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  • 1.
    Alinder, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Finansinspektionens regelverk för ersättningssystem inom finansbranschen: En granskande studie av regleringens effekter på den finansiella industrin2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att det finns ett tydligt samband mellan ersättningssystems utformning och de anställda och ledningens beteende är sedan länge känt. I efterdyningarna av den senaste finanskrisen har det funnits stort medialt fokus på de enorma bonusar som betalats ut till anställda på banker som sedan tvingats söka statligt stöd.

    För att både minska de risker som är förknippade med vissa typer av rörliga ersättningssystem och för att tillgodose den allmänna opinionen har EU valt att inkludera reglering av rörlig ersättning som en del av regleringen av finansiell verksamhet. Detta beslut resulterade för den svenska marknadens del i regelverket FFFS 2009:6 där Finansinspektionen redogjorde för föreskrifter och allmänna råd gällande rörlig ersättning i finansiella företag. För att tillgodose de uppdaterade EU-direktiven utformades en uppdaterad version av regelverket, FFFS 2011:1, som är ett bindande regelverk i form av endast föreskrifter.

    Reaktionerna från finansbranschen har till stora delar varit negativa. Många anser att regleringen är ett spel för galleriet med en väldigt liten reell verkan på att stävja företagens risktagande och öka den finansiella stabiliteten. Politiker, makthavare och allmänheten är dock rörande överens om att förändringar inom företagens rörliga ersättningssystem måste ske för att främja en långsiktigt hållbar utveckling och undvika kostsamma statliga räddningspaket till systemviktiga institutioner i kristider.

    I denna uppsats redogör vi för teorier bakom de finansiella risker som rörliga ersättningssystem utgör. Vidare beskriver vi bakgrunden till föreskrifterna för rörlig ersättning på både nationell och internationell nivå och redogör för regelverkets utformning. Slutligen presenterar vi tankar från berörda företag som vi intervjuat och analyserar effekterna av regleringen.

    De totala effekterna av regleringen är än så länge oklara men redan nu kan vi se förändringar i företags ersättningssystem i form av ökad fast ersättning samt förändringar i ersättningspolicys med ett ökat fokus på ickefinansiella kriterier. De praktiska effekterna för branschens arbetssätt är dock ytterst diffusa och vi ställer oss frågande till hur gynnsamma dessa nya regler kommer vara för den svenska marknaden på sikt.

  • 2. Azasu, S.
    et al.
    Berggren, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Using constructive alignment to improve student research and writing skills: A case study of a master's program in real estate management2015In: International Journal of Learning and Change, ISSN 1740-2875, E-ISSN 1740-2883, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 83-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the paper is to describe and analyse efforts to integrate research into teaching in a postgraduate degree program in real estate management. The long term goals of the changes were to increase graduation rates as well as the quality of dissertations. In order to validate our findings, the data for this paper emanate from a three main sources, namely; students' course evaluations, students' grades and a qualitative assessment of the students' thesis proposals made by senior lecturers. The results show that the first cohort of students found it stressful when individual research writing was introduced towards the end of their studies. With a more gradual and earlier introduction of writing in a series of courses in the program, coupled with changes in assessment tasks, the second cohort found individual research writing less stressful and more beneficial. Performance in the second cohort improved in appreciable ways.

  • 3.
    Aziz, Thomas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    EVAM, A New Revolutionary Ratio?2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To investigate the usefulness of the Economic Value Added Momentum ratio and to determine if Swedish non-real estate, non-financial companies been either positively or negatively affected by their Corporate Real Estate structure from an EVAM perspective. Design/methodology/approach: Using a regression analysis composed of the OMX large and mid cap non-real estate, non-financial companies, investigates the relationship between companies’ real estate holdings and their ability to sustain a positive EVAM. The study covers the time period from 2006 to 2009 and includes 172 observations. Findings: The data showed that a negative relationship between EVAM and PPTY at the 10% real estate intensity interval might exist. However, no evidence was found that might suggest that a negative relationship between EVAM and corporate real estate holdings at the higher (15% real estate intensity) or the lower (5% real estate intensity) existed. This could suggest that companies’ that own lower percentages of real estate assets (less than 5% of PPTY) are not affecting their EVAM value and that companies’ that own larger amount of real estate (15% of PPTY or higher) are better at managing their real estate assets and thus it is not negatively impacting their EVAM. Research Implications: Real estate is reported at historical cost rather than at current fair market values. As the economy has, historically, enjoyed more periods of expansions than contractions, intuitive companies’ real estate assets are undervalued. Economic recession and booms can also dilute both the positive and negative aspects of real estate ownership. Although this investigation seeks to neutralize this phenomenon by including two periods of economic expansion and two periods of economic recession, it is unreasonable to claim that this will completely neutralize this affect. Practical Implications: The companies that have a PPTY of between 10% and 15% might be better off selling their real estate holdings or investing additional funds in real estate so as to either have a PPTY below 10% or above 15%. Companies that are in-between the 10% and 15% real estate ownership segment might not deem it cost effective to have specific real estate professionals or to invest in real estate know-how; however, the firms’ might at the same time own too much real estate, making it too costly to do nothing. Consequently, the companies could be better off deciding on a particular strategy: owning more real estate or owning less real estate. Originality/Value: Investigates if a linkage between a company’s ability to generate a positive EVAM and a company’s quantity of real estate assets exists.

