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  • 1.
    Ahlborg, Liv
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Weurlander, Maria
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Hedman, Leif
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Nisell, Henry
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lindqvist, Pelle G
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Felländer-Tsai, Li
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Enochsson, Lars
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Individualized feedback during simulated laparoscopic training: a mixed methods study2015In: International Journal of Medical Education, ISSN 2042-6372, E-ISSN 2042-6372, Vol. 6, p. 93-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the value of individualized feedback on performance, flow and self-efficacy during simulated laparoscopy. Furthermore, we wished to explore attitudes towards feedback and simulator training among medical students.

    METHODS: Sixteen medical students were included in the study and randomized to laparoscopic simulator training with or without feedback. A teacher provided individualized feedback continuously throughout the procedures to the target group. Validated questionnaires and scales were used to evaluate self-efficacy and flow. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to evaluate differences between groups regarding laparoscopic performance (instrument path length), self-efficacy and flow. Qualitative data was collected by group interviews and interpreted using inductive thematic analyses.

    RESULTS: Sixteen students completed the simulator training and questionnaires. Instrument path length was shorter in the feedback group (median 3.9 m; IQR: 3.3-4.9) as compared to the control group (median 5.9 m; IQR: 5.0-8.1), p<0.05. Self-efficacy improved in both groups. Eleven students participated in the focus interviews. Participants in the control group expressed that they had fun, whereas participants in the feedback group were more concentrated on the task and also more anxious. Both groups had high ambitions to succeed and also expressed the importance of getting feedback. The authenticity of the training scenario was important for the learning process.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the importance of individualized feedback during simulated laparoscopy training. The next step is to further optimize feedback and to transfer standardized and individualized feedback from the simulated setting to the operating room.

  • 2.
    Ahlgren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics. Oscar Klein Centre, Sweden.
    Larsson, Josefin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics. Oscar Klein Centre, Sweden.
    Nymark, Tanja
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics. KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning. Oscar Klein Centre, Sweden.
    Ryde, Felix
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Particle and Astroparticle Physics.
    Pe'er, A.
    Confronting GRB prompt emission with a model for subphotospheric dissipation2015In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, ISSN 1745-3925, Vol. 454, no 1, p. L31-L35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The origin of the prompt emission in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is still an unsolved problem and several different mechanisms have been suggested. Here, we fit Fermi GRB data with a photospheric emission model which includes dissipation of the jet kinetic energy below the photosphere. The resulting spectra are dominated by Comptonization and contain no significant contribution from synchrotron radiation. In order to fit to the data, we span a physically motivated part of the model's parameter space and create DREAM (Dissipation with Radiative Emission as A table Model), a table model for XSPEC. We show that this model can describe different kinds of GRB spectra, including GRB 090618, representing a typical Band function spectrum, and GRB 100724B, illustrating a double peaked spectrum, previously fitted with a Band+blackbody model, suggesting they originate from a similar scenario. We suggest that the main difference between these two types of bursts is the optical depth at the dissipation site.

  • 3.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE).
    Colliander, C.
    Sjögårde, Peter
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE). Department of ALM, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Exploring the relation between referencing practices and citation impact: A large-scale study based on Web of Science data2018In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, ISSN 2330-1635, E-ISSN 2330-1643, Vol. 69, no 5, p. 728-743Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this large-scale contribution, we deal with the relationship between properties of cited references of Web of Science articles and the field normalized citation rate of these articles. Using nearly 1 million articles, and three classification systems with different levels of granularity, we study the effects of number of cited references, share of references covered by Web of Science, mean age of references and mean citation rate of references on field normalized citation rate. To expose the relationship between the predictor variables and the response variable, we use quantile regression. We found that a higher number of references, a higher share of references to publications within Web of Science and references to more recent publications correlate with citation impact. A correlation was observed even when normalization was done with a finely grained classification system. The predictor variables affected citation impact to a larger extent at higher quantile levels. Regarding the relative importance of the predictor variables, citation impact of the cited references was in general the least important variable. Number of cited references carried most of the importance for both low and medium quantile levels, but this importance was lessened at the highest considered level.

  • 4.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Department for Library services, Language and ARC, Publication Infrastructure.
    Pagin, Peter
    Persson, Olle
    Svedberg, Maria
    Bibliometric analysis of two subdomains in philosophy: free will and sorites2015In: SCIENTOMETRICS, ISSN 0138-9130, Vol. 103, no 1, p. 47-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we tested the fruitfulness of advanced bibliometric methods for mapping subdomains in philosophy. The development of the number of publications on free will and sorites, the two subdomains treated in the study, over time was studied. We applied the cocitation approach to map the most cited publications, authors and journals, and we mapped frequently occurring terms, using a term co-occurrence approach. Both subdomains show a strong increase of publications in Web of Science. When we decomposed the publications by faculty, we could see an increase of free will publications also in social sciences, medicine and natural sciences. The multidisciplinary character of free will research was reflected in the cocitation analysis and in the term co-occurrence analysis: we found clusters/groups of cocited publications, authors and journals, and of co-occurring terms, representing philosophy as well as non-philosophical fields, such as neuroscience and physics. The corresponding analyses of sorites publications displayed a structure consisting of research themes rather than fields. All in all, both philosophers involved in this study acknowledge the validity of the various networks presented. Bibliometric mapping appears to provide an interesting tool for describing the cognitive orientation of a research field, not only in the natural and life sciences but also in philosophy, which this study shows.

  • 5.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Department for Library services, Language and ARC, Publication Infrastructure.
    Persson, Olle
    Rousseau, Ronald
    An approach for efficient online identification of the top-k percent most cited documents in large sets of Web of Science documents2014In: ISSI Newsletter, ISSN 1998-5460, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 81-89Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Department for Library services, Language and ARC, Library, Publication Infrastructure.
    Yue, Ting
    Rousseau, Ronald
    Yang, Liying
    The role of the Chinese Key Labs in the international and national scientific arena revisited2017In: Research Evaluation, ISSN 0958-2029, E-ISSN 1471-5449, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 132-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this contribution, which builds on and develops a study that was published more than 10 years ago, we address the role of the Chinese Key Labs (KLs) in the international and national scientific arena. We give a short overview of the position of KLs in China, including their budget and manpower. Based on large numbers of Chinese publications obtained from the Web of Science (WoS) and the Chinese Science Citation Database (CSCD), the KLs are compared across publication years to the rest of China (ChRest) with respect to publication output and citation impact. We also look at collaboration in terms of co-publishing between the KLs and the ChRest. As to publications in the WoS, we found that the contribution of KLs compared with the ChRest is slightly and irregularly increasing (using full counting as well as fractional counting), whereas a stronger increasing trend is observed for the corresponding contribution in the CSCD. We observed an increase in the number of collaborations between KLs and Chinese colleagues, regardless of database. For WoS and field normalized citation indicators, we obtained the expected results that researchers at KLs perform considerably better than other Chinese colleagues and, moreover, perform clearly better than database average. As such we may conclude that KLs have lived up to their promise and made real impact on the international arena.

