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  • 1.
    Akander, Jan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    The ORC method2000Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The ORC Method (Optimised RC-networks) provides a means ofmodelling one- or multidimensional heat transfer in buildingcomponents, in this context within building simulationenvironments. The methodology is shown, primarily applied toheat transfer in multilayer building components. For multilayerbuilding components, the analytical thermal performance isknown, given layer thickness and material properties. The aimof the ORC Method is to optimise the values of the thermalresistances and heat capacities of an RC-model such as to givemodel performance a good agreement with the analyticalperformance, for a wide range of frequencies. The optimisationprocedure is made in the frequency domain, where the over-alldeviation between model and analytical frequency response, interms of admittance and dynamic transmittance, is minimised. Itis shown that ORC's are effective in terms of accuracy andcomputational time in comparison to finite difference modelswhen used in building simulations, in this case with IDA/ICE.An ORC configuration of five mass nodes has been found to modelbuilding components in Nordic countries well, within theapplication of thermal comfort and energy requirementsimulations.

    Simple RC-networks, such as the surface heat capacity andthe simple R-C-configuration are not appropriate for detailedbuilding simulation. However, these can be used as basis fordefining the effective heat capacity of a building component.An approximate method is suggested on how to determine theeffective heat capacity without the use of complex numbers.This entity can be calculated on basis of layer thickness andmaterial properties with the help of two time constants. Theapproximate method can give inaccuracies corresponding to20%.

    In-situ measurements have been carried out in anexperimental building with the purpose of establishing theeffective heat capacity of external building components thatare subjected to normal thermal conditions. The auxiliary wallmethod was practised and the building was subjected toexcitation with radiators. In a comparison, there werediscrepancies between analytical and measured effective heatcapacities. It was found that high-frequency discrepancies wereto a large extent caused by the heat flux sensors.Low-frequency discrepancies are explained by the fact that theexterior climate contained other frequencies than those assumedin the interior climate.

    Key words: Building component, building simulation, heattransfer, thermal performance, frequency response, RC-network,finite difference model.

  • 2.
    Atterhög, Mikael
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Effekter av förändringar i konkurrenssituation på bostadshyresmarknaden: Del I: Förändringar i hyresnivåer2003Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Atterhög, Mikael
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Effekter av förändringar i konkurrenssituation på bostadshyresmarknaden: Del II: Förändringar i boendekvaliteten2003Report (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Atterhög, Mikael
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Konkurrens och hyresnivå på bostadsmarknaden: en statistisk analys2000Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Bergstedt, Gustav
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Wiberg, Magnus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology.
    Effektiv betong för småhusproduktion: Betong med högt luftinnehåll för platta på mark1999Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 6.
    Björk, Folke
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Ett fast installerat system för lokalisering av läckor i tätskikt på terrasser2004In: Bygg & Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, no 4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Björk, Folke
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Spelar kulören på takytan roll för kylbehovet i en byggnad?2004In: Bygg & Teknik, ISSN 0281-658X, no 4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8. Blomberg, P.
    et al.
    Mundth, Elisabeth
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Malmström, Tor-Göran
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Calibration and Testing of Thermal Simulation Models of Air Heaters2004In: ASHRAE Transactions, ISSN 0001-2505, Vol. 110, no Part II, p. 158-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Detailed measurements of the thermal characteristics of one one-row and one four-row ducted, hydronic air heating coil have been performed. The measurements were made in a carefully designed and produced laboratory setup, capable of creating almost perfect step changes of both water flow rate and supply temperature. The heater's steady-state characteristics were first modeled. The model was then calibrated with a set of measurements by means of parameter estimation. Then a couple of dynamic models, based on the calibrated steady-state models, were tested. Both the calibrations and the behavior of the dynamic models are discussed. It is shown that if the base has careful calibration of the steady-state characteristics, simple uncalibrated dynamic models can be used. The measurement files are available on CD for anyone interested in testing heater simulation models.

