 4.
    Almén, Lena
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Projektörer kan minska risken för arbetsskador2012In: VVS-Forum, ISSN 0346-4644, no 3, p. 72-73Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ungefär en fjärdedel av alla arbetsplatsolyckor med dödlig utgång sker på byggarbetsplatser. Antalet anmälda arbetsskador per sysselsatt är cirka 50 procent högre i byggbranschen än genomsnittet i Sverige. Vanligast är belastningsskador, både akuta och på grund av långvarig belastning. Arbetsgivaren ansvarar för att arbetstagarna ska kunna utföra sina arbetsuppgifter utan att bli skadade eller sjuka. Men förutsättningarna för entreprenörernas skadeförebyggande arbete är olika i olika projekt. De beror bland annat på:- typ av projekt: ROT eller nybyggnation- tidsramar- ekonomiska ramar- byggnadens design: form, konstruktioner,byggprodukter- säkerhetsinformationen från projektering till produktion.

  • 5.
    Almén, Lena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Larsson, Tore J
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Health and safety coordinators in building projects2014In: Built Environment Project and Asset Management, ISSN 2044-124X, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 251-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – In order to reduce the number of injuries on construction sites, a European Directive prescribes that the clients shall appoint safety and health coordinators in their projects. The purpose of this paper is to find out who are appointed to be health and safety coordinators for the design and planning phase and what they do in order to prevent injuries on sites. Design/methodology/approach – Since the 1st of January 2009, there shall be a coordinator for the design and planning phase in Swedish construction projects. Telephone interviews were made with the coordinators in 42 Swedish building projects.

    Findings – The coordinators’ education and experiences varied widely, as well as their descriptions of their duties: no duties, administration and active injury prevention. The coordinators who were classified as most active had at least one additional leading role in the projects. Research limitations/implications – The study is qualitative for an increased understanding, not a statistical reflection of the coordinator population.

    Practical implications – The legislation needs to clarify whether the early conceptual phase of the project is included in the coordinator’s commission and whether she/he is supposed to participate in identifying, assessing and reducing risks through design changes. These clarifications will have an influence on when the coordinator should be appointed and what competence she/he needs. Originality/value – The study increases the understanding of how the health and safety coordinators of the planning and projecting phase of building projects perceive their mission and what factors, according to them, have an influence on what they do.

  • 6.
    Almén, Lena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Larsson, Tore J
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Possibilities for designers to reduce the risk of work injury in the production phase of a building project2010In: On the Road to Vision Zero?: Construction, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    (71) Possibilities for designers to reduce the risk of work injury in the production phase of a building project. Lena Almén, Tore J Larsson, (School of Technology and Health, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden) Work related injuries and diseases are more frequent among construction workers than the labour market in average. Thus, there is a need of more preventive work during the design and planning phase. Two building projects, both productions of new apartment buildings with a design and construct contractor, were studied. Unsafe conditions were identified by workers and managers at the construction sites. The unsafe conditions were presented to the designers and planners. They were asked to describe the correlated decisions during the design and planning phase; when they were taken, why and by whom.

    Influence from outside the company was related to the clients, the town planning department, laws, a trade association and to the design of building products. The managers at the construction sites did not get any information, from the designers and planners, of what occupational risks there were in any of the projects. The routines for how to identify and handle hazards in the designing and planning phase were not sufficient. Furthermore, the designers explained, that they did not have enough competence in construction methods to be able to foresee occupational consequences at the construction sites when they designed rare constructions. The designers and planners did not follow up occupational risks at any of the construction sites. In order to get a safer working environment at construction sites, the top managers in the building companies need to define the acceptable safety level and put the safety issue on the agenda for all employees in the company, along with quality, costs and time schedule. Safety need to be communicated with those outside the company who have an influence on the working environment, and included in contracts with consultants, subcontractors and suppliers.

  • 7.
    Almén, Lena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Larsson, Tore J.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    The Health and Safety Coordinators´Potential to Prevent Injuries on Construction Sites2012In: Working on Safety, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The risk of occupational disease and serious injury in the building and construction industry is high. The earlier in the construction process, the greater are the possibilities to reduce hazards.

    According to the Swedish legislation, Architects and Design Engineers shall, within the framework of their assignment, ensure that aspects of health and safety are considered during the construction of a building as well as in the use of the finished building.

    Since the 1st of January 2009, Clients (natural or legal persons for whom projects are carried out) in Sweden are obliged to appoint a Health and Safety Coordinator for the design and planning of the building. The Coordinators must have the educational skills and experience needed to perform their duties.

    The aim of this study was to find out what persons are appointed to be coordinators, how they perceive their duties and, potentially, what could facilitate the Health and Safety Coordinators’ activities and construction site safety.

    Telephone interviews were carried out with 40 Health and Safety Coordinators for the design and planning phase of 42 building projects during 2010.

    The Coordinators education and experiences varied to a large degree. Their description of duties also varied greatly, from no duties, to administrative duties, to active injury prevention.

    According to the Coordinators, the following factors had a positive influence on their possibilities to act for injury prevention:

    • The Coordinator is appointed early in the process
    • The Coordinator has authority in the project
    • The Client prioritizes occupational safety
    • There is knowledge of construction methods in the design team
  • 8.
    Almén, Lena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Larsson, Tore J
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Thunqvist, Eva-Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    The Influence of the Designer on the Risk of Falling from Heights and of Exposure to Excessive Workloads on two Contruction Sites2012In: Safety Science Monitor, ISSN 1443-8844, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 2-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Workers on construction sites are exposed to an excessive risk of being injured at work. This study identifies occupational hazards on two construction sites – hazards that were related to the design of the building – and undertakes an analysis of the basis upon which related design decisions were made.Risks of falling from heights were related to the shape of the building. Risks related to an excessive workload were related to the weight of building products and possibilities to use equipment to avoid manual transports.The hazards were discussed at focus group meetings. During these meetings, the participants showed an increased understanding of safety issues in the project, each other's views and difficulties, and their own ability to facilitate acceptable risk levels for others.Some hazards were not foreseen during the design and planning phase. According to the architects, their knowledge about construction methods was not sufficient to predict hazards related to the shape of the building.Other hazards were foreseen, though considered to be primarily the contractor's responsibility. Consultants in the design and planning phase, on behalf of the client, were focused on quality, time schedule and economy, more than on occupational safety. There were building products on the market which were designed to fulfil functional regulatory requirements and requests from consumers, but not sufficient enough to ensure that they could be handled without exposure to an excessive workload. The demands and routines in the project did not ensure that project-specific hazard information was given to the contractor. 