  • 7.
    Aldenholt, Robin
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE).
    Hydrogen fuel cells for the development of a sustainable society: A case study on opinions and pedagogics regarding hydrogen fuel cells in Sandviken2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Last couple of years’ vehicles propelled by electricity generated from a hydrogen fuel cell has

    emerged as an alternative to the fossil fuel vehicles, so that the greenhouse gas emissions

    causing climate change can decrease. In Sandviken, a collaboration between the municipality,

    Sandvik AB and AGA has resulted in a hydrogen refuelling station, only the fourth in

    Sweden. As the knowledge and awareness of hydrogen fuel cells is unknown Sandvik AB

    wants to investigate what the general opinion and knowledge is but more importantly, how

    can pedagogical theories be used to increase awareness and knowledge.

    The purpose of this thesis is therefore to examine what the population of Sandviken think of a

    development of a hydrogen society as well as climate change and the concept of sustainable

    development. Based on the found status of knowledge and awareness in these issues a couple

    of tools and actions are suggested on how to increase general knowledge and awareness,

    applicable both for schools and organisations outside school.

    The method used to fulfil the purpose was a survey that was sent out to people employed at

    Sandviken municipality and Sandvik AB. The survey results were analysed to see which

    factors correlate with a likelihood to support a hydrogen society development. That is used to

    see what approach to use when educating people about hydrogen and sustainable

    development.

    The results show that people in Sandviken were very positive about the hydrogen refuelling

    station, and the level of knowledge people had did not significantly affect how much support

    they showed. However, the people’s support for a hydrogen development is greatly affected

    by the fact that a refuelling station has been built. Therefore, the result that the level of

    hydrogen knowledge seems irrelevant should not be taken as a general fact true for all

    societies.

    When educating people about hydrogen one should put emphasis on raising awareness and

    knowledge in sustainable development and climate change, since that has a positive effect on

    the likelihood to support a hydrogen development. This could be done via a, in this report

    constructed, SSI case (socio-scientific issues) that can be adjusted to fit environments and

    occasions outside school.

  • 8.
    Alf, Christoffer
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE).
    Erfarande av museiutställningar med hjälp av virtuell verklighet2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis investigates the museum exhibition Royal Wedding Dresses at the Stockholm castle. This exhibition was temporary and closed in April 2017. The overall purpose is to map what can be done in order to raise interest and create meaning in a broader audience including younger people to take part in the exhibition, and create meaning of it after it has been closed down. An additional purpose is to investigate how, why, and whom the museum exhibition Royal Wedding Dresses can interest using virtual reality (VR), after the end of the exhibition.

    In this survey, a literature study, interviews and observations are performed regarding the exhibition Royal Wedding Dresses. This is the basis for developing a VR application prototype where major parts of the exhibition are included. Finally, the application is evaluated for technical interaction and how the virtual visit has been evaluated, to assess whether VR can create interest in, and develop, the exhibition for a wider audience.

    The result indicates that the application has good technical interaction, but the original exhibition does not encourage the visitor to experience it, and the application is unable to develop it in this regard. The application will not be more interesting for a younger audience than its content. With the help of aspects of serious gaming and social interaction, as well as future studies on the subject with more respondents and an expanded perspective, it may be possible to overcome these limitations. If technical interaction and social interaction can be integrated, the experience can also be developed and be put in a meaningful context that encourages experience and better retention of the virtual visit.

  • 9.
    Al-Khalili Szigyarto, Cristina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics.
    Garme, Karl
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Naval Systems.
    Högfeldt, Anna-Karin
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Lärande.
    Magnell, Marie
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Lärande.
    Vägen från student till ingenjör: exempel från två kandidatexamenskurser och ett förslag om en programsammanhållande byggnadsställning2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    André, Jonas
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE).
    Programvaruutveckling för en elektromagnetisk skanner med fokus på användaren, användarstudier och inlärning2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The project was based on a request to improve an already existing program and hardware at the electrical engineering department at the royal institute of technology. For maximum ease of use, tests have been done on students to properly design the program for what it is meant to be used for. These tests have been transcribed and analysed, then brought back to the group in a discussion and then transcribed and analysed again, I call this process the ‘four step process’ (this process is presented and explained in chapter 6.4.). A part of this master thesis was also to analyse the four step process to enhance validity of this research.

    The project resulted in a new program with a new graphical view and features to help students and researchers to work with the technical tool for electromagnetic readings of planar objects. Because users of the program have been a big part of the development of the program, the finished product has been designed according to their requirements and to facilitate their work.

  • 11.
    Angelin, Marcus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Lärande.
    Rahm, M.
    Gabrielsson, Erik
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Gumaelius, Lena
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Lärande.
    Rocket scientist for a day: Investigating alternatives for chemical propulsion2012In: Journal of Chemical Education, ISSN 0021-9584, E-ISSN 1938-1328, Vol. 89, no 10, p. 1301-1304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This laboratory experiment introduces rocket science from a chemistry perspective. The focus is set on chemical propulsion, including its environmental impact and future development. By combining lecture-based teaching with practical, theoretical, and computational exercises, the students get to evaluate different propellant alternatives. To complete the task, they need to use several important curricular concepts, such as the breaking and formation of bonds, redox reactions, and thermodynamics. They also apply basic computational electronic structure calculations to investigate the energetic content of hitherto nonexisting alternatives. Finally, actual chemical rocket propulsion is demonstrated through the assembly and testing of a model rocket motor, employing a commercially available kit. The full experiment was developed for upper-level high school classes and is completed in a 3-h lab period. The experiment, or parts of it, has also been successfully used both in undergraduate programs and continuing education for teachers. 

  • 12.
    Asserstam, Christoffer
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE).
    Kursutvärdering på Volvo Construction Equipment2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this report an evaluation of current evaluation methods at Volvo CE Service School, which further educates technicians, will be presented. Data from observation and interviews, focusing on constructive alignment and course evaluations is analyzed. It turned out to be inadequate constructive alignment and course evaluations do not provide sufficient information. Through the development of the constructive alignment and by using well-formulated learning outcomes the technicians learning should be enhanced. Also the design of the course evaluation with questions that examines learning factors should contribute to development of the training.

  • 13.
    Augustinson, Christian
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE).
    Videor i mobila nyhetsartiklar2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how user engagement in news article consisting of text and video changes if the

    article consists of multiple short videos instead of one long video. This is to investigate how a

    multimodal methods affect user engagement in news articles. Multimodal methods is a combination

    of different types media in communication. The study consists of a total of 23 user tests where users

    was exposed to one of three different versions of a news article. The difference between the articles

    was that it consisted zero, one or three videos. Engagement levels was measured in how the user read

    the article and how the user described video. The study look at user engagement from two aspects,

    inner engagement and outer engagement. Inner engagement describes how users feel about the

    article when he or se reads it. Outer engagement describes what the user chose to do after he or she

    finish reading the article.

    The conclusions of the study is that multiple videos affects some parts of user engagement but not all

    aspects of it. The result suggests that its more likely that a user choses too se at least one video if

    there is more shorter videos to chose from. Users that tested this article evaluated each video

    separately and the users that tested the article whit one video evaluated video as a whole and not the

    individual clip. User that was exposed to multiple videos also spoke more negative about video.

  • 14.
    Azasu, Samuel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Hungria-Gunnelin, Rosane
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Edström, Kristina
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Department for Library services, Language and ARC, Learning Lab IKT.
    The role of assessment in managing student diversity2010In: Journal of European Real Estate Research, ISSN 1753-9269, E-ISSN 1753-9277, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 59-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the use of assessment to manage some of the challenges diversity brings into the teaching and learning in international real estate degree programs. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is a multi-year case study of a course in real estate valuation in a Swedish University. The impact of assessment on student experience and performance was analyzed. Findings: Changes in the timing and rules of assessment have an appreciable impact on differences in student performance. However, some diversity problems must be addressed also at the program level. Practical implications: Real estate departments must exercise pedagogical leadership if they are to continue to effectively provide globally relevant education. Originality/value: This paper analyses one of the consequences of the expansion of international real estate education into a non-traditional destination for foreign students.

