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  • 1.
    Almén, Lena
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Design Measures for Construction Site Safety2012In: The Conference of the Nordic Ergonomics Society, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract:Since the 1st of January 2009, all Clients in Sweden are required to appoint a Health and Safety Coordinator for the design and planning phase of their building projects. Telephone interviews were carried out with the Coordinators of 42 building projects during 2010. They were asked to give examples of occupational hazards in the projects and to report how these were handled in the design and planning phase. Trauma risks as well as MSD-risks were identified in the design and planning phase. The hazards were mostly generally described and seldomly taken care of by design changes.

  • 2.
    Almén, Lena
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Projekteringens möjligheter att minska risken för arbetsskador i byggproduktionen.: En fallstudie av säkerhetsstyrning i två byggprojekt.2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Arbetsolycksfrekvensen bland bygg ‐ och anläggningsarbetare är högre, och pensionsåldern lägre, än genomsnittet i det svenska arbetslivet.

    Tidigare studier visar att projektörer har möjligheter att påverka arbetsmiljön i produktionen, ju tidigare i byggprocessen desto större är påverkansmöjligheterna.

    Enligt svensk lag har projektörer och byggherrar ansvar för arbetsmiljön i produktion. Den 1 januari 2009 skärptes Arbetsmiljölagen så att deras ansvar blev tydligare.

    Två byggprojekt, båda projekterade för januari 2009, studerades. I båda projekten var det en totalentreprenör som ansvarade för att projektera och producera flerbostadshus.

    Syftet med studien var att finna samband mellan arbetsmiljörisker i produktionen och beslut tagna under projekteringsskedet.

    Hantverkare och tjänstemän i produktionen identifierade riskfyllda arbetsmoment, vilka eventuellt hade varit möjliga att förebygga under projekteringsfasen. Fallen dokumenterades och presenterades för dem som hade deltagit i projekteringen av byggnaden. För vart och ett av fallen, ombads projektörerna att beskriva bakgrunden, vilka beslut som hade tagits och varför. I föreliggande rapport presenteras de riskfyllda arbetsmomenten och varför dessa uppstod. Analyser av fallen gjorde det möjligt att förstå vad projektörer kan göra för att förhindra arbetsskador i produktionen, och varför det ibland inte är möjligt.

    Studien visar att projektörer i många fall, inte var medvetna om arbetsmiljökonsekvenserna, och saknade rutiner för att identifiera, eliminera och hantera arbetsmiljörisker under projekteringsskedet. Krav från byggherre, lagar, stadsbyggnadskontor och bransch har begränsat projektörernas handlingsutrymme. Det har även funnits begränsningar vid inköp av produkter, på grund av svårigheter att få tag i produkter och material som är bra ur arbetsmiljösynpunkt samt restriktioner kopplade till avtal. Det har också varit problem med samordning och styrning av konsulter och underentreprenörer.

    Byggherren har ett viktigt ansvar för arbetsmiljön i byggprojekt. Det är av stor vikt att byggherren prioriterar säker arbetsmiljö genom hela byggprojektet, från det tidiga projekteringsskedet tills byggnaden är färdigställd.

    I varje skede av ett byggprojekt behövs rutiner för att samtliga aktörer ska beakta arbetsmiljökonsekvenser av sina beslut, parallellt med konsekvenser för produktivitet och produkt.

    För att åstadkomma förbättrad säkerhetsstyrning i byggprocessen, måste byggföretagen prioritera arbetsmiljöfrågan. Totalentreprenörer har, genom sitt ansvar för både projektering och produktion, goda möjligheter till arbetsmiljöstyrning. Det behövs rutiner för riskanalys i projekteringen, liksom på företagets olika avdelningar, och tillräcklig kompetens inom företaget. Centrala riktlinjer bör tas fram för att stimulera att erfarenheter och säkerhetsinsikter hos individer i hela produktionskedjan tas till vara inför framtida projekt.

    Projekteringens möjligheter att minska risken för arbetsskador i byggproduktionen 2009 6

    För att kunna identifiera, eliminera och hantera arbetsmiljörisker krävs både arbetsmiljökompetens och kompetens om produktionsmetoder. Kunniga hantverkare och tjänstemän från produktionen bör delta under projekteringen och i förberedelserna inför produktionsstart.

    Tillverkare av byggprodukter och byggelement behöver ta arbetsmiljöfrågan i beaktande i högre grad, för att utveckla produkter som är lätta att hantera och möjliga att montera utan risk för arbetsskada.

    Lagstiftningen har initierat förbättringar av säkerhetsstyrningen i byggprocessen. Genom användande av säkerhetsledningssystem kan det ske en ytterligare utveckling mot en säkrare arbetsmiljö i byggproduktionen. Riskfaktorerna som har identifierats i studien kan utgöra en grund för relevanta bedömningskriterier för intern och extern arbetsmiljörevision.

  • 3.
    Almén, Lena
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Projektörer kan minska risken för arbetsskador2012In: VVS-Forum, ISSN 0346-4644, no 3, p. 72-73Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ungefär en fjärdedel av alla arbetsplatsolyckor med dödlig utgång sker på byggarbetsplatser. Antalet anmälda arbetsskador per sysselsatt är cirka 50 procent högre i byggbranschen än genomsnittet i Sverige. Vanligast är belastningsskador, både akuta och på grund av långvarig belastning. Arbetsgivaren ansvarar för att arbetstagarna ska kunna utföra sina arbetsuppgifter utan att bli skadade eller sjuka. Men förutsättningarna för entreprenörernas skadeförebyggande arbete är olika i olika projekt. De beror bland annat på:- typ av projekt: ROT eller nybyggnation- tidsramar- ekonomiska ramar- byggnadens design: form, konstruktioner,byggprodukter- säkerhetsinformationen från projektering till produktion.

  • 4.
    Almén, Lena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Larsson, Tore J
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Health and safety coordinators in building projects2014In: Built Environment Project and Asset Management, ISSN 2044-124X, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 251-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – In order to reduce the number of injuries on construction sites, a European Directive prescribes that the clients shall appoint safety and health coordinators in their projects. The purpose of this paper is to find out who are appointed to be health and safety coordinators for the design and planning phase and what they do in order to prevent injuries on sites. Design/methodology/approach – Since the 1st of January 2009, there shall be a coordinator for the design and planning phase in Swedish construction projects. Telephone interviews were made with the coordinators in 42 Swedish building projects.

    Findings – The coordinators’ education and experiences varied widely, as well as their descriptions of their duties: no duties, administration and active injury prevention. The coordinators who were classified as most active had at least one additional leading role in the projects. Research limitations/implications – The study is qualitative for an increased understanding, not a statistical reflection of the coordinator population.

    Practical implications – The legislation needs to clarify whether the early conceptual phase of the project is included in the coordinator’s commission and whether she/he is supposed to participate in identifying, assessing and reducing risks through design changes. These clarifications will have an influence on when the coordinator should be appointed and what competence she/he needs. Originality/value – The study increases the understanding of how the health and safety coordinators of the planning and projecting phase of building projects perceive their mission and what factors, according to them, have an influence on what they do.

  • 5.
    Almén, Lena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Larsson, Tore J
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Possibilities for designers to reduce the risk of work injury in the production phase of a building project2010In: On the Road to Vision Zero?: Construction, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    (71) Possibilities for designers to reduce the risk of work injury in the production phase of a building project. Lena Almén, Tore J Larsson, (School of Technology and Health, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden) Work related injuries and diseases are more frequent among construction workers than the labour market in average. Thus, there is a need of more preventive work during the design and planning phase. Two building projects, both productions of new apartment buildings with a design and construct contractor, were studied. Unsafe conditions were identified by workers and managers at the construction sites. The unsafe conditions were presented to the designers and planners. They were asked to describe the correlated decisions during the design and planning phase; when they were taken, why and by whom.