  • 4.
    Berggren, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Bankers relation till mindre företag: vad skapar goda relationer och vad kännetecknar dessa?2006In: Utveckling av kundrelationer i bank- och finansmarknader / [ed] Eriksson, Kent, Studentlitteratur , 2006, 1, p. 135-153Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Berggren, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Från ett lokalt hantverk till en global profession – En analys av transaktionsrådgivarrollen och den kommersiella fastighetsmarknadens utveckling i SverigeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Berggren, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Role, motivation and criteria for success in private public partnerships: The case of housing finance for low-income households2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Berggren, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Tillväxt och lönsamhet i småföretag - finansiärers bidrag sett ur företagets perspektiv2003In: Småföretaget och kapitalet / [ed] Hans Landsröm, Stockholm,: SNS förlag, 2003, p. 45-64Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Edsbäcker, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Fili, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Talia, Krim
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Oskarshamnsprojektet - Slutrapport fas 12008Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Fili, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Entreprenörskap och tillväxt i Högsby och Mönsterås: En förstudie2013Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Fili, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Nordberg, Olle
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Real Estate Planning and Land Law.
    Experience of digital examination in Sweden: Some preliminary findings from three different perspectives2015In: INTED2015 Proceedings, iated Digital Library , 2015, p. 4001-4007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish higher educational system is under pressure. The competition from international universities is getting fiercer, and the demographical projections indicate that the number of students entering the university system is peaking right now. At the same time, the financial support from the government is decreasing. In order to stay competitive Swedish universities are trying to find strategies for using the scarce resources in the optimal way. The problem is to strike a balance between quality and efficiency.Over the past ten years a lot of improvement has been made within the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) regarding quality and innovation in education. Pedagogical courses are mandatory for the staff, and the merits of educational experience have been emphasized in hiring new staff members. Even though problem-based learning, constructive alignment and peer instruction are common in most courses today, some other aspects of education and learning remains the same. One such conservative trait has to do with written examinations. Since the founding of the university in 1827, all written examinations have been done using paper and pen at the Royal Institute of Technology. It is interesting to note that even the school of computer science is using paper and pen for their final written examinations. The problems with using paper and pen are numerous and includes; problems with reading and grading because of poor handwriting, distribution of exams between teachers in the same course, written exams getting lost, etc. In comparison with other parts of the educational system, little has happened to improve quality and efficiency when it comes to written examinations.During 2013 and 2014 a number of teachers initiated a project for increasing the efficiency in written exams. There was a general understanding that the final part of the courses consumed too much time and effort in relations to the other parts. Hence, new software for digital examinations was identified and a license was purchased. This paper summarizes the experiences that the teachers have made during this trial period. The experiences are divided between three different perspectives; the teachers, the students and the administrators. From the teachers perspective the experiences have been very positive – less time have been allocated to grading written exams, the grades are perceived as more just and the saved time can be spent on increasing the quality on other parts of the course. From a student perspective the experiences have been positive – most students are positive in that they get the results much quicker, that they can edit their answers on the exam easier and that the grades are more just. The experiences from the final perspective – that from the administrators’ point of view – are far more complex. Some parts of the administrative system encouraged the projects, whereas other parts tried to stop it, using different measures.The paper concludes with some advice on implementing changes in written exams, based on the experiences from the Swedish case.