  • 9. Alsmo, Thomas
    et al.
    Holmberg, Sture
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Technology in Medicine and Health, CTMH.
    Sick buildings or not: Indoor air quality and health problems in schools2007In: Indoor + Built Environment, ISSN 1420-326X, E-ISSN 1423-0070, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 548-555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poor indoor air in schools has become a wide-spread problem with serious effects on occupant health. Resultant costs can be considerable at both local and national government levels. These include absenteeism and rehabilitation as well as building alterations and even demolition and rebuilding. This project aims to show factors contributing to health problems in Swedish schools. It includes a literature survey and particle measurements taken during various activities. Due to the fact that today there is no standard for indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools, in this project we used the outdoor air surrounding the building as an indicator. Results showed that indoor school environments had high airborne pollution levels, to a degree that probably causes health problems for many people. Regarding IAQ, this project shows the importance of taking into consideration choices in activities and furnishing of the building.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Jesse
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Localized Sustainable Water Management in Practice: Ecological Engineering as a means for an eco-cyclic water system at the Berga Greenhouse Project2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractDue to a growing concern towards issues of sustainability and sustainable development as well as resource scarcity there is a need for increased local cultivation. Cold climate conditions in Sweden make greenhouses necessary for the cultivation of many species. In order to increase the sustainability of greenhouse production processes water cycles should be nearly closedloop cycles. To demonstrate this in practice the Berga Greenhouse project under development by the Centre for Health and Building at the Royal Institute of Technology is used to provide a visionary example. Through precipitation data and a water budget analysis a water reclamation rate of 85% was determined in order to bring the facility to water neutral status. On site water treatment through the use of ecological engineering was analyzed through the use of a multiple-case study of three prevalent technologies (Living Machines®, Organica Water, and Solar Aquatics™) which determined that Living Machines® was the most appropriate technology based upon factors related system performance and footprint.

  • 11. Andersson, Per
    et al.
    Björkholm, Peter
    Haasl, Sjoerd
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Technology in Medicine and Health, CTMH.
    Johannisson, Pontus
    Johnsson, Christer
    Stigwall, Johan
    Södermalm, Svante
    MEMS-based inertial navigation instrumentation for high-dynamic applications2009In: COMS 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12. Arvedsen, SK
    et al.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
    Kölegård, Roger
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
    Petersen, L. G.
    Damgaard, M.
    Body height and arterial pressure in seated and supine young males during +2 G centrifugation2015In: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology, ISSN 0363-6119, E-ISSN 1522-1490, Vol. 309, no 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is known that arterial pressure correlates positively with body height in males and it has been suggested that this is due to the increasing vertical hydrostatic gradient from the heart to the carotid baroreceptors. Therefore we tested the hypothesis that a higher gravitoinertial stress induced by the use of a human centrifuge would increase mean arterial pressure (MAP) more in tall than in short males in the seated position. In short (162-171cm, n=8) and tall (194-203cm, n=10) healthy males (18-41y), brachial arterial pressure, heart rate (HR) and cardiac output were measured during +2G centrifugation, while they were seated upright with the legs kept horizontal (+2Gz). In a separate experiment, the same measurements were done with the subjects supine (+2Gx). During +2Gz MAP increased in the short (22±2 mmHg, p<0.0001) and tall (23±2 mmHg, p<0.0001) males, with no significant difference between the groups. HR increased more (p<0.05) in the tall than in the short group (14±2 versus 7±2 bpm). Stroke volume (SV) decreased in the short group (26±4 mL, p=0.001) and more so in the tall group (39±5 mL, p<0.0001; short vs tall p=0.047). During +2GX, systolic arterial pressure increased (p<0.001) and SV (p=0.012) decreased in the tall group only. In conclusion, during +2Gz MAP increased in both short and tall males with no difference between the groups. However, in the tall group HR increased more during +2Gz which could be caused by a larger hydrostatic pressure gradient from heart to head leading to greater inhibition of the carotid baroreceptors.

  • 13.
    Askfors, Ylva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Technology in Medicine and Health, CTMH.
    Hollmark, Malin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Technology in Medicine and Health, CTMH.
    Haasl, Sjoerd
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Technology in Medicine and Health, CTMH.
    Guve, Bertil
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Technology in Medicine and Health, CTMH.
    Learning In Interdisciplinary Networks - For An Efficient Innovation System And An Improved Healthcare2013In: ICERI 2013: conference proceedings, International Association of Technology, Education and Development, IATED , 2013, p. 1000-1007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clinical Innovation Fellowships is a program that creates conditions for learning and for innovative thought to take place. It aims to educate innovators and to develop innovations that result in more efficient healthcare production. [1] Multiprofessional 4-person-teams of fellow candidates with competence in engineering, medicine, industrial design and management work together full time for eight months, with the aim to identify clinical needs that can be met by a medical technology innovation (process, product or service) or by an organizational improvement. Early in the program, the team spends two months full time at a clinical department observing the various healthcare activities. Among the clinical needs identified by the fellow candidates three needs will be chosen, validated and approved by the department's management as appropriate starting points for student thesis projects. We describe the phenomenon we have seen when introducing new disciplines as observers and problem solvers in a healthcare context as the improbable dialogue. The improbable dialogue is the unexpected dialogue between professionals and students, or professionals within separate disciplinary boundaries that generally never meet professionally. Such a dialogue may however be the channel in which the curiosity and openness of a novice can reflect on the daily work of a specialist, ultimately resulting in the development of ideas, knowledge exchange and learning. The Clinical Innovation Fellowships program enables this learning to take place and has shown to be a successful catalyst for the improbable dialogue; the unexpected, interdisciplinary, dialogue between healthcare specialists, high qualified fellow candidates with working experience and thesis students from different educational fields. This paper gives a qualitative problematization of the program with respect to the strategy and method of including thesis students to reinforce (almost) any innovation system through interdisciplinary, multiprofessional collaboration, where healthcare and academy learn from each other.

  • 14. Bali, TC
    et al.
    Kounalakis, SN
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
    Mekjavic, IB
    PlanHab: The effects of 21-day hypoxic confinement and unloading/inactivity on regional body composition and muscle strength2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15. Björk, Mathilda
    et al.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Thyberg, Ingrid
    Peolsson, Michael
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Technology in Medicine and Health, CTMH.
    Multivariate relationships between pain intensity and other aspects of health in rheumatoid arthritis - cross sectional and five year longitudinal analyses (the Swedish TIRA project)2008In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 30, no 19, p. 1429-1438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. This study analyses the relationships between pain intensity and other aspects of health commonly used to assess disease activity and disability in early rheumatoid arthritis and examines whether such relationships were different between women and men. Subjects and methods. This study included the 189 patients (69% women) with early RA (symptoms < 12 months at diagnosis) still remaining in the Swedish TIRA cohort 5 years after inclusion. Disease activity and disability was assessed 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months (M0-M60) after inclusion by erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), number of swollen and tender joints, physicians global assessment of disease activity (PGA), grip force average over 10 seconds (Grippit), Grip Ability Test (GAT), Signals of Functional Impairment (SOFI) in hand, lower limb and upper limb, Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), and pain intensity measured with a visual analogue scale (VAS). The variables were divided into meaningful blocks according to the correlation structure in a principal component analysis (PCA) at M60. Using hierarchical partial least squares (PLS) analyses, this study investigated the blocks cross-sectionally to test for correlations with pain intensity at M0 and M60. The blocks at M0 were also used as predictors of pain intensity at M60 in a hierarchical PLS. Results. The strongest relationship was found between pain intensity and the second block, consisting of HAQ and SOFI-lower limb at the cross-sectional analyses in both women and men. The block representing disease activity (i.e., ESR, CRP, PGA, and swollen and tender joints) had the weakest relation to pain intensity. According to the longitudinal analyses, the disease activity variables (block 1) at M0 had the strongest relationship to pain intensity at M60 in men. In contrast, HAQ and SOFI-lower limb (block 2) at M0 had a strong relation to pain intensity in women.

