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  • 1.
    Aare, Magnus
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Prevention of Head Injuries - focusing Specifically on Oblique Impacts2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The massive number of injuries sustained in trafficaccidents is a growing problem worldwide, especially indeveloping countries. In 1998, more than one million peoplewere killed in traffic accidents worldwide, while about tentimes as many people were injured. Injuries to the centralnervous system and in particular to the headare especiallycritical to human life. This thesis contains five researchpapers looking at head injuries and head protection, proposingnew and more efficient ways of protecting the head, especiallyin traffic accidents.

    In order to define the national dimensions of the patternsof injuries incurred in motorcycle and moped accidents inSweden, a statistical survey was performed on data spanning a13-year period (Paper A). In Sweden, 27,100 individualsreceived in-patient care for motorcycle and moped accidentinjuries between 1987 and 1999. The motorcycle and moped injuryrate reduced in the second half of the study period, so toowere the total number of days of treatment per year. Males hadeight times the incidence of injuries of females. Head injurieswere the single most frequent diagnosis, followed by fracturesof the lower limbs. Concussion was the most frequent headinjury. These statistics clearly show the need for better headinjury prevention systems.

    According to the statistics, the most common type of impactto the head in motorcycle and moped accidents is an obliqueimpact. Oblique impacts generate rotations of the head, whichare a common cause of the most severe head injuries. Thereforea new test rig was constructed to reproduce oblique impacts toa helmeted dummy head, simulating those occurring in real lifeaccidents (Paper B). The new test rig was shown to provideuseful data at speeds of up to 50 km/h and with impact anglesvarying from purely tangential to purely radial. Thisinnovative test rig appears to provide an accurate method formeasuring accelerations in oblique impacts to helmets.

    When testing the performances of motorcycle helmets,discrepancies are usually seen in the test results. In order toevaluate these discrepancies, the finite element method (FEM)was used for simulations of a few oblique helmet impacts (PaperC). Amongthe parameters studied, the coefficients of frictionbetween the impacting surface and the helmet and between thehead and the helmet had the most significant influence on therotational accelerations. Additionally, a thinner andconsequently also weaker shell and a weaker liner, providedbetter protection for the impacts studied.

    Since there are no generally accepted global injurythresholds for oblique impacts to the human head, a study wasdesigned to propose new injury tolerances accounting for bothtranslations and rotations of the head (Paper D). In thatstudy, FE models of (a) a human head, (b) a Hybrid III dummyhead, and (c) the experimental helmet were used. Differentcriteria were proposed for different impact scenarios. Both thetranslational and the rotational effects were found to beimportant when proposing a predictor equation for the strainlevels experienced by the human brain in simulated impacts tothe head.

    In order to reduce the level of head injuries in society andto better understand helmet impacts from different aspect, aballistic impact was also studied (Paper E). The effects ofdifferent helmet shell stiffness and different angles ofimpacts were simulated. In this study, the same FE head modelfrom Paper D was used, however here it was protected with amodel of a composite ballistic helmet. It was concluded thatthe helmet shell should be stiff enough to prevent the insideof the shell from striking the skull, and that the strainsarising in the brain tissue were higher for some obliqueimpacts than for purely radial ones.

    In conclusion, this thesis describes the injury pattern ofmotorcycle and moped accidents in Sweden. This thesis showsthat the injuries sustained from these accidents can bereduced. In order to study both translational as well asrotational impacts, a new laboratory test rig was designed. Byusing the finite element method, it is possible to simulaterealistic impacts to the head and also to predict how severehead injuries may potentially be prevented.

  • 2.
    Aare, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Kleiven, Svein
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Halldin, Peter
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Injury tolerances for oblique impact helmet testing2004In: International Journal of Crashworthiness, ISSN 1358-8265, E-ISSN 1754-2111, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 15-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The most frequently sustained severe injuries in motorcycle crashes are injuries to the head, and many of these are caused by rotational force. Rotational force is most commonly the result of oblique impacts to the head. Good testing methods for evaluating the effects of such impacts are currently lacking. There is also a need for improving our understanding of the effects of oblique impacts on the human head. Helmet standards currently in use today do not measure rotational effects in test dummy heads. However rotational force to the head results in large shear strains arising in the brain, which has been proposed as a cause of traumatic brain injuries like diffuse axonal injuries (DAI). This paper investigates a number of well-defined impacts, simulated using a detailed finite element (FE) model of the human head, an FE model of the Hybrid III dummy head and an FE model of a helmet. The same simulations were performed on both the FE human head model and the FE Hybrid III head model, both fitted with helmets. Simulations on both these heads were performed to describe the relationship between load levels in the FE Hybrid III head model and strains in the brain tissue in the FE human head model. In this study, the change in rotational velocity and the head injury criterion (HIC) value were chosen as appropriate measurements. It was concluded that both rotational and translational effects are important when predicting the strain levels in the human brain.