    Influence from outside the company was related to the clients, the town planning department, laws, a trade association and to the design of building products. The managers at the construction sites did not get any information, from the designers and planners, of what occupational risks there were in any of the projects. The routines for how to identify and handle hazards in the designing and planning phase were not sufficient. Furthermore, the designers explained, that they did not have enough competence in construction methods to be able to foresee occupational consequences at the construction sites when they designed rare constructions. The designers and planners did not follow up occupational risks at any of the construction sites. In order to get a safer working environment at construction sites, the top managers in the building companies need to define the acceptable safety level and put the safety issue on the agenda for all employees in the company, along with quality, costs and time schedule. Safety need to be communicated with those outside the company who have an influence on the working environment, and included in contracts with consultants, subcontractors and suppliers.

  • 6.
    Almén, Lena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Larsson, Tore J.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    The Health and Safety Coordinators´Potential to Prevent Injuries on Construction Sites2012In: Working on Safety, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The risk of occupational disease and serious injury in the building and construction industry is high. The earlier in the construction process, the greater are the possibilities to reduce hazards.

    According to the Swedish legislation, Architects and Design Engineers shall, within the framework of their assignment, ensure that aspects of health and safety are considered during the construction of a building as well as in the use of the finished building.

    Since the 1st of January 2009, Clients (natural or legal persons for whom projects are carried out) in Sweden are obliged to appoint a Health and Safety Coordinator for the design and planning of the building. The Coordinators must have the educational skills and experience needed to perform their duties.

    The aim of this study was to find out what persons are appointed to be coordinators, how they perceive their duties and, potentially, what could facilitate the Health and Safety Coordinators’ activities and construction site safety.

    Telephone interviews were carried out with 40 Health and Safety Coordinators for the design and planning phase of 42 building projects during 2010.

    The Coordinators education and experiences varied to a large degree. Their description of duties also varied greatly, from no duties, to administrative duties, to active injury prevention.

    According to the Coordinators, the following factors had a positive influence on their possibilities to act for injury prevention:

    • The Coordinator is appointed early in the process
    • The Coordinator has authority in the project
    • The Client prioritizes occupational safety
    • There is knowledge of construction methods in the design team
  • 7.
    Almén, Lena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Larsson, Tore J
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Thunqvist, Eva-Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    The Influence of the Designer on the Risk of Falling from Heights and of Exposure to Excessive Workloads on two Contruction Sites2012In: Safety Science Monitor, ISSN 1443-8844, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 2-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Workers on construction sites are exposed to an excessive risk of being injured at work. This study identifies occupational hazards on two construction sites – hazards that were related to the design of the building – and undertakes an analysis of the basis upon which related design decisions were made.Risks of falling from heights were related to the shape of the building. Risks related to an excessive workload were related to the weight of building products and possibilities to use equipment to avoid manual transports.The hazards were discussed at focus group meetings. During these meetings, the participants showed an increased understanding of safety issues in the project, each other's views and difficulties, and their own ability to facilitate acceptable risk levels for others.Some hazards were not foreseen during the design and planning phase. According to the architects, their knowledge about construction methods was not sufficient to predict hazards related to the shape of the building.Other hazards were foreseen, though considered to be primarily the contractor's responsibility. Consultants in the design and planning phase, on behalf of the client, were focused on quality, time schedule and economy, more than on occupational safety. There were building products on the market which were designed to fulfil functional regulatory requirements and requests from consumers, but not sufficient enough to ensure that they could be handled without exposure to an excessive workload. The demands and routines in the project did not ensure that project-specific hazard information was given to the contractor. 

  • 8.
    Andersson, Jesse
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Localized Sustainable Water Management in Practice: Ecological Engineering as a means for an eco-cyclic water system at the Berga Greenhouse Project2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractDue to a growing concern towards issues of sustainability and sustainable development as well as resource scarcity there is a need for increased local cultivation. Cold climate conditions in Sweden make greenhouses necessary for the cultivation of many species. In order to increase the sustainability of greenhouse production processes water cycles should be nearly closedloop cycles. To demonstrate this in practice the Berga Greenhouse project under development by the Centre for Health and Building at the Royal Institute of Technology is used to provide a visionary example. Through precipitation data and a water budget analysis a water reclamation rate of 85% was determined in order to bring the facility to water neutral status. On site water treatment through the use of ecological engineering was analyzed through the use of a multiple-case study of three prevalent technologies (Living Machines®, Organica Water, and Solar Aquatics™) which determined that Living Machines® was the most appropriate technology based upon factors related system performance and footprint.

  • 9. Blomqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Norrström, Ann-Catrine
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Johansson Thunqvist, Eva-Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Miljöproblem vid drift och underhåll av vägar2001Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Boman, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Rosenberg, Lena
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lundberg, Stefan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Nygård, Louise
    Karolinska Institutet.
    First steps in designing a videophone for people with dementia: Identification of users' potentials and the requirements of communication technology2012In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. sept, no 5, p. 356-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To identify, based on the literature, people with dementia´s potentials to manage an easy-to-use videophone, and to develop a videophone requirement specification for people with dementia.

    Method:The study is based on the Inclusive Design method, utilising the first two of four phases. Content analyses of literature reviews were used to identify users´potentials for managing a videophone and to gather recommendations regarding communication technology design for the target group. Existing videophones in Sweden were examined regarding potentia fit to users with dementia.Findings: This led to detailed identification of cognitive, physical and psychosocial challenges that people with dementia will probably have when using an ordinary telephone or videophone. A requirement specification for videophone design to fit users with dementia was formulated, with the seven principles of Universal Design as a framework.Conclusions: The requirement specification presented here is aimed at designing a videophone but might also facilitate design of other products for people with dementia, particularly in the field of communication technology. Based on this, further work will focus on developing a design concept and a prototype to be empirically tested by people with dementia and their significant others, i.e. the final two design process phases.

  • 11.
    Borell, Lena
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Johansson, Karin
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lundberg, Stefan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Kognitiva köket - framtidens kök2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Äldre personer som har en demenssjukdom eller andra medicinska diagnoser som kan leda till kognitiva problem och som bor i egna hem är en växande grupp. Samtidigt så förväntas alla oavsett funktionsnedsättning kunna hantera matlagning och andra köksrelaterade aktiviteter på egen hand.

    Personer med kognitiva problem, och personer som arbetar med denna grupp definierar problem relaterade till matlagning och att hålla ordning i köket som några av de viktigaste att lösa (Wherton and Monk 2008). Att kunna utföra köksrelaterade aktiviteter betraktas som något som höjer livskvaliteten. Trots det växande behovet av att kunna skapa köksmiljöer och köksprodukter, både generellt och med individuella anpassningar, finns det i dag ingen samlad kunskap om hur sådana miljöer och produkter bäst kan utformas.

    I det här projektet ses köket som en plats där flera dimensioner av livet pågår. Förutom matlagning och förvaring av mat så är köket även en plats för socialt umgänge, och utgör vardagens nav. Kökets roll i hemmet är alltså central. Projektet utgår från att det är möjligt att skapa inkluderande köksmiljöer som tar hänsyn till personer med nedsatt kognition, men som samtidigt förenklar för alla.