  • 15.
    Bartholomew, Scott
    et al.
    Purdue University .
    Hartell, Eva
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Strimel, Greg
    Purdue University.
    ACJ: A Tool for International Assessment Collaboration2017In: PATT34: Technology & Engineering Education – Fostering the Creativity of Youth Around The Globe Pupils' Attitudes Towards Technology, Philadelphia, USA, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptive comparative judgment (ACJ), a relatively new approach to assessment, has proven valid, reliable, and feasible for the assessment of open-ended design problems. The use of ACJ for assessment has shown positive results in various countries around the world. The potential for ACJ, as a tool for international collaboration in assessment, has not yet been addressed. Preliminary findings from a study involving ACJ use in three countries (United States, United Kingdom, and Sweden) and future directions for research are shared.

  • 16.
    Bartholomew, Scott
    et al.
    Purdue University .
    Yoshikawa, Emily
    Purdue University, US.
    Hartell, Eva
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Strimel, Greg
    Purdue University.
    Design values, preferences, similarities and differences across three global regions2018In: 2018 PATT36 International Conference: Research and Practice in Technology Education: Perspectives on Human Capacity and Development / [ed] Niall Seery, Jeffrey Buckley, Donal Canty and Joe Phelan, Athlone, Ireland: Technology Education Research Group. TERG , 2018, p. 432-440Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As technological advances connect countries from across the world, preparing students to contribute to an internationally connected society is paramount. An understanding of the various cultures, traditions, values, and educational practices is necessary for a more-fully integrated and preparatory curriculum. Specifically, we contend that in the area of open-ended design, identifying cultural, regional, and local preferences is a necessary undertaking to assist in preparing students for success in future endeavors. However, as open-ended design is an area that can be challenging to assess and implement, effectively identifying the design values and preferences unique to different locations are necessary. Identifying these preferences and values across locations may help illuminate best-practices to the teaching and learning for an increasingly culturally-sensitive open-ended design process. In this study, 706 American middle school students participated in an open-ended design project and submitted both prototypes and portfolios for their projects. Panels of teachers and researchers from the United States, England, Ireland, and Sweden were recruited to judge the student work through Adaptive Comparative Judgment (ACJ). Each panel was trained on the ACJ software (CompareAssess), introduced to the assignment and the assessment criteria, and provided a login to complete the ACJ. Through the final student project rankings, emerging from each of the judge panels in the ACJ process, highlighted large variations from region to region with only a few student projects appearing in the top ten rank for all regions. Comments provided by the judges, which explain the rationale behind their ACJ decisions, highlighted themes related to significant design values of each region. The identified values may help to enhance design and design-based learning across an internationally-connected society through an understanding of cultural similarities and differences.

  • 17.
    Benner, Mats
    et al.
    Philosophy and History, KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Geschwind, Lars
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Conflicting Rationalities: Mergers and Consolidations in Swedish Higher Education Policy2016In: Mergers in Higher Education: The Experience from Northern Europe / [ed] Romulo Pinheiro, Lars Geschwind, Timo Aarrevaara, Berlin: Springer, 2016, p. 43-58Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18. Berg Nordstrand, Laila
    et al.
    Pinheiro, Rómulo
    Geschwind, Lars
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Vrangbæk, Karsten
    Responses to the Global Financial Crisis: Lessons From the Public Sector in the Nordic Countries2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Administration, ISSN 2001-7405, E-ISSN 2001-7413, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 3-8Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19. Berg Nordstrand, Laila
    et al.
    Puusa, Anu
    Pulkkinen, Kirsi
    Geschwind, Lars
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Managers’ identities: Solid or affected by changes in institutional logics and organisational amendments?2017In: Offentlig Förvaltning. Scandinavian Journal of Public Administration, ISSN 2000-8058, E-ISSN 2001-3310, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 81-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies doctors in Norway and Finland to compare how identities among professionals in managerial positions were expressed after changes in management in the aftermath of ‘New Public Management’ (NPM) reforms. Studying shifting identities provides a basis for investigating how institutions have changed and illuminates how agents within an organisation have implemented NPM-inspired reforms. Data from both countries revealed three groups: the majority of doctors/managers, who had a strong managerial identity; a smaller group who mainly identified as doctors; and a few doctors who displayed hybrid identities. Work experiences have a strong effect on how identity is perceived. Doctors who hold on to their professional identities seemed uneasy with their skills and ability to perform the tasks related to their new position. Many of the doctors were found to have altered their identities due to organisational amendments and the expanded focus on management-related issues. Hence, this paper concludes that a strong intervention in the sector from central government, as seen in Norway, has resulted in implementing general management to a larger degree than in Finland, but in a more hybrid manner. This is expressed through a focus on management, the institutional logics at stake and doctors’ identity formation.

  • 20.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    El Gaidi, Khalid
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Havtun, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Hedin, Björn
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Kjellgren, Björn
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE).
    Kommer det på tentan?: Uppfattningar om motivation och demotivation bland studenter på ingenjörsutbildningar2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivation är en av de viktigaste drivkrafterna bakom människors handlingar. Hur en student klarar sina studier beror till stor del på graden av motivation, men också på graden av demotivation. Vi har i den här studien valt att utforska upplevda källor till studenters motivation och demotivation i ingenjörskurser. Dessa har kodats och kategoriserats i termer av kontext, struktur och lärare, och resultatet har jämförts med en liknande omfattande undersökning från USA. Resultaten visar att frågor rörande kurs ens struktur i högre grad anges som viktiga både för motivation och demotivation för våra studentgrupper, jämfört med den andra undersökningen. Vidare förekommer synpunkter kring lärarens förmåga att förklara och lärarens attityd till studenterna i betydligt högre omfattning än lärarens ämneskompetens i sig, vilket kan ses som stöd för att pedagogisk och didaktisk skicklighet bör vara starkt meriterande för undervisande personal. En slutsats är att lärare har mycket stora möjligheter att påverka studenternas motivation både positivt och negativt, och att det är av stor vikt att lärare är både medvetna om, och har verktyg för att hantera, detta.