  • 3.
    Allam, Sabry
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Acoustic modelling and testing of advanced exhaust system components for automotive engines2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased use of the diesel engine in the passenger car, truck and bus market is due to high efficiency and lower fuel costs. This growing market share has brought with it several environmental issues for instance soot particle emission. Different technologies to remove the soot have been developed and are normally based on some kind of soot trap. In particular for automobiles the use of diesel particulate traps or filters (DPF:s) based on ceramic monolithic honeycombs are becoming a standard. This new exhaust system component will affect the acoustics and also work as a muffler. To properly design exhaust systems acoustic models for diesel particulate traps are needed. The first part of this thesis considers the modelling of sound transmission and attenuation for traps that consist of narrow channels separated by porous walls. This work has resulted in two new models an approximate 1-D model and a more complete model based on the governing equations for a visco-thermal fluid. Both models are expressed as acoustic 2-ports which makes them suitable for implementation in acoustic software for exhaust systems analysis. The models have been validated by experiments on clean filters at room temperature with flow and the agreement is good. In addition the developed filter models have been used to set up a model for a complete After Treatment Device (ATD) for a passenger car. The unit consisted of a chamber which contained both a diesel trap and a Catalytic Converter (CC). This complete model was also validated by experiments at room temperature. The second part of the thesis focuses on experimental techniques for plane wave decomposition in ducts with flow. Measurements in ducts with flow are difficult since flow noise (turbulence) can strongly influence the data. The difficulties are also evident from the lack of good published in-duct measurement data, e.g., muffler transmission loss data, for Mach-numbers above 0.1-0.2. The first paper in this part of the thesis investigates the effect of different microphone mountings and signal processing techniques for suppressing flow noise. The second paper investigates in particular flow noise suppression techniques in connection with the measurement of acoustic 2-ports. Finally, the third paper suggests a general wave decomposition procedure using microphone arrays and over-determination. This procedure can be used to determine the full plane wave data, e.g., the wave amplitudes and complex wave numbers k+ and k-. The new procedure has been applied to accurately measure the sound radiation from an unflanged pipe with flow. This problem is of interest for correctly determining the radiated power from an engine exhaust outlet. The measured data for the reflection coefficient and end correction have been compared with the theory of Munt [33] and the agreement is excellent. The measurements also produced data for the damping value (imaginary part of the wavenumber) which were compared to a model suggested by Howe [13]. The agreement is good for a normalized boundary layer thickness less than 30-40

  • 4.
    Allam, Sabry
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Bodén, Hans
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Signal to noise ratio enhancement methods in acoustic flow duct measurements2004In: ICSV12-St Petersburg, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5. Andre, A.
    et al.
    Norrby, Monica
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures.
    Åkermo, Malin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Lightweight Structures. KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Nilsson, S.
    Nyman, Teresia
    KTH.
    An experimental and numerical study of the effect of some manufacturing defects2013In: ICCM International Conferences on Composite Materials, International Committee on Composite Materials , 2013, p. 4105-4112Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the manufacturing process of composite structural parts, layer of fabrics or unidirectional prepreg may have to be cut in order to fulfil production requirements. From a general mechanical point of view, cutting fibres in a composite part has a large negative impact on the mechanical properties. However, such interventions are necessary in particular cases, for example due to draping of complex geometries. A rather extensive test program was launched to investigate the effects of defects that typically could arise during manufacturing. The overall purpose of the test program was to determine knock-down factors on strength for typical manufacturing defects that occasionally arise and sometimes are hard to avoid in production: cuts/gaps and fibre angle deviations. Four types of specimens were tested, reference, intersection of cuts in adjacent layers combined with a bolt hole, cut in a zero degree ply combined with a bolt hole and specimens with misaligned fibres. The specimens with misaligned fibres were tested with three different fibre angles. In addition to the experimental procedure, FE-analyses utilising cohesive elements were conducted, and after mechanical tests, Non Destructive Investigation (NDI) and fractographic investigations were performed. An excellent correlation between analyses and experiments were obtained. 

  • 6.
    Andreasson, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Hybrid Electric Vehicles - Aspects on Driving Dynamics and Vehicle Architecture2004Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 7.
    Asada, Niclas
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    A study of the effect onRadar Cross Section (RCS) due to”Starved horse patterns”2003Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is made in cooperation with the Swedish Defense ResearchAgency (FOI) and the Swedish Defense Material Administration (FMV). Partof the report is classified and is only published in a classified appendix.

    The purpose of the thesis was to study the influence on RCS (Radar-Cross-Section) due to permanent deformation on ships hulls made of metal. Thedeformation studied is occurring on the plating between the web and thelongitudinals, commonly called “starved horse pattern” (see cover picture!).A comparison was made between a metal and an ideal flat compositestructure.

    The main tool used for the study is the RCS program, OPTISCAT, developed by Kockums. Data has been gatered from several different ships meeting the operating profile for YS-NY. The data has then been processed by using Cubic splines and has then been interpolated to describe the deformation. The deformed panels has then been benchmarked against ideally flat panels, the latter simulating the composite case.

    The results are quite astonishing, but in some way they are ecpected. The RCS is greatly effected by the deformations.At the Swedish Defence Material Administration, FMV, the work to produce the next generation of surface ships (YS-NY), for the Royal Swedish Navy, has begun. The question has been asked just how good, or bad, a metal hull supported by framing versus a composite hull is in a RCS sense. A ship built by steel (or metal in general), will develop deformations called "Starved Horse Patterns". These patterns may occur during the building process, but are most certainly also generated by the heavy dynamic preassures generated by waves. These patterns affect on the RCS are studied in this thesis.