    Modern design av kök handlar idag mycket om eleganta ytor och dolda, och därmed svårdefinierade, funktioner vilket skapar problem för personer med kognitiva funktionsnedsättningar. Dessa problem måste lyftas fram och diskuteras för att kunna utforma framtida inkluderande köksmiljöer. Syftet med projektet är att, i dialog med intressenter och experter inom området, sammanställa och generera kunskap om hur kök och köksprodukter kan designas för att underlätta för äldre människor med kognitiva nedsättningar att kunna använda sina kök utan problem.

  • 12.
    Brorsson, Anna
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Öhman, Annika
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lundberg, Stefan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Nygård, Louise
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Accessibility in public space as perceived by people with Alzheimer´s disease2011In: Dementia, ISSN 1471-3012, E-ISSN 1741-2684, no aug 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most people with dementia remain living at home as long as possible after being diagnosed, and hence their lives also include activities in the public space. The aim of this study was to illuminate experiences of accessibility in public space in people with Alzheimer’s disease. A qualitative grounded theory approach with repeated in-depth interviews was used. The core category, accessibility as a constantly changing experience, was characterized by changes in the relationship between informants and public space. Changes in the relationship took place in activities and use of place and related to familiarity and comfort, individual motives and interests, and planning and protecting. Other changes occurred in places and problematic situations related to everyday technologies, crowded places with high tempo and noise, and change of landmarks. These changes reduced feelings of accessibility and increased difficulties in carrying out activities in public space. These findings may be helpful when providing support, and supporting community living.

  • 13.
    Burmeister, Jens
    et al.
    University of Dresden, Germany.
    Lindh, Thomas
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Data- och elektroteknik (Closed 20130701).
    Orhan, Ibrahim
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Data- och elektroteknik (Closed 20130701).
    Brodin, Lars-Åke
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering.
    Lundberg, Stefan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Contention-Based Wireless Sensor Networks: A case study for ambient assisted living2010In: Active Ageing, Smart Solutions, New Markets, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless personal area networks have emerged as an important communication infrastructure in areas such as at-home healthcare and home automation, independent living and assistive technology. Initiatives towards interoperability and standardization are taken by several players. Zigbee Alliance has launched a profile for “Zigbee wireless sensor applications for health, wellness and fitness” [1]. The Continua Health Alliance promotes “an interoperable personal healthcare ecosystem”. They have published “design guidelines for the telehealth ecosystem” including the interface to personal area network health devices and electronic health record devices ([2], [3]). These examples show that wireless personal area networks, including body sensor networks, are becoming more mature and are considered to be a realistic alternative as communication infrastructure for demanding services. However, to transmit vital sign parameters from ECGs, pulse-oximeters, EEGs etc in wireless networks is also a challenge, especially if multiple sensors compete for access. Contention-based access networks offer simplicity and utilization advantages, but the drawback is unpredictable performance due to loss of transmitted packets.

    We have used the SHIMMER wireless sensor platform developed at Intel [4] in the living lab at the Centre for Health and Building at KTH in a case study to identify and evaluate performance problems. The full-scale living lab consists of two apartments especially equipped with modern technique for healthcare at home and assisted living.

    Our paper focuses on continuous monitoring of the heart activity using a wireless ECG based on the wireless personal area network (WPAN) standard IEEE 802.15.4. Results from performance tests in the living lab will be presented e.g. influence of equipment such as micro wave ovens. Since contention-based wireless access has no guarantees for the quality of the delivered service it is interesting to determine to what extent the received ECG signal is sensitive to loss of information. We have recorded ECG signals as well as emulated packet loss in existing ECG records from official databases. The result of two cardiologists´ assessment of ECGs with different loss ratio levels and patterns will be reported in the paper. One interesting conclusion is that a diagnosis is fully possible for ECGs with packet loss ratio up to at least 5%. This project is part of research at the School of Technology and Health at KTH.

  • 14.
    Carlid, Olle
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology and Design.
    Hjelm, Mats
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Arbetsmetodik för att minska vattenfotavtrycket: Exemplet Ornö, Haninge2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    In today's society is a large shipment of virtual water between countries in the world. Virtual water refers to all the water consumed to produce a product. From this standpoint, Sweden is importing virtual water from Brazil when we import coffee. Hoekstra and Chapagain have calculated that one cup of coffee contains 140 liters of virtual water. This water is all the freshwater that is consumed in Brazil to grow, package and carry the goods to Sweden. Fresh water is something that exists in limited quantities. In Sweden we have plenty of fresh water, but many of the countries we are importing virtual water from there is a shortages of fresh water. As an example, Sweden is importing large quantities of virtual water from countries like Germany, Spain and India, which today consumes between 40-50% of their renewable water resources. With an increased population and as the temperature increases, this consumption is going to be problematic.

    In order to analyze how much fresh water is actually needed in a country, territory, region or similar Arjen Y. Hoekstra introduced the water footprint concept in year 2002. Water footprint is defined as the volume of water that goes in to producing the products and services consumed in that area. The water footprint is divided into two parts, internal and external water footprint. With the internal water footprint means the total volume of water used by the domestic water in the national economy, minus the virtual water exported to other areas. The external water footprint is defined as the annual volume of water used in other countries to produce the goods consumed in the area and is the part that this degree thesis will be focused on.

    Sweden's total water footprint is estimated to 2150 m

    3/inhabitants/year, this can be taken in relation to the global average, which is 1564 m3

    /inhab/year. Daily the average Swede consumes an average of 5890 liters of water/person/day. 4240 liters of this (72 %) is related to agricultural products, 1320 liters (22.4 %) for industrial products and only 330 liters (5.6 %) water used in the household.

    The purpose of this degree thesis is to develop a methodology for identifying the products that cause a large external water footprint for a local community, how this society affects global water consumption in the form of virtual water and how it can be reduced. The methodology is a step-by-step approach and is divided into four phases. Phase 1. Delimit the study area, Phase 2. Identify the water footprint, Phase 3. Planning measures to reduce external water footprint, Phase 4. Analyze the results. The methodology describes what to think about, what is missing and how to calculate when you want to calculate a local society's external water footprint. The degree thesis is using Ornö as an example to apply the presented methodology on.

    Our example, Ornö, is an island in the Stockholm archipelago. The island which is located in Haninge municipality is sparsely populated, 5.7 inhabitants per square kilometer, compared to iv

    Sweden as a country, which has 22.8 inv/km

    2

    . This means that there is much access to fresh water and good farming opportunities on the island.

    The degree thesis identifies 17 agricultural products that accounts for 60 % of Sweden's external water footprint. Of these 17 products coffee is the individual crop, which accounts for the bulk of Sweden's external water footprint, 16.3 %. In addition to coffee, meat products accounts for about 16 % of the footprint. All of these 17 products are not products that can be replaced with local production. Because of the Swedish climate not all crops are fit to grow there, such as coffee. However, the study shows that 35% of the external water footprint can be replaced with local production.