  • 16. Blomqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Norrström, Ann-Catrine
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Johansson Thunqvist, Eva-Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Miljöproblem vid drift och underhåll av vägar2001Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Boman, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Rosenberg, Lena
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lundberg, Stefan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Nygård, Louise
    Karolinska Institutet.
    First steps in designing a videophone for people with dementia: Identification of users' potentials and the requirements of communication technology2012In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. sept, no 5, p. 356-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To identify, based on the literature, people with dementia´s potentials to manage an easy-to-use videophone, and to develop a videophone requirement specification for people with dementia.

    Method:The study is based on the Inclusive Design method, utilising the first two of four phases. Content analyses of literature reviews were used to identify users´potentials for managing a videophone and to gather recommendations regarding communication technology design for the target group. Existing videophones in Sweden were examined regarding potentia fit to users with dementia.Findings: This led to detailed identification of cognitive, physical and psychosocial challenges that people with dementia will probably have when using an ordinary telephone or videophone. A requirement specification for videophone design to fit users with dementia was formulated, with the seven principles of Universal Design as a framework.Conclusions: The requirement specification presented here is aimed at designing a videophone but might also facilitate design of other products for people with dementia, particularly in the field of communication technology. Based on this, further work will focus on developing a design concept and a prototype to be empirically tested by people with dementia and their significant others, i.e. the final two design process phases.

  • 18.
    Borell, Lena
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Johansson, Karin
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lundberg, Stefan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Kognitiva köket - framtidens kök2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Äldre personer som har en demenssjukdom eller andra medicinska diagnoser som kan leda till kognitiva problem och som bor i egna hem är en växande grupp. Samtidigt så förväntas alla oavsett funktionsnedsättning kunna hantera matlagning och andra köksrelaterade aktiviteter på egen hand.

    Personer med kognitiva problem, och personer som arbetar med denna grupp definierar problem relaterade till matlagning och att hålla ordning i köket som några av de viktigaste att lösa (Wherton and Monk 2008). Att kunna utföra köksrelaterade aktiviteter betraktas som något som höjer livskvaliteten. Trots det växande behovet av att kunna skapa köksmiljöer och köksprodukter, både generellt och med individuella anpassningar, finns det i dag ingen samlad kunskap om hur sådana miljöer och produkter bäst kan utformas.

    I det här projektet ses köket som en plats där flera dimensioner av livet pågår. Förutom matlagning och förvaring av mat så är köket även en plats för socialt umgänge, och utgör vardagens nav. Kökets roll i hemmet är alltså central. Projektet utgår från att det är möjligt att skapa inkluderande köksmiljöer som tar hänsyn till personer med nedsatt kognition, men som samtidigt förenklar för alla.

    Modern design av kök handlar idag mycket om eleganta ytor och dolda, och därmed svårdefinierade, funktioner vilket skapar problem för personer med kognitiva funktionsnedsättningar. Dessa problem måste lyftas fram och diskuteras för att kunna utforma framtida inkluderande köksmiljöer. Syftet med projektet är att, i dialog med intressenter och experter inom området, sammanställa och generera kunskap om hur kök och köksprodukter kan designas för att underlätta för äldre människor med kognitiva nedsättningar att kunna använda sina kök utan problem.

  • 19.
    Brorsson, Anna
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Öhman, Annika
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lundberg, Stefan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Nygård, Louise
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Accessibility in public space as perceived by people with Alzheimer´s disease2011In: Dementia, ISSN 1471-3012, E-ISSN 1741-2684, no aug 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most people with dementia remain living at home as long as possible after being diagnosed, and hence their lives also include activities in the public space. The aim of this study was to illuminate experiences of accessibility in public space in people with Alzheimer’s disease. A qualitative grounded theory approach with repeated in-depth interviews was used. The core category, accessibility as a constantly changing experience, was characterized by changes in the relationship between informants and public space. Changes in the relationship took place in activities and use of place and related to familiarity and comfort, individual motives and interests, and planning and protecting. Other changes occurred in places and problematic situations related to everyday technologies, crowded places with high tempo and noise, and change of landmarks. These changes reduced feelings of accessibility and increased difficulties in carrying out activities in public space. These findings may be helpful when providing support, and supporting community living.

  • 20.
    Burmeister, Jens
    et al.
    University of Dresden, Germany.
    Lindh, Thomas
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Data- och elektroteknik (Closed 20130701).
    Orhan, Ibrahim
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Data- och elektroteknik (Closed 20130701).
    Brodin, Lars-Åke
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Lundberg, Stefan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Contention-Based Wireless Sensor Networks: A case study for ambient assisted living2010In: Active Ageing, Smart Solutions, New Markets, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless personal area networks have emerged as an important communication infrastructure in areas such as at-home healthcare and home automation, independent living and assistive technology. Initiatives towards interoperability and standardization are taken by several players. Zigbee Alliance has launched a profile for “Zigbee wireless sensor applications for health, wellness and fitness” [1]. The Continua Health Alliance promotes “an interoperable personal healthcare ecosystem”. They have published “design guidelines for the telehealth ecosystem” including the interface to personal area network health devices and electronic health record devices ([2], [3]). These examples show that wireless personal area networks, including body sensor networks, are becoming more mature and are considered to be a realistic alternative as communication infrastructure for demanding services. However, to transmit vital sign parameters from ECGs, pulse-oximeters, EEGs etc in wireless networks is also a challenge, especially if multiple sensors compete for access. Contention-based access networks offer simplicity and utilization advantages, but the drawback is unpredictable performance due to loss of transmitted packets.

    We have used the SHIMMER wireless sensor platform developed at Intel [4] in the living lab at the Centre for Health and Building at KTH in a case study to identify and evaluate performance problems. The full-scale living lab consists of two apartments especially equipped with modern technique for healthcare at home and assisted living.