  • 9.
    Blomberg, Per E.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Experimental validation of dynamic component models1999Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Proper coil function is an important issue regardingair-handling devices. Thus, proper modeling is important. Thepresent work deals with simulation of heating coil subsystems,especially validation on component level. The report may bedivided in three parts:

        Development of an experimental setup of high measuringaccuracy and flexibility (signal shape and exchange of testcomponents)

        Calibration and validation of component models, focusingon dynamic features

        Measurements and simulation of how the entire heatingcoil subsystem with control behaves for airflow changes withdifferent component characteristics.A great number of studies were carried out accordingly,allowing the following conclusions to be drawn:

    A great number of studies were carried out accordingly,allowing the following conclusions to be drawn:

        The setup worked as planned and well-defined steps inwater supply temperature and flow rate could be obtained bysolenoid valve controls and two-way valves with fastactuators. The accuracy for each measured quantity was withinone percent.

        In modeling of pipes and coils there are two aspects toconsider in order to obtain good agreement: - steadystate features should be fulfilled which may be accomplishedby model calibration to measured data - the transientbehavior should include fluid transport delays and heatcapacity effects. However, this can be done by rather simplemeans, e.g. use of nodal modeling, delay vectors etc.

        Regarding the heating coil subsystem, simulations maypredict measured results reasonably well, provided -the modeling is detailed (hydraulic and thermal behavior)with calibrated models - control functions areimplemented in the simulation modeling The impact of variousmodifications in the subsystem (change of pipe length, sensortime constant, actuator set time etc) could be observed inboth measured and simulated responses.

    Keywords: Air Handling Unit, dynamic component models,experimental validation, heating coil subsystem, modelcalibration, simulation, TRNSYS

  • 10.
    Borg, Mathias
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Environmental assessment of materials and products in the building sector: life cycle allocation and variations in assessment results1999Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 11.
    Borg, Mathias
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Environmental Assessment of Materials, Components and Buildings Building Specific Considerations, Open-loop Recycling, Variations in Assessment Results and the Usage Phase of Buildings2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The building sector is a major contributor to theenvironmental loads generated by the society. The recognitionof this fact by the sector and a general strive toward asustainable society have lead to afocus on different toolsthat can be used to enhance the environmental performance ofthe sector and the society. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is oneof these tools. The LCA methodology was initially developed forassessments of short-lived consumer products. The increasinginterest in using the LCA methodology in the context of thebuilding sector has initiated a development of the methodologyto be able to consider the specific characteristics andconsiderations of the building sector. These are specific forthe building sector, but not always unique. Examples ofcharacteristics and considerations are: that each building isunique, the functional output is not always a physical productbut rather a service, the long service lives of buildings.These have implications on several elements in the LCAmethodology. The influenced elements that are dealt with inthis thesis are in particular the modeling of the system, thefunctional unit, boundary setting, life cycle scenarios,scenarios and inventory of the usage phase and allocationprocedures.

    Buildings and constructions are commonly not static systems.The systems are rather dynamic in the sense that the systemwill provide different services based on the same physicalstructure during its service life. To be able to model thedynamic system sequential life cycle thinking is introduced anda list of topics is derived. The list of topics is a structuredpresentation of issues that are of interest in the pursuit of aflexible LCA methodology. The goal is to find out if amethodological approach is suitable for modeling dynamicsystems with a functional unit that is based on the providedservice rather than the physical building.

    Boundary setting, life cycle scenarios, allocationprocedures, predicted service life and the modelling of theusage phase are all elements of the LCA methodology that havean potential to influence the result of an LCA in a significantway. The magnitude of the potential influence has beenmonitored based on the results of three case studies, whichhave been elaborated further to be able to estimate themagnitude of the potential influence.

    There is a multitude of available allocation procedurespresented and used in different contexts. The procedures aredeveloped based on different considerations and with differentintended applications. Two alternative allocation proceduresare presented in this thesis. The first is a proceduredeveloped with multi recyclable materials in mind and it isbased on the recyclability of materials and products. Thesecond procedure is quite recently developed and it is based ona combination of economic parameters and recyclability.

    The importance of the usage phase for buildings andconstructions has previously been recognised. The maincontributors to the environmental loads generated during theusage phase are energy use, maintenance and emissions fromproducts. It is, however, not very common to consider the usagephase in assessments conducted on materials and components,even though it is stipulated in e.g. ISO 14025 that the wholelife cycle should be considered. A proposal of a model toestimate the environmental loads is, therefore, presented.