    To make a study, at a local community, it is above all statistics and data on consumption in the current society that is missing. To overcome this, we see two main solutions. The first is through a detailed survey that produces what people in the society consume in detail. A second solution could be that the Statistiska centralbyrån (SCB), or a similar organization, did a survey on what people in the country with different incomes, ages or other groupings are consuming. In order to transfer it back to the residents in the local community

  • 15.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Thunqvist, Eva-Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering.
    Larsson, Tore J
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Odla under tak i eller nära bostaden2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Within a project called “The sustainable greenhouse as a complement to buildings” financed by the Delegation of sustainable cities in Sweden, researchers, consultants and students have during 2013 developed, tested and evaluated various solutions for cultivating under roofs in or close to dwellings. We included solutions such as cultivating a plot in a rooftop greenhouse, a circular cultivation balcony or to cultivate in one’s kitchen or living room using a fish and vegetable furniture, a green wall, a green lamp or a green frame attached to the wall. The practical trials were preceded by a literature survey that described good examples of cultivation under roofs in various cities around the world.The results show that here are many inspiring examples of cultivating under roofs in cities and that such cultivation has gained some momentum. Our practical trials show among others that urban agriculture seems challenging and appealing for many but that the solutions that we have tested seem to be too expensive and partly also too time-consuming. Those who like to cultivate do so because it is fun and they can get products of good quality. To lessen the environmental impacts are also a reason but here our results that productivity in urban farming has to be higher than in our trials in order for the products to be considered as “climate-friendly”. Growing fish at home showed to be rather unpopular and many thought that slaughtering the fish by themselves would be nasty. Others results from the project are a water cooled LED lamp built in four copies and successfully installed in a fish and vegetable production unit as well as drawings and costs estimates for a cultivation bench.Proposals for further studies include analysis of flight and nutrient requirements for cultivation under roofs in cities as well as measurements of productivity. More low cost solutions for cultivating under glass should also be developed. To expand and maintain interest and knowledge for cultivation under roofs in cities is not only important for increasing social sustainability and eventually the environmental one as well but also because of the need to enhance preparedness.

  • 16.
    Christiansson, Samuel
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Potentialen för spillvärmeuppvärmda växthus i Sverige: ur ett hållbarhetsperspektiv2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Denna studie är en delstudie i ett större växthusprojekt som drivs av KTH Centrum för Hälsa och Byggande i Haninge utanför Stockholm. Projektet inbegriper ett integrerat spillvärme- och växthussystem med besöks- och forskningsändamål, placerat i anslutning till en reningsanläggning och ett naturbruksgymnasium. Studiens primära syften är att undersöka spillvärmepotentialen och potentialen för uppvärmning av växthus med spillvärme i Sverige. De sekundära syftena är att undersöka vilka hållbarhetsaspekter som kan identifieras som viktiga för spillvärme-växthus-system och att göra en idé- och informationssammanställning för dem som vill bygga spillvärme-växthus-system, med bland annat tips om hur produktpriser kan beräknas, vilka nyckeltal som kan användas för energikalkyler och vilka användningsområden som finns med ett växthus. Rapporten får ett visst fokus på livsmedels- och tomatodling, eftersom både tidigare studier och den fallstudie som ingår i rapporten handlade om detta. Studiens avsikt är dock att förespråka för en bredare syn på växthusanvändning.

    Studien visar att det finns stora spillvärmepotentialer bland särskilt högtempererade spillvärmekällor på västkusten och medeltempererade spillvärmekällor i Stockholmsområdet, eftersom dessa områden har både god spillvärmepotential och stor befolkning. Växthus kan byggas nära spillvärmekällan och kräver inte lika höga ingångstemperaturer som exempelvis fjärrvärmenäten, vilket gör spillvärme-växthus-system mer flexibla än spillvärme-fjärrvärme-system. Studien visar på viktiga fysiska, ekonomiska och organisatoriska förutsättningar för att bygga spillvärme-växthus-system, att det finns biologiska, sociala och kulturella potentialer med växthusen och vidare att det finns flera intressanta hållbarhetsaspekter med spillvärme-växthus-system, särskilt om de byggs rätt från början.

    Så gjordes i Habo, där studiens fallstudie gjordes. I Habo drivs ekologisk växthusodling med hjälp av spillvärme från en närliggande och elproducerande biogasanläggning, där de organiska resurserna består av gödsel och godisrester från en lokal godisindustri. Hela spillvärme-växthus-systemet är småskaligt och i stort sett kretsloppsanpassat. Modellen rekommenderas starkt både för projektet i Haninge och var helst man funderar på att bygga spillvärme-växthus-system, eftersom det överallt finns och alltid kommer att finnas tillgång på organiskt avfall. Energistudier visar att det finns stor potential i det organiska avfallet, särskilt från jordbruk

  • 17.
    Freitag, Sonja
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    The Impact of Stressful Postures on the Physical Workload in Nursing2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nursing staff have an elevated risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders, in particular in the lower back area. Statistics produced by leading industrial nations show that back problems are the world’s number one work-related health problem, and that healthcare workers suffer from a greater occurrence of such problems than workers in other professions. In this context, many studies have examined manual patient handling activities, which was thought to be the main cause of musculoskeletal disorders of the lower back. But nurses have many other types of work to perform and several reviews have concluded that approaches which only focus on manual patient handling activities do not sufficiently reduce back problems in nursing professions.

    Other risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders of the lower back discussed in the literature included repeated bending and the high proportion of static trunk postures. The main aim of this doctoral thesis was therefore to examine the influence of stressful trunk postures on the physical workload of nursing staff in hospitals and nursing homes. It focuses on the type, number and extent of stressful postures and on identifying activities that encourage their occurrence. We used our findings to derive strategies for reducing stressful postures in nursing, and examined whether nursing staff regard such a reduction as actually relieving their physical workload.

    A secondary aim was to consider the older people potentially in need of care. The background to this is that, due to steadily rising costs, many older people are unable to afford care in a nursing home, and additionally that the forecast severe shortage of nursing staff in future gives reason to look for solutions that can reduce the demand for nursing staff. Among older people who still look after themselves, we therefore examined which stressful postures they adopt when carrying out domestic tasks such as cooking and washing laundry. From the results, we provided some examples of a better design of the domestic environment, which reduces stressful postures, when performing these tasks and helps older people to be able to look after themselves in their own homes for longer.

  • 18.
    Freitag, Sonja
    et al.
    Institution for Statutory Accident Insurance and Prevention in Health, Welfare Services.
    Fincke-Junod, Isabell
    Seddouki, Rachida
    Dulon, Madeleine
    Hermanns, Ingo
    Kersten, Jan Felix
    Larsson, Tore J.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Nienhaus, Albert
    Frequent Bending-An Underestimated Burden in Nursing Professions2012In: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 697-707Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to quantify the total duration per shift in which nurses work in a forward bending position over 20 degrees. Furthermore, the influence of several factors on the occurrence of sagittal trunk inclinations in nurses was investigated. Trunk postures were recorded for nine nursing home nurses from four German nursing homes and 18 hospital nurses from seven hospitals using the CUELA measurement system. A total of 79 shifts, 27 in nursing homes and 52 in hospitals, were analysed. All measurements were supported by video recordings. Specially developed software (WIDAAN 2.75) was used to synchronize the measurement data and video footage. The total duration of inclinations per shift was significantly affected by the working area (nursing home or hospital) with an increase of 25.3 min in nursing homes (95% confidence interval 2.4-48.2; P = 0.032). Another factor was the extent of personal basic care tasks performed by the nurses (P < 0.001). Nursing home nurses worked about twice as long per shift in a forward bending position compared with hospital nurses (112 versus 63 min; P < 0.001) and they assumed almost one-third more inclinations per shift (1541 versus 1170; P = 0.005). Nursing staff perform a large number of inclinations. The amount of time spent by nurses working in a forward bending position was highly dependent on the working area and the extent to which patients were in need of help. It is very likely that future preventive measures, focussing on reducing the huge amount of inclination, would reduce the physical stress in everyday nursing work substantially.