  • 8.
    Backström, Daniel
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Modelling the flexural dynamics of sandwich beams using Bernoulli-Euler or Timoshenko theory with frequency dependent parameters2004Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 9.
    Baron, Nicolas
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Some acoustical properties of floating floors used on trains2004Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 10.
    Berggren, Eric
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Jahlénius, Åke
    Bengtsson, Bengt-Erik
    Continuous Track Stiffness Measurement: An Effective Method To Investigate The Structural Conditions Of The Track2002In: Railway Engineering Conference, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vertical track stiffness and its variations along the track are important parameters that affect the conditionof the track, in particular the deterioration of track geometry and ballast degradation. The track stiffness isalso an important factor that has to be considered when upgrading the track for traffic of higher axle loads and higher speeds. Within the EU project EUROBALT II, Banverket (Swedish National Rail Administration) has developed a method to continuously measure the vertical track stiffness. Recently,Banverket has made further improvement of the method and carried out extensive measurements in Sweden using our track-loading test vehicle. Different combinations of excitation frequency and speedhave been tested. The measurement results have shown a significant correlation with actual geotechnical conditions and depth of soil layers. The measurement method has also shown very good repeatability. In this paper, we introduce the method of continuous track stiffness measurement and report the promising results we have obtained. It can be concluded that the continuous track stiffness measurement provides an effective way to investigate the structural condition of the track and should be a very useful tool for determining the cause of certain track problems.

  • 11.
    Birgersson, Fredrik
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Prediction of random vibration using spectral methods2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of the vibration in fast moving vehicles is caused bydistributed random excitation, such as turbulent flow and roadroughness. Piping systems transporting fast flowing fluid isanother example, where distributed random excitation will causeunwanted vibration. In order to reduce these vibrations andalso the noise they cause, it is important to have accurate andcomputationally efficient prediction methods available.

    The aim of this thesis is to present such a method. Thefirst step towards this end was to extend an existing spectralfinite element method (SFEM) to handle excitation of planetravelling pressure waves. Once the elementary response tothese waves is known, the response to arbitrary homogeneousrandom excitation can be found.

    One example of random excitation is turbulent boundary layer(TBL) excitation. From measurements a new modified Chase modelwas developed that allowed for a satisfactory prediction ofboth the measured wall pressure field and the vibrationresponse of a turbulence excited plate. In order to model morecomplicated structures, a new spectral super element method(SSEM) was formulated. It is based on a waveguide formulation,handles all kinds of boundaries and its elements are easily putinto an assembly with conventional finite elements.

    Finally, the work to model fluid-structure interaction withanother wave based method is presented. Similar to the previousmethods it seems to be computationally more efficient thanconventional finite elements.

  • 12.
    Björkblad, Anders
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    On the prediction of crack propagation in cast steel specimens2004In: 9th Portuguese Conference on Fracture, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation deals with the fatigue behaviour of cast steel with respect to defects, crack initiation, crack growth and material parameters. It constitutes the initial part of a larger work in cast materials. The main objectives have been to validate calculations made by FEM and Paris law with data from fatigue tests and to confirm material parameters for Pan's law. Furthermore, the results where put against calculations obtained from the fracture mechanic software AF-GROW. During the accomplishment some difficulties was experienced concerning the initiation of the crack, with result that there where just a few specimens suitable for evaluation by LEFM. However, some conclusions concerning the crack growth behaviour could yet be done. The results in general showed good correspondence, the results from AF-GROW included. Most divergences could be explained by residual stresses and, to some extent, the initiation problems.

  • 13.
    Bodén, Hans
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Determination of flow resistance from acoustic in-duct measurements 2004In: Collection of Technical Papers - 10th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2004, p. 494-504Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the use of acoustic measurement techniques for determination of non-linearity and flow resistance of perforates and other facing sheets used in aircraft engine liners. Impedance measurements with pure tone excitation and random noise excitation are discussed as well as a non-linear system identification technique.

  • 14.
    Boij, Susann
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Acoustic scattering in ducts and influence of flow coupling2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of this thesis is the acoustic properties offlow duct area expansions and the influence of flow-acousticcoupling at sharp edges. For low Mach number flow, significantinteraction between the sound field and the flow field canoccur at such points of flow separation. A linear analyticalmodel is used to describe the sound field, whereas the meanflow field is modelled as a jet issuing into the larger duct.The scattering coefficients for sound waves incident on thearea expansion are determined by the Wiener-Hopf techniquetogether with a building block method. To achieve a uniquesolution, the unsteady Kutta condition is applied at the sharpedge. The results have been verified through comparison withexperimental data, and the agreement is excellent. Thereflection and transmission coefficients for the plane wave, aswell as the absorption coefficient have been studied, and aquasi-stationary model for the scattering coefficient have beenderived from the analytical model.