    Our paper focuses on continuous monitoring of the heart activity using a wireless ECG based on the wireless personal area network (WPAN) standard IEEE 802.15.4. Results from performance tests in the living lab will be presented e.g. influence of equipment such as micro wave ovens. Since contention-based wireless access has no guarantees for the quality of the delivered service it is interesting to determine to what extent the received ECG signal is sensitive to loss of information. We have recorded ECG signals as well as emulated packet loss in existing ECG records from official databases. The result of two cardiologists´ assessment of ECGs with different loss ratio levels and patterns will be reported in the paper. One interesting conclusion is that a diagnosis is fully possible for ECGs with packet loss ratio up to at least 5%. This project is part of research at the School of Technology and Health at KTH.

  • 21. Börsbo, Björn
    et al.
    Peolsson, Michael
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Technology in Medicine and Health, CTMH.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Catastrophizing, depression, and pain: Correlation with and influence on quality of life and health - A study of chronic whiplash-associated disorders2008In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 40, no 7, p. 562-569Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aims of this study were: (i) to classify subgroups according to the degree of pain intensity, depression, and catastrophizing, and investigate distribution in a group of patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders; and (h) to investigate how these subgroups were distributed and inter-related multivariately with respect to consequences such as health and quality of life outcome measures. Design: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Patients: A total of 275 consecutive chronic pain patients with whiplash-associated disorders who were referred to a university hospital. Methods: The following data were obtained by means of self-report questionnaires: pain intensity in neck and shoulders, background history, Beck Depression Inventory, the catastrophizing scale of Coping Strategy Questionnaire, Life Satisfaction Checklist, the SF-36 Health Survey, and the EuroQol. Results: Principal component analysis was used to recognize subgroups according to the degree of pain intensity, depression, and catastrophizing. These subgroups have specific characteristics according to perceived health and quality of life, and the degree of depression appears to be the most important influencing factor. Conclusion: From a clinical point of view, these findings indicate that it is important to assess patients for intensity of pain, depression, and catastrophizing when planning a rehabilitation programme. Such an evaluation will help individualize therapy and intervention techniques so as to optimize the efficiency of the programme.

  • 22. Börsbo, Björn
    et al.
    Peolsson, Michael
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Technology in Medicine and Health, CTMH.
    Gerdle, Björn
    The complex interplay between pain intensity, depression, anxiety and catastrophising with respect to quality of life and disability2009In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 31, no 19, p. 1605-1613Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. To identify subgroups of patients with chronic pain based on the occurrence of depression, anxiety and catastrophising and the duration of pain and pain intensity. In addition to this, the relationship between the subgroups with respect to background variables, diagnosis, pain-related disability and perceived quality of life are investigated. Methods. This study used 433 patients with chronic pain including 47 patients with spinal cord injury-related pain, 150 with chronic whiplash associated disorders and 236 with fibromyalgia. The participants answered a postal questionnaire that provided background data, pain intensity and duration and psychological and health-related items. Results. On the basis of depression, anxiety, catastrophising, pain intensity and duration, we identified subgroups of patients with chronic pain that differed with respect to perceived quality of life, disability and diagnosis. The psychological factors, especially depression, significantly influenced perceived quality of life and disability. Pain intensity and duration play a minor role with respect to quality of life, although pain intensity is associated to perceived disability. Conclusions. The results of this study highlight the importance of not looking at patients with chronic pain as a homogenous entity. A detailed assessment, including psychological factors with emphasis on depressive symptoms, might be essential for planning and carrying through treatment and rehabilitation.

  • 23.
    Carlid, Olle
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Hjelm, Mats
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Arbetsmetodik för att minska vattenfotavtrycket: Exemplet Ornö, Haninge2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    In today's society is a large shipment of virtual water between countries in the world. Virtual water refers to all the water consumed to produce a product. From this standpoint, Sweden is importing virtual water from Brazil when we import coffee. Hoekstra and Chapagain have calculated that one cup of coffee contains 140 liters of virtual water. This water is all the freshwater that is consumed in Brazil to grow, package and carry the goods to Sweden. Fresh water is something that exists in limited quantities. In Sweden we have plenty of fresh water, but many of the countries we are importing virtual water from there is a shortages of fresh water. As an example, Sweden is importing large quantities of virtual water from countries like Germany, Spain and India, which today consumes between 40-50% of their renewable water resources. With an increased population and as the temperature increases, this consumption is going to be problematic.

    In order to analyze how much fresh water is actually needed in a country, territory, region or similar Arjen Y. Hoekstra introduced the water footprint concept in year 2002. Water footprint is defined as the volume of water that goes in to producing the products and services consumed in that area. The water footprint is divided into two parts, internal and external water footprint. With the internal water footprint means the total volume of water used by the domestic water in the national economy, minus the virtual water exported to other areas. The external water footprint is defined as the annual volume of water used in other countries to produce the goods consumed in the area and is the part that this degree thesis will be focused on.

    Sweden's total water footprint is estimated to 2150 m

    3/inhabitants/year, this can be taken in relation to the global average, which is 1564 m3

    /inhab/year. Daily the average Swede consumes an average of 5890 liters of water/person/day. 4240 liters of this (72 %) is related to agricultural products, 1320 liters (22.4 %) for industrial products and only 330 liters (5.6 %) water used in the household.

    The purpose of this degree thesis is to develop a methodology for identifying the products that cause a large external water footprint for a local community, how this society affects global water consumption in the form of virtual water and how it can be reduced. The methodology is a step-by-step approach and is divided into four phases. Phase 1. Delimit the study area, Phase 2. Identify the water footprint, Phase 3. Planning measures to reduce external water footprint, Phase 4. Analyze the results. The methodology describes what to think about, what is missing and how to calculate when you want to calculate a local society's external water footprint. The degree thesis is using Ornö as an example to apply the presented methodology on.

    Our example, Ornö, is an island in the Stockholm archipelago. The island which is located in Haninge municipality is sparsely populated, 5.7 inhabitants per square kilometer, compared to iv

    Sweden as a country, which has 22.8 inv/km

    2

    . This means that there is much access to fresh water and good farming opportunities on the island.

    The degree thesis identifies 17 agricultural products that accounts for 60 % of Sweden's external water footprint. Of these 17 products coffee is the individual crop, which accounts for the bulk of Sweden's external water footprint, 16.3 %. In addition to coffee, meat products accounts for about 16 % of the footprint. All of these 17 products are not products that can be replaced with local production. Because of the Swedish climate not all crops are fit to grow there, such as coffee. However, the study shows that 35% of the external water footprint can be replaced with local production.