  • 19.
    Freitag, Sonja
    et al.
    BGW–Institution for Statutory Accident Insurance and Prevention in the Health and Welfare Services.
    Seddouki, Rachida
    UKE–University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf.
    Dulon, Madeleine
    BGW–Institution for Statutory Accident Insurance and Prevention in the Health and Welfare Services.
    Kersten, Jan Felix
    UKE–University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf.
    Larsson, Tore J.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Nienhaus, Albert
    UKE–University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf.
    The effect of working position on trunk posture and exertion for routine nursing tasks: An Experimental Study2014In: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 317-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives:To examine the influence of the two following factors on the proportion of time that nurses spend in a forward-bending trunk posture: (i) the bed height during basic care activities at the bedside and (ii) the work method during basic care activities in the bathroom. A further aim was to examine the connection between the proportion of time spent in a forward-bending posture and the perceived exertion.Methods:Twelve nurses in a geriatric nursing home each performed a standardized care routine at the bedside and in the bathroom. The CUELA (German abbreviation for 'computer-Assisted recording and long-Term analysis of musculoskeletal loads') measuring system was used to record all trunk inclinations. Each participant conducted three tests with the bed at different heights (knee height, thigh height, and hip height) and in the bathroom, three tests were performed with different work methods (standing, kneeling, and sitting). After each test, participants rated their perceived exertion on the 15-point Borg scale (6 = no exertion at all and 20 = exhaustion).Results:If the bed was raised from knee to thigh level, the proportion of time spent in an upright position increased by 8.2% points. However, the effect was not significant (P = 0.193). Only when the bed was raised to hip height, there was a significant increase of 19.8% points (reference: thigh level; P = 0.003) and 28.0% points (reference: knee height; P < 0.001). Bathroom tests: compared with the standing work method, the kneeling and sitting work methods led to a significant increase in the proportion of time spent in an upright posture, by 19.4% points (P = 0.003) and 25.7% points (P < 0.001), respectively. The greater the proportion of time spent in an upright position, the lower the Borg rating (P < 0.001) awarded.Conclusions:The higher the proportion of time that nursing personnel work in an upright position, the less strenuous they perceive the work to be. Raising the bed to hip height and using a stool in the bathroom significantly increase the proportion of time that nursing personnel work in an upright position. Nursing staff can spend a considerably greater proportion of their time in an ergonomic posture if stools and height-Adjustable beds are provided in healthcare institutions.

  • 20.
    Glimskär, Bo
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Developments for a future health care at home step by step2010In: Safety Science Monitor, ISSN 1443-8844, Vol. 14, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Glimskär, Bo
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Rullatorn blir robot2012In: Forskning och framsteg, ISSN 0015-7937, no 8, p. 66-67Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Glimskär, Bo
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    The Adoption of Ergonomic Innovations for Injury Prevention: Examples from the building construction and health care industries2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A good work environment is important for the individual, for industry and for society. The work environment research has, predominantly, targeted identification of problems and the measurement of the size of these problems.

    Innovations to reduce the incidence of musculoskeletal disorder, MSD, have been introduced in different branches of industry, but with limited success.

    Few of the ergonomic innovations developed for the building and construction industry have reached a sufficient level of adoption. Ergonomic innovations in the health care sector are of an incremental character and seem to have similar problems of adoption as the ones in the building and construction industry.

    Three examples of ergonomic innovation are examined in the thesis:

    • a glue spreader for floor layers

    • a four-wheel walker with a lifting device

    • a sonographer’s scanning support device

    The studies show that an ergonomic innovation is not adopted for prevention of occupational injury unless the innovation also has other relative advantages apart from the ergonomic ones. For the group who already has sustained an injury, it is enough that the ergonomic problems are solved, while the other, symptom-free group, requires other advantages in order to adopt the innovation; increased production economy seems to be the most prominent potential advantage.

  • 23.
    Glimskär, Bo
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    The Adoption of Ergonomic Innovations for Injury Prevention: Sonographer's scanning support deviceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of how people relate to the risk of occupational injury indicate that there is a tendency to underestimate the risk at work compared to other risks in society. Ultrasound examinations of the heart involve a static and very uncomfortable working posture for the sonographer. As a result many sonographers experience shoulder and neck pains which can result in long term sickness leaves.

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate how a more radical ergonomic innovation, a remote controlled ultrasound robot for cardiac examinations, Medirob, has been adopted. The study was conducted by interviews with department heads and heads of clinics, responsible for the procurement of the equipment.

    The results of this study have shown that it is not maybe enough to solve an ergonomic problem with an innovation to get it accepted and used. To prevent injuries the intervention must also have other qualities, for example improved productivity.

  • 24.
    Glimskär, Bo
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Utvecklad projektering och planering: Fallrapport (Åkerbyparken)1995Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    1990 initierades Åkerbyparken av Täby kommun för seniorbostäder. Projektet genomfördes av Besqab i samarbete med SIAB och berörde samtliga verksamma på arbetsplatsen och i projekteringen. Projektets målsättning har varit att genom en utvecklad projektering och planering förebygga att arbetssituationer som kan leda till förslitningsskador uppkommer. Genom att särskilt beakta dessa frågor i alla skeden av ett byggobjekts genomförande kan man skapa förutsättningar för minskade förslitningsskador i branschen samt även skapa en bättre produktionsekonomi.

  • 25.
    Glimskär, Bo
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Utveckling av armeringsbollen: Etapp 11995Report (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Glimskär, Bo
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Utveckling av utrustning för utläggning av gjutasfalt1996Report (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Glimskär, Bo
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Äldre kopplar upp sig med rollatorn2012In: IT i vården, no 3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28.
    Glimskär, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Forsberg, Johan
    Wernersson, Å
    Byggrobot för spackling och målning1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Skriften beskriver ett autonomt mobilt robotsystem för sprutspackling och annan ytbehandling inomhus vid i första hand nybyggnation av större byggnader. I skriften jämförs de två prototyper som utvecklats vad avser sensorer, mekanisk konstruktion, styrsystem och datoralgoritmer för att extrahera information från omgivningen.

  • 29.
    Glimskär, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Graff, Daniel
    m.fl, m.fl
    Robotstöd till arbetsmässigt besvärliga byggarbeten: prototypuppbyggnad1995Book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Glimskär, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Hjalmarson, Jenny
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    A Test of a Walker Equipped with a Lifting Device2013In: AAATE Conference 2013, 2013, p. 3-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have shown that about a third of all persons over 65 years who live at home fall at least once a year. Development of a lifting device that can help people raise themselves up entirely on their own, or with minimal assistance, would be a revolutionary step for the individual as compared with the lifting devices in use today. A prototype has been developed and the prototype has been tested to verify the approach. Studies have been conducted with nursing staff in a nursing home to find out the conditions for how a walker equipped with a lifting beam could facilitate the work. For caregivers dealing frequently with people who fall, this assistive device can contribute to decreasing occupational injuries.

  • 31.
    Glimskär, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Hjalmarson, Jenny
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Lundberg, Stefan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Systems Safety and Management. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Larsson, Tore J.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    A walker used as a lifting device2014In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 264-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To develop assistive technology that would help an older person to arise from a kneeling position to a standing one. Methods: Developing a prototype, based on an inclusive design and then testing the prototype to verify the approach. The prototype was subsequently tested by a panel of 20 elderly users. These tests were observed and filmed. Participants' experiences of being lifted with the elevation seat were registered with the VIDAR ergonomic assessment system. Result: None of the 20 participants used a walker at that time. In response to a question of whether, assuming they might have to use a walker in the future, they thought that a walker with an elevating seat would be helpful, 18 said that it would. Two of the participants did not believe that they would ever have to use a walker. Conclusion: A simple assistive technology such as a walker equipped with an elevating seat would in many of these cases simplify matters and reduce the distress of people who fall often. In addition, such a device can allow people who fall often to live in their homes longer. For caregivers dealing frequently with people who fall, this assistive device can contribute to decreasing occupational injuries.