    The shear layer emanating from the edge is modelled as avortex sheet, with zero thickness. The vortex sheet is unstablefor all frequencies, and as a real shear layer is unstable onlyup to a critical frequency disturbances, it is a low frequencymodel. In fact, it is the Strouhal number, based on thethickness of the shear layer that determines the stabilityproperties of the shear layer. The dynamics of a finite shearlayer is included in the model by adjusting the edge condition,thus extending the model to higher Strouhal numbers. Inaddition, a method to calculate the absorption of sound due tothe vortex shedding gives a good prediction of experimentaldata. The promising result for the adjusted edge condition andthe possibility to predict the transmitted acoustic far fieldimplies that the jet expansion region, which is neglected inthe model, has indeed a negligible influence on the plane wavesound transmission. Apparently, linear theory is sufficient topredict these phenomena, at least in the low frequencyregion.

    New results, both experimental and theoretical, for the endcorrection of an area expansion are presented. It is shown thatthe end correction varies significantly when the duct widthStrouhal number is around one. For large Strouhal numbers, thenon-flow results are retrieved. An analysis of the duct modesindicates a regime where the flow–acoustic coupling via ahigher order acoustic mode is important. It is shown that thisphenomenon is governed by the Strouhal number and not by theclassical acoustic variables Helmholtz number and Mach number.Finally, the influence of the flow-acoustic coupling on theenergy flow is discussed. It is shown that non-orthogonal ductmodes indicate the Strouhal number region where theflow-acoustic coupling has the strongest influence on the soundfield. Strong coupling to a higher orderacoustic mode isanalysed in some detail. A method to construct a conservativesystem, regarding the vortex sheet as a source/sink term isalso presented.

    Keywords:sound, vortex sheet, flow separation, endcorrection, Strouhal number, non-orthogonal modes, energybalance

  • 15.
    Boij, Susann
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Energy exchange between sound and flow in a ductManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Boij, Susann
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    The acoustic end correction: influence of flow couplingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Borglund, Dan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Robust aeroelastic stability analysis considering frequency-domain aerodynamic uncertainty2003In: Journal of Aircraft, ISSN 0021-8669, E-ISSN 1533-3868, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 189-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of modeling frequency-domain aerodynamic uncertainty for a slender wing structure is investigated. Based on an unsteady lifting-line theory used for the generalized aerodynamic forces, a quite versatile uncertainty description with a clear physical interpretation is proposed. The uncertainty description is easily put in a form suitable for application of the mu framework in robust linear control. Because only frequency response matrices are required for the mu computations, the proposed uncertainty description can be used for robust stability and performance analysis without rational function approximations of the aerodynamic transfer function matrices. The usefulness of the uncertainty description and the methods available for robust aeroelastic stability analysis is demonstrated by performing aeroelastic wind-tunnel experiments.

  • 18.
    Borglund, Dan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    The mu-k method for robust flutter solutions2004In: Journal of Aircraft, ISSN 0021-8669, E-ISSN 1533-3868, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 1209-1216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A straightforward frequency-domain method for robust flutter analysis is presented. First, a versatile uncertainty description for the unsteady aerodynamic forces is derived by assigning uncertainty to the frequency-domain pressure coefficients. The uncertainty description applies to any frequency-domain aerodynamic method, benefits from the same level of geometric detail as the underlying aerodynamic model, exploits the modal formulation of the flutter equation, and is computed by simple postprocessing of standard aerodynamic data. Next, structured singular value analysis is applied to derive an explicit criterion for robust flutter stability based on the flutter equation and a parametric uncertainty description. The resulting procedure for computation of a worst-case flutter boundary resembles a p-k or g-method flutter analysis, produces match-point flutter solutions and allows for detailed aerodynamic uncertainty descriptions. Finally, the proposed method is successfully applied to a wind-tunnel model in low-speed airflow.

  • 19.
    Borglund, Dan
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Kroo, I. M.
    Aeroelastic design optimization of a two-spar flexible wind-tunnel model2002In: Journal of Aircraft, ISSN 0021-8669, E-ISSN 1533-3868, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 1074-1076Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Borglund, Dan
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Nilsson, Ulrik
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Robust wing flutter suppression considering aerodynamic uncertainty2004In: Journal of Aircraft, ISSN 0021-8669, E-ISSN 1533-3868, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 331-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A robust aeroservoelastic stability analysis considering frequency-domain aerodynamic uncertainty is utilized for robust control law design for flutter suppression of a flexible wing. The problem of stabilizing the wing in flutter using a minimum amount of control power is posed. For this purpose, numerical optimization is used to minimize the norm of a simple low-order controller subject to constraints on robust closed-loop stability. Robust stability is enforced in the optimization problem by posing constraints on the upper bounds on structured singular values and eigenvalues obtained from a linear stability analysis. The resulting controller is synthesized using gain scheduling, and robust wing flutter suppression is demonstrated in wind-tunnel testing.