    Keywords:Life cycle assessment, Building materials andcomponents, Buildings and constructions, Allocation, Resultvariation, Usage phase, Energy demand

  • 12.
    Carling, Pär
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Automated fault detection in custom-designed HVAC systems2000Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 13.
    Carling, Pär
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Isaksson, Per O.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Model-based functional performance testing of AHU in Kista entre2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Carlsson, Peter
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Optimization of the wood drying process: optimering av trätorkningsprocessen1997Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 15.
    Carlsson, Peter
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Optimized wood manufacturing with main focus on wood drying2000Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimization is performed on two applications from woodmanufacturing, with the main focus on wood drying. As anintroductory study of optimization, the design of a modernracing ski is investigated. The skating ski, which is partlybuilt up by wood, is optimized against maximum stiffness withthe restriction of a limited upper weight.

    Wood drying is treated as an optimization problem. The totaldrying time is minimized, at the same time as restrictions onmoisture content, stresses and deformations are considered. Theoutcome of the optimization is drying schedules which describethe environmental air dry temperature and relative humidity asa function of time. Design variables during optimization arethe length of the individual time steps and the air drytemperature and relative humidity connected to each time step.Convex approximation methods are used for optimization (the socalled MMA-method, Method of Moving Asymptotes). Necessarygradients are calculated with finite differences.

    Optimization is performed with one- and two-dimensional (1Drespectively 2D) moisture transport models. In optimizationwith 1D analysis, moisture content and stresses are calculatedalong a line in the middle of the board, and with 2D analysisthe calculations are made in a numerical grid which covers thecross section of the board. In both cases, deformations arecalculated as the global cup deformation. All structuralcalculations are made with a FEM-program (FEM = Finite ElementMethod) where the whole cross section is modelled with onesingle element. The moisture calculations are made with aFEM-program in the 1D-case, and with a FD-program (FD = FiniteDifference) in the 2D-case. The transient solutions of thestructural and moisture problems are obtained with a timestepping procedure. It is assumed that the moisture problem canbe solved separately from the structural problem, i.e. that thestress and strain distribution during drying has no influenceon the moisture transport.

    The wood material is modelled as an orthotropic materialwith main directions in the radial, tangential, andlongitudinal directions. Most material parameters vary with themain direction, the temperature and the moisture content. Thetotal strain rate in the structural calculation is assumed tobe the sum of the elastic strain rate, the moisture inducedstrain rate and the mechano-sorptive strain rate. It ispossible to vary the dimensions of the board and the growthring orientation (i.e. the pith position). In thetwo-dimensional model, it is also possible to simulatedifferent distributions of sapwood and heartwood in the crosssection.

    Numerical examples are performed with both 1D and 2Danalysis. In the last example with 2D analysis, optimization isperformed as distributed computing with computers in anetwork.

    The thesis shows that optimization methods work well forwood drying. Modern optimization routines offer powerful toolswhen constructing reliable drying schedules. The knowledgeobtained in this work can be used to refine existing dryingschedules, to develop schedules for new quality demands or tocreate schedules for drying kilns with improvedperformance.

    Keywords:Optimization, wood drying, distributedcomputing, drying schedules, one-dimensional, two-dimensional,stresses, deformations, moisture content.

  • 16.
    Engberg, Joachim
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Larsson, Stefan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Technology.
    Betongbjälklag med limmad matta: olika behandlingars effekt på alkalitet, fukthalt och emissionsbildning1999Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 17.
    Eriksson, Jörgen B.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    A method to study air distribution control1999Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 18. Erlandsson, M
    et al.
    Levin, Per
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Environmental assessment of rebuilding and possible performance improvements effect on a national scale2004In: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 39, no 12, p. 1453-1465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper deals with improvements on environmental significant activities related to the life supporting function "building and housing", using life cycle assessment (LCA). In the calculation, back-casting technique is utilised and implies to a future scenario, based on known technology. Besides heating, waste water treatment is a significant issue, according to the definition of building and housing function practised. The main conclusions from the assessment are that rebuilding is an environmentally better choice than the construction of a new building, if the same essential environmentally related functional performance is reached. Furthermore, the case study and the national estimates performed prove that the potential environmental impact can be reduced by about 70% for the heating service and 75% for the waste water system, if the suggested measures are performed.