  • 32.
    Glimskär, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Larsson, Tore J
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Adoption of Ergonomic Innovations in the Construction Industry2012In: Working on Safety, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Glimskär, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Lundberg, Stefan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Adoption of Ergonomic Innovations in the Construction IndustryIn: Ergonomics in design, ISSN 1064-8046, E-ISSN 2169-5083Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractThe construction industry is overrepresented compared to other industries in terms of work-related injury problems and, in particular, with respect to musculoskeletal disorders. One reason for this might be that the industry is organized around projects which lead to a short-time behavior and does not stimulate innovations that will reduce injuries in the future. In this paper we present the results from a survey performed in Sweden among 50 floor laying companies. The results indicate that short-term income revenues override the long-term risks of injuries and employees having to leave the profession. 

  • 34.
    Glimskär, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Lundberg, Stefan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Barriers to Adoption of Ergonomic Innovations in the Construction Industry2013In: Ergonomics in design, ISSN 1064-8046, E-ISSN 2169-5083, Vol. 21, no 26, p. 26-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More work-related injuries and problems occur in the construction industry than in other industries, particularly with regard to musculoskeletal disorders. One reason might be that the industry is organized around projects that lead to short-term benefits and does not stimulate innovations that will reduce injuries in the future. In this article, we present the findings from a survey performed in Sweden among 50 floor-laying companies. The results indicate that short-term income revenues override concerns over the long-term risks of injuries and employees leaving the profession as a result of those injuries.

  • 35.
    Glimskär, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Svedberg, B
    Utveckling av armeringsbollen: Etapp 21998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I etapp 1 av projektet har en inledande undersökning genomförts med avsikt att pröva "armeringsbolls-principen" för att förstärka betong. Syftet med denna etapp 2 har varit att vidareutveckla och utprova metoden med armeringsbollar. Försöken har inriktats mot tester av egenskaper vad gäller energiupptagande förmåga. I samband med dessa tester har även olika utformningar prövats. Resultaten visar att armeringsbollen har bättre egenskaper än traditionell armering för dessa tillämpningar.

    Innehåller tre bilagor:- Wireball reinforcement for seismic resistance- Quasi-static loading of spherically reinforced concrete columns- Potential of wireball reinforcement for seismic design

     

     

  • 36.
    Glimskär, Bo
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Wernersson, Å
    Nygårds, J
    Högström, T
    Inmätning av byggnader: Från lasermätningar till CAD-modell1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är en förstudie av möjligheterna att från avståndsmätningar med laser finna geometriska primitiver till CAD modeller av byggnader. Rapporten tar upp laserteknologi genom ett antal illustrativa mätningar samt refererar till nödvändiga algoritmer för att extrahera CAD-modellens geometriska element.

  • 37. Grönvall, Erik
    et al.
    Lundberg, Stefan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Systems Safety and Management. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    On Challenges Designing the Home as a Place for Care2014In: Pervasive Health: State-of-the-art and Beyond / [ed] Holzinger, A., et al., Springer Netherlands, 2014, p. 19-45Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, there has been much attention on workplace studies and design for work within the HCI (Human Computer Interaction) and CSCW (Computer Supported Cooperative Work) communities. Those communities have recently shown an increasing interest in healthcare and especially non-professional care settings such as patients’ private homes. When healthcare is moved from clinical settings to private homes, more attention is put on the care receiver, his/her everyday life and private home. In contrast with the hospital, the home however is not designed as a place for care. Moving healthcare activities, including treatment of severe diseases to private homes and other non-clinical settings (e.g. the patient’s workplace or vacation resorts) not prepared for these care activities may have severe consequences. In fact, the relocation of care may challenge, on different levels, the patients, their caregivers and society at large. This chapter presents and discusses seven challenges that the authors argue are important to consider when designing for holistic and sustainable home-based healthcare. Examples of these challenges are: Societal concerns, Complexity of care providers, Heterogeneity of care providers and Installation and maintenance. These challenges include law and legislation related aspects, environmental issues and the feasibility of large-scale deployment of home-care designs. The challenges discussed in this chapter have not been satisfactorily taken into account by the existing homecare designs and HCI research. Our chapter suggests that designers and HCI practitioners must be aware of, and reflect upon how these challenges can affect the value, feasibility and a wider implementation of their homecare designs.

  • 38. Hallberg, Sven-Erik
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Alf
    Johansson, Åke
    Thunqvist, Eva-Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Anti-Skid Treatment Tests with Glucose, Fructose and Unrefined Sugar2007In: / [ed] TRB, Washington: TRB , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past ten years, salt consumption for de-icing treatment on Swedish roads has been halved from approximately 400,000 tons to some 200,000 tons per year. This is largely a result of preventive measures with salt solution, which entails significantly smaller salt doses than in the case of dry and moistened salt. The purpose of the investigation has been to conduct tests with a salt solution in combination with glucose/fructose/refined sugar in order to determine whether a certain amount of the salt solution can be replaced by a product containing these substances and the kind of technical and environmental effects the mixture would have. The introductory trials, which were performed on an airport landing strip 2004/2005 gave experience of value, regarding friction coefficients etc, to continued testing. Field tests have been carried out the winter season 2005/2006. The fact that salt will continue to play an important role in anti-freeze treatment is borne out by the testing. The investigation has shown that it is possible to use a mixture of the salt solution that is today used for anti-freeze treatment together with a glucose/fructose product and maintain safety friction conditions. Exactly how large the sugar solution is and its concentration should be further studied through continued airfield trials and as well as on a section of road used by traffic. The results from the recent season as using mixtures of 75% salt and 25% sugar as well as trials on 50/50 base, looks promising. The sugar part of the solution can not melt ice but delay freezing. The product should be looked upon as a complement to salt as it leads to a lower freezing-point of the solution. Friction measurements Cost The analysis does not contain any form of financial evaluation in year one as to the cost of the solution or the value of reduced salt attack on the vehicle fleet. Since the mixtures have been produced manually and on a small scale, practical handling of the mixtures on a larger scale is included in the investigation in the winter season 2005/2006. The products environmental impact on corrosion, concrete, animal life and plant life have been studied. Oxygen is consumed in the breakdown of glucose/fructose/unrefined sugar. The breaking down of glucose/fructose/unrifined sugar by micro-organisms is influenced by the presence of toxic substances such as metals and salts and should be studied both in the field and in the laboratory. Furthermore, the oxygen consumption in recipients should be studied.

  • 39.
    Hjalmarson, Jenny
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Ergonomics at Home: Design for Safe Living and Home Care2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The home should represent safety and security for the person who lives there, and this is an important factor for independence and autonomy in very old age. With aging populations, the needs for long-term care increase, care provided by spouses and/or from the growing home care sector. Injuries among these groups are common.

    In this study, an ergonomics perspective was applied in the analysis of some basic daily activities performed by old persons and by home care workers, assisting.

    • The postures and movements of home care staff assisting at toilet visits, and transferring persons from wheelchair to toilet, were measured and analysed.

    • Some daily activities related to making food and washing clothes, performed by a group of persons between the age of 75 and 100, were measured and analysed.

    • The task of getting up from the floor – on your own and with the help of a walker equipped with a lifting device – was analysed with the help of older persons and nursing staff. The design was built on the knowledge gained from analysing how older people get up from floor.

    • Requirements for access with a four-wheeled walker in the local built environment were investigated.