  • 21.
    Brolin, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Halldin, Peter
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Development of a finite element model of the upper cervical spine and a parameter study of ligament characteristics2004In: Spine, ISSN 0362-2436, E-ISSN 1528-1159, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 376-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Design. Numeric techniques were used to study the upper cervical spine. Objectives. To develop and validate an anatomic detailed finite element model of the ligamentous upper cervical spine and to analyze the effect of material properties of the ligaments on spinal kinematics. Summary of Background Data. Cervical spinal injuries may be prevented with an increased knowledge of spinal behavior and injury mechanisms. The finite element method is tempting to use because stresses and strains in the different tissues can be studied during the course of loading. The authors know of no published results so far of validated finite element models that implement the complex geometry of the upper cervical spine. Methods. The finite element model was developed with anatomic detail from computed tomographic images of the occiput to the C3. The ligaments were modeled with nonlinear spring elements. The model was validated for axial rotation, flexion, extension, lateral bending, and tension for 1.5 Nm, 10 Nm, and 1500 N. A material property sensitivity study was conducted for the ligaments. Results. The model correlated with experimental data for all load cases. Moments of 1.5 Nm produced joint rotations of 3degrees to 23degrees depending on loading direction. The parameter study confirmed that the mechanical properties of the upper cervical ligaments play an important role in spinal kinematics. The capsular ligaments had the largest impact on spinal kinematics (40% change). Conclusions. The anatomic detailed finite element model of the upper cervical spine realistically simulates the complex kinematics of the craniocervical region. An injury that changes the material characteristics of any spinal ligament will influence the structural behavior of the upper cervical spine.

  • 22.
    Brunes, Sebastian
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Apartment Barges: Aa Comfort and Safety Analysis2003Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the results of a study of the comfort and safety concerning apartment barges. The most common discomforts are due to vertical and lateral accelerations and high roll angles which are thorough described. A rough risk analysis for apartment barges is performed. If a certain risk is high and it is impossible to eliminate or reduce the probabilities of occurrence, precautions to minimise the consequences are described. The iterative planning process described briefly below is used on the two example projects: Bällstaviken and Pampas Marina.

  • 23.
    Bull, Peter H.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Damage tolerance and residual strength of composite sandwich structures2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The exploitation of sandwich structures as a means toachieve high specific strength and stiffness is relatively new.Therefore, the knowledge of its damage tolerance is limitedcompared to other structural concepts such as truss bars andmonocoque plate solutions.

    Several aspects of the damage tolerance of sandwichstructures are investigated. The influence of impact velocityonresidual strength is investigated. Sandwich panels withfaces of glass fiber reinforced vinylester are impacted bothwith very high velocity and quasi static. The residual strengthafter impact is found to be similar for both cases of impactvelocity.

    Curved sandwich beams subjected to opening bending momentare studied. Faceñcore debonds of varying size areintroduced between the compressively loaded face sheet and thecore. Finite element analysis in combination with a pointstress criterion is utilized to predict the residual strengthof the beams. It is shown that it is possible to predict thefailure load of the beams with face-core debond.

    Using fractography the governing mode of failure ofcompressively NCF-carbon is characterized. Sandwich panelssubjected to compression after impact are shown to fail byplastic micro buckling.

    The residual compressive strength after impact of sandwichpanels is investigated. Sandwich panels with face sheets ofnon-crimp fabric (NCF) carbon are subjected to different typesof impact damages. Predictions of residual strength are madeusing the Budiansky, Soutis, Fleck (BSF) model. The residualstrength is tested, and the results are compared topredictions. Predictions and tests correlate well, and indicatethat the residual strength is dependent on damage size and notthe size of the damaged panel.

    A study of the properties of a selection of fiberreinforcements commonly used in sandwich panels is conducted.The reinforcements are combined with two types of core materialand three types of matrix. Also the influence of laminatethickness is tested. Each combination materials is tested inuni-axial compression, compressive strength after impact andenergy absorption during quasi static indentation. Thespecimens which are tested for residual strength are eithersubjected to quasi-static or dynamic impact of comparableenergy level. Prediction of the residual strength is made andcorrelates reasonably whith the test results. The tests showthat if weight is taken into account the preferred choice offiber reinforcement is carbon.

  • 24.
    Bull, Peter Hoaas
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Edgren, F
    Compressive strength after impact of CFRP-foam core sandwich panels in marine applications2004In: Composites Part B: Engineering, ISSN 1359-8368, E-ISSN 1879-1069, Vol. 35, no 6-8, p. 535-541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A plastic micro buckling approach is investigated in order to see whether it can be used to analytically predict the residual strength of carbon fiber sandwich structures. A parametric study on impact damage resistance and residual strength of sandwich panels with carbon fiber-vinylester faces and PVC foam core is conducted. Two sandwich configurations are studied. The first configuration consists of thin faces and an intermediate density core, representative of a panel from a superstructure. The second configuration consists of thick faces and a high density core, representative of a panel from a hull. Two different impactor geometries are used. One spherical impactor and one pyramid shaped impactor are used in a drop weight rig to inflict low velocity impact damage of different energy levels in the face of the sandwich. The damages achieved ranges from barely visible damages to penetration of one face. Residual strength is tested using in-plane compression of the sandwich plates either instrumented with strain gauges or monitored with digital speckle photography.