  • 19.
    Fégeant, Oliver
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Wind Turbine Noise Assessment: A New Measurement Techinque and a model for the Wind-Induced Vegetation Noise1997Report (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Fégeant, Olivier
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Noise from wind turbines2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    A rapid growth of installed wind power capacity is expectedin the next few years. However, the siting of wind turbines ona large scale raises concerns about their environmental impact,notably with respect to noise. To this end, variable speed windturbines offer a promising solution for applications in denselypopulated areas like the European countries, as this designwould enable an efficient utilisation of the masking effect dueto ambient noise. In rural and recreational areas where windturbines are sited, the ambient noise originates from theaction of wind on the vegetation and about the listener's ear(pseudo-noise). It shows a wind speed dependence similar tothat of the noise from a variable speed wind turbine and cantherefore mask the latter for a wide range of conditions.However, a problem inherent to the design of these machines istheir proclivity to pure tone generation, because of theenhanced difficulty of avoiding structural resonances in themechanical parts. Pure tones are deemed highly annoying and areseverely regulated by most noise policies. In relation to thisproblem, the vibration transmission of structure-borne sound tothe tower of the turbine is investigated, in particular whenthe tower is stiffened at its upper end. Furthermore, sincenoise annoyance due to wind turbine is mostly a masking issue,the wind-related sources of ambient noise are studied and theirmasking potentials assessed. With this aim, prediction modelsfor wind-induced vegetation noise and pseudo-noise have beendeveloped. Finally, closely related to the effect of masking,is the difficulty, regularly encountered by local authoritiesand wind farm developers, to measure noise immission from windturbines. A new measurement technique has thus been developedin the course of this work. Through improving thesignal-to-noise ratio between wind turbine noise and ambientnoise, the new technique yields more accurate measurementresults.

    Keywords: Masking, vibration transmission, diffraction,ambient noise, pseudo-noise, cylindrical shell, perturbationmethods, structural mobility, acoustic outdoor measurement.

  • 21.
    Gränne, Fredrik
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Air and Water Tightness in Building Envelopes - Evaluation of Methods for Quality Assurance2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this work is to contribute to a process formaking buildings with good function and to avoid prematurefaults.

    The design, construction and installation of low-slopedroofs are important parts of creating a durable building. Mostof the leakages in low-sloped roofs occur where materials withdifferent thermomechanical properties are joined together. Withbetter knowledge about these joints, the expected service lifecould better be estimated. Common roofing materials onlow-sloped roofs are roof membranes.

    To avoid damages and to minimise energy consumption thedetection of air and water leaks is essential. It can bedifficult to localise a leak in e.g. a roof since water canflow far within the construction. Leakage detection can beapplied both as a quality assurance method after installationof low-sloped roofs and as field inspection methods. Theleakage detection can also be extended to terrace slabs and thewhole building envelope.

    To investigate the strength of jointsbetween sheet metaland roofing membranes, several small-scale tests and somelarge-scale tests were performed. The test methods weredeveloped to match the loads that can be expected on this kindof joints.

    A number of water leak-detection methods were evaluatedthrough application on test roofs. Some of the methods todetect leaks on low-sloped roofs can also be used to detect airleakage in other parts of the building envelope. To develop andevaluate air leak-detection procedures, selected methods wereused in two case studies.

    The circumstances regarding welding of the material jointswere found to have great impact on the strength. The roofshould be designed so no long-term strain will appear since acomparatively low stress may damage the joint over time.

    The performance of the leak-detection methods depends on theroofing material. All methods tested were an improvementcompared to visual inspections. Different recommendedapproaches for leakage detection and quality control is given.The case studies show that air leakage detection could beperformed with good accuracy. The potential difference methodcould without doubt be a tool for leakage localisation inwaterproofing layers both on roofs and in terrace slabs.