     

  • 21.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Havtun, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Jerbrant, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Wingård, Lasse
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering.
    Andersson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics.
    Hedin, Björn
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Kjellgren, Björn
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning, Language and communication.
    THE PEDAGOGICAL DEVELOPERS INITIATIVE: SYSTEMATIC SHIFTS, SERENDIPITIES, AND SETBACKS2017In: 13th International CDIO Conference in Calgary, Canada, June 18-22, 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pedagogical projects have often, at KTH Royal Institute of Technology, as well as elsewhere, been initiated and managed by individual enthusiasts rather than dedicated teams. This generally decreases the possibility of successful implementation of more ambitious ideas, e.g., changing educational programs, implementing the CDIO syllabus, or strengthening the pedagogical development of larger parts of the faculty. To enable wider and more effective change, KTH top management therefore launched a universityencompassing three-year project in 2014, in which a group of highly motivated teachers from all schools at KTH were appointed part-time pedagogical developers (PDs). The PDs were given the task of promoting pedagogical development and facilitate cooperation and knowledge exchange among faculty members, as described in two previous papers at CDIO conferences. From 2017, the outcomes of this project are supposed to be integrated parts of the KTH line organization. The project has led to numerous actions, which would have been difficult to set in motion unless given the freedom in time to explore and to develop into a collective effort rather than a myriad of individual “stand-alone” examples. By addressing key areas for pedagogical development, our group of dedicated faculty have tried to surpass the suboptimal "lock-in" of strict individual reasoning and to deal with surfaced questions and relevant issues in a broader collective manner. A major insight confirmed by the project and its many sub-projects has indeed been the fundamental importance of collegial discussions and the creation of processes that facilitate and support teacher cooperation. We have also, through discussions with faculty at KTH, confirmed the need for clearly defined, tangible incentives for teachers, motivating them to participate in pedagogical development activities, even if this means less time left for the traditional pathway to rewards within academia, i.e. research. In this paper, we chart changes that have occurred in the educational practices at KTH by describing and discussing the project’s focus on pedagogical development of faculty, actual execution of changes in the engineering educations, lessons learned along the way, and visions yet to be realised.

  • 22.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development. KTH.
    Havtun, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology. KTH.
    Jerbrant, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management. KTH.
    Wingård, Lasse
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production Engineering. KTH.
    Andersson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Hedin, Björn
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Soulard, Juliette
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES).
    Kjellgren, Björn
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning, Language and communication.
    The pedagogical developers initiative - development, implementation and lessons learned from a systematic approach to faculty development2016In: Proceedings of the 12th International CDIO Conference, Turku University of Applied Sciences, Turku, Finland, June 12-16, 2016, Turku University , 2016, p. 497-508Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a systematic, university--wide approach to creating an encompassing movement towards faculty development. In 2014, KTH Royal Institute of Technology launched the pedagogical developers initiative, appointing part--time pedagogical developers among teachers from all schools of KTH, to implement and strengthen good teaching and learning practices among faculty and students. They are teachers active in different educational programmes, with experience of, and interest in, pedagogical issues. In line with CDIO standard 10, the purpose of the pedagogical developers’ initiative is to facilitate cooperation and knowledge exchange between faculty members, and to establish communities of practice. The paper presents the activities, processes for developing these activities and preliminary results from the initiative’s second year, which focused much on supporting faculty development by putting into place a series of workshops, a format chosen for its combination of active community-building learning and time efficiency. The topics of the workshops emerged to meet faculty needs identified by the pedagogical developers during the first year. The workshops were created by smaller teams of pedagogical developers from different schools of KTH. This enabled a wide array of experiences and perspectives to be incorporated into the workshops. Main focuses of the workshops have been on creating internal discussions in dynamic communities of practice on specific subjects of interest, and on creating forums for exchange of ideas, open to the whole faculty. During Autumn 2015, the workshops have been offered as voluntary add-on parts of the basic course in teaching and learning offered to faculty at KTH. This first round of workshops generated a positive interest from teachers, and participant feedback indicates that they particularly appreciated the opportunity to work directly with their own courses and the opportunity to discuss pedagogical aspects with peers. 

  • 23.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Havtun, Hans
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration.
    Johansson, Hans Bengt
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Jerbrant, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Andersson, Magnus
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT).
    Hedin, Björn
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Soulard, Juliette
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Kjellgren, Björn
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE).
    The Pedagogical Developers Initiative – Changing Educational Practices and Strengthening CDIO skills2015In: Proceedings of the 11th International CDIO Conference, Chengdu, China, June 8-11 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper put emphasis on change agents within the universities and how local initiatives can be systematically approached and ramped up. Rooted in the challenges and constraints that have been addressed in past educational program initiatives, the case consists of specific focus areas to leverage impact. Universities continuously strives to provide the best conditions for an inspiring and prosperous learning environment, and to provide educational programs with teaching of excellent educational quality. KTH is no exception and therefore the university management has initiated a pedagogical program starting in 2014. One of the first thing initiated within the framework of this pedagogical program is the creation of a group of 24 pedagogical developers.

    The focus for the pedagogical developers is to facilitate the opportunities for KTHs faculty to work together and create consensus on educational development in different teaching teams. This paper presents the University's pedagogical developers' initiative as a whole and how this has been outlined in detail to reach specific redesign targets. The School of Industrial Engineering and Management pedagogical group consists of five practicing teachers that besides this new role also engage heavily in various courses of the School's departments. Since the pedagogical initiative is aligned with several important CDIO aspects, e.g. the learning environment, formats of formative feedback, assessment and examination there is also importance to reassure this in the existing Master level programs.

    At KTH the five-year comprehensive Master of Science in Engineering programs concern distinct vocational educations in which the CDIO aspects are very important. At the same time the programs has been divided in a basic level (B.Sc. in Engineering) of three years and a advanced level (M.Sc.) of two years. This has for instance made it harder to align the progression between first cycle level and second cycle level regarding for instance the CDIO efforts (e.g. oral and written communication, teamwork). This paper will therefore discuss and enhance how the pedagogical programme, we as pedagogical developers, can support and strengthen the initiation and implementation of the CDIO aspects in the education.

  • 24.
    Berglund, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Klasén, Ida
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Lärande.
    Hanson, Mats
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE).
    Edin Grimheden, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Mechatronics.
    Changing Mindsets, Improving Creativity and Innovation in Engineering Education2011In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Engineering and Product Design Education E&PDE11 / [ed] Kovacevic, Ahmed, Ion, William, McMahon, Chris, Buck, Lyndon and Hogarth, Peter, 2011, p. 121-126Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Universities need to reconfigure and rethink existing engineering beliefs in order to keep promoting students that can target and capitalize on tomorrow’s opportunities. This put pressure on promoting the best possible Engineering Education, which means continuant upgrades and revisions to existing curricula’s and faculties’ pedagogical methods and processes. This paper summarizes the experiences and lessons learned from a nationwide initiative to rethink and redesign existing engineering programs towards more traceable innovative practices. The Swedish Product Innovation Engineering Program (PIEp) and the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in particular have a long tradition of successful exchanges involving research and education. PIEp is committed to a system change towards innovation and entrepreneurship in institutes of higher education and research. From PIEp an organized network of senior researchers, PhD students, lecturers and students is seen as the seed for this change. Activities are conducted in three areas; research in product innovation, education for product innovation and industrial collaboration for product innovation. Turning away from one-timer and mere embryonic attempts, PIEp visions a systems shift through long term dedication to influence higher engineering education curricula design. KTH is currently performing a revision of all engineering program to fit the European Bologna higher education restructuring process. Encompassing both undergraduate and master level studies, the integration of engineering syllabus imperatives strive to converge with the internationally recognized CDIO standards and the new Swedish national degree specifications. The paper aims to summarize the initiative provided between PIEp, KTH and Stanford to stimulate Swedish Engineering faculty to embrace methods and tools for integrating creativity and innovation. Ultimately, building on the long experiences of successful workshops held by PIEp and KTH the overall ambition is to establish a change in mindsets, and by so influencing key participants to directly leave endurable footprints onto their respective Swedish Engineering Education Program. The paper has a descriptive character blending ‘best-of-both-worlds’ concepts as it reveals how a nationwide initiative has set up a learning hub overseas together with Stanford University. Utilizing this source of entrepreneurial and inspiring environment the ambition is to equip Swedish faculty with experiences, success stories, lessons learned, personal opinions, to provoke and challenge existing program and curricula design. In summary, the full paper version entails the set-up, reflections and actions outline by Swedish university representatives to address implementation of more transferability between innovation characteristics in respective education programs.