  • 11.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Fili, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Silver, Lars
    Umeå universitet.
    Innovation and entrepreneurship in local savings banks in Sweden: Revitalizing local capital markets2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Fili, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Wilhelmsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    The relationship between house prices and business start-ups: A research note2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Fili, Andreas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Wilhelmsson, Mats Håkan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Does the increase in house prices influence the creation of business startups?: The case of Sweden2017In: Region, ISSN 2409-5370, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurs are at the core of economic development in that they start new businesses or make existing firms grow. To fulfill this important role, entrepreneurs need access to financing. Owing to information asymmetry and the relatively high risk associated with business startups, many financiers shy away from engaging in relationships with firms during the early stages of their development. Based on the existing body of knowledge on the financing of entrepreneurship, we know that insider finance is of paramount importance in the early stages of firms’ development. We expand this knowledge base by analyzing the influence of house prices on business startups across municipalities in Sweden. In our analysis, we include data from all municipalities in Sweden. Our data on house prices and control variables are collected in period one, and our data on the frequency of startups are collected in period two. We find that rising house prices in a municipality lead to a higher frequency of startups. In our spatial Durbin model, we find that a 1% increase in house prices leads to around 0.15% increase in startups. Our findings are in line with the limited international research that has been previously conducted, and therefore, our study might make a small but vital addition to this growing body of knowledge within the area of entrepreneurship and regional development.

  • 14.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Hullgren, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Söderberg, Ingalill
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Housing finance in Sweden: The development of local PPP-solutions and the role of savings banks2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Lindström, Göran
    Olofsson, Christer
    Tillväxt och finansiering i mindre företag2001In: Tillväxtföretagen i Sverige / [ed] Per Davidsson, Frédéric Delmar & Johan Wiklund, Stockholm: SNS förlag, 2001, p. 250-271Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Lundahl, Nicolaus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Silver, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Vegholm, Fatima
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Bankers finansiering av små och medelstora företag2009In: Finanssektorns rolli samhällsbyggandet / [ed] Eriksson, Kent och Söderberg, Inga-Lill, SparbanksAkademin , 2009, 1, p. 50-55Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Lundahl, Nicolaus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Silver, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Vegholm, Fatima
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    The influence of banks' advice to SMEs on customer satisfaction: The case for regulation2010In: International Journal of Services and Operations Management, ISSN 1744-2370, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 200-214Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Olofsson, Christer
    Silver, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Learning to handle control aversion1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Olofsson, Christer
    SLU.
    Silver, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    The effect of business cycles on entrepreneurial control aversion and the search for external financing in SMEs2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Olofsson, Christer
    SLU.
    Silver, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    The effect of syndication on the performance of venture capitalists’ portfolio firms: The Swedish case2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Silver, L.
    Entrepreneurial control aversion and bank financing in Swedish SMEs2015In: Banks and Bank Systems, ISSN 1816-7403, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 65-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the authors argue that for the development of SME’s, the learning process is instrumental for an open approach towards external financiers, including new owners. The analysis shows that firms learn to handle control aversion step by step, as they gain competence and experience through their relationship with external financiers. In this paper a linear structural equation modelling program, Lisrel, is used to analyze a sample of 281 firms (out of an original sample of 545 firms, yielding a response rate of 51.2 percent). The firms have less than 200 employees, and the sample includes both manufacturing and service firms. The questionnaire includes both attitudinal and factual aspects of control aversion and financing.

  • 22.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Silver, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    The role of business opportunity mediators in the entrepreneurial process2006In: Managing Opportunity Development in Business Networks / [ed] Hadjikhani, Amjad and Johanson, Jan, Cambridge University Press, 2006, 1, p. 235-249Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Silver, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Utvecklingen av det finansiella systemet: Konsekvenser för finansieringen av små och medelstora företag i Sverige2009In: Finanssektorns roll i samhällsbyggandet / [ed] Eriksson, Kent och Söderberg, Inga-Lill, SparbanksAkademin , 2009, 1, p. 132-137Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Berggren, Björn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Yildiz Dag, Sussi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Eriksson, Kent
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Hermansson, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Karolin, Birgitta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Lundahl, Nicolaus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Silver, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Tapper Hoel, Jenni
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Vegholm, Fatima
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Affärer mellan kunder och bank- och finansföretag2006In: Utveckling av kundrelationer i bank- och finansmarknader / [ed] Eriksson, Kent, Studentlitteratur , 2006, 1, p. 13-16Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Ceccato, Vania
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Fear of crime and overall anxieties in rural areas: The case of Sweden2017In: The Routledge International Handbook on Fear of Crime, Taylor & Francis, 2017, p. 354-367Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Ceccato, Vania
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    The urban fabric of crime and fear2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cities are places of social interaction. Some social interactions — such as being a victim of crime “ are unpleasant experiences. Even if there is no such thing as a place free of crime, many would argue that a liveable city should aim to control the risk or fear of crime, where a feeling of security underpin a sense of place attachment and the social cohesion of its residents. Security includes individuals” risk of being a victim of crime as well as their perceived safety. Some would argue that, although security is necessary for urban quality of life, prioritising it may restrict social interaction, exclude certain groups of individuals and stigmatise others. Cities cannot aim at being socially sustainable without considering their citizens' security concerns seriously. However, the determination to ensure security must follow policies and practices which have a wide sense of inclusion and fairness. The objective of this book is to provide a theoretical and empirical discussion of security issues in the urban context based on different research traditions. From an academic point of view, the book shows examples of potentialities and limitations within different research disciplines when dealing with urban crime and fear of crime. From a practical point of view, the book has the potential to help practitioners and planners to set out a more realistic agenda for what can be planned and achieved when the issues are crime and fear of crime.