    Observations were made with the help of video recording. Postures were recorded with the CUELA measurement system. The VIDAR ergonomics evaluation instrument was used to register the participants’ experiences of discomfort and pain during getting up from the floor with or without the walker with a lifting device. Structured interviews were used to find out about older peoples’ experience of using the four-wheel walker.

    It is concluded that ageing at home requires improved architectural and technical bathroom design and improved access in the local built environment.

  • 40.
    Hjalmarson, Jenny
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Risk of Injury during home care work2010In: On the Road to Vision Zero?: Workers with high risk exposure, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Old peoples’ homes and bathrooms are sometimes also a workplace for nurses. Statistics show that the risk of injury and long‐term sick‐leave is high in this occupation. In a case study, 30 nurses from the Home Care Services of Haninge council, Sweden, performed different work tasks associated with assisting someone with their personal hygiene in the bathroom. The tests were performed in the full-scale laboratory of the CHB, in a bathroom equipped with a wall-mounted toilet, height‐ adjustable and equipped with support rails. The participating nurses were wearing a measurement system CUELA (‘computer-assisted recording and long-term analysis of musculoskeletal loads’) which together with video recordings made it possible to analyse the risk postures occuring. Postures including back flexion and rotation were regularly involved in the hygiene assisting tasks, but one specific sub-task indicated a high risk of traumatic overexertion or fall on the part of the care worker. The subtask when the nurse is assisting a person with balance or strength problems standing in front of the toilet, helping to pull up or down the trousers, combined a forward bending posture often more than 50º, while rotated with their balance affected, and, at the same time, with the person cared for in a position which highly affected his or hers stability. The typical assistive device applied to toilets are foldable armrests on one or both sides of the toilet, but it was found that for this sub‐task they affected the nurses’ posture in a negative way. A new and better solution for assistive technology in this particular task is needed.

  • 41.
    Hjalmarson, Jenny
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Glimskär, Bo
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Getting up from the floor: Older peroples´ abilities and experiencesIn: Physiotherapy, ISSN 0031-9406, E-ISSN 1873-1465Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To analyse the movement patterns of people over 75 years of age when getting up from the floor, and to find out what they describe as critical moments in getting up.

    Design: Observation of old people performing get up from floor and evaluation of experiences in VIDAR evaluation program.

    Setting: Tests were made in a laboratory environment

    Participants: 20 participants, eleven women and nine men. The mean age was 79 years.

    Result: Most elderly persons in this case did experience difficulties in getting up. The difficulties were mainly described in legs and were related to discomfort, weakness and balance issues. Most of the participants 18 of 20 made the getting up by themselves. The most of the participants 18 of 20 preferred a getting up including a position kneeling. The most critical part in getting were lifting one leg forward and then stretch the legs after kneeling, 17 of 18 described difficulties in this part.

    Conclusions: When developing aids to help persons to get up the main goal should be to reduce load on legs and support balance for the user. Training should include balance and muscle exercise of the leg.

  • 42.
    Hjalmarson, Jenny
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Larsson, Tore J.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Ergonomi i hemmiljö - Badrummet som arbetsplats: En rapport från ett forskningsprojekt2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A research project was conducted in 2010. The aim was to analyze risks in the home care work in the bathroom when they assist an ambulatory care recipient to and from the toilet. Two scenarios were tested and 30 and 24 research subjects, home care worker, were participating.

    The results show that staffs in around 70 percent of the time are working in a position with back flexion in this work. This increases the risk for over-extersion injuries. In this case study the greatest risk of occupational injury was judged to be in the moment when the home care worker helps the care recipient with his pants. In this situation the care recipient balance is effected and the risk increases that care recipient loses balance and also the risk for the personnel’s back to get injured when they try to reach for the patient from an already fragile working position.

    The report includes suggestions for further research in this area, mostly in the form of risk analysis. The results of the study indicate that health care workers should have extended knowledge in handling technique and encouraged to work out from the front of care recipient. The bathroom design should evolve to minimize the time staff are working in positions that contain both flexion and rotation of the back, and by facilitating the patient to perform the most out of their own.

  • 43.
    Hjalmarson, Jenny
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Larsson, Tore J.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Helping in transfer from wheelchair to toilet: A case study analysing ergonomic postures in the bathroom for home care workers2013In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal disorders are common among home care workers, and the task of helping care recipients between wheelchair and toilet is described as particularly burdensome.

    OBJECTIVES: This study’s objectives were to find out where exposure to risks is highest for overexertion injuries in the task of helping a care recipient move between wheelchair and toilet, and to suggest how the bathroom environment or assistive devices could be improved to decrease risk of injury.

    METHODS: In a full-scale laboratory, home care workers helped persons move between wheelchair and toilet. The CUELA measurement system was used, combined with video observation, to record postures assumed during the task.

    RESULTS: Maximum back inclination on average exceeded 40 degrees. This angle is, combined with rotation of the back and the weight of the care recipient, well over recommended limits for helping in the task. The knees were exposed to a particularly heavy load when the wheelchair was adjusted, taking off leg-rests.

    CONCLUSIONS: Solutions should be developed which increase possibilities for the care recipient to participate and bear much of the load. Development of wheelchairs and other assistive devices should include usability aspects for the assisting care workers.

  • 44.
    Hjalmarson, Jenny
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Lundberg, Stefan
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Systems Safety and Management. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Work Postures When Assisting People at the Toilet2015In: Ergonomics in design, ISSN 1064-8046, E-ISSN 2169-5083, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 16-22Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to analyze the home care workers’ movement patterns and postures of their backs, relating them to risks while helping an ambulatory care recipient to/from the toilet in a homelike environment. We found severe risks of unpredictable movements with exposed postures could explain many injuries. Because of high risk injuries, we suggest decreasing the time when the care recipient stands and the home care worker helps with clothing and personal hygiene. Another suggestion to decrease high risk is development of support in front of the recipient to prevent her/him falling forward.

  • 45.
    Hjalmarson, Jenny
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Svensson, Hanna
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Glimskär, Bo
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Accessibility for elderly using a four-wheeled walker-an interview and observation analysis2013In: AAATE Conference 2013, 2013, p. 27-33Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accessibility for all is an overall goal in many communities around the world. The UN has the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities which Sweden along with many other countries has agreed to follow. The aim with this project was to analyse which environmental difficulties elderly people over 65 years of age experience in their daily life when walking with a four-wheeled walker. The focus area was the surroundings close to their home. It is necessary to learn more about the difficulties for people with disabilities as a base for future development of the built environment. The group of elderly is increasing daily. In Sweden the four-wheeled walker is a commonly used assistive device by the elderly when, for example, their balance decreases; this is why we chose to focus on this specific assistive device.

  • 46.
    Hägvide, Mona-Lisa
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Larsson, Tore J
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    Borell, Lena
    Karolinska Institute.
    Fall scenarios in causing older women´s hip fractures2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 2013, no 20, p. 21-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Falls and fall-related injuries among older women constitute a major public health problem with huge costs for the society and personal suffering. The aim of this study was to describe and illustrate how a number of circumstances, conceptualized as a scenario, that were related to the individual, the environment, and the ongoing occupation contributed to a fall that led to a hip fracture among women. The sample included 48 women over 55 years old. Methods. Interviews were conducted during home visits and the analysis provided a descriptive picture of circumstances in the shape of a scenario related to the risk of falling. A number of scenarios were developed based on the data and named to provide an understanding of the interplay between the individual, the environment, and the ongoing occupation at the time of the fall. Results. By applying the concept of a scenario, occupational therapists can increase the awareness of fall risks among older people, and are relevant also for interior designers, architects, and town planners to consider when designing the local environment as well as furniture and other objects. 