  • 25.
    Berglund, Per
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Biochemistry (closed 20130101).
    Högfeldt, Anna-Karin
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Karlsson, Sara
    KTH.
    Klasén, Ida
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE).
    Sandberg, Teresia
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Wood Chemistry and Pulp Technology.
    Utvärdering för utveckling: KTH:s samtliga utbildningar under belysning2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Bergner, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE).
    Waardahl, Erica
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE).
    Interprofessionell kommunikation: En undersökning om kommunikationsvägar ochkunskapsutbyte mellan kompetensområdeni uppdraget Ostlänken.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The project Ostlänken is part of the single largest investment for Swedish infrastructure in modern times, a new double track high-speed railway between Järna and Linköping. It will provide new capacity to the railway system and off load existing traffic and thus enlarge the region. Sweco's task is to deliver a time- and economically efficient solution that is both secure, environmentally- and socially sustainable. To achieve this, Sweco's organization is divided into the three areas plan, environment and technology. Each of which is responsible for developing railway plans, environmental impact assessment and system documents.

    The purpose of the study is to analyze how communication and knowledge exchange between the areas environment and technology are experienced and put into practice. A further aim is to put the results of the study in relation to Sweco's internal project- and control documents for communication and knowledge and experience transfer, in order to further visualize strengths and improvement areas in terms of communication within the assignment Ostlänken.

    Collected material from a questionnaire survey, interviews and focus discussions has been compiled using a thematic analysis. The results showed that the use of communication means varies within the assignment. Many people experience a large flow of information, partly as a result of the high meeting frequency. There is an experienced knowledge gap between the main areas, but also between the different technical areas of expertise where it is sometimes hard to see each other's needs and prerequisites.

    Based on theories from organizational pedagogy, the study shows the importance of taking responsibility for the individual learning in the forms of active listening and reflection on ones frame of reference and how it relates to others. But also the importance of taking responsibility for others' learning in terms of how to express one self and sharing relevant information. Some of the areas that could benefit the organization's development are clear and detailed meeting agendas, mentoring to orient new employees in the project, recurrent opportunities for reflection on the workflow and continuous work to make sure that the word is evenly distributed at meetings. The study further shows that to fulfill the overall project objectives, individual endeavor is required in order to become an expert in the project itself, and also that each area of expertise may take place in decision-making processes. By not considering learning as a natural part of the workflow, but merely striving for progress in terms of productivity, there is a risk that this will happen at the expense of the organization's development in the longer term.

  • 27.
    Bernhard, Jonte
    et al.
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Edström, Kristina
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Kolmos, Anette
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning. Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Learning through design-implement experiences: A literature review2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we introduce some literature relevant for design-based learning, in particular for design-implement experiences in line with CDIO Standard 5. The aim is to inform the development of such learning experiences and to indicate some areas where new research would be of relevance to educators.

  • 28.
    Birgersson, Erica
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE).
    Chemical methods to increase the reactivity  of lignin: In the context of green chemistry  and education for sustainable development2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The research  concerning lignin in high value applications has increased  during the last years due to its renewability and availability in the black liquor from pulp mills. Today  the major part of kraft lignin found  in the black liquor is used as fuel to gain energy  in the recovery boiler. Lignin functions as natural  glue in plants so that the function of kraft lignin as a phenol replacement in wood adhesives has been researched. Due to lignin's low reactivity the molecule must be modified  prior to use. Demethylation is a method  to increase the phenolic content  in lignin to produce  more reactive  sites. Thiol  mediated  and iodine mediated demethylation was performed. Demethylated lignin was characterized by changes  in phenolic and hydroxylic groups,  molecular  mass, elemental  composition and other  properties  using methods including  UV, SEC and 31 P NMR.

     

    The results showed  a decrease in the phenolic  content  contrary  to the increase  that was expected. Really low yields were also gained  which makes the results non-representative. Size evaluation showed  that the percentage of high molecular  content  in the demethylated lignin sample  had increased,  which  point towards the loss of low molecular mass fractions.  Due to demethylation lignin may have been more hydrophilic and soluble  in DMF and water. In addition  to this bond cleavage  may have produced  smaller  fragments which also increase  the solubility. The results point towards  the loss of smaller  fragments in the DMF and water phases.

     

    The applied demethylation methods were evaluated  in context of green chemistry. Production, waste,  involving chemicals and efficiency were discussed  and analyzed. The applied demethylation methods  use DMF as solvent  which  is not a green alternative, greener solvents such as water or other energy  adding  methods  could  be used to make the process  greener.  The use ofNaOMe produces  methanol  as a byproduct  which could be eliminated by using NaOH, future studies  on the efficiency of the bases in the needs to be done.

     

    Nature science  has a reputation  of being hard and firm. By bringing  in social  issues in science education new ways of looking  at science  opens  up. A social problem  and at the same time an environmental problem  in today's  society  is the large plastic mountain in the Pacific Ocean. An educational material  of the "Samhallsfragor med Naturvetenskapligt Innehiill",SNI, (Societal  issues with scientific content)  principle  has been evaluated with respect  to the abilities that can developed together  with whether  students  increase  their science  knowledge through  this. The study showed  that students  can develop  almost  all abilities  described  in the curriculum and their knowledge in science  by this type of material.

    Keywords Biomaterial, lignin reactivity,  thiol mediated  demethylation, iodine mediated demethylation, green chemistry, SNl-fall.

     

  • 29.
    Bjorkman, Beyza
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Department for Library services, Language and ARC, Language and communication.
    Pragmatic strategies in English as an academic lingua franca: Ways of achieving communicative effectiveness?2011In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 950-964Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will report the findings of a study that has investigated spoken English as a lingua franca (ELF) usage in Swedish higher education. The material comprises digital recordings of lectures and student group-work sessions, all being naturally occurring, authentic high-stakes spoken exchange, i.e. from non-language-teaching contexts. The aim of the present paper, which constitutes a part of a larger study, has been to investigate the role pragmatic strategies play in the communicative effectiveness of English as a lingua franca. The paper will document types of pragmatic strategies as well as point to important differences between the two speech event types and the implications of these differences for English-medium education. The findings show that lecturers in ELF settings make less frequent use of pragmatic strategies than students who deploy these strategies frequently in group-work sessions. Earlier stages of the present study (Bjorkman, 2008a, 2008b, 2009) showed that despite frequent non-standardness in the morphosyntax level, there is little overt disturbance in student group-work, and it is highly likely that a variety of pragmatic strategies that students deploy prevents some disturbance. It is reasonable to assume that, in the absence of appropriate pragmatic strategies used often in lectures, there is an increased risk for covert disturbance.

  • 30.
    Björkholm, Eva
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Developing technological knowledge in primary school: A teacher-researcher collaboration study2011In: PATT 25: CRIPT 8 conference: Perspectives on Learning in Design & Technology Education, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to the development of the content knowledge of primary technology by explaining and clarifying the meanings of the subject-specific capabilities that pupils are expected to be able to develop through technology education. The study is designed as a learning study and it has both practice-developing and knowledge-generating aims. This paper presents the planning of the study and the preliminary results of its first part.