  • 27. Eriksson, Kent
    et al.
    Hermansson, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Do consumers subjectively perceive relationships in objectively defined relational, interimistic, and transactional exchange in financial services?2017In: International Journal of Bank Marketing, ISSN 0265-2323, E-ISSN 1758-5937, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 472-494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Customer interactions with sellers change as social interactions in society change. The old dichotomy between transaction and relation exchange may no longer be valid as customers form relationships with sellers in new ways. It is against this background that the authors study how customers' subjective perception of relational exchange appears in objectively defined transactional and relational exchange forms. The authors study one bank's customers, and, based on objective bank records, the authors identify segments that behave as transactional and relational customers. The authors also identify a group of customers who are in between transactional and relational, and the authors call these interimistic relational, since they interact repeatedly with the bank in a short period of time. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach - The authors study how subjective attributes of relational exchange differ in objectively defined transactional, interimistic, and relational customer groups. The authors use a large data set, consisting of a combination of survey and objective bank records for 90,528 bank customers. Findings - Findings are that the old dichotomy between transaction and relation is no longer valid, since customers' exchange behavior and perception of exchange do not match up when it comes to the transactionrelation dichotomy. The authors find empirical evidence for that the subjective relational attributes can be observed in objectively defined relational, interimistic, and transactional customer groups. Overall, subjective relational attributes are strongest in the objective relational group; they are weaker in the interimistic group. Relational attributes are weakest, but still present, in the transactional group. Practical implications - The findings presented here suggest strong support for relationship marketing practice, since even customers who behave transactionally perceive that they have an element of relationship with the seller. The authors find that customers may behave in a relational, interimistic, and transactional way, but that they perceive themselves as more or less relational. The practical implication is that customer analysis should focus on exchange forms, and that it is essential to analyze how exchange changes, and how multiple exchange forms may be combined in customer behavior and perception. Social implications - The social implications of this paper are that marketers should consider the exchange between customer and financial service supplier as more or less of a relationship, and more or less of a service. Financial service firm strategies and regulation of financial services should acknowledge that no financial service transaction is independent of the relationship between the financial service provider and the customer. It may seem so objectively, but subjectively, it is not. Originality/value - The authors present a unique comparison of objective and subjective customer exchange. There are two contributions that come from this research. The first is that customers perceive themselves as partially relational, even though they behave transactionally. The other contribution is that the authors identified interimistic relational exchange (IRE) as an exchange form in between relational and transactional. IRE can potentially be very important for market research and practice, as it captures modern market behavior. In today's world, consumers form their perceptions in a multitude of ways, and may therefore have relational attitudes and transactional behaviors. More research is needed into how consumer perceptions and behaviors relate to each other, and how it impacts consumer purchase of financial services.