  • 47.
    Idenfors, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå Universitet.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå Universitet.
    Hanberger, Anders
    Umeå Universitet.
    Öhman, May-Britt
    Uppssala universitet.
    Thunqvist, Eva-Lotta
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB.
    När det brister: En studie av dammsäkehet och säkerhetsarbete mot översvämningar längs Skellefte- och Umeälven2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport sammanfattar resultat från en studie om dammsäkerhet och säkerhetsarbete mot översvämningar längs två reglerade älvar i Västerbotten. Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur dammsäkerhetsarbetet, när det gäller dammbrott, säkerhetsarbete mot översvämningar och incidenter relaterade till nyttjandet av älvarna, är organiserat och fungerar längs Skellefte- och Umeälven. Övriga älvar i länet samt gruvdammar ingår inte i undersökningen. Det ansvar som Statens geotekniska institut (SGI), Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institut (SMHI), försvarsmakten, Boverket, Vägverket och polisen har för att förebygga och agera i samband med översvämningar behandlas inte heller i studien.

    Rapporten baseras på en litteraturöversikt rörande den senaste forskningen på området, dokumentstudier, intervjuer med säkerhetsansvariga vid Länsstyrelsen Västerbotten, Umeå, Vännäs, Lycksele och Skellefteå kommun, samt två vattenregleringsföretag.

    Studien tar sin utgångspunkt i begreppet mänsklig säkerhet och analyserar dammsäkerhet och säkerhetsarbete utifrån ett sociotekniskt perspektiv. Det innebär att varje teknisk konstruktion, varje tekniskt system, såsom vattenkraftverk och dammar, där olika tekniska instrument används för att kontrollera och reglera vattenflöden och producera elektricitet, också utgör sociala system. Det innebär att rapporten uppmärksammar deltagande och delaktighet som en central aspekt av säkerhetsarbetet.

    Utifrån resultaten drar studien följande slutsatser:

    • Dammsäkerhetsarbetet och säkerhetsarbetet mot översvämningar längs Skellefte- och Umeälven uppvisar brister ifråga om resurser, kompetens och insyn.
    • Dammsäkerhetsarbetet inkluderar inte allmänhetens säkerhet vid och på dammar (public safety around dams).
    • Det finns oklarheter rörande vem som har ansvar för dammsäkerhet och för säkerhetsarbete mot översvämningar.
    • Dammsäkerhetsarbetet i Västerbotten inkluderar endast i begränsad omfattning sociala aspekter, lokal kunskap tas inte tillvara, och allmänhet och rättighetsinnehavare ignoreras i stor utsträckning i säkerhetsarbetet.
    • Det är generellt svårt att bedöma effekter av säkerhetsarbetet kring dammar och längs älvarna, men klart är att pågående säkerhetsarbete, i form av till exempel enskilda projekt och övningar, ökar kunskaperna om risker och ansvar, samt stärker samverkan mellan olika aktörer.
    • Dammsäkerhet uppfattas främst handla om tekniska konstruktioner medan människa-maskin- natur och mellanmänskliga och organisatoriska säkerhetsaspekter hamnar i skymundan.
  • 48.
    Ilskog, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Design, Work Environment, Safety and Health, DASH.
    And Then They Lived Sustainably Ever After?: Experiences from Rural Electrification in Tanzania, Zambia and Kenya2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Accelerating the introduction of basic, clean energy services is seen as a key strategy for promoting sustainable development in rural areas. Still, many people worldwide lack access to modern energy such as electricity, and Africa lags behind other developing regions of the world. Support to rural electrification is therefore given high priority by the national governments and donor organisations.

    There is a trend to encourage the involvement of other actors than national utilities for implementation of rural electrification. At the same time, it is required that the activities shall contribute to sustainable development.

    The objective of the work presented in this thesis has been to reach increased knowledge on the impact from organisational factors on project sustainability, and to examine whether rural electrification implemented by private entrepreneurs or other non-governmental organisations contribute more effectively to sustainable development than the conventional approach where rural electrification is the responsibility of a government utility. A key activity of the research work has been to improve and develop the present methodologies used for evaluations, as to attain a more functional in-field evaluation method.

    The thesis presents findings from seven rural electrification cases in Eastern and Southern Africa and shows how these can be used to illustrate different dimensions of sustainability by means of indicators. The evaluation indicates that the national utilities perform better from a social/ethical perspective, whereas the private organisations and the community-based organisations manage their client-relation issues in a more sustainable way.

    In addition, a literature survey shows that among stakeholders there are a number of “concepts-taken-for-granted” as regards to rural electrification. These are not supported by the findings from the seven cases. The observed deviations between expectations and realities can obstruct the development as decision-makers may have unrealistic expectations when planning for new electrification activities. Instead, activities have to be implemented with the empirical reality in mind. By doing so the ambiguities, complexities and all the paradoxes of rural electrification can hopefully be better managed.

    The study has been funded by The Swedish International Development Agency, Department for Research Cooperation (SAREC), and Ångpanneföreningen’s Foundation for Research and Development (ÅFORSK).

  • 49.
    Ilskog, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Design, Work Environment, Safety and Health, DASH.
    Indicators for assessment of rural electrification: an approach for the comparison of apples and pears2008In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 36, no 7, p. 2665-2673Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a large number of rural electrification projects being implemented in developing countries, there are few published in-depth evaluations of the effects of these projects on sustainable development. There is also no generally accepted method for the assessment of such effects that includes all relevant aspects of sustainability.

    An issue of growing importance is whether rural electrification implemented by private entrepreneurs or other non-governmental organisations contribute more effectively to sustainable development than the conventional approach where rural electrification is the responsibility of a government utility.

    This paper presents a method for sustainability evaluation based on the use of 39 indicators. The proposed indicators cover the five dimensions of sustainability: technical, economical, social/ethical, environmental and institutional sustainability. The paper presents the indicators and gives a detailed example of the procedure to calculate an indicator based on information that can realistically be collected in field studies.

    It is suggested that this interdisciplinary approach will lead to an improved basis for evaluation of projects than previous, more limited approaches. Projects promoted on the basis of information only about prioritised dimensions of sustainability, such as environment, may fail as a result of weaknesses in other dimensions. The proposed method may reduce this risk.

  • 50.
    Ilskog, Elisabeth
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Centres, Centre for Health and Building, CHB. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Design, Work Environment, Safety and Health, DASH.
    Rural electrification sustainability indicators: - Manual for field workers2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a large number of rural electrification projects being implemented in developing countries, there are few published in-depth evaluations of the effects of these projects on sustainable development. There is also no generally accepted method for assessment of such effects that includes all relevant aspects of sustainability.

    This report presents a manual for field based evaluation of rural electrification projects. The manual consists of a method for sustainability evaluation based on the use of 39 indicators. The proposed indicators cover the five dimensions of sustainability: technical, economical, social/ethical, environmental and institutional sustainability. The manual presents the indicators and gives detailed instruction on the procedure to calculate the indicators based on information that can realistically be collected in field studies. Lastly, SWOT-analyses have been made based on information received from discussions with stakeholders. The SWOT-analysis is seen as a simple and useful complement to the evaluation method that can bring additional information to the evaluation, which will not be covered by the selected indicators.

    The manual is a result from a PhD study. The aim of the study has been to investigate the reasons behind successful/less successful implementation of rural electrification, with the overall objective to facilitate for decision-makers to improve their basis for future decisions and measures on rural electrification activities.

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