  • 31.
    Björkholm, Eva
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning, Teknikdidaktik.
    En studie av progression i tekniskt kunnande2016In: Studier av kunnande och undervisningspraktiker inom praktiska och estetiska skolämnen., 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I teknikämnets kursplan i Lgr 11 läggs fokus på egna konstruktioner där eleverna tillämpar tekniska principer av olika slag, exempelvis enkla mekanismer och hållfasta och stabila strukturer. Ämnets undervisningspraktik domineras av praktiska moment i form av konstruktionsarbeten enligt Skolinspektionens kvalitetsgranskning av teknikundervisningen (2014). I granskningen ses även flera exempel på att samma elever flera gånger under sin grundskoletid får identiska konstruktionsuppgifter. Det saknas således en progression i uppgifternas innehåll i relation till elevernas kunskapsutveckling. Dessutom finns en otydlighet kring uppgifternas syfte, dvs. vilket slags teknikkunnande som aktiviteterna skall ge eleverna möjlighet att utveckla.  Syftet med studien är att undersöka progressionen så som det kommer till uttryck i praktiskt konstruktionsarbete inom ramen för grundskolans teknikämne. Studien utgår från tidigare forskning (Björkholm 2015) som undersökt kunnande i relation till konstruktionsarbete på lågstadiet.

    I studien kommer vi att undersöka vari progressionen i att kunna konstruera tekniska lösningar i grundskolans låg-, mellan- och högstadium består. Kvalitativa skillnader i kunnandet studeras dels mellan olika elever på samma stadium, dels mellan elevgrupper på olika stadier. Därtill undersöks hur den praktiska uppgiften förändras mellan olika stadier. Metoderna för insamling av data utgörs främst av videoobservationer och intervjuer. Genom att identifiera aspekter som är nödvändiga att urskilja för ett specifikt kunnande, kan skillnader mellan olika kunnanden beskrivas. På så sätt kan progressionen i kunnandet beskrivas mer detaljerat i termer av innehållsliga aspekter.

  • 32.
    Björkholm, Eva
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning. Stockholm University.
    Exploring the capability of evaluating technical solution: A focus on teaching and learning in the primary technology classroom2012In: Conference proceedings - PATT 26 Conference - Linköping University, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to explore the capability of evaluating technical solutions in terms of fitness for purpose in the primary technology classroom. In the study we conceptualize pupils’ ways of experiencing technical solutions in terms of what critical aspects are discerned. The analyzed data is drawn from a classroom study of technology education in a Swedish primary school. In this presentation we make an analysis of two technology lessons about technical solutions in grade 2 (pupils are 8-9 years old). We then analyze interactions between teacher-pupils, pupils and materials and tools. The results include pupils’ different qualitative understandings of the specific content in terms of critical features discerned as well as how interactions in the classroom contribute to the collective development of technological knowledge.

  • 33.
    Björkholm, Eva
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning, Teknikdidaktik.
    Exploring the capability of evaluating technical solutions: a collaborative study into the primary technology classroom2014In: International journal of technology and design education, ISSN 0957-7572, E-ISSN 1573-1804, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the field of technology education, evaluating technical solutions is considered as an important topic. Research indicates that pupils have difficulties in evaluating technical solutions in terms of fitness for purpose, i.e. how effective a technical solution supports its intended function. By using the learning study, which is an iterative and collaborative research approach, the study explores the capability to evaluate technical solutions in terms of fitness for purpose, what it takes to know it and how to best enhance its learning in the primary technology classroom. Audio and video recorded interviews, teachers' meetings and lessons are the base data for the study. A contribution of the study is the understanding of this specific knowing, and what is critical for learning and thus to an improvement of technology teaching practice.

  • 34.
    Björkholm, Eva
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Technology Education in Elementary School: Boys' and Girls' Interests and Attitudes2010In: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 33-43Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Björkholm, Eva
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning, Teknikdidaktik.
    Teknik i de tidiga skolåren: Om vad det innebär att kunna konstruera en länkmekanism2015In: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, E-ISSN 1894-1257, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 35-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study within primary technology education aims at exploring the capability to construct a specific linkage mechanism. The study reported was integrated in a Learning study, a kind of design experiment inspired by the Japanese Lesson Study, and was carried out in collaboration with two primary school teachers and their two classes, a preschool class and a grade one class. The study reports on the analysis of the video-recorded pre- and post-test. The tests were analysed phenomenographically resulting in four categories describing qualitatively different ways of experiencing the object of learning. The categories were then analysed in terms of critical aspects, describing aspects necessary to discern for this group of students in order to learn how to construct a linkage mechanism. The result indicates the importance of discerning the two joints and their different characteristics in terms of a fixed and a moving joint as well as the placement of the moving joint in relation to the resulting movement.

  • 36.
    Björkholm, Eva
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning, Teknikdidaktik.
    Unpacking the object of learning2015In: International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, ISSN 2046-8253, E-ISSN 2046-8261, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 194-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Knowledge concerning the meaning of the object of learning is an important contribution of Learning study. The purpose of this paper is to generate this kind of knowledge and show how it can be developed and refined in the different phases of a Learning study.

    Design/methodology/approach – The paper reports on a Learning study in primary technology education conducted with students aged six to seven years old, with the aim to explore a specific object of learning; to construct a linkage mechanism for transferring and transforming movement.

    Findings – The findings show several aspects to discern by the learner in order to grasp the object of learning and reveal how this knowledge was gradually developed during the Learning study. The presumed aspects, those identified in the pre- and post-test, as well as how they were elaborated in the lesson contributed to refining the meaning of the object of learning.

    Originality/value – In Learning study, knowledge concerning the meaning of the object of learning is generated. By empirically demonstrating the development and specification of this knowledge during a Learning study, this paper will contribute to the discussion of knowledge products from Learning studies as well as to knowledge concerning what there is to know in order to develop a specific capability in technology education.

  • 37.
    Björkholm, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning, Learning in Engineering Sciences.
    Andrée, Maria
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Carlgren, Ingrid
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Exploring technical knowledge in the primary technology classroom2016In: Australasian Journal of Technology Education, ISSN 2382-2007, Vol. 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to explore the use of categories and aspects of technical knowing which have been identified in specific contexts and related to specific learning objects to identify technical knowing and technical content in another teaching context. In this way, we want to contribute to the understanding of technical knowing within primary technology education, as well as to the development of analytical tools to help teachers in selecting and designing the content of technology teaching. Previous findings from two Learning Studies focusing on evaluating and constructing technical solutions were used to identify technical knowing in video material generated within a particular classroom practice (students aged 7-8 years old). The results suggest that the former categories and aspects can be used in different ways to identify and specify technical knowings related to technical content in the primary technology classroom.

  • 38.
    Björkholm, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Carlgren, Ingrid
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Att kunna analysera tekniska lösningars ändamålsenlighet: En learning study i skolämnet teknik2011In: NOFA 3: Den tredje nordiska ämnesdidaktikkonferensen. 11-13 maj, 2011, Karlstad, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tekniska lösningar, i såväl befintliga som egna konstruktioner, är ett centralt innehåll i skolämnet teknik, men vad innebär det att kunna analysera tekniska lösningars ändamålsenlighet? Tillsammans med några lärare i grundskolans skolår 1-3 och deras klasser har jag genomfört en learning study som fokuserat på förståelsen av innebörden av detta specifika lärandeobjekt.