    To make a study, at a local community, it is above all statistics and data on consumption in the current society that is missing. To overcome this, we see two main solutions. The first is through a detailed survey that produces what people in the society consume in detail. A second solution could be that the Statistiska centralbyrån (SCB), or a similar organization, did a survey on what people in the country with different incomes, ages or other groupings are consuming. In order to transfer it back to the residents in the local community

  • 24.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Thunqvist, Eva-Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering.
    Larsson, Tore J
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Odla under tak i eller nära bostaden2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within a project called “The sustainable greenhouse as a complement to buildings” financed by the Delegation of sustainable cities in Sweden, researchers, consultants and students have during 2013 developed, tested and evaluated various solutions for cultivating under roofs in or close to dwellings. We included solutions such as cultivating a plot in a rooftop greenhouse, a circular cultivation balcony or to cultivate in one’s kitchen or living room using a fish and vegetable furniture, a green wall, a green lamp or a green frame attached to the wall. The practical trials were preceded by a literature survey that described good examples of cultivation under roofs in various cities around the world.The results show that here are many inspiring examples of cultivating under roofs in cities and that such cultivation has gained some momentum. Our practical trials show among others that urban agriculture seems challenging and appealing for many but that the solutions that we have tested seem to be too expensive and partly also too time-consuming. Those who like to cultivate do so because it is fun and they can get products of good quality. To lessen the environmental impacts are also a reason but here our results that productivity in urban farming has to be higher than in our trials in order for the products to be considered as “climate-friendly”. Growing fish at home showed to be rather unpopular and many thought that slaughtering the fish by themselves would be nasty. Others results from the project are a water cooled LED lamp built in four copies and successfully installed in a fish and vegetable production unit as well as drawings and costs estimates for a cultivation bench.Proposals for further studies include analysis of flight and nutrient requirements for cultivation under roofs in cities as well as measurements of productivity. More low cost solutions for cultivating under glass should also be developed. To expand and maintain interest and knowledge for cultivation under roofs in cities is not only important for increasing social sustainability and eventually the environmental one as well but also because of the need to enhance preparedness.

  • 25. Chowdhury, Helena H
    et al.
    Velebit, Jelena
    Mekjavic, Igor B
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
    Kreft, Marko
    Zorec, Robert
    Systemic Hypoxia Increases the Expression of DPP4 in Preadipocytes of Healthy Human Participants2017In: Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes, ISSN 0947-7349, E-ISSN 1439-3646Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) is a transmembrane glycoprotein involved in protein degradation. Due to its action on incretins, which increase insulin secretion, DPP4 is considered a therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes. Here we have studied the role of single and combined effects of hypoxia and inactivity on the expression of DPP4 in human adipose tissue of 12 adult normal-weight males. Fat biopsies were obtained at baseline and after each of three experimental campaigns. The results revealed that in isolated human preadipocytes the expression of DPP4 was significantly increased by exposure of participants to hypoxia. Physical inactivity per se had no apparent effect on the DPP4 expression. It is concluded that DPP4 may be a marker to monitor indirectly tissue hypoxia, as occurs in obese subjects.

  • 26.
    Christiansson, Samuel
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Potentialen för spillvärmeuppvärmda växthus i Sverige: ur ett hållbarhetsperspektiv2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Denna studie är en delstudie i ett större växthusprojekt som drivs av KTH Centrum för Hälsa och Byggande i Haninge utanför Stockholm. Projektet inbegriper ett integrerat spillvärme- och växthussystem med besöks- och forskningsändamål, placerat i anslutning till en reningsanläggning och ett naturbruksgymnasium. Studiens primära syften är att undersöka spillvärmepotentialen och potentialen för uppvärmning av växthus med spillvärme i Sverige. De sekundära syftena är att undersöka vilka hållbarhetsaspekter som kan identifieras som viktiga för spillvärme-växthus-system och att göra en idé- och informationssammanställning för dem som vill bygga spillvärme-växthus-system, med bland annat tips om hur produktpriser kan beräknas, vilka nyckeltal som kan användas för energikalkyler och vilka användningsområden som finns med ett växthus. Rapporten får ett visst fokus på livsmedels- och tomatodling, eftersom både tidigare studier och den fallstudie som ingår i rapporten handlade om detta. Studiens avsikt är dock att förespråka för en bredare syn på växthusanvändning.

    Studien visar att det finns stora spillvärmepotentialer bland särskilt högtempererade spillvärmekällor på västkusten och medeltempererade spillvärmekällor i Stockholmsområdet, eftersom dessa områden har både god spillvärmepotential och stor befolkning. Växthus kan byggas nära spillvärmekällan och kräver inte lika höga ingångstemperaturer som exempelvis fjärrvärmenäten, vilket gör spillvärme-växthus-system mer flexibla än spillvärme-fjärrvärme-system. Studien visar på viktiga fysiska, ekonomiska och organisatoriska förutsättningar för att bygga spillvärme-växthus-system, att det finns biologiska, sociala och kulturella potentialer med växthusen och vidare att det finns flera intressanta hållbarhetsaspekter med spillvärme-växthus-system, särskilt om de byggs rätt från början.

    Så gjordes i Habo, där studiens fallstudie gjordes. I Habo drivs ekologisk växthusodling med hjälp av spillvärme från en närliggande och elproducerande biogasanläggning, där de organiska resurserna består av gödsel och godisrester från en lokal godisindustri. Hela spillvärme-växthus-systemet är småskaligt och i stort sett kretsloppsanpassat. Modellen rekommenderas starkt både för projektet i Haninge och var helst man funderar på att bygga spillvärme-växthus-system, eftersom det överallt finns och alltid kommer att finnas tillgång på organiskt avfall. Energistudier visar att det finns stor potential i det organiska avfallet, särskilt från jordbruk

  • 27. Ciuha, U
    et al.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
    Mekjavic, IB
    PlanHab: Effects of normobaric hypoxic bed rest on behavioural temperature regulation2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28. Ciuha, U
    et al.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
    Mekjavic, I.B.
    PlanHab: The effect of hypoxic bedrest on behavioural temperature regulation2014In: Proceedings from 35th Annual International Gravitational Physiology Meeting, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 29. Ciuha, Ursa
    et al.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
    Mekjavic, Igor B.
    Effects of normobaric hypoxic bed rest on the thermal comfort zone2015In: Journal of Thermal Biology, ISSN 0306-4565, E-ISSN 1879-0992, Vol. 49-50, p. 39-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future Lunar and Mars habitats will maintain a hypobaric hypoxic environment to minimise the risk of decompression sickness during the preparation for extra-vehicular activity. This study was part of a larger study investigating the separate and combined effects of inactivity associated with reduced gravity and hypoxia, on the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, neurohumoural, and thermoregulatory systems. Eleven healthy normothermic young male subjects participated in three trials conducted on separate occasions: (1) Normobaric hypoxic ambulatory confinement, (2) Normobaric hypoxic bedrest and (3) Normobaric normoxic bedrest Normobaric hypoxia was achieved by reduction of the oxygen fraction in the air (FiO2=0.141 +/- 0.004) within the facility, while the effects of reduced gravity were simulated by confining the subjects to a horizontal position in bed, with all daily routines performed in this position for 21 days. The present study investigated the effect of the interventions on behavioural temperature regulation. The characteristics of the thermal comfort zone (TCZ) were assessed by a water-perfused suit, with the subjects instructed to regulate the sinusoidally varying temperature of the suit within a range considered as thermally comfortable. Measurements were performed 5 days prior to the intervention (D-5), and on days 10 (D10) and 20 (D20) of the intervention. no statistically significant differences were found in any of the characteristics of the TCZ between the interventions (HAMB, HBR and NBR), or between different measurement days (D-5, D10, D20) within each intervention. rectal temperature remained stable, whereas skin temperature (T-sk) increased during all interventions throughout the one hour trial, no difference in T-sk between 0-5, D10 and D20, and between HAMB, HBR and NBR were revealed, subjects perceived the regulated temperature as thermally comfortable, and neutral or warm, we conclude that regulation of thermal comfort is not compromised by hypoxic inactivity. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 30. De Boever, P
    et al.
    Louwies, T
    Kounalakis, S
    Cox, B
    Jaki Mekjavic, P
    Nawrot, T
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
    Mekjavic, I.B.
    PlanHab: In vivo retinal images for a non-invasive analysis of the microcirculation during hypoxia and unloading/inactivity2014In: Proceedings from 35th Annual International Gravitational Physiology Meeting, Waterloo, Canada, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31. Debevec, T
    et al.
    Bali, T
    Simpson, E.J.
    MacDonald, I.A.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
    Mekjavic, I.B.
    PlanHab: Effects of simulated planetary habitation on body mass and whole body composition2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32. Debevec, T
    et al.
    Ehrström, S
    Pialoux, V
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
    Mekjavic, IB
    Millet, GP
    FemHab: Prooxidant/antioxidant balance during and following a 10-day hypoxic bed rest2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction:Inhabitants of the envisaged planetary habitats will be continuously exposed to reduced gravity and hypoxia. The combined effects of unloading and hypoxia on prooxidant/antioxidant balance are currently unknown.