  • 28.
    Eriksson, Kent
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Hohenthal, Jukka
    Uppsala Universitet, Företagsekonomiska institutionen.
    Lindbergh, Jessica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Factors Affecting SME Export Channel Choice in Foreign Markets2006In: Advances in International Marketing, ISSN 1474-7979, Vol. 16, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Determining market channels is usually considered a discrete decision made by the expanding firm (e.g., Anderson & Coughlan, 1987; Bello & Gilliland, 1997; Solberg & Nes, 2002). In reality, this decision is often limited by knowledge constraints and customer demands. We find an example of this in Gamma's attempt at entering the Italian market (Hohenthal, 2001). {A textbox is presented}. Gamma's attempted entry into Italy is not a unique situation facing internationalizing small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The array of possible channels is usually rather limited. A firm's decision regarding what channel to use may be the result of the firm's knowledge or indeed lack of knowledge about a specific customer and the foreign market in general, such as competitors or cultural differences. The internationalization process (IP) model is a theoretical framework that recognizes how a firm's knowledge of a foreign market and the influence business relationships may have on the choice of market channel (Johanson & Vahlne, 1977, 1990, 2003). This framework postulates that firms with increased experience will increase their commitment in a market. Because firms wish to avoid uncertainty and initially lack foreign market knowledge, the IP model claims that firms expand their operations in small sequential steps, starting with no regular export activities and gradually increasing their commitment to the market and finally setting up a manufacturing subsidiary (Johanson & Vahlne, 1977; Johanson & Wiedersheim-Paul, 1975). This outcome of sequential steps, also known as the establishment chain (Johanson & Wiedersheim-Paul, 1975), has been heavily criticized because empirical research has shown that the establishment patterns of firms are less restricted than proposed by the model (Björkman, 1989; Hedlund & Kverneland, 1985; Turnbull, 1987; Welch & Loustarinen, 1988). Even though firms use a variety of establishment patterns when internationalizing, a growing body of research shows that firms gradually develop knowledge from their experiences (Barkema, Bell, & Pennings, 1996; Barkema, Shenkar, Vermeulen, & Bell, 1997; Barkema & Vermeulen, 1998; Delios & Beamish, 1999, 2001; Eriksson, Johanson, Majkgård, & Sharma, 1997; Hitt, Dacin, Tyler, & Park, 1997; Madhok, 1996; Zahra, Ireland, & Hitt, 2000). Thus, the model's fundamental argument that knowledge is developed through experience is generally supported in internationalization research. Based on the critique of the establishment chain proposition, reconsidering the explanatory power of the IP model may be warranted. For example, it may be more appropriate to use the IP model to explain the sequential buildup of knowledge rather than discrete choices of mode of establishment. The accumulation of experience occurs before, during, and after the exact time when a decision to establish in a certain mode is made. Despite the extensive acceptance of behavioral-oriented arguments in foreign-entry mode research (export, joint venture, and subsidiary modes), surprisingly few studies have been conducted on the determinants of integrated and non-integrated channels (see Aulakh & Kotabe, 1997, for notable exception). Thus, a behavioral-oriented approach to the study of firms' choices of market channels in foreign markets may prove enlightening. Adopting this approach is of particular interest because transaction-cost analysis has proved effective in explaining why firms choose either integrated or non-integrated channels (Hennart, 1991). Therefore, the question that needs to be answered is whether or not the IP model can be used to explain why firms choose integrated or non-integrated channels. If the IP model cannot be applied in this case, it should be clarified that this model can be used to explain sequential knowledge accumulation through experience but nothing else. The purpose of this study is to test which IP-related antecedents lead to the use of a specific channel in a foreign market. The two alternatives tested here are integrated and non-integrated channels. To accomplish this objective, we apply an IP approach to international business and then discuss channel choice from a knowledge perspective. Several hypotheses are developed concerning channel choice and tested on a sample of SMEs from Sweden, Denmark, and New Zealand. We use logistic regression to analyze our data. Based on this analysis, we present a discussion of our results and some managerial and research implications.

  • 29.
    Fili, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Berggren, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Silver, Lars
    Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    The impact of financial capital, human capital and social capital on the evolution of Business Angel Networks2013In: International Journal of Corporate Governance, ISSN 1754-3037, E-ISSN 1754-3045, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 209-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Business angels are very important for the growth and development of start–ups as they contribute much needed capital and competence to these firms. During the past decades the formation and growth of Business Angel Networks (BANs) has become an increasingly common phenomenon and an important issue for policy–makers in most Western economies. In this paper, we follow the inception and development of three local BANs. The data in this paper come from in–depth interviews with the founders of the networks as well as bankers, civil servants, entrepreneurs and local politicians. The results indicate that capital alone will not guarantee success in a BAN rather it is a combination of the financial capital, human capital and social capital among the founding partners of the network.

  • 30.
    Fili, Andreas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Berggren, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Silver, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    The influence of strategy on survival and growth in business angel networks in Sweden2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Hermansson, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Can self-assessed financial risk measures explain and predict bank customers' objective financial risk?2018In: Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, ISSN 0167-2681, E-ISSN 1879-1751, Vol. April, p. 226-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates risk preference measures by contrasting subjective or self-assessed risk with objective risk, as implicated by bank customers’ actual portfolio allocation. Using a detailed data set of 7,234 bank customers, we find that subjective risk measures can explain and predict objective risk, but that the relationship is relatively weak. Subjective measures that uses survey questions about the customers’ trade-off between risk and return is a better measure than the hypothetical lottery for explaining objective risk. Both measures are relatively weak at predicting objective risk, but perform better than using a naïve model. We also find that multiple-item variables are somewhat better than single-item variables for explaining objective risk.