  • 39.
    Björkholm, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning, Teknikdidaktik.
    Carlgren, Ingrid
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Learning study as a way to inquire the meaning of knowing what is to be known: The meaning of knowing how to construct a linkage mechanism. Discering aspects of the object of learning by analyzing classroom interactions2013In: Lesson and learning study as teacher research, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation describes a Learning Study within primary technology education focusing on the capability to construct a specific linkage mechanism. What one has to know in order to be able to construct a linkage mechanism is, however, not self-evident. The study reported here explores the meaning of this specific knowing. The study was conducted in collaboration with two primary school teachers and their two classes (children aged 6-7 years). Throughout the whole study step by step, starting with the analysis of the pre-test, followed by three cycles of planning and evaluation of research lessons, and the analysis of post-test, the meaning of the object of learning was specified (Marton & Pang, 2006; Carlgren, 2012). The presentation will focus on knowledge generated from the video recorded lessons by analyzing the classroom interactions and students’ difficulties that were made visible through these interactions. Teacher-student interactions as well as student-student interactions were analyzed. By analyzing students’ difficulties regarding the specific object of learning, critical aspects of the expected knowing were discerned and in this way the meaning of knowing what is expected to be known was made explicit. The results are presented in the form of critical aspects of what it means to know how to construct a linkage mechanism for this group of students. The critical aspects identified in the pre-test were further elaborated in the research lessons and by analyzing the classroom interactions in terms of student difficulties, additional aspects that were critical for students’ learning were identified. By gradually identifying the critical aspects, the collective understanding of the meaning of the object of learning was developed and specified.

  • 40.
    Björkholm, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Carlgren, Ingrid
    Stockholms Universitet.
    The Meaning of Knowing What is Expected to be Known: The Case of Evaluating Technical Solutions’ Fitness for Purpose2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Meaning of Knowing What is Expected to be Known. The Case of Evaluating Technical Solutions’ Fitness for Purpose

    General description

    The capability to evaluate technical solutions is highlighted by several authors as an important educational outcome within technology education (Barlex, 2011; Coles & Norman, 2005). A technical solution may be evaluated in terms of its fitness for purpose that includes the physical structure and function (de Vries, 2005). Although there is limited access to research on this subject-specific content in technology education, results indicate that both the link between physical structure and function as well as the fitness for purpose is difficult for pupils in primary as well as secondary education to understand (Compton & Compton, 2011; Oboho & Bolton, 1991).

    What one has to know in order to be able to evaluate technical solutions’ fitness for purpose is, however, not self-evident. The study that will be reported, explores the meaning of this specific knowing. Developing teaching of certain target areas in systematic ways (Nuthall, 2004) requires an explication of the meaning of knowing. In order for students to develop the specific ways of knowing (Carlgren, 2007) of a target area (in this case technical solutions’ fitness for purpose), the teaching must be planned to make it possible for students to experience and discern what is critical for learning. By designing teaching activities that make it possible to discern these critical aspects, systematic teaching-learning strategies can be developed.

    Knowledge concerning the meaning of knowing something to be known is generated in so called Learning Studies (Marton & Pang, 2006; Carlgren, 2012). By analyzing students’ difficulties regarding the specific object of learning, critical aspects of the expected knowing are discerned and in this way the meaning of knowing what is expected to be known is made explicit. 

    Technical solutions’ fitness for purpose is seen as embedded in contexts and as related to human activity, therefore an understanding based on activity theory can be useful when exploring the meaning of this specific knowing.

    Methods/methodology

    This study is carried out in the form of a Learning Study. The Learning Study has a collaborative approach, what is critical for learning something specific is explored through a systematic and iterative process (Marton & Ling, 2007).

    The study was conducted in collaboration with four teachers in primary school and two classes in grade 1 and 2 (pupils aged 7-8 years). A pre-test was carried out in forms of interviews with pupils, documented by audio and video recording. The analysis of the pre-test resulted in some qualitatively different categories, describing pupils’ experiencing of the phenomenon technical solutions’ fitness for purpose. The critical aspects identified, formed the starting point when planning the lesson. Lessons were documented by audio and video recording. The results that will be presented in this paper is based on an analysis of the pre-test used in the learning study as well as analysis of three research lessons. The analysis is carried out within the theoretical framework of phenomenography (Marton, 1981) and variation theory (Marton, Runesson & Tsui, 2004).

    Results

     

    The results will be presented in the form of critical aspects of what it means to be able to evaluate technical solutions’ fitness for purpose. The phenomenographic analysis resulted in the categories “fitness for purpose as”:  “appropriateness to users”, “technical efficiency” and “appropriateness to a wider context”. Based on these categories, critical aspects were identified such as features of the physical structure that are critical for realizing the function and how components interact to fulfill a function. Three more critical aspects developed when analyzing the lessons such as the mixing the naming of an object with the name of a material, distinguishing a main function from secondary functions and identifying a core technical solution.

     

    The critical aspects identified during lessons could be considered as further specifications of dimensions necessary to discern in order to develop the specific knowing. The results of the study aims to have implications for teachers and teaching, what Nuthall (2004) refers to as pragmatic validity. The findings may be used by teachers in their own teaching context, looking for the critical aspects identified and use them for structuring the content of teaching in order to support pupils in experiencing technical solutions in more complex ways.

     

    References

    Barlex, D. (2011). Dear minister, This is why design and technology is a very important subject in the school curriculum. Design and Technology Education: An International Journal, 16(3).

    Carlgren, I. (2007) The content of schooling. In Forsberg, Eva (Ed.), Curriculum Theory Revisited. Studies in Educational Policy and Educational Philosophy. Uppsala University

     

    Carlgren, I. (2012) The Learning Study as an approach for ‘clinical’ subject matter didactic research. International Journal of Lesson and Learning Study, Forthcoming Issue 2, May 2012.

     

    Coles, R. & Norman, E. (2005). An exploration of the role values play in design decision-making. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 15(5).

    Compton, V. & Compton, A. (2011). Teaching the nature of technology: Determining and supporting student learning of the philosophy of technology. International Journal of Technology and Design education. Retrieved 2011-10-03, from http://www04.sub.su.se:2054/ content/k0v57q33r8562g75/ fulltext.pdf

    De Vries, M. J. (2005). Teaching about technology: An introduction to the philosophy of technology for non-philosophers. Dordrecht: Springer.

    Marton, F. (1981). Phenomenography – describing conceptions of the world around us. Instructional Science, 10.

    Marton, F. & Ling, L. M. (2007). Learning from “The Learning Study”. Tidskrift för lärarutbildning och forskning [Journal of Research in Teacher Education], 1.

    Marton, F. & Pang, M. F. (2006). On some necessary conditions of learning. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 15(2).

    Marton, F., Runesson, U. & Tsui, A. B. (2004). The space of learning. In F. Marton & A. B. Tsui (Eds.), Classroom discourse and the space of learning. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Nuthall, G. (2004). Relating classroom teaching to student learning: A critical analysis of why research has failed to bridge the theory-practice gap. Harvard Educational Review, 74(3).

    Oboho, E. O. & Bolton, N. (1991). Matching students’ technological thinking with the demands of a technological curriculum. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 4(2).