    Methods:Healthy female participants underwent the following three, 10-day interventions: i) Normobaric normoxic bed-rest (NBR; n=11; FiO2=0.209) ii) Normobaric hypoxic ambulatory confinement (HAMB; n=9: FiO2~0.141), and iii) Normobaric hypoxic bed-rest (HBR; n=12; FiO2~0.141). Plasma oxidative stress [advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and nitrotyrosine], antioxidant markers [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX)] and nitrites were determined before (Pre), during (Day 2, Day 6), immediately after (Post) and 24-hrs after (Post+1) each campaign.

    Results:Compared to Pre, the AOPP was only higher on Day 2, Day 6 and Post during the HBR and at Post during the NBR (P<0.05) while the nitrotyrosine was significantly reduced at Post+1 only during the HAMB (P<0.05). Higher levels of SOD were observed during the HAMB at Day 6 and Post+1whereas GPX was reduced at Day 6 and Post during the HBR. Nitrites were significantly higher at Post+1 in the HAMB both, compared to Pre and compared to HBR and NBR (P<0.05).

    Conclusion:These data suggest that the unloading-induced oxidative stress is exacerbated by exposure to simulated altitude of ~4000m. In addition, even habitual (low) physical activity, performed during hypoxic exposure, seems to blunt hypoxia-related oxidative stress via antioxidant system upregulation.

  • 33. Debevec, T.
    et al.
    Simpson, E. J.
    Mekjavic, I. B.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
    Macdonald, I. A.
    Effects of prolonged hypoxia and bed rest on appetite and appetite-related hormones2016In: Appetite, ISSN 0195-6663, E-ISSN 1095-8304, Vol. 107, p. 28-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental hypoxia and inactivity have both been shown to modulate appetite. To elucidate the independent and combined effects of hypoxia and bed rest-induced inactivity on appetite-related hormones and subjective appetite, eleven healthy, non-obese males underwent three experimental interventions in a cross-over and randomized fashion: 1) Hypoxic confinement combined with daily moderate-intensity exercise (HAMB, FiO2 = 0.141 ± 0.004; PiO2 = 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg) 2) Bed rest in normoxia (NBR, FiO2 = 0.209; PiO2 = 133.1 ± 0.3 mmHg) and 3) Bed rest in hypoxia (HBR, FiO2 = 0.141 ± 0.004; PiO2 = 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg). A mixed-meal tolerance test (MTT), followed by an ad libitum meal were performed before (Pre) and after 16-days (Post) of each intervention. Composite satiety scores (CSS) during the MTT were calculated from visual analogue scores, while fasting and postprandial concentrations of total ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and leptin were quantified from arterialized-venous samples. Postprandial CSS were significantly lower at Post compared to Pre in NBR only (P &lt; 0.05) with no differences observed in ad libitum meal intakes. Postprandial concentrations and incremental area under the curve (AUC) for total ghrelin and PYY were unchanged following all interventions. Postprandial GLP-1 concentrations were only reduced at Post following HBR (P &lt; 0.05) with resulting AUC changes being significantly lower compared to HAMB (P &lt; 0.01). Fasting leptin was reduced following HAMB (P &lt; 0.05) with no changes observed following NBR and HBR. These findings suggest that independently, 16-day of simulated altitude exposure (∼4000 m) and bed rest-induced inactivity do not significantly alter subjective appetite or ad libitum intakes. The measured appetite-related hormones following both HAMB and HBR point to a situation of hypoxia-induced appetite stimulation, although this did not reflect in higher ad libitum intakes. Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT02293772.

  • 34. Debevec, T
    et al.
    Simpson, EJ
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
    Mekjavic, IB
    Macdonald, IA
    PlanHab: The individual and combined effects of inactivity and hypoxia on insulin resistance2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inactivity is know to aggravate insulin resistance. The effects of hypoxia on insulin and glucose metabolism, on the other hand, are not completely understood.

  • 35. Debevec, T
    et al.
    Simpson, T
    MacDonald, I.A.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
    Mekjavic, I.B.
    PlanHab: Energy expenditure and appetite sensation during hypoxic bedrest2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 36. Debevec, Tadej
    et al.
    Bali, Tarsi C.
    Simpson, Elizabeth J.
    Macdonald, Ian A.
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
    Mekjavic, Igor B.
    Separate and combined effects of 21-day bed rest and hypoxic confinement on body composition2014In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 114, no 11, p. 2411-2425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study tested the hypothesis that hypoxia exacerbates reductions in body mass observed during unloading. To discern the separate and combined effects of simulated microgravity and hypoxia, 11 healthy males underwent three 21-day campaigns in a counterbalanced fashion: (1) normoxic bed rest (NBR; FiO2 = 0.209; PiO2 = 133.1 +/- A 0.3); (2) hypoxic ambulatory confinement (HAMB; FiO2 = 0.141 +/- A 0.004; PiO2 = 90.0 +/- A 0.4; similar to 4,000 m); and (3) hypoxic bed rest (HBR; FiO2 = 0.141 +/- A 0.004; PiO2 = 90.0 +/- A 0.4). The same dietary menu was applied in all campaigns. Targeted energy intakes were estimated individually using the Harris-Benedict equation taking into account whether the subjects were bedridden or ambulatory. Body mass and water balance were assessed throughout the campaigns. Whole body and regional body composition was determined before and after the campaigns using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Before and during the campaigns, indirect calorimetry and visual analogue scores were employed to assess the resting energy expenditure (REE) and perceived appetite sensations, respectively. Energy intakes were lower than targeted in all campaigns (NBR: -5 %; HAMB: -14 %; HBR: -6 %; P < 0.01). Body mass significantly decreased following all campaigns (NBR: -3 %; HAMB: -4 %; HBR: -5 %; P < 0.01). While fat mass was not significantly altered, the whole body fat free mass was reduced (NBR: -4 %; HAMB: -5 %; HBR: -5 %; P < 0.01), secondary to lower limb fat-free mass reduction. Water balance was comparable between the campaigns. No changes were observed in REE and perceived appetite. Exposure to simulated altitude of similar to 4,000 m does not seem to worsen the whole body mass and fat-free mass reductions or alter resting energy expenditure and appetite during a 21-day simulated microgravity.