  • 32.
    Hermansson, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Saving motives, gender, and the use of financial advisory services2017In: Managerial Finance, ISSN 0307-4358, E-ISSN 1758-7743, Vol. 43, no 11, p. 1202-1223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to understand if and how saving motives can predict bank customers’ use of financial advisory services. In addition, it analyzes possible gender differences regarding this relationship. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses a large and unique sample of Swedish bank customers, combining objective bank register data with subjective data from a questionnaire. A probit regression is used. Since decisions regarding the use of financial advisory services can be influenced by, e.g., age, wealth, gender and marital status, the author analyzes results at both the overall level and the group level. Findings: All three saving motives are found to be predictors, i.e., motives to save for wealth, retirement, and a rainy day (with opposite sign). Only the motive to save for retirement is significant for both women and men. Wealth differences seem more important than gender differences, except for the rainy day motive where gender differences are observed also among the wealthy. Practical implications: The study is important since there is a need for financial advisors to understand their customers’ context, including motives to save. Saving motives involving longer time horizons and more uncertainty are likely to predict the use of financial advisory services. Originality/value: This paper is original because it deepens the understanding of the relationship between saving motives and customers’ use of financial advisory services, focusing also on the aspect of gender differences, while controlling for demographics and socioeconomics, and customers’ interest and confidence in financial matters, risk tolerance, and financial literacy.

  • 33.
    Hermansson, Cecilia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. Swedbank, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Song, Han-Suck
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Financial advisory services meetings and their impact on saving behavior: a difference-in-difference analysis2016In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 30, p. 131-139Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Iqbal, Asifa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Assessment of crime and safety issues in parks2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis is to obtain a better understanding of the importance of parks for urban quality, particularly for safety. This is achieved in two ways; first, by assessing parks’ impact on the perceived quality of the urban environment (whether it is incorporated into housing prices or not) in Stockholm. Second, the study investigates whether safety in parks may be assessed using principles of Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) using a high-crime park in Stockholm’s inner city. The thesis starts with an introduction to the theme, with a brief discussion of background theory, literature review, the study area and the methods. Then, it reports the results of the articles included in the thesis and discusses their main contributions to the field of research.

    A mixed methods approach utilizes both quantitative and qualitative data analysis. Regression models and a Geographic Information System (GIS) were used in Paper I, which aims to clarify how park proximity affects housing prices and, when considering residential properties and park type, how crime rates in parks affect housing prices. Findings show that the further away an apartment is located from a park, the higher the discount on its price effect, but this effect (dependent on the park type), as an accumulated measure of parks, lowers prices or is negligible. Paper II assesses the use and adequacy of CPTED principles to guide the assessment of safety conditions of an urban park. The historical development of CPTED is presented followed by an analysis of a case study, Tantolunden, in Stockholm. Site observations, crime mapping, people count and interviews were conducted. Results show many entrances in this particular park defy the principles of access control and in turn impose limitations on park maintenance. Findings also show that interrupted sight lines create limited surveillance. The paper concludes by identifying the potentialities and challenges of CPTED principles when applied to safety in parks.

    Findings presented in this thesis are relevant for many stakeholders in society as results show the variation in crime and safety in urban parks, and the way they can be assessed and tackled.

  • 35.
    Jonsson, Sara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Söderberg, Ingalill
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Wilhelmsson, Mats
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Households and mutual fund investments: Individual characteristics of investors behaving like contrarians2017In: Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Finance, ISSN 2214-6350, E-ISSN 2214-6369, Vol. 15, p. 28-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate characteristics of household investors stating they would increase shares in a mutual fund in a situation where this fund has exhibited a negative past performance. Hence, we investigate characteristics of investors behaving lite contrarians. We use a survey methodology to examine the effects of risk tolerance, perceived competence, and of being informed on households’ contrarian behavior. To investigate the stability of these characteristics we test our hypothesis in three scenarios: (1) scenario without consideration of market conditions, (2) bull market scenario, and (3) bear market scenario. Findings show that risk tolerance and perceived competence leads to a contrarian buying behavior. The results show that these effects are significant also in bull and bear markets, thus that these characteristics are stable. The findings further show that being informed explains contrarian buying behavior only when no consideration is given to current market conditions. Thus, this characteristic could be considered unstable.

  • 36.
    Katzler, Sigrid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Berggren, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Gustafsson, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Building and Real Estate Economics.
    Will outsourcing of commercial real estate management add to performance: A quantitative analysis of the Swedish real estate marketManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Kärrlander, Tom
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Överskattat eller överskattat?: En källkritisk granskning av förmögenhetstaxeringen i Sverige år 18002017In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 4, p. 575-606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln innehåller en kritisk granskning av källvärdet av materialet från förmögenhetsbeskattningen år 1800. Syftet var att skaffa medel som kunde bidra till att finansiera en valutareform -  inte att mäta landets förmögenhet. Det minskar delvis källvärdet, eftersom till exempel negativa förmögenheter inte redovisades. Fastigheter utgjorde dock den dominerande mängden tillgångar och redovisningen av dem är grundlig. Beroende på vilka studier som skall göras, finns delar av materialet som har högt källvärde.