     

     

     

  • 41.
    Björkholm, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning.
    Carlgren, Ingrid
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Ahlstrand, Pernilla
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Nyberg, Gunn
    Stockholms Universitet.
    The meaning of knowing what is to be known2015In: Éducation & didactique, ISSN 1956-3485, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 143-160Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Björkholm, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning, Learning in Engineering Sciences.
    Engström, Susanne
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning, Learning in Engineering Sciences.
    Norström, Per
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning, Learning in Engineering Sciences.
    Exploring Materials as Subject Content within Technology Education2016In: PATT2016: Technology Education for 21st Century, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within technology education in compulsory school in Sweden, materials are part of the core contents. What kinds of materials, and which characteristics that should be highlighted is open to interpretation. The study includes three sub-studies: 1/ An analysis of classroom activities during two lessons about materials in primary school, 2/ A Delphi study (Osborne et al. 2003) with experts on materials to gather their thoughts about materials in elementary technology education, and 3/ A review of documents (syllabus, teachers’ handbooks). The purpose of this study is to put light on the field of materials as a content area by investigating what aspects of materials are highlighted in the three contexts. Two teaching sessions were video recorded. The data analysis focused on the objects of teachers and students. Results suggest that the teachers highlight different aspects; one teacher focused on naming the materials and describing what products they are used for, while the other emphasized the materials’ properties. Ten experts participated in the first round of the Delphi study. Their responses were coded reflexively and iteratively. Results indicate the following major categories of material-related subject content: groups of materials, properties, creation and refinement, use, development over time, environmental aspects, and modern materials. The syllabus states that young pupils should study materials that they can use (wood, cardboard). Later common materials (steel, concrete) are introduced and at the end of compulsory school modern materials. Materials’ properties and use in solving technical problems is studied, and their environmental effects. Preliminary results indicate that some content emerges in all three contexts: material usage, the material’s functional properties and origin of the material, production and processing.

  • 43.
    Björkholm, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning, Teknikdidaktik.
    Hultén, Magnus
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Primary School Teachers’ Development of Subject-Specific Knowledge in Technology during a Design Based Research Project2013In: Technology Education for the Future: A Play on Sustainability / [ed] P John Willliams, University of Waikato, New Zealand , 2013, p. 59-64Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we examine the development of teachers’ subject-specific knowledge in technology during a design based research project. In the project a researcher collaborated with two primary school teachers in exploring their students’ learning of technology. Throughout the whole project, the teacher-researcher group worked in an iterative and systematic way to explore the students’ learning. The data draws from the groups’ meetings during the whole project. In order to study the potential learning that was taking place among the teacher team during the course of the teaching project, Practical epistemology analysis (PEA) was used. During the project the teachers’ expanding knowledge was based on needs of relations between their understanding of the object of learning (i.e. the capability that the students should develop) and their previous teaching experiences, technical terms and real life examples. An important factor explaining the development of the teachers’ knowledge base was the discussion in the group focusing on different aspects, starting with formulating an object of learning, constructing the pre-test, identifying critical aspects and planning and revising lessons. Our study shows that it is possible for primary school teachers to significantly increase their knowledge base in technology and technology education through design-based teaching.

  • 44.
    Björkholm, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning, Teknikdidaktik.
    Kilbrink, Nina
    Karlstads Universitet.
    Focusing on a specific learning content in primary technology education2015In: 29th PATT Conference : Plurality and Complementarity of Approachers in Design and technology Education: Plurality and Complementarity of Approaches in Design adn Technology Education / [ed] Marjolaine Chatoney, Marseille, France: Presses Universitaires de Provence , 2015, p. 55-60Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we discuss findings from two previous studies in technology education using the Learning study model and the Variation theory of learning. The Learning study is a collaborative approach where teachers and researchers work together in the classroom with the aim to enhance students’ learning concerning a specific content. In a Learning study, focus is on a specific “object of learning”, i.e. what the students are expected to learn. The aim of this paper is to show what knowledge concerning specific objects of learning in technology education is generated in a Learning study and to discuss the potential contribution of this knowledge to technology teaching practice. We will provide examples from two Learning studies conducted in primary technology education in Sweden. The findings from the studies are of two kinds; identified aspects of the object of learning that are critical in order to learn, and aspects that could be referred to the teaching of the specific content.

  • 45.
    Björkman, Beyza
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Department for Library services, Language and ARC, Language and communication.
    An analysis of polyadic English as a lingua franca (ELF) speech: A communicative strategies framework2014In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 66, p. 122-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on an analysis of the communicative strategies (CSs) used by speakers in spoken lingua franca English (ELF) in an academic setting. The purpose of the work has primarily been to outline the CSs used in polyadic ELF speech which are used to ensure communication effectiveness in consequential situations and to present a framework that shows the different communicative functions of a number of CSs. The data comprise fifteen group sessions of naturally occurring student group-work talk in content courses at a technical university. Detailed qualitative analyses have been carried out, resulting in a framework of the communication strategies used by the speakers. The methodology here provides us with a taxonomy of CSs in natural ELF interactions. The results show that other than explicitness strategies, comprehension checks, confirmation checks and clarification requests were frequently employed CSs in the data. There were very few instances of self and other-initiated word replacement, most likely owing to the nature of the high-stakes interactions where the focus is on the task and not the language. The results overall also show that the speakers in these ELF interactions employed other-initiated strategies as frequently as self-initiated communicative strategies.

  • 46.
    Björkman, Beyza
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning, Language and communication.
    English as a lingua franca in higher education: Implications for EAP2011In: Ibérica, ISSN 1139-7241, E-ISSN 2340-2784, Vol. 22, p. 79-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The last decade has brought a number of changes for higher education in continental Europe and elsewhere, a major one being the increasing use of English as a lingua franca (ELF) as the medium of instruction. With this change, EAP is faced with a new group of learners who will need to use it predominantly in ELF settings to communicate with speakers from other first language backgrounds. This overview paper first discusses the changes that have taken place in the field of EAP in terms of student body, followed by an outline of the main findings of research carried out on ELF. These changes and the results of recent ELF research have important implications for EAP instruction and testing. It is argued here that EAP needs to be modified accordingly to cater for the needs of this group. These revolve around the two major issues: norms and standards for spoken English and target use. If the aim of EAP instruction and testing is to prepare speakers for academic settings where English is the lingua franca, the findings of ELF research need to be taken into consideration and then integrated into EAP curriculum design and testing, rethinking norms and target use. The norms and standards used by EAP instruction must be based on this realistic English, and educational resources should be deployed more realistically, including the usage of ELF, thereby validating the pluralism of English. This paper argues that any practice that excludes this perspective would be reducing EAP qualitatively and quantitatively.

  • 47.
    Björkman, Beyza
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Department for Library services, Language and ARC, Language and communication.
    Investigating English as a Lingua Franca in Applied Science Education: Aims, methods and norms2012In: (Re-)conceptualising LSP research: Methods and Aims / [ed] Pedersen, Margrethe; Englund, Jan, Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Björkman, Beyza
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Department for Library services, Language and ARC, Language and communication.
    Linguistic Justice for Europe and for the World2012In: International Studies in the Philosophy of Science, ISSN 0269-8595, E-ISSN 1469-9281, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 354-357Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Björkman, Beyza
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Learning, Language and communication.
    Questions in academic ELF interaction2012In: Journal of English as a Lingua Franca, ISSN 2191-9216, E-ISSN 2191-933X, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 93-120Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Björkman, Beyza
    KTH, School of Education and Communication in Engineering Science (ECE), Department for Library services, Language and ARC, Language and communication.
    The Grammar of English as a Lingua Franca2013In: The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics / [ed] Chapelle, C. A., Wiley-Blackwell, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
1234567 1 - 50 of 509
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