    Keywords:Roofing, roof membrane, durability,waterproofing, leakage, wind-load, non-destructive testing,NDT, BSL4, BSL3, air leakage, building envelope

  • 22.
    Gränne, Fredrik
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Performance of low-sloped roofs - joints between sheet metal flashings and resilient roof cover materials1999Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 23.
    Gudmundsson, Kjartan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    An approach to determining the water vapour transport properties of buildingmaterials2003In: Nordic Journal of Building Physics: Acta Physica Aedificiorum, ISSN 1402-5728, Vol. 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An analytical model, based on the literature, is used to show how the material parameters that rule the transport of water vapour in porous building materials can be evaluated by tracer gas measurements. A distinction is made between viscous flow, Knudsen diffusion and continuum diffusion. Each transportmechanism is formulated by explicit functions of the textural properties of the material and the thermodynamic properties of the gas. Tracer gas measurements can therefore be used to reveal the textural properties of amaterial, from which the potential water vapour transport, in gas phase, can be derived from the thermodynamic properties of water vapour.The well known concentration dependency of the diffusion coefficient is explained with the random hoppingmodel. The random hopping describes how the surface diffusion of adsorbed molecules relates to the amount adsorbed and the energies involved in adsorption. It is also described how the activation energies of surfacemigration can be obtained from sorption measurements and how the constant parameters of the surface diffusioncoefficient can be determined by stationary or transient wet-cup measurements.

  • 24.
    Gudmundsson, Kjartan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Forensic analysis of moisture transport in building materials with natural stable isotopesIn: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684XArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Gudmundsson, Kjartan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Isotopic tracing of moisture in buildings2001In: Nordic Journal of Building Physics: Acta Physica Aedificiorum, ISSN 1402-5728, Vol. 2, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The means of tracing the flows of moisture in a building by using the stable isotopes of oxygen-18 and deuteriumare described. It is shown that knowledge of the effects of the transport mechanisms and reactions on the isotopiccomposition can be used to identify the sources of moisture. This is illustrated by an example from a building inthe southern part of Sweden.

  • 26.
    Gudmundsson, Kjartan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Tracer gas measurements of water vapour permeability of porous building materialsIn: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684XArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Gullberg, Monica
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Implementation of energy supply and end use technologies in built environment2001Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 28.
    Hallgren, Mikael
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Punching Shear Capacity of Reinforced High Strength Concrete Slabs1996Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Hassan, Osama
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Transmission of Structure-borne Sound in Buildings above Railway Tunnels2001Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 30.
    Kernen, Ulrica
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Airborne sound insulation of floating floors2000Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 31.
    Källander, Björn
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Vacuum drying of wood - climate control and drying quality2000Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 32.
    Levin, Per
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Gudmundsson, Kjartan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Moisture in Constructions with Loose-Fill Insulation and no Vapour Barrier1999In: Journal of building physics, Vol. 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Ljungqvist, Bengt
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Reinmüller, Berit
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Cleanroom Clothing Systems: People as a contamination source2004Other (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Ljungqvist, Bengt
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Reinmüller, Berit
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    The LR Method in Critical Areas: Airflow Patterns and the Design of Aseptic Interventions2004In: Pharmaceutical Technology, ISSN 1543-2521, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 46-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors discuss factual case studies involving the method for the limitation-of-risks (LR) method. This method can be used as an engineering tool in risk assessment work for the identification, minimization, and evaluation of potential airborne risks, and for the identification of adequate monitoring points.

  • 35.
    Malmström, Tor-Göran
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Willman, Helena
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Tichelmannsystem utjämnar trycket2004In: VVS Teknik & Installation, no oktArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Mao, Guofeng
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Thermal bridges1997Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 37.
    Norén, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Assessment and Mapping of Environmental Degradation Factors in Outdoor Applications -A Part in the Prediction of Service Life for Wooden Building Components2001Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 38.
    Paulsen, Jacob
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Life Cycle Assessment for Building Products - The significanse of the usage phase2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 39.
    Reinmüller, Berit
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Dispersion and risk assessment of airborne contaminants in pharmaceutical clean rooms2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    In many of today's industries, particularly in the healthcare field, special protection is required against airbornemicrobiological contamination. Clean rooms and clean zones areused to separate the ambient environment from contaminationcontrolled areas. In clean rooms and clean zones, especially inthe pharmaceutical industry, the inherently low levels ofmicrobial contamination make measurement of contaminationdifficult. The most critical environment within pharmaceuticalfacilities are commonly so low in contamination that the bestavailable microbial monitoring equipment must operate at orbelow its limit of detection.

    People are the principal source of airborne microbialcontamination within clean rooms. In studies described in thisthesis the emission of contamination by humans dressed inmodern clean room clothing systems, has been studied using aspecially designed dispersal chamber. The contamination emittedby gowned humans has been estimated and is significantly lowerthan those previously published.