  • 25.
    Burman, Magnus
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Residual Shear Strength of Polymeric Foams after Fatigue Testing2003In: 6:th International Conference on Sandwich Structures (ICSS-6), / [ed] Vinson, Rajapakse and Carlsson, New York: CRC Press , 2003, p. 522-529Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Byggnevi, Magnus
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Fatigue life prediction of welded joints in a complex structure2002In: Design and Analysis of Welded High Strength Steel Structures / [ed] Samuelsson, J., 2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27. Carlbom, P.
    et al.
    Berg, Mats
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Passengers, seats and carbody in rail vehicle dynamics2002In: Vehicle System Dynamics, ISSN 0042-3114, E-ISSN 1744-5159, Vol. 37, p. 290-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliable models of passengers, seats and carbody are essential in order predict ride comfort of rail vehicles. This paper extends previously presented models of passenger-carbody interaction to include vertical seating dynamics. The proposed basic model is based on experimental modal analysis of a rail vehicle with and without passengers. The nations of human-body normalized apparent mass and seat transmissibility are fundamental an the modelling. The possibility of using reduced and approximate gels is also discussed in the paper. The proposed models are easy to use and implemented in commercial rail vehicle software.

  • 28. Carlsson, M.
    et al.
    Kuttenkeuler, Jakob
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Design and testing of a blended wing body aeroelastic wind-tunnel model2003In: Journal of Aircraft, ISSN 0021-8669, E-ISSN 1533-3868, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 211-213Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Carlsson, Martin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Design and Testing of Flexible Aircraft Structures2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Methods for structural design, control, and testing offlexible aircraft structures are considered. Focus is onnonconventional aircraft con- figurations and control concepts.The interaction between analysis and testing is a central topicand all studies include validation testing and comparisonbetween computational and experimental results.

    The first part of the thesis is concerned with the designand testing of an aeroelastic wind-tunnel model representing aBlended Wing Body (BWB) aircraft. The investigations show thata somewhat simplified wind-tunnel model design concept isuseful and efficient for the type of investigations considered.Also, the studies indicate that well established numericaltools are capable of predicting the aeroelastic behavior of theBWB aircraft with reasonable accuracy. Accurate prediction ofthe control surface aerodynamics is however found to bedifficult.

    A new aerodynamic boundary element method for aeroelastictimedomain simulations and its experimental validation arepresented. The properties of the method are compared totraditional methods as well as to experimental results. Thestudy indicates that the method is capable of efficient andaccurate aeroelastic simulations.

    Next, a method for tailoring a structure with respect to itsaeroelastic behavior is presented. The method is based onnumerical optimization techniques and developed for efficientdesign of aeroelastic wind-tunnel models with prescribed staticand dynamic aeroelastic properties. Experimental validationshows that the design method is useful in practice and that itprovides a more efficient handling of the dynamic aeroelasticproperties compared to previous methods.

    Finally, the use of multiple control surfaces andaeroelastic effects for efficient roll maneuvering isconsidered. The idea is to design a controller that takesadvantage of the elasticity of the structure for performancebenefits. By use of optimization methods in combination with afairly simple control system, good maneuvering performance isobtained with minimal control effort. Validation testing usinga flexible wind-tunnel model and a real-time control systemshows that the control strategy is successful in practice.Keywords: aeroelasticity, active aeroelastic structures,aeroelastic tailoring, control, structural optimization,wind-tunnel testing.

  • 30. Carroll, L. J.
    et al.
    Cassidy, J. D.
    Peloso, P. M.
    Borg, J.
    von Holst, Hans
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Holm, L.
    Paniak, C.
    Pepin, M.
    Prognosis for mild traumatic brain injury: Results of the WHO Collaborating Centre Task Force on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury2004In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 36, p. 84-105Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We searched the literature on the epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis, treatment and costs of mild traumatic brain injury. Of 428 studies related to prognosis after mild traumatic brain injury, 120 (28%) were accepted after critical review. These comprise our best-evidence synthesis on prognosis after mild traumatic brain injury. There was consistent and methodologically sound evidence that children's prognosis after mild traumatic brain injury is good, with quick resolution of symptoms and little evidence of residual cognitive, behavioural or academic deficits. For adults, cognitive deficits and symptoms are common in the acute stage, and the majority of studies report recovery for most within 3-12 months. Where symptoms persist, compensation/litigation is a factor, but there is little consistent evidence for other predictors. The literature on this area is of varying quality and causal inferences are often mistakenly drawn from cross-sectional studies.

  • 31. Cassidy, David J.
    et al.
    von Holst, Hans
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Best evidence synthesis on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Results of the WHO collaborating centre for neurotrauma prevention, management and rehabilitation task force on Mild Traumatic Brain Injury2004In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. Feb, no Supplement 43, p. 1-144Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Cederholm, Alex
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Homogeneous models of anechoic rubber coatings2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 33. Cella, U.
    et al.
    Rizzi, Arthur
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Sensitivity to physical and numerical modeling in Navier-Stokes simulations2000In: Journal of Aerospace Engineering, ISSN 0893-1321, E-ISSN 1943-5525, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 47-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Navier-Stokes Multiblock code solves the fully coupled system of equations simultaneously using a cell-centered finite-volume approach. This note assesses the sensitivity to some turbulence models and numerical schemes implemented in Navier-Stokes Multiblock when computing two test cases in standard mode, i.e., without tuning the code to these two cases. The cases are (1) subsonic flow around the MS(1)-0313 airfoil, and (2) transonic flow around the ONERA M6 wing, using various combinations of models (algebraic Baldwin-Lomax or Granville, one-equation Spalart-Allmaras, or the two-equation k - epsilon model of Chien) together with a numerical scheme of either the second-order central or third-order Roe upwind type.