  • 38.
    Lindbergh, Jessica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Do firms change the distances between countries, or are the firms' distances changed?: A discussion of the conceptual differences between distance concepts and the role of experience in influencing psychic distanceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Lindbergh, Jessica
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Lindstrand, Angelika
    Stockholm School of Economics, Department of Marketing and Strategy.
    Hur kan banken utveckla små och medelstora företagskunders internationella affärer2009In: Finanssektorns roll i samhällsbyggandet / [ed] Eriksson, Kent,Söderberg, Inga-Lill, Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2009, p. 40-43Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Lindstrand, Angelika
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics, Department of Marketing and Strategy.
    Lindbergh, Jessica
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    SMEs' dependency on banks during international expansion2011In: International Journal of Bank Marketing, ISSN 0265-2323, E-ISSN 1758-5937, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 64-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether banks are needed as partners for internationalising small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and, if so, in what ways they affect SMEs. The purpose can, in a wider sense, shed light on institutions' intermediating functions for transactions in the economy, both locally and internationally. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire was distributed to Swedish SMEs involved in international activities. A sample of 318 SMEs was used. The results are presented as descriptive statistics and by using t-tests. Findings: The findings show that banks are the least used source of information for internationalising SMEs. The results also show that banks do not participate in SME business networks when SMEs are internationalising. SMEs that have been dependent on banks when developing their international business relationships, however, tend to have previously depended on the bank when conducting business. Practical implications: It is believed there is much to be gained, both for SMEs and banks, in developing their business exchange and reciprocal understanding. The bank can make SME international operations and financial situations flow more efficiently. This in turn may improve SME growth, thus creating more business opportunities between banks and SMEs. Originality/value: The study fills a gap in the literature and knowledge concerning banks' effects on SMEs' internationalisation.

  • 41.
    Lundahl, Nicolaus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Berggren, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Silver, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Lokala små och medelstora företag: Hur använder de sina styrelser och hur är de sammansatta?2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Lundahl, Nicolaus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Silver, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Banking and Finance, Cefin.
    Money talks: bör banker engagera sig i kvalificerad rådgivning?2006In: Utveckling av kundrelationer inom bank- och finansmarknader / [ed] Kent Eriksson, Studentlitteratur, 2006, 1, p. 187-210Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Navarro Lobera, Alejandro
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    A comparison of consumers´ perceptions of insecurity -A case study comparing Spain and Panama-2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The consumer perception of insecurity plays an important role on how individuals see the reality of urban spaces. In this thesis the shopping center, the area around and the way consumers choose to go to the shopping center is in focus of interest. Spain and Panama are two examples of different markets with different security issues, for instance, in Madrid a security issue is a smartphone being stolen in contrast with Panama, where people are worried about being wounded in an assault. Thus, how individuals see the reality differs in terms of previous experiences which generates different values of insecurity perception.

    The thesis uses qualitative data obtained through 40 short interviews in two shopping centers, one in Madrid and the other in Panama. The thesis is focused on responding to the different types of insecurity perception, mainly how different insecurity perceptions affect consumer interactions with shopping centers in Spain and Panama respectively.

    The results of the thesis show that insecurity perception is an important aspect for the demand. This might indicate that the variable is important for future analysis, but this needs to be studied by more examples.

  • 44. Olofsson, Christer
    et al.
    Berggren, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    De mindre företagens finansiella villkor: En replikstudie1998Report (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Otterhem, Marcus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Relationen mellan den offentliga beställarorganisationen och entreprenadorganisationen: med fokus på offentliga fastighetsbolag med offentliga verksamheter2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Den offentliga fastighetsbranschen har sedan början av 1990-talet successivt outsourcat sina verksamheter. Huvudsyftet har varit attmed bibehållen kvalitetsänka kostnaderna, utifrån föreställningen att en leverantör utför tjänsterna bättre och effektivare än beställaren (i detta fall offentliga fastighetsägare, främst kommuner, kommunala bostadsföretag och landsting). Problem som därefter uppkommit mellan offentliga beställare och privata entreprenörer har varit besvärliga för båda parter. Även de offentlig bolag som har lång erfarenhet av outsourcing har haft problem med entreprenader. Syfte: Vid outsourcing av offentliga verksamheter uppstår nya förhållanden och omständigheter. Problem kommeratt uppstå både inom beställar- och entreprenörsorganisationen och i relationen mellan dessa parter. Sådana problemskall denna rapport försöka identifiera, kartlägga och utvärdera, för att därefter presentera potentiella lösningar. Metod: Under niomånader kommer jag arbeta på Fasticon. Utöver vetenskapliga tester, antaganden och modeller, kommeren kvalitativ fältstudie genomföras för att få en godinsikt i problematiken. Resultat: Slutsats: Fältstudien påvisar vilka återkommande problem som föreligger i relationen. Bilden är komplex, men tydlighet, tolkning , förutsättningar och förhållningsätt är dominerande och återkommande frågor som parterna bör hantera. Uppsatsen visar att problemet ligger hos och medvetenheten måste öka hos båda parter. Uppsatsen påvisar och definierar den övergripande problematiken. Denna har sammanfattats i sju huvudområden/huvudproblem som presenteras med stöd av fältstudien. För att konkretisera vilken roll varje part har i lösningen av respektive huvudproblem sammanfattas lösningarna därefter utifrån tre aspekter.