  • 37. Dolenc Grošelj, L
    et al.
    Morrisson, SA
    Mirnik, D
    Korsic, S
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
    Mekjavic, IB
    PlanHab: Periodic breathing during hypoxic bedrest2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Eiken, Ola
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
    Kölegård, Roger
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
    Mekjavic, Igor, B
    Keramidas, Michail E
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
    PlanHab: Normobaric hypoxia may exaggerate bedrest-induced reductions in peak oxygen uptake2015In: International Society for Gravitational Physiology, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Eiken, Ola
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
    Mekjavic, Igor B.
    Kölegård, Roger
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
    Blood pressure regulation V: in vivo mechanical properties of precapillary vessels as affected by long-term pressure loading and unloading2014In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, ISSN 1439-6319, E-ISSN 1439-6327, Vol. 114, no 3, p. 499-509Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies are reviewed, concerning the in vivo wall stiffness of arteries and arterioles in healthy humans, and how these properties adapt to iterative increments or sustained reductions in local intravascular pressure. A novel technique was used, by which arterial and arteriolar stiffness were determined as changes in arterial diameter and flow, respectively, during graded increments in distending pressure in the blood vessels of an arm or a leg. Pressure-induced increases in diameter and flow were smaller in the lower leg than in the arm, indicating greater stiffness in the arteries/arterioles of the leg. A 5-wk period of intermittent intravascular pressure elevations in one arm reduced pressure distension and pressure-induced flow in the brachial artery by about 50%. Conversely, prolonged reduction of arterial/arteriolar pressure in the lower body by 5 wks of sustained horizontal bedrest, induced three-fold increases of the pressure-distension and pressure-flow responses in a tibial artery. Thus, the wall stiffness of arteries and arterioles are plastic properties that readily adapt to changes in the prevailing local intravascular pressure. The discussion concerns mechanisms underlying changes in local arterial/arteriolar stiffness as well as whether stiffness is altered by changes in myogenic tone and/or wall structure. As regards implications, regulation of local arterial/arteriolar stiffness may facilitate control of arterial pressure in erect posture and conditions of exaggerated intravascular pressure gradients. That increased intravascular pressure leads to increased arteriolar wall stiffness also supports the notion that local pressure loading may constitute a prime mover in the development of vascular changes in hypertension.

  • 40.
    Freitag, Sonja
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    The Impact of Stressful Postures on the Physical Workload in Nursing2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nursing staff have an elevated risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders, in particular in the lower back area. Statistics produced by leading industrial nations show that back problems are the world’s number one work-related health problem, and that healthcare workers suffer from a greater occurrence of such problems than workers in other professions. In this context, many studies have examined manual patient handling activities, which was thought to be the main cause of musculoskeletal disorders of the lower back. But nurses have many other types of work to perform and several reviews have concluded that approaches which only focus on manual patient handling activities do not sufficiently reduce back problems in nursing professions.

    Other risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders of the lower back discussed in the literature included repeated bending and the high proportion of static trunk postures. The main aim of this doctoral thesis was therefore to examine the influence of stressful trunk postures on the physical workload of nursing staff in hospitals and nursing homes. It focuses on the type, number and extent of stressful postures and on identifying activities that encourage their occurrence. We used our findings to derive strategies for reducing stressful postures in nursing, and examined whether nursing staff regard such a reduction as actually relieving their physical workload.

    A secondary aim was to consider the older people potentially in need of care. The background to this is that, due to steadily rising costs, many older people are unable to afford care in a nursing home, and additionally that the forecast severe shortage of nursing staff in future gives reason to look for solutions that can reduce the demand for nursing staff. Among older people who still look after themselves, we therefore examined which stressful postures they adopt when carrying out domestic tasks such as cooking and washing laundry. From the results, we provided some examples of a better design of the domestic environment, which reduces stressful postures, when performing these tasks and helps older people to be able to look after themselves in their own homes for longer.

  • 41.
    Freitag, Sonja
    et al.
    Institution for Statutory Accident Insurance and Prevention in Health, Welfare Services.
    Fincke-Junod, Isabell
    Seddouki, Rachida
    Dulon, Madeleine
    Hermanns, Ingo
    Kersten, Jan Felix
    Larsson, Tore J.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Nienhaus, Albert
    Frequent Bending-An Underestimated Burden in Nursing Professions2012In: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 697-707Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to quantify the total duration per shift in which nurses work in a forward bending position over 20 degrees. Furthermore, the influence of several factors on the occurrence of sagittal trunk inclinations in nurses was investigated. Trunk postures were recorded for nine nursing home nurses from four German nursing homes and 18 hospital nurses from seven hospitals using the CUELA measurement system. A total of 79 shifts, 27 in nursing homes and 52 in hospitals, were analysed. All measurements were supported by video recordings. Specially developed software (WIDAAN 2.75) was used to synchronize the measurement data and video footage. The total duration of inclinations per shift was significantly affected by the working area (nursing home or hospital) with an increase of 25.3 min in nursing homes (95% confidence interval 2.4-48.2; P = 0.032). Another factor was the extent of personal basic care tasks performed by the nurses (P < 0.001). Nursing home nurses worked about twice as long per shift in a forward bending position compared with hospital nurses (112 versus 63 min; P < 0.001) and they assumed almost one-third more inclinations per shift (1541 versus 1170; P = 0.005). Nursing staff perform a large number of inclinations. The amount of time spent by nurses working in a forward bending position was highly dependent on the working area and the extent to which patients were in need of help. It is very likely that future preventive measures, focussing on reducing the huge amount of inclination, would reduce the physical stress in everyday nursing work substantially.