  • 34.
    Chaar, Nizar
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Wheelset structural flexibility and vehicle-track dynamic interaction2004Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 35.
    Danielsson, Per-Olof
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Durability of bolted railcar structures2004Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 36.
    de Try, Fredrik
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Aircraft state reconstruction using limited sensor data2003Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 37.
    de Try, Fredrik
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Estimation of flight load history using global positioning system data2004In: Journal of Aircraft, ISSN 0021-8669, E-ISSN 1533-3868, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 418-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) and velocity data were used to estimate flight load history. For the study, a SK60:072 aircraft equipped with and inertial measurement unit (IMU) and GPS receiver was used. It was suggested that the method of superimposing filtered IMU data from a reference aircraft shows promising results. It was also suggested that the number of occurrences using GPS data with superimposed higher frequency IMU data agrees well with the number of occurrences obtained using only the IMU data.

  • 38.
    Diedrichs, Ben
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Berg, Mats
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Krajnovic, Sinisa
    Large eddy simulations of a typical European high-speed train inside tunnels2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents our results of external aerodynamics, obtained with Large Eddy Simulations(LES), about a typical European passenger-stock insidetunnels. The focal points are the aerodynamic forces andtheir typical frequencies applied to the tail. Two trainlengths and three tunnels are employed in the study tomodel the conditions of double and single-track bores.Owing to the relatively high numerical cost associated with LES for external train aerodynamics we could only afford sufficient spatial grid resolution on our shortest train. The flow simulations confirm the existence of coherent structures alongside the body that give rise to continuously propagating pressure disturbances. These disturbances with a relatively small amplitude and high spatial frequency cannot affect the ride comfort. Still,they are found to influence the flow separation about the tail, which is regarded as one of the candidate mechanisms to impair the ride comfort and running stability.

  • 39.
    Diedrichs, Ben
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Berg, Mats
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Krajnovic, Sinisa
    Large eddy simulations of the flow around high-speed trains cruising inside tunnels2004In: ECCOMAS 2004 - European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering / [ed] P. Neittaanmäki, T. Rossi, S. Korotov, E. Oñate, J. Périaux, and D. Knörzer, 2004, p. 1-21Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stability and ride comfort of high-speed rolling stock are, for reasons of external aerodynamics, dependent on the external design in conjunction with properties of the vehicle dynamics and the design of the infrastructure, herein referring to the confining tunnel walls. It is a fact that some Japanese high-speed trains are quite prone to tail vehicle vibrations only inside tunnels, while (to the authors' knowledge) other nation's comparable train systems are not. In this context the current work describes our results of external aerodynamics, calculated with large eddy simulations, about two simplified train models inside two double track tunnels with comparable blockage ratio. These models are based on the German Inter-City Express 2 and the Japanese Series 300 Shinkansen trains. The focal points of this study are the origin of unsteady aerodynamic tail forces, their spectral characteristics and the impact of spontaneously emerging coherent flow structures adjacent to the train's surfaces. Full scale tests of the above trains have shown that only the Shinkansen train is subjected to a reduced ride comfort inside tunnels, with a quite obvious lateral vibration at about 2 Hz at top speed (300 km/h). Our unsteady flow calculations have successfully predicted the more detrimental lateral aerodynamic forces. In addition, a spectral analysis of the unsteady side force resulted in a quite prominent frequency at the Strouhal number of 0.09 (based on the speed and height of the train), which correlates well with the Japanese full scale tests.

  • 40.
    Dougherty, Mark
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    What has literature to offer computer science?2004In: Human IT, ISSN 1402-1501, E-ISSN 1402-151X, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 74-91Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I ask the question: what has literature to offer computer science? Can a bilateral programme of research be started with the aim of discovering the same kind of deep intertwining of ideas between computer science and literature, as already exists between computer science and linguistics? What practical use could such results yield? I begin by studying a classic forum for some of the most unintelligible pieces of prose ever written, the computer manual. Why are these books so hard to understand? Could a richer diet of metaphor and onomatopoeia help me get my laser printer working? I then dig down a little deeper and explore computer programs themselves as literature. Do they exhibit aesthetics, emotion and all the other multifarious aspects of true literature? If so, does this support their purpose and understandability? Finally I explore the link between computer code and the human writer. Rather than write large amounts of code directly, we encourage students to write algorithms as pseudo-code as a first step. Pseudo-code tells a story within a semi-formalised framework of conventions. Is this the intertwining we should be looking for?