    Results from microbiological methods for sampling airbornecolony forming units (CFU) are shown to correlate with thespecific instrument used to conduct the measurements and arenot absolute values. Because viable particles in air dispersevia the same mechanism as non-viable particles, the airbornemicrobiological contamination risks can be evaluated in amanner similar to those used to control contamination risksfrom airborne particulate contamination.

    Theoretical aspects of particulate dispersion in air streamsas well as studies of factual situations give that thecontamination risks are mainly dependent upon the velocityfield and the concentration of airborne contaminants: hence theinteraction between air movements and dispersion ofcontaminants is of vital importance. The necessary movements ofpeople and machinery in the industrial clean room setting makethe analysis of risk situations complex.

    A specific analytical method for microbiological riskassessment of airborne contaminants in clean zones is describedand experiences with the method are discussed. The method forlimitation of risks (LR-Method) uses a non-microbiologicalapproach. The method utilises the visualization of airmovements, a challenge test with particles, and determinationof a risk factor for the evaluationof potential risks ofairborne microbial contamination.

    Key-words:airborne contamination, clean rooms, cleanzones, clothing systems, dispersion of contaminants, LR-Method,microbiological risk assessment, risk assessment, sourcestrength.

  • 40.
    Reinmüller, Berit
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Microbiological risk assessment of airborne contaminants in clean zones2000Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 41.
    Schmidt, Dietrich
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Models for coupled heat and mass transfer processes in buildings: Applications to Achieve Low Exergy Room Conditioning2001Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 42.
    Trinius, Wolfram
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Environmental assessment: implementation in the building sector1998Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 43.
    Trinius, Wolfram
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Environmental assessment in building and construction1999Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Access to tools for environmental assessment is aprecondition for identifying and improving the environmentalperformance of building sector products. With the multitude ofparties involved in that sector, also the context within whichassessment results are implemented varies. Such variations haveto be correctly reflected in the premises under which anassessment is carried out. A wide variety of assessment tools,from simple checklists to Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)approaches, is available. The choice of assessment method hasan evident influence on the character and quality of thegenerated results.

    Without confronting the ISO framework for LCA, a largevariety of methodology choices can be made by theLCA-practitioner in order to adapt the assessment to hisrequirements. The application context is to be reflected in thegoal and scope definition of the assessment. From thatdefinition, methodology choices are to be made concerning amongothers allocation procedures and the delimitation of theanalysed system. The choice of allocation method has shownsignificant influence on the generated results, when applyingLCA on highly recyclable building materials.

    Within this publication, a method for deriving a link fromthe goal via the scope into the definition of systemboundaries, and an economic allocation procedure for reuse andrecycling, are proposed. Both are intended to enable a clearlink between methodology choices and the goal and scopedefinition, which was identified as the key point in LCA. Themethods presented in this publication do accord with the ISOstandards.

    Keywords:Environmental Assessment, Building Sector,Life Cycle Assessment, Goal and Scope Definition, SystemBoundaries, Allocation, Result Variation

  • 44.
    Zou, Yue
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Building Sciences and Engineering.
    Air jets in ventilation applications2001Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of air distribution systems for HVAC is tocreate proper air quality and thermal conditions in an occupiedzone. In mixing type air distribution systems air is suppliedinto a room through various types of outlets and distributed byturbulent air jets. These air jets are the primary factorsaffecting room air motion. The ASHRAE handbook recognises fourmajor zones of maximum velocity decay along a jet.

    Although numerous theoretical and experimental studies havebeen conducted to develop turbulent air jet theory from the1930's, air jet performance in the further field from theoutlet is still not well understood.

    Many studies were therefore carried out, and the followingconclusions can be drawn from them:

        The end centerline velocities of zone 3 for both "free"jet and wall jet could strongly depend on the outletvelocities and room size.

        TheK-value of wall jets could be a function of bothoutlet velocities and outlet size.

        It is very important to choose suitable sampling time toevaluate jet performance.

        CFD can not always be used to predict jet behaviour,especially for the jet with low outlet velocity and in thearea far away from the outlet. However, for a two-dimensionwall jet, CFD could be a powerful tool for designers.

    KEYWORDS: air jet, centerline velocity,K-velocity, air diffuser, ventilation, measurement,CFD

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