  • 42.
    Freitag, Sonja
    et al.
    BGW–Institution for Statutory Accident Insurance and Prevention in the Health and Welfare Services.
    Seddouki, Rachida
    UKE–University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf.
    Dulon, Madeleine
    BGW–Institution for Statutory Accident Insurance and Prevention in the Health and Welfare Services.
    Kersten, Jan Felix
    UKE–University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf.
    Larsson, Tore J.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Nienhaus, Albert
    UKE–University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf.
    The effect of working position on trunk posture and exertion for routine nursing tasks: An Experimental Study2014In: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 317-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives:To examine the influence of the two following factors on the proportion of time that nurses spend in a forward-bending trunk posture: (i) the bed height during basic care activities at the bedside and (ii) the work method during basic care activities in the bathroom. A further aim was to examine the connection between the proportion of time spent in a forward-bending posture and the perceived exertion.Methods:Twelve nurses in a geriatric nursing home each performed a standardized care routine at the bedside and in the bathroom. The CUELA (German abbreviation for 'computer-Assisted recording and long-Term analysis of musculoskeletal loads') measuring system was used to record all trunk inclinations. Each participant conducted three tests with the bed at different heights (knee height, thigh height, and hip height) and in the bathroom, three tests were performed with different work methods (standing, kneeling, and sitting). After each test, participants rated their perceived exertion on the 15-point Borg scale (6 = no exertion at all and 20 = exhaustion).Results:If the bed was raised from knee to thigh level, the proportion of time spent in an upright position increased by 8.2% points. However, the effect was not significant (P = 0.193). Only when the bed was raised to hip height, there was a significant increase of 19.8% points (reference: thigh level; P = 0.003) and 28.0% points (reference: knee height; P < 0.001). Bathroom tests: compared with the standing work method, the kneeling and sitting work methods led to a significant increase in the proportion of time spent in an upright posture, by 19.4% points (P = 0.003) and 25.7% points (P < 0.001), respectively. The greater the proportion of time spent in an upright position, the lower the Borg rating (P < 0.001) awarded.Conclusions:The higher the proportion of time that nursing personnel work in an upright position, the less strenuous they perceive the work to be. Raising the bed to hip height and using a stool in the bathroom significantly increase the proportion of time that nursing personnel work in an upright position. Nursing staff can spend a considerably greater proportion of their time in an ergonomic posture if stools and height-Adjustable beds are provided in healthcare institutions.

  • 43.
    Gennser, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
    Blogg, L
    Eiken, Ola
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Basic Science and Biomedicine, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
    Jaki Mekjavic, P
    Mekjavic, IB
    Comparison of venous bubbles and tear film bubbles after decompression during a five week 6° head-down tilt bed rest2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44. Gillies, P.
    et al.
    Marshall, I.
    Asplund, Maria L M
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Technology in Medicine and Health, CTMH.
    Winkler, P.
    Higinbotham, J.
    Quantification of MRS data in the frequency domain using a wavelet filter, an approximated Voigt lineshape model and prior knowledge2006In: NMR in Biomedicine, ISSN 0952-3480, E-ISSN 1099-1492, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 617-626Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantification of MRS spectra is a challenging problem when a large baseline is present along with a low signal to noise ratio. This work investigates a robust fitting technique that yields accurate peak areas under these conditions. Using simulated long echo time 1H MRS spectra with low signal to noise ratio and a large baseline component, both the accuracy and reliability of the fit in the frequency domain were greatly improved by reducing the number of fitted parameters and making full use of all the known information concerning the Voigt lineshape. Using an appropriate first order approximation to a popular approximation of the Voigt lineshape, a significant improvement in the estimate of the area of a known spectral peak was obtained with a corresponding reduction in the residual. Furthermore, this improved parameter choice resulted in a large reduction in the number of iterations of the least-squares fitting routine. On the other hand, making use of the known centre frequency differences of the component resonances gave negligible improvement. A wavelet filter was used to remove the baseline component. In addition to performing a Monte Carlo study, these fitting techniques were also applied to a set of 10 spectra acquired from healthy human volunteers.Again, the same reduced parameter model gave the lowest value for X2 in each case.

  • 45.
    Glimskär, Bo
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Developments for a future health care at home step by step2010In: Safety Science Monitor, ISSN 1443-8844, Vol. 14, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Glimskär, Bo
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Rullatorn blir robot2012In: Forskning och framsteg, ISSN 0015-7937, no 8, p. 66-67Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 47.
    Glimskär, Bo
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    The Adoption of Ergonomic Innovations for Injury Prevention: Examples from the building construction and health care industries2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A good work environment is important for the individual, for industry and for society. The work environment research has, predominantly, targeted identification of problems and the measurement of the size of these problems.

    Innovations to reduce the incidence of musculoskeletal disorder, MSD, have been introduced in different branches of industry, but with limited success.

    Few of the ergonomic innovations developed for the building and construction industry have reached a sufficient level of adoption. Ergonomic innovations in the health care sector are of an incremental character and seem to have similar problems of adoption as the ones in the building and construction industry.

    Three examples of ergonomic innovation are examined in the thesis:

    • a glue spreader for floor layers

    • a four-wheel walker with a lifting device

    • a sonographer’s scanning support device

    The studies show that an ergonomic innovation is not adopted for prevention of occupational injury unless the innovation also has other relative advantages apart from the ergonomic ones. For the group who already has sustained an injury, it is enough that the ergonomic problems are solved, while the other, symptom-free group, requires other advantages in order to adopt the innovation; increased production economy seems to be the most prominent potential advantage.

  • 48.
    Glimskär, Bo
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    The Adoption of Ergonomic Innovations for Injury Prevention: Sonographer's scanning support deviceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of how people relate to the risk of occupational injury indicate that there is a tendency to underestimate the risk at work compared to other risks in society. Ultrasound examinations of the heart involve a static and very uncomfortable working posture for the sonographer. As a result many sonographers experience shoulder and neck pains which can result in long term sickness leaves.

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate how a more radical ergonomic innovation, a remote controlled ultrasound robot for cardiac examinations, Medirob, has been adopted. The study was conducted by interviews with department heads and heads of clinics, responsible for the procurement of the equipment.

    The results of this study have shown that it is not maybe enough to solve an ergonomic problem with an innovation to get it accepted and used. To prevent injuries the intervention must also have other qualities, for example improved productivity.

  • 49.
    Glimskär, Bo
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Utvecklad projektering och planering: Fallrapport (Åkerbyparken)1995Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    1990 initierades Åkerbyparken av Täby kommun för seniorbostäder. Projektet genomfördes av Besqab i samarbete med SIAB och berörde samtliga verksamma på arbetsplatsen och i projekteringen. Projektets målsättning har varit att genom en utvecklad projektering och planering förebygga att arbetssituationer som kan leda till förslitningsskador uppkommer. Genom att särskilt beakta dessa frågor i alla skeden av ett byggobjekts genomförande kan man skapa förutsättningar för minskade förslitningsskador i branschen samt även skapa en bättre produktionsekonomi.

  • 50.
    Glimskär, Bo
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Utveckling av armeringsbollen: Etapp 11995Report (Other academic)
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