  • 46. Silver, L.
    et al.
    Berggren, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Fili, A.
    The role of crowdfunding in entrepreneurial ventures: An analysis of recent trends in Sweden2016In: Investment Management and Financial Innovations, ISSN 1810-4967, E-ISSN 1812-9358, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 221-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The financing of entrepreneurial ventures has been at the forefront of academic debate as well as policy-making discussion for almost a century. In general, there seems to be an agreement that the risks associated with business startups are higher than for mature firms, hence, these ventures will have to pay a higher interest rate than more mature and large firms. In this paper the authors analyze the role of a relatively new form of financing for entrepreneurial ventures - crowdfunding - And how this form of financing is similar and different from traditional sources of finance. The authors are also presenting different forms and models of crowdfunding available on the market together with illustrations from the crowdfunding industry in Sweden. The analysis indicates that the positive effects with crowdfunding are numerous but that the size of the crowdfunding sector is relatively small in comparison with the banking and venture capital industry.

  • 47. Silver, L.
    et al.
    Johanson, M.
    Berggren, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Entrepreneurial orientation, control aversion and performance in SMEs: The contribution of equity investors2016In: Problems & Perspectives in Management, ISSN 1727-7051, E-ISSN 1810-5467, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 55-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurial orientation is a concept that captures the importance of how and why certain individuals decide to take higher risks than the average small business owner so as to increase their return on assets deployed. Entrepreneurial orientation is linked to the concept of control aversion, which is used to explain why certain individuals refrain from using external financing to expand their firms. Control aversion suggests that most small business owners prefer to maintain total control rather than invite in the potentially disruptive influence of an external owner/investor. This study combines these two concepts in an attempt to introduce financing and investors into the discussion of entrepreneurial orientation and performance. Equity investors are shown to have a major influence on entrepreneurial performance, because business owners with an entrepreneurial orientation gain substantially from interaction with investors through the transfer of knowledge. The model was tested with a LInear Structural RELations (LISREL) analysis on a sample of 459 Swedish small and medium-sized enterprises.

  • 48. Silver, L.
    et al.
    Lundahl, Nicolaus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Berggren, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Revisiting control aversion: The role of financiers in connecting entrepreneurs to the marketplace2015In: Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, ISSN 1462-6004, E-ISSN 1758-7840, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 417-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of small business entrepreneurs’ relinquishment of control aversion and the impact of their interaction with external financiers on market connection. Design/methodology/approach – Questionnaires were sent to the chief executive officers of small businesses in the manufacturing and professional services sectors. A total of 459 valid responses were analyzed in a structural equation model. Findings – The attitude of small business entrepreneurs in relying on financiers’ advice is marked by control aversion. This fear of losing control creates information asymmetry, which in itself leads to decreased financing opportunities for small business entrepreneurs. The results of the study suggest that small firms seeking the aid of financiers will be provided with substantial additional information about the market. Issues pertaining to supply seem to be less relevant than those relating to demand, thus indicating that greater focus should be placed on the investment readiness of small businesses. Originality/value – This study emphasizes the importance of the role of attitudes among SMEs in understanding capital market failure and credit rationing.

  • 49. Silver, L.
    et al.
    Lundahl, Nicolaus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Berggren, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    Strategy selection in business-angel networks: Venture-capital strategy and entrepreneurial business-angel strategy2010In: Network Strategies for Regional Growth, Palgrave Macmillan, 2010, p. 185-206Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Silver, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Banking and Finance.
    The dissolution of corporate identity: Identity crisis in savings banks2010In: Corporate Communications. An International Journal, ISSN 1356-3289, E-ISSN 1758-6046, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 369-388Article in journal (Refereed)
12 1 - 50 of 65
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