  • 41.
    Edgren, Fredrik
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Mechanical aspects on NCF composites behaviour2003Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 42.
    Edgren, Fredrik
    et al.
    SICOMP AB.
    Asp, Lars E.
    Bull, Peter Hoaas
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Compressive failure of impacted NCF composite sandwich panels - Characterisation of the failure process2004In: Journal of composite materials, ISSN 0021-9983, E-ISSN 1530-793X, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 495-514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, non-crimp fabric (NCF) composite face sheet sandwich panels have been tested in compression after impact (CAI). Damage in the face sheets was characterised by fractography. Compression after impact loaded panels were found to fail by plastic fibre microbuckling (kinking) in the damaged face sheet. Studies of panels for which loading was interrupted prior to failure revealed extensive stable kink band formation at several positions and in numerous plies. Kink bands initiated and propagated within a wide region close to the point of impact. In addition, kink bands initiated in zones with high shear stresses, away from the impact centre line. Consequently, the fractographic results from this investigation do not support the assumption of modelling the impact damage as an equivalent hole. To achieve accurate predictions of kink band initiation, the stress field must be known. The results from this study imply that bending effects caused by remaining dent or material eccentricities in the damaged region must be considered.

  • 43.
    Ekh, Johan
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Secondary bending in multi fastener composite joints2004Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 44.
    Eller, David
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    An Efficient Boundary Element Method for Unsteady Subsonic Aerodynamics in the Time Domain: Theory and Application Exemples2003Report (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Eller, David
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    On an efficient method for time-domain unsteady aerodynamics2003Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 46.
    Eller, David
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Carlsson, Martin
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    An efficient aerodynamic boundary element method for aeroelastic simulations and its experimental validation2003In: Aerospace Science & Technology, ISSN 1270-9638, Vol. 7, no 7, p. 532-539Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Eller, David
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Heinze, Sebastian
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    A computational study on the use of redundant control surfaces to improve the induced drag of aeroelastic configurations2003Report (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Eller, David
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Heinze, Sebastian
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    An approach to induced drag reduction and its experimental evaluation2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An approach to minimize the induced drag of an aeroelastic configuration by means of multiple leading and trailing edge control surfaces is investigated. A computational boundary-element model is constructed and flap settings which reduce the induced drag predicted by the model are found by means of numerical optimization. Further, experiments with an elastic wind tunnel model are performed, showing both the potential for drag reduction and weaknesses of the simulation method employed.

  • 49.
    Elnady, Tamer
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Modelling and Characterization of Perforates in Lined Ducts and Mufflers2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased national and international travel over the lastdecades has caused an increase in the global number ofpassengers using different means of transportation. Greateffort is being directed to improving the noisy environment inthe residential community. This is to face the growing strictnoise requirements which are implemented by international noiseregulatory authorities, governments, and local airports. Thereis also a strong competition between different manufacturers tomake their products quieter. The propulsion system in anaircraft is the major source of noise during relevant flightconditions. The engine noise in a vehicle dominates the totalradiated noise at low speeds especially inside cities. Manyrecent studies on noise reduction involve the use of perforatedplates in the air and gas flow ducting connected to the engine.This thesis deals with the modelling of perforates as anabsorbent.

    There are many difficulties in using liners in theseapplications. The most important is that there is no largesurface area to which the linings may be applied. Equally, theenvironment in which linings have to survive is hostile.Therefore, liners have to be carefully tailored in order toachieve the most efficient attenuation. The full-scalesimulation testing, which is usually necessary to define thenoise attenuation produced by a liner installation, is bothtime-consuming and expensive. Therefore, a need for accuratemodels is a must. This thesis fills some gaps in the impedancemodelling of perforated liners. It also concentrates on thosecomplicated situations of sound propagation in ducts that weresolved earlier using Finite Element Methods. Alternateanalytical solutions to these problems are developed here,which gives more physical insight into the results.

    The key design parameter of perforates is the acousticimpedance. The impedance is what determines their efficiency toabsorb sound waves. A semi empirical impedance model wasdeveloped to be capable of accurately predicting the linerimpedance as a function of its physical properties and thesurrounding conditions. It was compared to all previous modelsin the literature. Nothing in the literature has been reportedon the effect of temperature on the perforate impedance,therefore a complete study was performed. A new inverseanalytical impedance measurement technique was proposed. It isbased on educing the impedance value based on the measurementof the attenuation across a lined duct section. Twoapplications were further considered: The effect of hard stripsin lined ducts on there attenuation properties; and themodelling of perforations in a complicated automotive mufflersystem.

    Keywords:Perforates–Liners–Acousticimpedance–Hot stream liners–Hard splices–Mufflers–Lined ducts–Collocation–Flowduct.

  • 50.
    Elnady, Tamer
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Bodén, Hans
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    An inverse analytical method for extracting liner impedance from pressure measurements2004In: Collection of Technical Papers: 10th AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustics Conference, 2004, Vol. 1, p. 434-450Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The in-situ method has been used for a long time as an easy, quick and direct method for measuring the acoustic impedance of locally reacting liners with and without flow. Several drawbacks and problems have been reported with the use of this method, which motivated the development of indirect methods to deduce the impedance from the measurement of the pressure field. A new inverse analytical technique is presented in this paper. The liner sample is placed inside a rectangular duct. The amplitude of the plane wave incident towards the lined section is measured using the two-microphone technique. The reflection coefficient at the exit plane is also measured using the same technique. These measured values are fed to an analytical model for sound propagation through the lined section, which is constructed using mode-matching. A minimization scheme is used to find the liner impedance value in the complex plane to match the calculated sound field to the measured one at the microphone positions already used for the two microphone measurements. The results show that the proposed technique can educe or measure the impedance to an acceptable accuracy.

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